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1

The Morphology of Collisionless Galactic Rings Exterior to Evolving Bars  

E-print Network

The morphology of the outer rings of early-type spiral galaxies is compared to integrations of massless collisionless particles initially in nearly circular orbits. Particles are perturbed by a quadrupolar gravitational potential corresponding to a growing and secularly evolving bar. We find that outer rings with R1R2 morphology and pseudorings are exhibited by the simulations even though they lack gaseous dissipation. Simulations with stronger bars form pseudorings earlier and more quickly than those with weaker bars. We find that the R1 ring, perpendicular to the bar, is fragile and dissolves after a few bar rotation periods if the bar pattern speed increases by more than ~ 8%, bar strength increases (by >~ 140%) after bar growth, or the bar is too strong (Q_T>0.3). If the bar slows down after formation, pseudoring morphology persists and the R2 ring perpendicular to the bar is populated due to resonance capture. The R2 ring remains misaligned with the bar and increases in ellipticity as the bar slows down. The R2 ring becomes scalloped and does not resemble any ringed galaxies if the bar slows down more than 3.5% suggesting that bars decrease in strength before they slow down this much. We compare the morphology of our simulations to B-band images of 9 ringed galaxies from the Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey, and we find a reasonable match in morphologies to R1R2' pseudorings seen within a few bar rotation periods of bar formation. Some of the features previously interpreted in terms of dissipative models may be due to transient structure associated with recent bar growth and evolution.

Micaela Bagley; Ivan Minchev; Alice C. Quillen

2008-08-13

2

A two-component outer ring and Galactic spiral structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of the Galaxy with a ring R1R'2 can explain some large-scale morphological features of Galactic spiral structure. The Carina-Sagittarius arm could consist of two ascending segments of outer rings R1 and R2, which almost touch each other near the Carina region. The Perseus and Crux arms can be partially identified with the descending segments of ring R2. A model of a two-component outer ring can also explain the existence of some maxima in diagrams of (l, VLSR), which are supposed to correspond to directions tangential to the spiral arms. On the basis of numerical simulations, we propose two sketches of the ring structure of the Galaxy that include a bar, two outer rings, an inner ring and nuclear gas condensation, which may be a nuclear ring. Both sketches can explain the position of the Carina-Sagittarius arm with respect to the Sun.

Mel'Nik, A. M.; Rautiainen, P.

2011-12-01

3

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND GALACTIC DISTRIBUTION OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS IDENTIFIED IN THE GALACTIC RING SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

We derive the physical properties of 580 molecular clouds based on their {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO line emission detected in the University of Massachusetts-Stony Brook (UMSB) and Galactic Ring surveys. We provide a range of values of the physical properties of molecular clouds, and find a power-law correlation between their radii and masses, suggesting that the fractal dimension of the interstellar medium is around 2.36. This relation, M = (228 {+-} 18) R {sup 2.36{+-}0.04}, allows us to derive masses for an additional 170 Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) molecular clouds not covered by the UMSB survey. We derive the Galactic surface mass density of molecular gas and examine its spatial variations throughout the Galaxy. We find that the azimuthally averaged Galactic surface density of molecular gas peaks between Galactocentric radii of 4 and 5 kpc. Although the Perseus arm is not detected in molecular gas, the Galactic surface density of molecular gas is enhanced along the positions of the Scutum-Crux and Sagittarius arms. This may indicate that molecular clouds form in spiral arms and are disrupted in the inter-arm space. Finally, we find that the CO excitation temperature of molecular clouds decreases away from the Galactic center, suggesting a possible decline in the star formation rate with Galactocentric radius. There is a marginally significant enhancement in the CO excitation temperature of molecular clouds at a Galactocentric radius of about 6 kpc, which in the longitude range of the GRS corresponds to the Sagittarius arm. This temperature increase could be associated with massive star formation in the Sagittarius spiral arm.

Roman-Duval, Julia; Jackson, James M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research at Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Heyer, Mark [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Rathborne, Jill [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Simon, Robert, E-mail: jduval@bu.ed, E-mail: jackson@bu.ed, E-mail: duval@stsci.ed, E-mail: heyer@astro.umass.ed, E-mail: simonr@ph1.uni-koeln.d [Physikalisches Instituet, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

2010-11-01

4

The Boston University-FCRAO Galactic Ring Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the new SEQUOIA multi-pixel array receiver on the FCRAO 14 m telescope, we are conducting a new molecular line survey of the inner Galaxy, the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey (GRS). The GRS will map 13CO J=1rightarrow 0 emission in the inner Galaxy from l = 15° to 52° and b = -1° to 1°. Compared with previous molecular line surveys of the inner Galaxy, the GRS offers excellent sensitivity (0.4 K), better spectral resolution (0.21 km s-1 ), the same or better angular resolution (46''), better sampling (22''), and the use of 13CO J=1rightarrow 0, a better column density tracer than 12CO. Theoretical modelling suggests that all molecular clouds contain significant column densities of cold atomic hydrogen. We have found that 21 cm HI self-absorption features toward GRS molecular clouds caused by this cold HI allow us to resolve the long-standing near/far kinematic distance ambiguity. Because we can measure the distances to clouds and their embedded infrared young stellar objects and star clusters, we can establish their masses, sizes, distributions, and luminosities. We have also studied infrared dark clouds revealed by the Mid-Course Space Experiment (MSX) infrared survey. These clouds are easily detected in 13CO emission. We find that many are in fact cores of larger giant molecular clouds. Because we can establish their kinematic distances, we can deduce their masses, sizes, and distributions. Their masses (˜few thousand solar masses) and sizes (˜few pc) suggest that these are the initial condensations that will ultimately become OB clusters or associations. Their radial Galactic distribution peaks in the 5 kpc ring.

Jackson, J. M.; Simon, R.; Shah, R.; Rathborne, J.; Heyer, M. H.; Clemens, D. P.; Bania, T. M.

2004-12-01

5

The Boston University-FCRAO Galactic Ring Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the new SEQUOIA multi-pixel array receiver on the FCRAO 14 m telescope, we are conducting a new molecular line survey of the inner Galaxy, the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey (GRS). The GRS will map 13{CO} J=1? 0 emission in the inner Galaxy from l = 15° to 52° and b = -1° to 1°. Compared with previous molecular line surveys of the inner Galaxy, the GRS offers excellent sensitivity (0.4 K), better spectral resolution (0.21 {km s-1} ), the same or better angular resolution (48''), better sampling (22''), and the use of 13{CO} J=1? 0, a better column density tracer than 12CO. We have found that 21 cm H I self-absorption features toward GRS molecular clouds caused by cold H I allow us to resolve the long-standing near/far kinematic distance ambiguity. Because we can measure the distances to clouds and their embedded infrared young stellar objects and star clusters, we can establish their masses, sizes, distributions, and luminosities. We have also studied infrared dark clouds revealed by the Mid-Course Space Experiment (MSX) infrared survey. These clouds are easily detected in 13CO emission. We find that many are in fact cores of larger giant molecular clouds. Because we can establish their kinematic distances, we can deduce their masses, sizes, and distributions. Their masses (˜few thousand solar masses) and sizes (˜few pc) suggest that these are the initial condensations that will ultimately become star clusters. Their radial Galactic distribution peaks in the 5 kpc ring. They contain many cold cores of mass ˜100 solar masses, which will soon form massive stars.

Jackson, J. M.

2004-12-01

6

The Boston University--Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey is a new survey of Galactic 13CO(1--0) emission. The survey used the SEQUOIA array on the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 14 m telescope to cover a longitude range of l = 18 deg -- 55.7 deg and a latitude range of |b| < 1 deg, a total of 75.4 square degrees. We achieved an angular sampling of 22 arcsec, better than half of the telescope's 46 arcsec angular resolution. The survey's velocity coverage is -5 to 135 km s-1 for Galactic longitudes l < 40 deg and -5 to 85 km s-1 for Galactic longitudes l > 40 deg. At the velocity resolution of 0.21 km s-1, the typical rms sensitivity is sigma(TA*) ˜ 0.13 K. The survey comprises a total of 1,993,522 spectra. We present the integrated intensity image (zeroth moment map), channel maps, and position-velocity diagram. The Galactic Ring Survey data are available to the community at www.bu.edu/galacticring or in DVD form by request.

Jackson, J. M.; Rathborne, J. M.; Shah, R. Y.; Simon, R.; Bania, T. M.; Clemens, D. P.; Chambers, E. T.; Johnson, A. M.; Dormody, M.; Lavoie, R.; Heyer, M.

2005-12-01

7

The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey is a new survey of Galactic 13CO J=1-->0 emission. The survey used the SEQUOIA multipixel array on the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 14 m telescope to cover a longitude range of l=18deg-55.7d and a latitude range of |b|<1deg, a total of 75.4 deg2. Using both position-switching and On-The-Fly mapping modes, we achieved an angular sampling of 22", better than half of the telescope's 46" angular resolution. The survey's velocity coverage is -5 to 135 km s-1 for Galactic longitudes l<=40deg and -5 to 85 km s-1 for Galactic longitudes l>40deg. At the velocity resolution of 0.21 km s-1, the typical rms sensitivity is ?(T*A)~0.13 K. The survey comprises a total of 1,993,522 spectra. We show integrated intensity images (zeroth moment maps), channel maps, position-velocity diagrams, and an average spectrum of the completed survey data set. We also discuss the telescope and instrumental parameters, the observing modes, the data reduction processes, and the emission and noise characteristics of the data set. The Galactic Ring Survey data are available to the community online or in DVD form by request.

Jackson, J. M.; Rathborne, J. M.; Shah, R. Y.; Simon, R.; Bania, T. M.; Clemens, D. P.; Chambers, E. T.; Johnson, A. M.; Dormody, M.; Lavoie, R.; Heyer, M. H.

2006-03-01

8

Distances of Molecular Clouds in the Boston University Galactic Ring Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular clouds identified within the BU-FCRAO Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) provide an opportunity to study giant molecular clouds with a large homogeneous dataset. We identified 847 molecular clouds in the inner Galaxy using the Clumpfind algorithm developed by Williams (1994) on our GRS 13CO data. For inner Galaxy molecular clouds, the kinematic distance ambiguity has often hampered the ability to determine cloud masses and sizes. H I self absorption, however, can be used to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity for molecular clouds. Using data from the VLA Galactic Plane Survey (VGPS) (Taylor et al. 2002) we determine the distances to 50 molecular clouds. Because the distances are now known, we calculate masses for these molecular clouds and their component clumps. We also determine the mass spectrum of the clouds and their clumps.

Johnson, Alexis M.; Jackson, J. M.; Shah, R. Y.

2007-05-01

9

Molecular Clouds in the Boston University--Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boston University--Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (BU-FCRAO) Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) is a new survey of 13CO (1--0) emission covering Galactic longitudes 18 deg < l < 55.7 deg and Galactic latitudes |b| < 1 deg. Using the SEQUOIA array on the FCRAO 14m telescope, the GRS fully sampled the 13CO Galactic emission (46 arcsec angular resolution on a 22 arcsec grid) and achieved a spectral resolution of 0.21 kms-1. By using 13CO, a better column density tracer than the more commonly used 12CO, the GRS allows a much better determination of column density and also a cleaner separation of velocity components along a line of sight. Thus, the GRS detects many new structures and cloud cores previously missed by the older 12CO surveys. With this homogeneous, fully-sampled survey of 13 CO emission, we can identify and catalog molecular clouds throughout the inner Galaxy. To select molecular clouds, we use the CLUMPFIND algorithm, which uses a method of closed contours to search for contiguous emission features without assuming an a priori shape. The molecular cloud catalog will allow us to characterize the masses, sizes, line-widths, and densities of molecular clouds in a range of Galactic environments. This will also allow us to determine clump mass spectra for many molecular complexes and study its relation to the initial mass function. In addition, the internal structure of molecular clouds, which traces the influence of turbulence in the interstellar medium, can also be studied in a wide range of star-forming environments. Here we present a preliminary list and analysis of the characteristics of a sample of molecular clouds identified within the GRS. The GRS is a joint project of Boston University and Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory, funded by the National Science Foundation under grants AST-9800334, AST-0098562, & AST-0100793

Johnson, A. M.; Rathborne, J. M.; Jackson, J. M.; Shah, R. Y.; Simon, R.

2005-12-01

10

Molecular Clouds and Clumps in the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (BU-FCRAO) Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) of 13CO J = 1 ? 0 emission covers Galactic longitudes 18° < ell < 55fdg7 and Galactic latitudes |b| <= 1°. Using the SEQUOIA array on the FCRAO 14 m telescope, the GRS fully sampled the 13CO Galactic emission (46'' angular resolution on a 22'' grid) and achieved a spectral resolution of 0.21 km s-1. Because the GRS uses 13CO, an optically thin tracer, rather than 12CO, an optically thick tracer, the GRS allows a much better determination of column density and also a cleaner separation of velocity components along a line of sight. With this homogeneous, fully sampled survey of 13CO emission, we have identified 829 molecular clouds and 6124 clumps throughout the inner Galaxy using the CLUMPFIND algorithm. Here we present details of the catalog and a preliminary analysis of the properties of the molecular clouds and their clumps. Moreover, we compare clouds inside and outside of the 5 kpc ring and find that clouds within the ring typically have warmer temperatures, higher column densities, larger areas, and more clumps compared with clouds located outside the ring. This is expected if these clouds are actively forming stars. This catalog provides a useful tool for the study of molecular clouds and their embedded young stellar objects.

Rathborne, J. M.; Johnson, A. M.; Jackson, J. M.; Shah, R. Y.; Simon, R.

2009-05-01

11

SOFIA/FORCAST IMAGING OF THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR RING AT THE GALACTIC CENTER  

SciTech Connect

We present 19.7, 31.5, and 37.1 ?m images of the inner 6 pc of the Galactic center of the Milky Way with a spatial resolution of 3.''2-4.''6 taken by the Faint Object Infrared Camera on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. The images reveal in detail the 'clumpy' structure of the circumnuclear ring (CNR)—the inner edge of the molecular torus orbiting the supermassive black hole at the Galactic center—and the prominent streamers of hot, ionized gas and dust within the CNR that compose the H II region Sgr A West. The CNR exhibits features of a classic H II region: the dust emission at 19.7 ?m closely traces the ionized gas emission observed in the radio while the 31.5 and 37.1 ?m emission traces the photo-dissociation region beyond the ionized gas. The 19.7/37.1 color temperature map reveals a radial temperature gradient across the CNR with temperatures ranging from 65 to 85 K, consistent with the prevailing paradigm in which the dust is centrally heated by the inner cluster of hot, young stars. We model the 37.1 ?m intensity of the CNR as an inclined (?{sub i} = 67°) ring with a thickness and radius of 0.34 pc and 1.4 pc, respectively, and find that it is consistent with the observed 37.1 ?m map of the CNR. The 37.1 ?m optical depth map also reveals the clumpy dust distribution of the CNR and implies a total gas mass of ?610 M{sub ?}. Dense (5-9 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}) clumps with an FWHM of ?0.15 pc exist along the inner edge of the CNR and shadow the material deeper into the ring. We find that the clumps are unlikely to be long-lived structures since they are not dense enough to be stable against tidal shear from the supermassive black hole and will be sheared out on a timescale of an orbital period (?10{sup 5} yr)

Lau, R. M.; Herter, T. L.; Adams, J. D. [Astronomy Department, 202 Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Morris, M. R.; Becklin, E. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

2013-09-20

12

Simulation of the Galactic Cosmic Rays interaction with Saturn's atmosphere and rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2004 Cassini spacecraft during the orbital insertion measured by the Ion and Neutron Camera significant fluxes of the energetic neutral atoms (ENA) coming from the area between the D-ring and the Saturn’s atmosphere, what brought up the idea of the possible existence of the innermost radiation belt in this narrow gap. In the present study we estimate the possible sources for this radiation belt, assuming the two main processes: the double charge exchange of the ENAs, coming from the middle magnetosphere, what can bring the keV ions to the region of our interest, and the interaction of the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) with the Saturn’s atmosphere and rings, which due to CRAND process can produce the keV-MeV ions or electrons in the region. Both of these possible sources are possible to evaluate using the charged particle tracer, which we developed in our group. It works in different modes (Newton-Lorentz full equation of motion, guiding center or bounce averaged approximations), and allows use of different magnetic field models (from simple dipole magnetic field till complex realistic magnetic field model like Khurana model of Saturn’s magnetosphere) for both forward and backward tracing simulations. This charged particle tracer was validated using the comparison of the simulation results and observations during several flybys of Cassini by icy moons of Saturn. Through the backward-tracing of GCRs around the planet we evaluate how the ring shadow filters the GCR spectrum that hits the Saturn’s atmosphere and how non-dipolar effects change the Strömer cutoff rigidities of GCRs, especially for the high-latitude atmosphere that maps magnetically in the outer magnetosphere. Also we estimate the production of secondaries (and from the multiple impacts of these secondaries on the rings or atmosphere as well) and evaluate the energy spectrum of neutrons, the decay of which leads to the production of final CRAND elements in the inner Saturnian radiation belts. Using this complex simulation we are going to predict the fluxes of energetic ions and electrons, which particle detector MIMI/LEMMS onboard the Cassini can measure during the so-called “proximal” orbits in 2017, when the Cassini spacecraft will pass directly through this diverse and enigmatic region extremely close to the planet.

Kotova, Anna; Roussos, Elias; Dandouras, Iannis; Krupp, Norbert

13

SUBMILLIMETER AND MOLECULAR VIEWS OF THREE GALACTIC RING-LIKE H II REGIONS  

SciTech Connect

We use SCUBA 850 {mu}m and CO observations to analyze the surroundings of three Galactic ring-like H II regions, KR 7, KR 81, and KR 120 (Sh 2-124, Sh 2-165, and Sh 2-187), with the aim of finding sites of triggered star formation. We find one prominent submillimeter (sub-mm) source for each region, located at the interface between the H II region and its neutral surroundings. Using Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry, we find that the prominent sub-mm source for KR 120 probably contains an embedded cluster of young stellar objects (YSOs), making it a likely site for triggered star formation. The KR 7 sub-mm source could possibly contain embedded YSOs, while the KR 81 sub-mm source likely does not. The mass column densities for these dominant sub-mm sources fall in the {approx}0.1-0.6 g cm{sup -2} range. The mass of the cold, dense material (clumps) seen as the three dominant sub-mm sources falls around {approx}100 M{sub sun}. We use the SCUBA Legacy catalog to characterize the populations of sub-mm sources around the H II regions, and compare them to the sources found around a previously studied similar ring-like H II region (KR 140) and near a massive star-forming region (W3). Finally, we estimate the IR luminosities of the prominent newly detected sub-mm sources and find that they are correlated with the clump mass, consistent with a previously known luminosity-mass relationship which this study shows to be valid over four orders of magnitude in mass.

Arvidsson, K. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium, 1300 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Kerton, C. R., E-mail: karvidsson@adlerplanetarium.org, E-mail: kerton@iastate.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

2011-05-15

14

Massive Star Formation in the Molecular Ring Orbiting the Black Hole at the Galactic Center  

E-print Network

A ring of dense molecular gas extending 2-7 pc orbits the supermassive black hole Sgr A* at the center of our Galaxy. Using the Green Bank Telescope, we detected water maser lines and both narrow (0.35 km/s) and broad (30 - 50 km/s) methanol emission from the molecular ring. Two of the strongest methanol lines at 44 GHz are confirmed as masers by interferometric observations. These class I methanol masers are collisionally excited and are signatures of early phases of massive star formation in the disk of the Galaxy, suggesting that star formation in the molecular ring is in its early phase. Close inspection of the kinematics of the associated molecular clumps in the HCN (J=1-0) line reveals broad red-shifted wings indicative of disturbance by protostellar outflows from young (few times 10^4 yr), massive stars embedded in the clumps. The thermal methanol profile has a similar shape, with a narrow maser line superimposed on a broad, red-shifted wing. Additional evidence for the presence of young massive protostars is provided by shocked molecular hydrogen and a number of striking ionized and molecular linear filaments in the vicinity of methanol sources suggestive of 0.5-pc scale protostellar jets. Given that the circumnuclear molecular ring is kinematically unsettled and thus is likely be the result of a recent capture, the presence of both methanol emission and broad, red-shifted HCN emission suggests that star formation in the circumnuclear ring is in its infancy.

F. Yusef-Zadeh; J. Braatz; M. Wardle; D. Roberts

2008-07-10

15

Galactic Twins of the Ring Nebula Around SN1987A and a Possible LBV-like Phase for Sk-69 202  

E-print Network

Some core-collapse supernovae show clear signs of interaction with dense circumstellar material that often appears to be non-spherical. Circumstellar nebulae around supernova progenitors provide clues to the origin of that asymmetry in immediate pre-supernova evolution. Here I discuss outstanding questions about the formation of the ring nebula around SN1987A and some implications of similar ring nebulae around Galactic B supergiants. Several clues hint that SN1987A's nebula may have been ejected in an LBV-like event, rather than through interacting winds in a transition from a red supergiant to a blue supergiant.

Nathan Smith

2007-05-21

16

The dark connection between the EGRET excess of diffuse Galactic gamma rays, the Canis Major dwarf, the Monoceros ring, the INTEGRAL 511 keV annihilation line, the gas flaring and the Galactic rotation curve  

E-print Network

The EGRET excess of diffuse Galactic gamma rays shows all the key features of dark matter annihilation (DMA) for a WIMP mass in the range 50-100 GeV, especially the distribution of the excess is compatible with a standard halo profile with some additional ringlike substructures at 4 and 13 kpc from the Galactic centre. These substructures coincide with the gravitational potential well expected from the ring of dust at 4 kpc and the tidal stream of dark matter from the Canis Major satellite galaxy at 13 kpc, as deduced from N-body simulations fitting to the Monoceros ring of stars. Strong independent support for this substructure is given by the gas flaring in our Galaxy. The gamma rays from DMA are originating predominantly from the hadronization of mono-energetic quarks, which should produce also a small, but known fraction of protons and antiprotons. Bergstrom et al. an antiproton flux far above the observed antiproton flux and they conclude that the DMA interpretation of the EGRET excess can therefore be excluded. However, they used an isotropic propagation model, i.e. the same diffusive propagation in the disk and the halo. It is shown that an anisotropic propagation model is consistent with the EGRET gamma ray excess, the antiproton flux and the ratios of secondary/primary and unstable/stable cosmic ray particles. Such an anisotropic propagation is supported by the large bulge/disk ratio of the positron annihilation line, as observed by the INTEGRAL satellite. In this case no need for new sources specific to the bulge are needed, so the claimed evidence for strong DMA in the bulge from these observations is strongly propagation model dependent.

Wim de Boer

2007-11-13

17

The dark connection between the Canis Major dwarf, the Monoceros ring, the gas flaring, the rotation curve and the EGRET excess of diffuse Galactic Gamma Rays  

E-print Network

The excess of diffuse galactic gamma rays above 1 GeV, as observed by the EGRET telescope on the NASA Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, shows all the key features from Dark Matter (DM) annihilation: (i) the energy spectrum of the excess is the same in all sky directions and is consistent with the gamma rays expected for the annihilation of WIMPs with a mass between 50-100 GeV; (ii) the intensity distribution of the excess in the sky is used to determine the halo profile, which was found to correspond to the usual profile from N-body simulations with additional substructure in the form of two doughnut-shaped structures at radii of 4 and 13 kpc; (iii) recent N-body simulations of the tidal disruption of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy show that it is a perfect progenitor of the ringlike Monoceros tidal stream of stars at 13 kpc with ring parameters in agreement with the EGRET data; (iiii) the mass of the outer ring is so large, that its gravitational effects influence both the gas flaring and the rotation curve of th...

de Boer, Wim; Weber, M; Sander, C; Zhukov, V; Kazakov, D

2007-01-01

18

The dark connection between the Canis Major dwarf, the Monoceros ring, the gas flaring, the rotation curve and the EGRET excess of diffuse Galactic Gamma Rays  

E-print Network

The excess of diffuse galactic gamma rays above 1 GeV, as observed by the EGRET telescope on the NASA Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, shows all the key features from Dark Matter (DM) annihilation: (i) the energy spectrum of the excess is the same in all sky directions and is consistent with the gamma rays expected for the annihilation of WIMPs with a mass between 50-100 GeV; (ii) the intensity distribution of the excess in the sky is used to determine the halo profile, which was found to correspond to the usual profile from N-body simulations with additional substructure in the form of two doughnut-shaped structures at radii of 4 and 13 kpc; (iii) recent N-body simulations of the tidal disruption of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy show that it is a perfect progenitor of the ringlike Monoceros tidal stream of stars at 13 kpc with ring parameters in agreement with the EGRET data; (iiii) the mass of the outer ring is so large, that its gravitational effects influence both the gas flaring and the rotation curve of the Milky Way. Both effects are clearly observed in agreement with the DMA interpretation of the EGRET excess.

W. de Boer; I. Gebauer; M. Weber; C. Sander; V. Zhukov; D. Kazakov

2007-10-26

19

Exterior view looking down through the approximate centerline of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior view looking down through the approximate centerline of the upper hatch and docking ring on the external airlock on the Orbiter Discovery. This photograph was take in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

20

Sunshade for building exteriors  

DOEpatents

A sunshade for shading window exteriors includes at least one connecting bracket for attachment to a window mullion, a blade support strut attached to the connecting bracket at a first joint, and a plurality of louvered blades supported by the blade support strut at a second joint. The pivot angle at the first joint may be varied to extend the louvered blades a desired distance from the window mullion. The louvered blades are positioned at a preselected fixed profile angle on the second joint in order to optimize shading at the latitude where the sunshade is installed. In a preferred embodiment, the louvered blades have top walls supporting photovoltaic cells and the sunshade includes electric cables for connecting the photovoltaic cells to an electric circuit.

Braunstein, Richard (Atlanta, GA); McKenna, Gregory B. (Cumming, GA); Hewitt, David W. (Alpharetta, GA); Harper, Randolph S. (Keezletown, VA)

2002-01-01

21

The Dark Connection Between the EGRET Excess of Diffuse Galactic Gamma Rays, the Canis Major Dwarf, the Monoceros Ring, the Integral 511 keV Annihilation Line, the Gas Flaring and the Galactic Rotation Curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EGRET excess of diffuse Galactic gamma rays shows all the key features of dark matter annihilation (DMA) for a WIMP mass in the range 50-100 GeV, especially the distribution of the excess is compatible with a standard halo profile with some additional ringlike substructures at 4 and 13 kpc from the Galactic centre. These substructures coincide with the gravitational

W. de Boer

2008-01-01

22

Saturn's Spectacular Ring System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Saturn's beautiful rings have fascinated astronomers since they were first observed by Galileo in 1610. The main rings consist of solid particles mostly in the 1 cm - 10 m range, composed primarily of water ice. The ring disk is exceptionally thin - the typical local thickness of the bright rings is tens of meters, whereas the diameter of the main rings is 250,000 km! The main rings exhibit substantial radial variations "ringlets", many of which are actively maintained via gravitational perturbations from Saturn's moons. Exterior to the main rings lie tenuous dust rings, which have little mass but occupy a very large volume of space. This seminar will emphasize the physics of ring-moon interactions, recent advances in our understanding of various aspects of the rings obtained from observations taken during 1995 when the rings appeared edge-on to the Earth and then to the Sun, and observations in subsequent years from HST.

Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

23

The dark connection between the EGRET excess of diffuse Galactic gamma rays, the Canis Major dwarf, the Monoceros ring, the INTEGRAL 511 keV annihilation line, the gas flaring and the Galactic rotation curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EGRET excess of diffuse Galactic gamma rays shows all the key features of\\u000adark matter annihilation (DMA) for a WIMP mass in the range 50-100 GeV,\\u000aespecially the distribution of the excess is compatible with a standard halo\\u000aprofile with some additional ringlike substructures at 4 and 13 kpc from the\\u000aGalactic centre. These substructures coincide with the gravitational

Wim de Boer

2007-01-01

24

DYNAMICS AND COMPOSITION OF RINGS BRUNO SICARDY  

E-print Network

on Saturn's rings. Keywords: Rings, disks, dynamics, planetary formation 1. Planetary Rings Planetary rings several tens of km, and akin to galactic features, are observed in Saturn's dense rings. At the other end to plane- tary rings, and see how the forthcoming Cassini mission to Saturn may help solve some

Demoulin, Pascal

25

The dark connection between the Canis Major dwarf, the Monoceros ring, the gas flaring, the rotation curve and the EGRET excess of diffuse Galactic Gamma Rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excess of diffuse galactic gamma rays above 1 GeV, as observed by the\\u000aEGRET telescope on the NASA Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, shows all the key\\u000afeatures from Dark Matter (DM) annihilation: (i) the energy spectrum of the\\u000aexcess is the same in all sky directions and is consistent with the gamma rays\\u000aexpected for the annihilation of WIMPs

W. de Boer; I. Gebauer; M. Weber; C. Sander; V. Zhukov; D. Kazakov

2007-01-01

26

Fractional Exterior Calculus and Fractional Differential Forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Differential forms and exterior calculus are important theories in mathematics. Exterior calculus have found wide applications\\u000a in fields such as general relativity, theory of electromagnetic fields, thermodynamics, theory of elasticity, differential\\u000a geometry, topology and nonlinear differential equations. Differential forms are the most natural language for expressing electromagnetic\\u000a and gauge fields mathematically. This language is independent of coordinates. Exterior calculus of

Vasily E. Tarasov

27

Differential complexes and exterior calculus  

E-print Network

In this paper we present a new theory of calculus over $k$-dimensional domains in a smooth $n$-manifold, unifying the discrete, exterior, and continuum theories. The calculus begins at a single point and is extended to chains of finitely many points by linearity, or superposition. It converges to the smooth continuum with respect to a norm on the space of ``pointed chains,'' culminating in the chainlet complex. Through this complex, we discover a broad theory of coordinate free, multivector analysis in smooth manifolds for which both the classical Newtonian calculus and the Cartan exterior calculus become special cases. The chainlet operators, products and integrals apply to both symmetric and antisymmetric tensor cochains. As corollaries, we obtain the full calculus on Euclidean space, cell complexes, bilayer structures (e.g., soap films) and nonsmooth domains, with equal ease. The power comes from the recently discovered prederivative and preintegral that are antecedent to the Newtonian theory. These lead to new models for the continuum of space and time, and permit analysis of domains that may not be locally Euclidean, or locally connected, or with locally finite mass.

Jenny Harrison

2006-01-09

28

Finite element exterior calculus, homological techniques,  

E-print Network

Finite element exterior calculus, homological techniques, and applications to elasticity Seminar WS developed Finite Element Exterior Calculus, which brings together ideas and techniques from finite element view makes an entire zoo of finite elements more accessible and leads to a deeper mathematical

Wardetzky, Max

29

ESTUDO DO IMPACTO ECONMICO DO PORTO EXTERIOR  

E-print Network

ESTUDO DO IMPACTO ECON�MICO DO PORTO EXTERIOR SOBRE O EMPREGO NA CORU�A E OUTRAS OPORTUNIDADES DE NEGOCIO #12;ESTUDO DO IMPACTO ECON�MICO DO PORTO EXTERIOR SOBRE O EMPREGO NA CORU�A E OUTRAS OPORTUNIDADES Concellar�a de Promoci�n Econ�mica, Emprego, Comercio, Consumo e Turismo Concello da Coru�a Traduci�n ao

Fraguela, Basilio B.

30

Galactic Census  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Digital Universe activity, students learn firsthand about estimation strategies and observational bias. They estimate how common several celestial objects are based on their location and make inferences about larger population patterns throughout the galaxy. The printable PDF activity includes illustrated step-by-step instructions for the following hands-on and computer-assisted activities: Introduction to Celestial Objects, Broad Distribution of Objects in the Galaxy and Making Galactic Estimates

31

Static exteriors for nonstatic braneworld stars  

E-print Network

We study possible static non-Schwarzschild exteriors for nonstatic spherically symmetric stars in a Randall $&$ Sundrum type II braneworld scenario. Thus, the vacuum region outside the surface of a star is assumed to be a static solution to the equation $^{(4)}R = 0$, where $^{(4)}R $ is the scalar curvature of the 4-dimensional Ricci tensor with spherical symmetry. Firstly, we show that for nonstatic spheres the standard matching conditions are much more restrictive than for static ones; they lead to a specific requirement on the vacuum region outside of a nonstatic star, that is absent in the case of static stars. Secondly, without making any assumption about the bulk, or the material medium inside the star, we prove the following theorem on the brane: for {\\it any} nonstatic spherical star, without rotation, there are only two possible static exteriors; these are the Schwarzschild and the "Reissner-Nordstr{\\"o}m-like" exteriors. This is quite distinct from the case of stars in hydrostatic equilibrium which admit a much larger family of non-Schwarzschild static exteriors.

J. Ponce de Leon

2007-11-28

32

Exterior view of north and east exterior walls of LongTerm ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior view of north and east exterior walls of Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B), looking south. Silo was designed to assess long-term environmental impacts on storage of the Titan II's oxidizer (nitrogen tetroxide). The shorter Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D) is located behind and to the immediate left of T-28B - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Long-Term Oxidizer Silo, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

33

Planetary Rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Introduction: the allure of ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2004; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-Body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Neptune's partial rings; 13. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo; 14. Ring photometry; 15. Dusty rings; 16. Cassini observations; 17. Summary: the big questions; Glossary; References; Index.

Esposito, Larry W.

2011-07-01

34

46 CFR 154.1105 - Exterior water spray system: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Exterior water spray system: General. 154.1105 Section...Firefighting § 154.1105 Exterior water spray system: General. Each liquefied flammable...toxic gas vessel must have an exterior water spray system that meets §§ 154.1110...

2010-10-01

35

A primer on exterior dierential calculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pedagogical application-oriented introduction to the cal- culus of exterior dierential forms on dierential manifolds is presented. Stokes' theorem, the Lie derivative, linear con- nections and their curvature, torsion and non-metricity are discussed. Numerous examples using dierential calculus are given and some detailed comparisons are made with their tradi- tional vector counterparts. In particular, vector calculus onR3 is cast in

D. A. Burton

2003-01-01

36

Spectral methods for exterior elliptic problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral approximations for exterior elliptic problems in two dimensions are discussed. As in the conventional finite difference or finite element methods, the accuracy of the numerical solutions is limited by the order of the numerical farfield conditions. A spectral boundary treatment is introduced at infinity which is compatible with the infinite order interior spectral scheme. Computational results are presented to demonstrate the spectral accuracy attainable. Although a simple Laplace problem is examined, the analysis covers more complex and general cases.

Canuto, C.; Hariharan, S. I.; Lustman, L.

1984-01-01

37

Ring Around a Galaxy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Telescope Science Institute astronomers are giving the public chances to decide where to aim NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Guided by 8,000 Internet voters, Hubble has already been used to take a close-up, multi-color picture of the most popular object from a list of candidates, the extraordinary 'polar-ring' galaxy NGC 4650A. Located about 130 million light-years away, NGC 4650A is one of only 100 known polar-ring galaxies. Their unusual disk-ring structure is not yet understood fully. One possibility is that polar rings are the remnants of colossal collisions between two galaxies sometime in the distant past, probably at least 1 billion years ago. What is left of one galaxy has become the rotating inner disk of old red stars in the center. Meanwhile, another smaller galaxy which ventured too close was probably severely damaged or destroyed. The bright bluish clumps, which are especially prominent in the outer parts of the ring, are regions containing luminous young stars, examples of stellar rebirth from the remnants of an ancient galactic disaster. The polar ring appears to be highly distorted. No regular spiral pattern stands out in the main part of the ring, and the presence of young stars below the main ring on one side and above on the other shows that the ring is warped and does not lie in one plane. Determining the typical ages of the stars in the polar ring is an initial goal of our Polar Ring Science Team that can provide a clue to the evolution of this unusual galaxy. The HST exposures were acquired by the Hubble Heritage Team, consisting of Keith Noll, Howard Bond, Carol Christian, Jayanne English, Lisa Frattare, Forrest Hamilton, Anne Kinney and Zolt Levay, and guest collaborators Jay Gallagher (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Lynn Matthews (National Radio Astronomy Observatory-Charlottesville), and Linda Sparke (University of Wisconsin-Madison).

1999-01-01

38

Sulphited tannins for exterior wood adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Condensed tannins such as wattle (Mimosa) extract can be partially modified, through hydrolysis of a benzyl ether link and consequent opening of the flavonoid heterocyclic ring, through sulphitation. The introduction of a sulphonic group in the flavonoid structure and the heterocyclic ring opening produces tannin solutions of lower viscosity. While the sulphonic group introduced is deleterious to the strength

A. Pizzi

1979-01-01

39

Hysteretic behavior of exterior post-tensioned flat plate connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to evaluate hysteretic behavior of exterior post-tensioned flat plate slab–column connections (PT connections) designed to resist only gravity loads. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted using three approximately two-thirds-scale test specimens; two exterior PT connection specimens having different tendon layouts and one exterior reinforced concrete flat plate slab–column connection (RC connection) specimen. Quasi-static

Sang Whan Han; Seong-Hoon Kee; Young-Mi Park; Li-Hyung Lee; Thomas H.-K. Kang

2006-01-01

40

Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing  

SciTech Connect

The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

2014-01-01

41

Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior window detail, looking north. Adam ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior window detail, looking north. - Adam & Bessie Arnet Homestead, Marguerite Arnet Residence, 560 feet northeast of Adam & Bessie Arnet Residence, Model, Las Animas County, CO

42

Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior door detail, looking north. Adam ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior door detail, looking north. - Adam & Bessie Arnet Homestead, Marguerite Arnet Residence, 560 feet northeast of Adam & Bessie Arnet Residence, Model, Las Animas County, CO

43

Source amplitudes for active exterior cloaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The active cloak comprises a discrete set of multipole sources that destructively interfere with an incident time harmonic scalar wave to produce zero total field over a finite spatial region. For a given number of sources and their positions in two dimensions it is shown that the multipole amplitudes can be expressed as infinite sums of the coefficients of the incident wave decomposed into regular Bessel functions. The field generated by the active sources vanishes in the infinite region exterior to a set of circles defined by the relative positions of the sources. The results provide a direct solution to the inverse problem of determining the source amplitudes. They also define a broad class of non-radiating discrete sources.

Norris, Andrew N.; Amirkulova, Feruza A.; Parnell, William J.

2012-10-01

44

Numerical method for Darcy flow derived using Discrete Exterior Calculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive a numerical method for Darcy flow, hence also for Poisson's equation in mixed (first order) form, based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Exterior calculus is a generalization of vector calculus to smooth manifolds and DEC is one of its discretizations on simplicial complexes such as triangle and tetrahedral meshes. DEC is a coordinate invariant discretization, in that it

Anil N. Hirani; Kalyana B. Nakshatrala; Jehanzeb H. Chaudhry

2008-01-01

45

17. DETAIL OF INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. DETAIL OF INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD NORTHEAST CORNER, THIRD BAY Showing insulated exterior wall at right; asphalt felt on interior separation wall at left; sill beam, stud, and concrete foundation detailing of interior wall. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

46

Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: ellshaped south ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: ell-shaped south facing concrete staircase with decorative pipe railing, second floor entrance with cement plaster profiled surround, dentil course cornice, truncated embedded wood beams, cream colored plaster-finished exterior façade, closed off window well with protruding vent; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

47

Saturn's rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When seen from the unlit side, the rings of Saturn present a much different appearance from that familiar to telescopic observers. Relatively opaque areas like the B Ring turn black, while lightly populated zones, such as the C Ring and the Cassini Division, prove to excellent diffuse transmitters of sunlight. The A Ring, with intermediate opacity, is at an intermediate level of brightness.

2000-01-01

48

The Galactic Habitable Zone: Galactic Chemical Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the concept of a “Galactic Habitable Zone” (GHZ). Analogous to the Circumstellar Habitable Zone (CHZ), the GHZ is that region in the Milky Way where an Earth-like planet can retain liquid water on its surface and provide a long-term habitat for animal-like aerobic life. In this paper we examine the dependence of the GHZ on Galactic chemical evolution.

Guillermo Gonzalez; Donald Brownlee; Peter Ward

2001-01-01

49

Temperature and Density Variations in Galactic Nebulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results from spectrophotometric studies of several galactic emission nebulae are discussed. Details of the spatial variation of the electron temperature (Te) and density (Ne) are given for the Orion Nebula (M42), with a less in-depth discussion of the Lagoon Nebula (M8) and the Ring Nebula (M57), both of which are covered elsewhere in these proceedings by Anthony Williams and

Donald K. Walter

1997-01-01

50

Autonomous navigation for structured exterior environments  

SciTech Connect

The Telemanaged Mobile Security Station (TMSS) was developed at Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the role of mobile robotics in exterior perimeter security systems. A major feature of the system is its capability to perform autonomous patrols of the security site`s network of roads. Perimeter security sites are well known, structured environments; the locations of the roads, buildings, and fences are relatively static. A security robot has the advantage of being able to learn its new environment prior to autonomous travel. The TMSS robot combines information from a microwave beacon system and on-board dead reckoning sensors to determine its location within the site. The operator is required to teleoperate the robot in a teach mode over all desired paths before autonomous operations can commence. During this teach phase, TMSS stores points from its position location system at two meter intervals. This map data base is used for planning paths and for reference during path following. Details of the position location and path following systems will be described along with system performance and recommendations for future enhancements.

Pletta, J B

1993-12-01

51

Dynamical evolution of two associated galactic bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the dynamical interactions of mass systems in equilibrium under their own gravity that mutually exert and experience gravitational forces. The method we employ is to model the dynamical evolution of two isolated bars, hosted within the same galactic system, under their mutual gravitational interaction. In this study, we present an analytical treatment of the secular evolution of two bars that oscillate with respect to one another. Two cases of interaction, with and without geometrical deformation, are discussed. In the latter case, the bars are described as modified Jacobi ellipsoids. These triaxial systems are formed by a rotating fluid mass in gravitational equilibrium with its own rotational velocity and the gravitational field of the other bar. The governing equation for the variation of their relative angular separation is then numerically integrated, which also provides the time evolution of the geometrical parameters of the bodies. The case of rigid, non-deformable, bars produces in some cases an oscillatory motion in the bodies similar to that of a harmonic oscillator. For the other case, a deformable rotating body that can be represented by a modified Jacobi ellipsoid under the influence of an exterior massive body will change its rotational velocity to escape from the attracting body, just as if the gravitational torque exerted by the exterior body were of opposite sign. Instead, the exchange of angular momentum will cause the Jacobian body to modify its geometry by enlarging its long axis, located in the plane of rotation, thus decreasing its axial ratios.

Garzón, F.; López-Corredoira, M.

2014-10-01

52

Vascular ring  

MedlinePLUS

... congenital heart problems. The condition occurs as often in males as females. Some infants with vascular ring also have another congenital heart problem. Vascular ring occurs very early in the baby's development in the womb. Normally, the ...

53

8. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF BRICKWORK AND WINDOW TREATMENT ABOVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF BRICKWORK AND WINDOW TREATMENT ABOVE MAIN ENTRANCE TO AUDITORIUM. - Bonneville Project, Auditorium, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

54

8. Exterior detail view of typical windows and cornice treatment, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Exterior detail view of typical windows and cornice treatment, view looking north at center of Picker House south elevation - Renfrew Manufacturing Company Mill No. 2, 217 Columbia Street, Adams, Berkshire County, MA

55

3. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING CENTER GABLE SECTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING CENTER GABLE SECTION OF THE FISH HATCHERY BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

56

4. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING'S CENTRAL GABLE; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING'S CENTRAL GABLE; MASONRY WALL AND FLOWERBED IN FOREGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

57

2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING LOOKING NORTH; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING LOOKING NORTH; REINFORCED CONCRETE FISH PONDS IN FOREGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

58

22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT NORTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; VIEW SHOWS SECTION OF FISH LADDER NEAR WHERE IT ENTERS THE COLUMBIA RIVER. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

59

9. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING FORMER FISH HATCHERY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING FORMER FISH HATCHERY OFFICE BUILDING (PRESENTLY USED AS GARDENER'S OFFICE). - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

60

5. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF CUPOLA AND WEATHER VANE ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF CUPOLA AND WEATHER VANE ON TOP OF THE FISH HATCHERY BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

61

6. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF WINDOW SHUTTERS ON OUTSIDE OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF WINDOW SHUTTERS ON OUTSIDE OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

62

1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING FACADE OF FISH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING FACADE OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

63

24. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT NORTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; WATER FLOWING THROUGH FISH LADDER IS VISIBLE AT BOTTOM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

64

EXTERIOR VIEW SHOWING THE OILOSTATIC TERMINALS IN THE GENERATING PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW SHOWING THE OILOSTATIC TERMINALS IN THE GENERATING PLANT SWITCH YARD. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Oilostatic Transmission System, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

65

32. Credit JTL. Exterior transformer bank; note lightning arrestors removed ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. Credit JTL. Exterior transformer bank; note lightning arrestors removed from pad and smaller arrestors installed on transformers and in area near air switches. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

66

4. DETAIL ALONG WEST SIDE, SHOWING EXTERIOR STAIRWAY, BUILDING NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL ALONG WEST SIDE, SHOWING EXTERIOR STAIRWAY, BUILDING NO. 1 IN THE CENTER DISTANCE, AND ONE OF THE BENDING SHOPS AT RIGHT. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Engineering Building, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

67

Exterior view of hipped roof with coffee processing structure in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior view of hipped roof with coffee processing structure in background, view towards the southwest - Pou Coffee Processing Structure, Casa No. 2, Highway 139, Kilometer 12, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

68

50. Exterior view of yard with detail of concrete keel ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. Exterior view of yard with detail of concrete keel block for laying vessels on. Steel fabrication builders in background. American traveling yard crane. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

69

37. Exterior view of main yard. Stock room building (left), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. Exterior view of main yard. Stock room building (left), old machine shop (center), steel fabrication building (right), and traveling yard crane (middle fore). - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

70

OBLIQUE VIEW. NOTE THE ROUGHSURFACED EXTERIOR OF THE CONCRETE WALLS. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE VIEW. NOTE THE ROUGH-SURFACED EXTERIOR OF THE CONCRETE WALLS. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

71

1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, WITH ENTRANCES AND SIDE ELEVATIONS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, WITH ENTRANCES AND SIDE ELEVATIONS ALONG THE OLD BANKHEAD HIGHWAY (NOW 20TH STREET) AND ELLIOTT BOULEVARD - G. W. Posey Store, Twentieth Street & Elliot Boulevard, Jasper, Walker County, AL

72

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE TO THE LEFT, WEST ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

73

5. VIEW OF EXTERIOR FACINGS, SOUTH ELEVATION, ILLUSTRATING RANDOM COURSING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF EXTERIOR FACINGS, SOUTH ELEVATION, ILLUSTRATING RANDOM COURSING THAT USES UNSQUARED, IRREGULAR BASALT STONE WITH SMALLER FRAGMENTS SNECKED INTO THE JOINTING, LOOKING NORTH - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

74

1. BLOWER (EXTERIOR CONFIGURATION). Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. BLOWER (EXTERIOR CONFIGURATION). - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

75

Exterior doorway detail south side of building (first floor) east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior doorway detail south side of building (first floor) east inset porch; interior staircase visible in background - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Open Air Tuberculosis Ward, West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

76

EXTERIOR VIEW WITH HEART OF DIXIE MUSEUM'S HISTORIC LOCOMOTIVE IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW WITH HEART OF DIXIE MUSEUM'S HISTORIC LOCOMOTIVE IN MUSEUM'S POWELL AVENUE YARD (BOTTOM) AND SOUTHERN RAILWAY BOXCAR ON ACTIVE TRACKAGE (ABOVE). - Heart of Dixie Railroad, Rolling Stock, 1800 Block Powell Avenue, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

77

2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLSIDE PLANT ENTRANCE. NOTE CONTRAST BETWEEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLSIDE PLANT ENTRANCE. NOTE CONTRAST BETWEEN THIS MODERN ADDITION AND THE OLDER SECTION OF THE MILL VISIBLE IN HAER No. GA-130-1. - Hillside Cotton Mill, 1300 Brownwood Avenue, La Grange, Troup County, GA

78

29. View of exterior of bathroom located in southwest corner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. View of exterior of bathroom located in southwest corner of central section. Photo was taken on Oct 22, 2002, looking southwest. - College Heights Lemon Packing House, 519-532 West First Street, Claremont, Los Angeles County, CA

79

Exterior oblique view of the northwest end and northeast side. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior oblique view of the northwest end and northeast side. View facing south-southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Paint Shop & Rigging Loft, Sixth Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

80

Exterior view of the south side from the roof of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior view of the south side from the roof of facility 1670. View facing north-northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Paint Shop & Rigging Loft, Sixth Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

81

Exterior oblique view of the southeast and southwest sides. Taken ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior oblique view of the southeast and southwest sides. Taken from Facility 6. View facing north - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Paint Shop & Rigging Loft, Sixth Street between Avenues E & G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

82

5. EXTERIOR OF NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH AREA, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. EXTERIOR OF NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH AREA, ALUMINUM SLIDING GLASS WINDOW GLAZING REPLACEMENTS, AND RAILING FOR STAIRS TO BASEMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

83

4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR FACINGS LINED WITH RUBBLE BACKING AND EARTH INFILL, LOOKING EAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

84

EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, FRONT FACADE AND ENTRANCE TO COMPANY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, FRONT FACADE AND ENTRANCE TO COMPANY SCHOOL FOR CHILDREN OF BLACK TCI-US STEEL RED ORE MINE WORKERS - Company School for Blacks, 413 Morgan Road, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

85

Electrical cable connector-clamp has smooth exterior surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical cable connector-clamp fitted with a collet has a smooth exterior surface that can be easily gripped. The collet clamps a portion of the cable and provides for connecting it to a standard electrical connector.

1965-01-01

86

5. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE NORTH REPAIR BAY OF THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE NORTH REPAIR BAY OF THE MOTOR REPAIR SHOP, BUILDING 104, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Motor Repair & Auto Hobby Shop, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

87

1. EXTERIOR OF THE MOTOR REPAIR SHOP FROM BELOW, BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OF THE MOTOR REPAIR SHOP FROM BELOW, BUILDING 104, LOOKING NORTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Motor Repair & Auto Hobby Shop, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

88

9. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 191828. WINTER SNOW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 1918-28. WINTER SNOW SHOWS LINE OF CRUDE ORE BIN STAIR. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

89

10. Historic exterior view of Building 100. August 22, 1957. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Historic exterior view of Building 100. August 22, 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-45766. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

90

North exterior elevation of Pope Quadrangle. Note the bas relief ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

North exterior elevation of Pope Quadrangle. Note the bas relief sculpture over the doorway, which includes the school motto, Aspirando et Perseverando. - Avon Old Farms School, 500 Avon Old Farms Road, Avon, Hartford County, CT

91

2. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION OF THE HOT DISASSEMBLY AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

92

4. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE WEST ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE WEST ELEVATION OF THE COLD ASSEMBLY AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

93

8. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE EAST ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE EAST ELEVATION OF THE HOT DISASSEMBLY AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

94

9. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST OF THE SOUTH AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST OF THE SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

95

7. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST OF THE NORTH AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST OF THE NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

96

6. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE SOUTH OF THE NORTH ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE SOUTH OF THE NORTH ELEVATION OF THE HOT DISASSEMBLY AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

97

DETAIL ELEVATION VIEW OF EXTERIOR STAIRS ON THE EAST END ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL ELEVATION VIEW OF EXTERIOR STAIRS ON THE EAST END OF BUILDING 63, FACING SOUTH. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Station, Enlisted Men's Barracks, West corner of Central Street & Midway Drive, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

98

Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior roof structure detail, looking northwest. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior roof structure detail, looking northwest. - Adam & Bessie Arnet Homestead, Marguerite Arnet Residence, 560 feet northeast of Adam & Bessie Arnet Residence, Model, Las Animas County, CO

99

EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM RESTORATION FLOOR INTERIOR WITH A DRILL PRESS (LEFT) AND BORING MILL (RIGHT). - Norfolk & Southern Steam Locomotive No. 1218, Norris Yards, East of Ruffner Road, Irondale, Jefferson County, AL

100

39. EXTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. EXTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING WEST FACE AND ENTRANCE STAIRWAY - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

101

40. EXTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING FRONT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

40. EXTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING FRONT ELEVATION AND PIPES LEADING TO SWITCHES - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

102

3. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST OF A PERSONNEL GATE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST OF A PERSONNEL GATE IN THE SECURITY FENCE SURROUNDING THE MAIN BUILDINGS. - Nevada Test Site, Super Kukla Facility, Area 27, Rock Valley, South of Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

103

6. Neg. No. F52, Apr 13, 1930, EXTERIOR EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Neg. No. F-52, Apr 13, 1930, EXTERIOR - EAST SIDE OF WAREHOUSE AND LOADING DOCK, SHOWING CRANE, LOOKING NORTH - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Crane, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

104

Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure  

DOEpatents

A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value. 2 figs.

Vohra, A.

1999-03-02

105

1. NEUTRAL BUOYANCY SIMULATOR BUILDING (NBS) EXTERIOR ELEVATION LOOKING NORTH; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. NEUTRAL BUOYANCY SIMULATOR BUILDING (NBS) EXTERIOR ELEVATION LOOKING NORTH; TANK BUILDING TO LEFT, CONTROL ROOM ETC. TO RIGHT OF CONNECTING BAY. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

106

View of exterior detail; bay on north side of front ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of exterior detail; bay on north side of front gable element. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters P, Walnut Avenue, northwest corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

107

1. Exterior, corner, wall, and barrel of cannon used to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Exterior, corner, wall, and barrel of cannon used to protect corner of building from cart wheels. 1960. - Jefferson Barracks, Brick & Stone Powder Magazine, Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis County, MO

108

1. VIEW OF BUILDING 883 EXTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. VENTILATION EQUIPMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF BUILDING 883 EXTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. VENTILATION EQUIPMENT IS VISIBLE. (11/27/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

109

1. EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (EAST) FACADE WITH FIVE POINTS FOUNTAIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (EAST) FACADE WITH FIVE POINTS FOUNTAIN (CENTER), DULION APARTMENTS AND ELEVENTH AVENUE SOUTH (RIGHT). VIEW TAKEN JUST AFTER BIRMINGHAM BLIZZARD OF 1993. - Highlands United Methodist Church, 1045 Twentieth Street South, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

110

7. NORTH EXTERIOR SIDE SHOWING TRIANGULAR KNEE BRACE SUPPORTS AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. NORTH EXTERIOR SIDE SHOWING TRIANGULAR KNEE BRACE SUPPORTS AND ENCLOSED PORCH SCREENED WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

111

Transverse electromagnetic horn antenna with resistively-loaded exterior surfaces  

DOEpatents

An improved transverse electromagnetic (TEM) horn antenna comprises a resistive loading material on the exterior surfaces of the antenna plates. The resistive loading material attenuates or inhibits currents on the exterior surfaces of the TEM horn antenna. The exterior electromagnetic fields are of opposite polarity in comparison to the primary and desired interior electromagnetic field, thus inherently cause partial cancellation of the interior wave upon radiation or upon reception. Reducing the exterior fields increases the radiation efficiency of the antenna by reducing the cancellation of the primary interior field (supported by the interior surface currents). This increases the transmit gain and receive sensitivity of the TEM horn antenna, as well as improving the transient (time-domain) response.

Aurand, John F. (Edgewood, NM)

1999-01-01

112

12. Detail view, north wall of porch containing the exterior ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Detail view, north wall of porch containing the exterior pantry door (note the lintel stone with the abstracted wave motif). - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

113

VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

114

3. WEST ELEVATION; ELEVATIONS OF ROOM 'C' (DRAWING ROOM); EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. WEST ELEVATION; ELEVATIONS OF ROOM 'C' (DRAWING ROOM); EXTERIOR ELEVATION DOORS A & B; REFLECTED PLAN PANELLED SOFFIT, DOORS A & B - Wakefield, State Route 204, Wakefield Corner, Westmoreland County, VA

115

1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE EXPLOSIVE STORAGE SHED, BUILDING 306, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE EXPLOSIVE STORAGE SHED, BUILDING 306, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Explosive Storage, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

116

CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, PAINT SPRAY ROOM EXTERIOR AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, PAINT SPRAY ROOM EXTERIOR AND ATTIC FLOOR SUPPORT COLUMNS AND BEAMS, LOOKING WEST. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Car Machine Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

117

4. Readiness Crew Building exterior, three tunnels on the south ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Readiness Crew Building exterior, three tunnels on the south side, looking west-northwest. Thalheimer - Whiteman Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility S-6, 1300 Alert Road, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

118

3. Readiness Crew Building exterior, south and east sides, overall ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Readiness Crew Building exterior, south and east sides, overall view, looking northwest. Thalheimer - Whiteman Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility S-6, 1300 Alert Road, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

119

2. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING AND ELECTRIC FURNACE OFFICE & CHEMICAL LABORATORY BUILDING. INGOT MOLDS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

120

1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

121

1. EXTERIOR FROM THE SOUTHEAST (view taken 1887; from Title ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR FROM THE SOUTHEAST (view taken 1887; from Title Insurance Company Collection, San Diego Historical Society. Photocopy by Bert Shankland, San Diego, August 20, 1976). - Grand Hotel, 332 F Street, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

122

Numerical method for Darcy flow derived using Discrete Exterior Calculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive a numerical method for Darcy flow, hence also for Poisson's\\u000aequation in first order form, based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC).\\u000aExterior calculus is a generalization of vector calculus to smooth manifolds\\u000aand DEC is one of its discretizations on simplicial complexes such as triangle\\u000aand tetrahedral meshes. DEC is a coordinate invariant discretization, in that\\u000ait does

Anil N. Hirani; Kalyana B. Nakshatrala; Jehanzeb H. Chaudhry

2008-01-01

123

Interaction of the Local Interstellar Medium with the Heliosphere: Role of the Interior and Exterior Magnetic Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A complete model of the global interaction between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium must take account of interstellar neutral atoms, interstellar ionized gas, solar and galactic magnetic fields, galactic and anomalous cosmic rays. For now, however, in view of the many uncertainties about conditions in the interstellar medium, etc., all models must be regarded as highly idealized and incomplete. In the present review I concentrate on the role of magnetic fields of solar and interstellar origin. The former, the interior field, has negligible influence on the unshocked solar wind; the immediate post-shock solar wind is probably low-beta, so that the interior magnetic field is still unimportant, but this situation changes as the plasma flows through the heliosheath, and a ridge of strong magnetic field may form to separate materials of polar and equatorial origin. The exterior (interstellar) field is likely to play an important role in determining the global morphology of the system outside the termination shock. If the exterior field is strong enough, it can compress the heliosphere (although exterior neutral and/or ionized hydrogen may play the dominant role). Even if the interstellar magnetic field does not provide the dominant pressure, its orientation can substantially affect the configuration of the heliosphere, especially the location and orientation of the heliospheric discontinuities. The configurations can be quite different for the situations in which the field and flow are (a) aligned or (b) transverse. Obliquity of the field produces asymmetry in the geometry of the system; in particular the noses of heliopause and interstellar bow shock are shifted away from the interstellar flow direction, and in opposite directions, due to the asymmetric draping of the magnetic field.

Barnes, Aaron; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

124

Active galactic nuclei  

PubMed Central

Active galactic nuclei are the most powerful, long-lived objects in the Universe. Recent data confirm the theoretical idea that the power source is accretion into a massive black hole. The common occurrence of obscuration and outflows probably means that the contribution of active galactic nuclei to the power density of the Universe has been generally underestimated. PMID:10220363

Fabian, Andrew C.

1999-01-01

125

COBE's Galactic Bar and Disk  

E-print Network

A model of the bar and old stellar disk of the Galaxy has been derived from the survey of the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) of the Cosmic Background Explorer at wavelengths of 1.25, 2.2, 3.5, and 4.9 microns. It agrees very well with the data, except in directions in which the near- infrared optical depth is high. Among the conclusions drawn from the model: The Sun is located approximately 16.5 pc above the midpoint of the Galactic plane. The disk has an outer edge four kpc from the Sun, and is warped like the HI layer. It has a central hole roughly the diameter of the inner edge of the "three-kiloparsec" molecular cloud ring, and within that hole lies a bright, strong, "early-type" bar, tilted approximately 14 degrees from the Sun-Galactic center line. The model has 47 free parameters. The model is discussed in detail and contour plots and images of the residuals presented.

H. T. Freudenreich

1997-07-30

126

Armendariz rings and gaussian rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove a number of results concerning Armendariz rings and Gaussian rings. Recall that a (commutative) ring R is (Gaussian) Armendariz if for two polynomials f,g?R[X] (the ideal of R generated by the coefficients of f g is the product of the ideals generated by the coefficients of f and g) fg = 0 implies aibj=0 for each coefficient ai

D. D. Anderson; Victor Camillo

1998-01-01

127

Planetary Rings  

E-print Network

Planetary rings are the only nearby astrophysical disks, and the only disks that have been investigated by spacecraft. Although there are significant differences between rings and other disks, chiefly the large planet/ring mass ratio that greatly enhances the flatness of rings (aspect ratios as small as 1e-7), understanding of disks in general can be enhanced by understanding the dynamical processes observed at close-range and in real-time in planetary rings. We review the known ring systems of the four giant planets, as well as the prospects for ring systems yet to be discovered. We then review planetary rings by type. The main rings of Saturn comprise our system's only dense broad disk and host many phenomena of general application to disks including spiral waves, gap formation, self-gravity wakes, viscous overstability and normal modes, impact clouds, and orbital evolution of embedded moons. Dense narrow rings are the primary natural laboratory for understanding shepherding and self-stability. Narrow dusty...

Tiscareno, Matthew S

2011-01-01

128

2.2 micron stellar counts at the Galactic Plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents 2.2 micron maps of selected areas of the Galactic Plane, taken with the 1.5 m Sanchez-Magro telescope on the island of Tenerife. A model of the galactic stellar distribution has been developed, and the derived stellar surface densities are compared with the observations. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data and suggest remarkable differences between the luminosity functions for the disk and the spheroid components. The extinction toward the galactic center shows an abrupt increase when compared with other galactic directions. It is also noted that a better fit is obtained when the 5 Kpc ring is included in the model, but the existence of a thick disk cannot be inferred from the data.

Garzon, Francisco

129

Fermi Galactic Center Zoom  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation zooms into an image of the Milky Way, shown in visible light, and superimposes a gamma-ray map of the galactic center from NASA's Fermi. Raw data transitions to a view with all known...

130

Planetary Rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Just over two decades ago, Jim Pollack made a critical contribution to our understanding of planetary ring particle properties, and resolved a major apparent paradox between radar reflection and radio emission observations. At the time, particle properties were about all there were to study about planetary rings, and the fundamental questions were, why is Saturn the only planet with rings, how big are the particles, and what are they made of? Since then, we have received an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems into the complex webs of structure that we now know them to display. Insights gained from studies of these giant dynamical analogs have carried over into improved understanding of the formation of the planets themselves from particle disks, a subject very close to Jim's heart. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is ark emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system

Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

1994-01-01

131

Differential Galactic Rotation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Differential Galactic Rotation Model illustrates the model of galactic rotation proposed by Jan Oort in 1927. In Oort's model most of the mass of the galaxy is concentrated at the center. Stars move in circular orbits around the center, with orbital speeds that are inversely proportional to the square root of their distance from the center. Oort realized that this model produced a specific pattern of radial velocities in the stars near the sun, and that this pattern matched the observational data fairly well. The simulation is intended to illustrate both Oort's model and the resulting pattern in the radial velocities. The simulation can also depict the so-called "high-velocity" stars, which are stars that have very low orbital speeds (treated as zero in the simulation) around the galactic center and therefore have high speeds relative to the sun. One window depicts stars (including the sun) orbiting counterclockwise around the galactic center as seen from above the galactic North pole. The velocity vectors of the stars can be displayed, and stars near the sun can be highlighted. Another window shows the highlighted stars (and, optionally, the high-velocity stars) in the region near the sun. The radial velocity and relative velocity vectors for these stars can be displayed. Finally, a plot of radial velocity versus galactic longitude (using either the modern longitude system in which the galactic center is at longitude 0, or the pre-1958 system with the galactic center at longitude 325 degrees) can be shown. The plot can display data for the highlighted stars, the high-velocity stars, and two sets of Cepheid variables studied by Alfred Joy in 1939. Using the Cepheid period-luminosity relation Joy found distances to these stars that fit with the distances derived from Oort's rotational model, provided that the apparent magnitudes of the stars were corrected for interstellar absorption.

Timberlake, Todd

2011-05-28

132

Spectral properties of the exterior transmission eigenvalue problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exterior transmission eigenvalue problem arises naturally when one considers the scattering of point sources situated in a cavity by the penetrable nonabsorbable boundary of the cavity. Here we show that for constant index of refraction the exterior transmission eigenvalues form a discrete set and for the case of a spherically stratified medium the eigenvalues (both real and complex) uniquely determine the index of refraction. The research was supported in part by the Air Force office of Scientific Research Grant FA 9550-13-1-0199.

Colton, David; Meng, Shixu

2014-10-01

133

EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE FROM BARN YARD SHOWING EAST AND SOUTH FAÇADES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE FROM BARN YARD SHOWING EAST AND SOUTH FAÇADES OF THE BARN, LOOKING NORTHWEST. The sliding door on the barns east façade leads into the animal pens and milking stalls. The barn?s hip-on-gable roof is covered in corrugated metal. The gable end is clad in board and battens, matching the rest of the barns exterior. The pump house can be seen to the north; the garage to the west. - Kineth Farm, Barn, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

134

Ring Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will help students understand what Gulf Stream rings are and why are they significant. Students will describe the overall flow of the Gulf Stream, explain how it affects biological communities in the North Atlantic Ocean, and describe Gulf Stream rings and how they are formed. They will also compare and contrast warm-core rings and cold-core rings and explain how Gulf Stream rings may affect biological communities on the edge and slope of the continental shelf adjacent to the coasts of North and South Carolina. This hands-on activity uses online data resources and includes: focus questions, learning objectives, teaching time, background information, learning procedures, extensions, and resources and student handouts.

135

Microlensing and Galactic Structure  

E-print Network

Because we know little about the Galactic force-field away from the plane, the Galactic mass distribution is very ill-determined. I show that a microlensing survey of galaxies closer than 50 Mpc would enable us to map in three dimensions the Galactic density of stellar mass, which should be strictly less than the total mass density. A lower limit can be placed on the stellar mass needed at RGalactic force field suffices to rule out the presence of the amount of mass an axisymmetric Galaxy needs to generate the measured optical depth. Several lines of argument imply that the Galaxy is strongly barred only at R < 4 kpc, and if this is the case, even barred Galaxy models cannot generate the measured optical depth without violating some constraint on the Galactic force-field. Galactic mass models that are based on the assumption that light traces mass, for which there is significant support in the inner Galaxy, yield microlensing optical depths that are smaller than the measured value by a factor of more than 2.5.

James Binney

2000-04-26

136

Ring nebulae around Wolf-Rayet stars in M33  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a systematic search for H II ring nebulae surrounding Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in M33 are presented. Eleven objects are found to be good candidates, while eight others are classified as possible WR ring nebulae. The WR rings in M33 are larger on average than their Galactic counterparts, but the H-alpha luminosity of most of them is comparable to

Laurent Drissen; Michael M. Shara; Anthony F. J. Moffat

1991-01-01

137

6. VIEW OF BUILDING 371 EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION DETAIL. BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW OF BUILDING 371 EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION DETAIL. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION WAS HARDENED TO WITHSTAND THE FORCES IMPOSED BY A DESIGN-BASIS EARTHQUAKE OR TORNADO. (7/1/74) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

138

EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, SIDE AND FRONT FACADES OF THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, SIDE AND FRONT FACADES OF THE RESIDENCE CONSTRUCTED FOR DON BACON, PRESIDENT OF TENNESSEE COAL AND IRON COMPANY (TCI), THE FORERUNNER OF BIRMINGHAM'S US STEEL SUBSIDIARY. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, President's House, 1405 Minnesota Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

139

EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF REDUCTION PLANT NO. 6 WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF REDUCTION PLANT NO. 6 WITH PRIMARY AND SECONDARY LIMESTONE REDUCTION ('CRUSHING') IN PROGRESS AND A FRONT END LOADER (CONFIRM NAME OF VEHICLE?). - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, Reduction Plant No. 6, State Route 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

140

Internet exterior routing protocol development: problems, issues, and misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global routing in the Internet continues to have scalability problems which underscore weaknesses in the design and implementation of the various TCP\\/IP exterior routing protocols. This article explores the historical design and development relative to the decision-making process in the specification and implementation of Internet external routing protocols, in particular discussing problems associated with provider-based address space allocation

Tim Bass

1997-01-01

141

7. Exterior view, showing instrumentation and gauge panel at the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Exterior view, showing instrumentation and gauge panel at the walk-in entry level (bottom) of Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking west. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

142

10. Exterior view, showing the structural details and tanks above ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Exterior view, showing the structural details and tanks above at walk-in entry level (bottom) of Test Cell 7, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking west. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

143

6. Exterior view, showing structural details and instrumentation at the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Exterior view, showing structural details and instrumentation at the walk-in entry level (bottom) of Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking southwest. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

144

9. Exterior view, Test Cell 7, Systems Integration Laboratory Building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Exterior view, Test Cell 7, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking southwest. The enclosure discussed in CO-88-B-8 is at the right. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

145

12. Exterior view, showing tank and piping associated with Test ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Exterior view, showing tank and piping associated with Test Cell 7, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking west. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

146

8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking south. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

147

52. EXTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF A SPARE DRUM FOR A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. EXTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF A SPARE DRUM FOR A FRENIER PUMP. THE CHARCOAL HOUSE IS IN THE BACKGROUND AND THE DRUM LEANING AGAINST THE EAST SIDE OF THE MILL ANNEX. NOTE THE WELDS IN THE DRUM, THEY DELINEATE THE SPIRAL LEADING TO THE CENTER OF THE DRUM. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

148

3. EXTERIOR OF FRONT ENTRY SHOWING GABLE OVER RECESSED PORCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EXTERIOR OF FRONT ENTRY SHOWING GABLE OVER RECESSED PORCH WITH RUSTIC STYLE DECORATIVE TREATMENT. WELDED STEEL PORCH RAILING ADDED IN 1972 IS VISIBLE AT PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

149

Exterior direct view of (nonoriginal), solar heating panels, and top ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior direct view of (non-original), solar heating panels, and top of typical rectangular trash-dump tower at roof of Building 6, looking north - North Beach Place, 401 Bay Street, 500 Francisco Street, 401 Bay Street, 500 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

150

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE)/ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT, WITH SINTERING PLANT CONVEYORS & TRANSFER HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

151

6. Historic American Buildings Survey COPY OF EXTERIOR PHOTO PUBLISHED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Historic American Buildings Survey COPY OF EXTERIOR PHOTO PUBLISHED IN HIGGINSON, MARY THATCHER, THOMAS WENTWORTH HIGGINSON, THE STORY OF HIS LIFE (BOSTON AND NEW YORK, 1914), OPP. p. 30. Gift of Cambridge Historical Commission - Stephen Higginson Jr. House, 7 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

152

Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: two threelight ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: two three-light wood casement windows flank a three-light fixed wood window with concrete sill; southerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

153

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING FRONT (EAST) END AND SOUTH SIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING FRONT (EAST) END AND SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 103, ROCK WALL AND MATURE COTTONWOOD TREES IN FOREGROUND, CONTROL SUBSTATION BEHIND BUILDING 103, AND BUILDING 106 BEHIND THE COTTONWOOD TREE IN THE NORTH BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

154

4. EXTERIOR SOUTH SIDE DETAIL VIEW, FACING NORTHWEST. THE JUNCTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. EXTERIOR SOUTH SIDE DETAIL VIEW, FACING NORTHWEST. THE JUNCTION OF FORMER BUILDING 13 AND THE ORIGINAL STRUCTURE OF BUILDING 13 AND THE ORIGINAL STRUCTURE OF BUILDING 10 IS MOST CLEAR FROM THIS ANGLE. BUILDING 42 IS IN THE BACKGROUND ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE FRAME. - NASA Industrial Plant, Maintenance Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

155

9. EXTERIOR VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE TO BUNKER. CAMERA FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. EXTERIOR VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE TO BUNKER. CAMERA FACING EAST. TANK COVER AND FRAME TO THE REAR OF VIEW. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6170, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

156

10. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ARVFS TEST FACILITY SHOWING BUNKER, CABLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ARVFS TEST FACILITY SHOWING BUNKER, CABLE CHASE, FRAME, AND SHIELDING TANK. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6171, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

157

1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLSIDE PLANT FROM INTERSECTION OF LINCOLN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLSIDE PLANT FROM INTERSECTION OF LINCOLN STREET AND 2ND AVENUE. HILLSIDE PLANT WAS BUILT AS CALLAWAY MILLS HILLSIDE COTTON MILL (PARK A. DALLIS, 1914-15). THIS TWO-STORY SECTION WAS BUILT AS A WEAVE SHED. - Hillside Cotton Mill, 1300 Brownwood Avenue, La Grange, Troup County, GA

158

3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF CURRENT YARN PLANT. THE BOILER PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF CURRENT YARN PLANT. THE BOILER PLANT IS ON THE LEFT. THIS THREE-STORY SECTION WAS BUILT AS THE MAIN MILL HOUSING SPINNING RELATED PROCESSES. THIS END OF THE STRUCTURE WAS THE PICKER ROOM. NOTE THE FIRE WALL VISIBLE FOUR BAYS IN ON THE LEFT. - Hillside Cotton Mill, 1300 Brownwood Avenue, La Grange, Troup County, GA

159

Development and characterization of a wake-controlled exterior hood.  

PubMed

A wake-controlled exterior hood was developed to overcome the negative influence of cross draft on an exterior hood and avoid the operation inconvenience caused by the enclosure of an airflow capture booth. This new type of local exterior hood used the hood suction flow to stabilize the dynamic vortex shedding that was induced when a crossflow passed over a blockage plate, and therefore formed a hydrodynamics-stabilized local isolation area for efficient removing of the contaminant. The development process was performed in a test section of an open-circuit wind tunnel. The blockage plate and the exterior hood model were placed in a wind-tunnel test section so that the crossflow could be freely supplied by the airstream of the wind tunnel. The laser light sheet flow visualization method and the laser Doppler velocimeter were employed to reveal the characteristics of the flow field. Primary influential parameters were factored out of the measured velocity results so that a design procedure was proposed. Experiments using hot-wire type alcohol sensors to measure the toluene vapor concentration distributions showed that the capture efficiency of this type of actively controlled hood was remarkably higher than that of an uncontrolled hood. PMID:15742706

Huang, Rong Fung; Liu, Gene Shin; Lin, Shin Yi; Chen, Yu-Kang; Wang, Shun-Chih; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yeh, Wen-Yu; Chen, Chun-Wann; Chang, Cheng-Ping

2004-12-01

160

1. Historic American Buildings Survey 'The Stable' EXTERIOR FROM SOUTHEAST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic American Buildings Survey 'The Stable' EXTERIOR FROM SOUTHEAST. Photocopy of Plate No. XXVIII From: American Institute of Architects Building Committee The Octagon: An Historic Residence of the Year 1800, Washington 1927 - Octagon House, Stable, 1799 New York Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

161

Exterior oblique closeup view of typical bathroom hopper window at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior oblique close-up view of typical bathroom hopper window at west side of Building 10, from walkway, looking east-northwest - North Beach Place, 501 Bay Street, 600 Francisco Street, 501 Bay Street, 600 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

162

5. Photocopy of old exterior photo showing Western Saving Fund ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photocopy of old exterior photo showing Western Saving Fund Society before the addition of ca. 1910 building. Original photo, late 19th century, is at the Philadelphia Free Library, Philadelphia Collection, Print and Picture Department. - Western Saving Fund Society of Philadelphia, 1000-1008 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

163

39. Historic photo of Building 202 test cell exterior, showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. Historic photo of Building 202 test cell exterior, showing fiberglass cladding blown out by hydrogen fire during rocket engine testing, April 27, 1959. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-50472. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

164

2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF COTTAGE 191 TAKEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF COTTAGE 191 TAKEN FROM ROOF OF GARAGE 393. CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST. COTTAGE 181 AND CHILDREN'S PLAY AREA VISIBLE ON EITHER SIDE OF ROOF. GRAPE ARBOR IN FOREGROUND. - Swan Falls Village, Cottage 191, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

165

14. EXTERIOR VIEW OF OLD TENFOOT WIND TUNNEL (1991). ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. EXTERIOR VIEW OF OLD TEN-FOOT WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

166

13. EXTERIOR VIEW OF OLD TENFOOT WIND TUNNEL (1991). ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. EXTERIOR VIEW OF OLD TEN-FOOT WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

167

11. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHEAST, c. 194059. ROASTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHEAST, c. 1940-59. ROASTER AND OTHER UNOXIDIZED ORE CIRCUIT ADDITIONS PRESENT, ALONG WITH SECONDARY THICKENER No. 7 AND ADDITIONS TO MACHINE SHOP. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

168

10. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM EAST, c. 191928. ADDITION TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM EAST, c. 1919-28. ADDITION TO THE EAST END OF MILLING FLOOR VISIBLE WITH TRAM ENTRY DOOR. ALSO SEEN ARE THE ADDITIONS FOR MILL SOLUTION TANKS AND THE EAST SIDE OF SAMPLING ROOMS. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

169

1. EAGLE MILL EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 1907. SHOWS INITIAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EAGLE MILL EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 1907. SHOWS INITIAL MILL CONFIGURATION WITH FULLY EXPOSED CRUDE ORE BIN CONCRETE RETAINING WALL, SINGLE (SOUTH) CRUDE ORE BIN, AND EXPOSED CRUSHER HOUSE. NOTE THE LACK OF MACHINE SHOP OR SNOW SHEDS. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

170

42. Historic photo of exterior of Building 202 test cell, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. Historic photo of exterior of Building 202 test cell, January 26, 1960. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-52534. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

171

Exterior oblique view of east end and south side, Facility ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior oblique view of east end and south side, Facility No. 47 to the left and Avenue G in foreground - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Casualty Station Type A, Corner of Avenue G & Sixth Street, near Dry Dock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

172

5. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST OF THE NORTH AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST OF THE NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS, WITH THE COLD ASSEMBLY AREA TO THE RIGHT AND THE HOT DISASSEMBLY AREA TO THE LEFT. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

173

19. VIEW TO THE NORTH FROM THE EXTERIOR INTO THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. VIEW TO THE NORTH FROM THE EXTERIOR INTO THE INTERIOR OF ROOM 105, THE BOILER ROOM FOR THE BUILDING. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

174

3. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION OF THE ADMINISTRATION AREA IN THE COLD ASSEMBLY AREA, WITH THE MAIN ENTRANCE 'KENNEDY DOORS' IN THE MIDDLE. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

175

1. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF THE SOUTH ELEVATIONS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF THE SOUTH ELEVATIONS OF THE R-MAD FACILITY WITH THE COLD ASSEMBLY AREA ON THE LEFT AND THE HOT DISASSEMBLY AREA TO THE RIGHT. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

176

11. Exterior view, showing instrumentation and gauge panel at walkin ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Exterior view, showing instrumentation and gauge panel at walk-in entry level (bottom) of Test Cell 7, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking west. Metal stair at left leads to working platform levels surrounding test cell. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

177

GOES 9 Spacecraft at Astrotech Plus Exterior and Logo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Kennedy Space Center video presents live footage of the GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) at Astrotech with views of its exterior and the Space Systems Loral logo. The GOES mission is to provide weather imagery and quantitative sounding data for weather forecasting and related services.

1995-01-01

178

Exterior oblique view of northeast and southeast sides with heavy ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior oblique view of northeast and southeast sides with heavy weight sliding doors, louvered entry door, view facing west - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

179

Exterior space for patients with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines program considerations for the design of exterior space for Alzheimer's disease patients. It is directed to planners and administrators, architects and landscape architects involved in the initial planning stages of an Alzheimer's disease facility (or nursing home) building project. The focus of the study is the Alzheimer's disease patient who is no longer able to attend to

Priscilla Randall; Sandra S. J. Burkhardt; Joan Kutcher

1990-01-01

180

ROBUST EXTRACTION OF EXTERIOR BUILDING BOUNDARIES FROM TOPOGRAPHIC LIDAR DATA  

E-print Network

ROBUST EXTRACTION OF EXTERIOR BUILDING BOUNDARIES FROM TOPOGRAPHIC LIDAR DATA Stephen R. Lach a for generating accurate building models from lidar data have received considerable attention in the recent airborne lidar datasets are collected from near-nadir orientations, there are usually very few data points

Kerekes, John

181

2. EXTERIOR FRONT (EAST) SIDE OF BUILDING 108 SHOWING ROAD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EXTERIOR FRONT (EAST) SIDE OF BUILDING 108 SHOWING ROAD FROM MAIN PARKING AREA TO HOUSE. NOTE ORIGINAL TALL CHIMNEY ON EAST SIDE OF GABLE ROOF. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

182

2. EXTERIOR NORTH END OF BUILDING 103 SHOWING PAVED PARKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EXTERIOR NORTH END OF BUILDING 103 SHOWING PAVED PARKING AREA BETWEEN BUILDING 103 AND BUILDING 104, AND WALKWAY TO FRONT (EAST SIDE) ENTRY OF HOUSE. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

183

5. Exterior view, enclosure at walkin entry level between Test ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Exterior view, enclosure at walk-in entry level between Test Cell 6 (right) and Test Cell 7 (left), Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking southwest. High pressure gas tank and generator test firings are conducted in the enclosure. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

184

DETAIL OF THE EXTERIOR WALL OF THE RECREATION CENTER. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF THE EXTERIOR WALL OF THE RECREATION CENTER. NOTE THE CONCRETE SLAB WITH ORIGINAL GREEN-STAINED FINISH, OCTAGONAL CAST CONCRETE COLUMN SUPPORTING 6" X 12" BEAM AND TAPERED RAFTERS. VIEW FACING NORTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bloch Recreation Center & Arena, Between Center Drive & North Road near Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

185

11. EXTERIOR VIEW OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE MAN EXAMINING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. EXTERIOR VIEW OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE MAN EXAMINING CONTENTS OF SHIELDING TANK AS FUEL ELEMENT ASSEMBLY IS RAISED AND LOWERED. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6172, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

186

15. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING REINFORCED CONCRETE PILLBOX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING REINFORCED CONCRETE PILLBOX ON BRADFORD ISLAND END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; THE PILLBOX WAS BUILT DURING WORLD WAR II TO HELP PROTECT THE DAM/SPILLWAY FROM SABOTAGE. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

187

Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: profiled cement ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: profiled cement plaster door surround, black mesh gate protects a two-light transom atop non-original metal door; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

188

Exterior direct view of north side of stair no. 3 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior direct view of north side of stair no. 3 (showing half-round 3-story trash dump tower) from balcony of Building 3, looking east - North Beach Place, Bounded by Bay Street, Mason Street, Francisco Street, & Columbus Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

189

Exterior oblique view of trash chute, balconies, and unit entrances ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior oblique view of trash chute, balconies, and unit entrances on west side of Building 10, from courtyard, looking southeast - North Beach Place, 501 Bay Street, 600 Francisco Street, 501 Bay Street, 600 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

190

Exterior direct detail view of revised entry handicap ramp at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior direct detail view of revised entry handicap ramp at east side of Building 7 (including 3-story trash dump tower), looking north - North Beach Place, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

191

Exterior view, westsouthwest, of Jeudevine Memorial Library. Built 18961897 and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior view, west-southwest, of Jeudevine Memorial Library. Built 1896-1897 and designed by local architect Lambert Packard, the library is an excellent example of Richardsonian Romanesque architecture. - Jeudevine Memorial Library, 93 North Main Street, Hardwick, Caledonia County, VT

192

8. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEARLYCOMPLETED FACILITY. SHOWS COVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEARLY-COMPLETED FACILITY. SHOWS COVER OVER SHIELDING TANK, FRAMEWORK ASSEMBLY WITH GUY WIRES, FENCE AROUND TANK AREA, DANGER SIGNS, AND MOUNDED BUNKER IN BACKGROUND. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-5442, TAKEN OCTOBER 20, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

193

6. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW (EXTERIOR) OF TANK, CABLE CHASE, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW (EXTERIOR) OF TANK, CABLE CHASE, AND MOUNDED BUNKER. CONSTRUCTION WAS 99 PERCENT COMPLETE. CAMERA IS FACING WEST. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-5435, TAKEN OCTOBER 20, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

194

6. SOUTH EXTERIOR SIDE SHOWING TRIANGULAR KNEE BRACE SUPPORTS AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. SOUTH EXTERIOR SIDE SHOWING TRIANGULAR KNEE BRACE SUPPORTS AND ENCLOSED PORCH SCREENED WINDOWS. ON BASIC FLOOR-PLAN FOR THE SIX-ROOM HOUSE THIS END WAS THE FRONT ENTRANCE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

195

12. VIEW OF AREAWAY 104 LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD METAL EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF AREAWAY 104 LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD METAL EXTERIOR DOOR THAT ROLLS VERTICALLY TO OPEN. WALLS AND CEILING ARE WOOD PANELING, CHANGING FROM HORIZONTAL TO VERTICAL ALIGNMENT ON THE NORTHEAST WALL. WALL HEATER, FLUORESCENT LIGHTING AND SURFACE WIRING ARE LATER ADDITIONS. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

196

29. EXTERIOR VIEW OF FOREBAY SIDE. NOTE COMPLETION OF WOODEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. EXTERIOR VIEW OF FOREBAY SIDE. NOTE COMPLETION OF WOODEN SOUTH WALL WHICH FACILITATED EASY GENERATOR MOVEMENT IN AND OUT OF BUILDING. ALSO NOTE ELECTRIC TURBINE PIT GATE HOISTING MACHINE, c. 1918. - Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric Plant, On Potomac River, Hedgesville, Berkeley County, WV

197

VIEW OF STATION LEARY FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF STATION LEARY FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT INCLUDING POST 1920 DOORWAY ALTERATIONS, SANDSTONE FLANK-WALLS ARE VISIBLE AT REAR SIDES - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"3, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

198

2. VIEW OF STATION FARLEY FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF STATION FARLEY FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT, SANDSTONE FLANK-WALLS ARE VISIBLE AT REAR SIDES. - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"6, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

199

VIEW OF STATION SAXTON FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF STATION SAXTON FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT, SANDSTONE FLANK-WALLS ARE VISIBLE AT REAR SIDES - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"2, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

200

VIEW OF STATION LEARY FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF STATION LEARY FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT AND LEFT SIDE OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT, SANDSTONE FLANKWALL IS VISIBLE AT LEFT REAR - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"3, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

201

VIEW OF STATION OSGOOD FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF STATION OSGOOD FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT AND LEFT SIDE OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT, SANDSTONE FLANKWALL IS VISIBLE AT LEFT REAR - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"5, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

202

VIEW OF STATION OSGOOD FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF STATION OSGOOD FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT INCLUDING POST 1920 DOORWAY ALTERATIONS, SANDSTONE FLANK-WALLS ARE VISIBLE AT REAR SIDES - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"5, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

203

3. VIEW OF STATION PARLEY FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF STATION PARLEY FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT AND LEFT SIDE OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT, SANDSTONE FLANKWALL IS VISIBLE AT LEFT REAR. - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"6, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

204

EXTERIOR, A view looking northwest captures the south side of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR, A view looking northwest captures the south side of the building. The grassy knoll in the left foreground was where an explosives bunker was located before its demolition - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Isolated Building (I Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

205

2. EXTERIOR, CORNER VIEW OF (LEFT TO RIGHT) NIELSEN, GEHRKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EXTERIOR, CORNER VIEW OF (LEFT TO RIGHT) NIELSEN, GEHRKE AND HANSEN CLOTHING STORE (NORTH FRONT AND EAST SIDE), GARTON BAKERY AND CONFECTIONERY (NORTH FRONT) AND C.F. WHEELER BAKERY (NORTH FRONT) - East Locust Street Commercial District, 521-529 East Locust Street, Des Moines, Polk County, IA

206

1. Readiness Crew Building exterior, view looking westnorthwest from edge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Readiness Crew Building exterior, view looking west-northwest from edge of runway. In this photograph, the lower floor tunnel exits can be seen on three sides of the building. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility S-6, 1300 Alert Road, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

207

52. Exterior view of yard at marine railway #2. Not ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. Exterior view of yard at marine railway #2. Not rail/roller type (wood beam with steel plate rail on sled/roller railway). Steel fabrication building and traveling crane in background. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

208

EXTERIOR VIEW OF COVERED OPEN WALKWAY, LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW OF COVERED OPEN WALKWAY, LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT BUILDING T-10125 (LEFT) & BUILDING T-10124 (RIGHT) - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-10602, South & North Sides of South Eighth Avenue, Connecting Buildings T-10124, T-10125, T-10126; & Northeast Side of Building T-10106, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

209

2. Exterior view of instrumentation and gauge panels on southeast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Exterior view of instrumentation and gauge panels on southeast wall of Signal Transfer Building (T-28A). The piping and tubing visibile in the photograph extends from the structure to the Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28) and other structures in the complex. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Signal Transfer Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

210

EXTERIOR VIEW OF COVERED WALKWAY, EXTENDING OVER SOUTH W STREET; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW OF COVERED WALKWAY, EXTENDING OVER SOUTH W STREET; NOTE PIPING FOR STEAM HEATING SYSTEM - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-10602, South & North Sides of South Eighth Avenue, Connecting Buildings T-10124, T-10125, T-10126; & Northeast Side of Building T-10106, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

211

Exterior, looking southeast from within compound towards Main Gate, Gate ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior, looking southeast from within compound towards Main Gate, Gate House center left - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Gate House, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

212

Exterior, looking northwest towards Main Gate, Gate House on left, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior, looking northwest towards Main Gate, Gate House on left, Technical Equipment Building (Building 5760) in background to right - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Gate House, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

213

ARCHITECTURAL EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS, WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 1. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ARCHITECTURAL EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS, WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 1. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2359, dated November 24, 1948, Denver, Colorado. - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

214

126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, FURNACE NO. 2, STOVES, POWER HOUSE, STACKS, FURNACE NO. 1 CAST SHED. FURNACE NO. 2 IS IN PROCESS OF RESTORATION. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

215

Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: concrete staircase, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: concrete staircase, profiled cement, plaster door surround, recessed panel inscribed "1859", historic window opening with concrete sill above door, cement plaster dentil course and cornice truncated wood beam ends, plaster finished brick wall, granite base; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

216

Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: recessed panel ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: recessed panel inscribed "1859", historic window opening with concrete sill above door, cement plaster dentil course and cornice, truncated wood beam ends, plaster finished brick wall, granite base; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

217

Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: inscribed date ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: inscribed date panel "hospital 1885", corbelled brick belt course, parapet, second floor historic four-over-four window with brick lintels, quoins and decorative metal grilled, cantilever wooden walkway; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

218

46 CFR 32.56-21 - Openings in exterior boundaries: Accommodation, service, and control spaces-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...exterior boundaries: Accommodation, service, and control spaces-T/ALL. 32.56-21 Section 32.56-21 Shipping COAST...exterior boundaries: Accommodation, service, and control spaces—T/ALL. The following exterior boundaries of...

2012-10-01

219

46 CFR 32.56-21 - Openings in exterior boundaries: Accommodation, service, and control spaces-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exterior boundaries: Accommodation, service, and control spaces-T/ALL. 32.56-21 Section 32.56-21 Shipping COAST...exterior boundaries: Accommodation, service, and control spaces—T/ALL. The following exterior boundaries of...

2010-10-01

220

Formation of Galactic Disks  

E-print Network

We review progress in understanding the formation of galactic disks in the standard cosmogonic scenario involving gravitational clustering of baryons and dark matter and dissipative collapse of the baryons. This scenario accounts remarkably well for the observed properties of galactic disks if they have retained most of the specific angular momentum they acquired by tidal torques. Early simulations, which included cooling of the gas but not star formation and the associated feedback, indicated instead that most of the angular momentum of the baryons would be transferred to the dark matter. Recent simulations indicate that this angular-momentum problem can be solved partially, and in some cases entirely, by feedback and other effects.

S. Michael Fall

2002-03-27

221

Jupiter's Rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

The New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) snapped this photo of Jupiter's ring system on February 24, 2007, from a distance of 7.1 million kilometers (4.4 million miles).

This processed image shows a narrow ring, about 1,000 kilometers (600 miles) wide, with a fainter sheet of material inside it. The faint glow extending in from the ring is likely caused by fine dust that diffuses in toward Jupiter. This is the outer tip of the 'halo,' a cloud of dust that extends down to Jupiter's cloud tops. The dust will glow much brighter in pictures taken after New Horizons passes to the far side of Jupiter and looks back at the rings, which will then be sunlit from behind.

Jupiter's ring system was discovered in 1979, when astronomers spied it in a single image taken by the Voyager 1 spacecraft. Months later, Voyager 2 carried out more extensive imaging of the system. It has since been examined by NASA's Galileo and Cassini spacecraft, as well as by the Hubble Space Telescope and large ground-based observatories.

2007-01-01

222

PREFACE: Galactic Center Workshop 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are pleased to present the proceedings from the Galactic Center Workshop 2006---From the Center of the Milky Way to Nearby Low-Luminosity Galactic Nuclei. The conference took place in the Physikzentrum, Bad Honnef, Germany, on 18 to 22 April 2006. It is the third workshop of this kind, following the Galactic Center Workshops held 1998 in Tucson, Arizona, and 2002

Rainer Schödel; Geoffrey C. Bower; Michael P. Muno; Sergei Nayakshin; Thomas Ott

2006-01-01

223

Imaging Cold Dust in the Galactic Plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Images of continuum emission at wavelengths of 850 and 1200? m from a section of the Galactic Plane near longitude 44o are presented. These data were obtained with the JCMT and SEST bolometer array receivers with beamwidths of about 14 and 22 arcsec respectively, and cover a total area of 2 square degrees. They constitute the first extensive observations of emission primarily from cold dust in a representative part of the Galaxy outside the Galactic Center. We employed complementary techniques at the two telescopes - chop/scan using SCUBA at the JCMT, and Fastscanning (direct detection) with SIMBA at the SEST - which together allow us to assess the reality of emission features where necessary. Since interstellar dust is optically thin at mm/sub-mm wavelengths these observations provide a census of dense cold dust clumps throughout the Galaxy in this direction. Twenty-seven such objects are detected in the present survey, most of which can be identified with regions of star formation. In this paper we use complementary 13CO data from the BU-FCRAO Galactic Ring Survey to determine the kinematic distances of these sources, and compare these data with images obtained in the infrared by the MSX mission. These observations presage the potential of large-scale surveys with forthcoming instrumentation, such as SCUBA2 and HARP/ACSIS at the JCMT.

Matthews, H. E.; Weferling, B.; Evans, A.; Cohen, M.; Jackson, J.; Shah, R.; Simon, R.; Jenness, T.; Davis, G. R.; Pierce-Price, D.; Dent, W. R. F.; Johnstone, D.; Richer, J. S.; Fuller, G. A.; Rathborne, J.

2004-12-01

224

The Stagnant Exterior Cusp / Magnetosheath Interface: Cluster Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of their orbit excentricity, the CLUSTER spacecraft had several encounters with the exterior cusp between January and April 2001. Consequently, they frequently sampled the high altitude cusp diamagnetic cavity. Because it often shows particular characteristics, and because it is directly linked to the magnetosheath, the so-called Stagnant Exterior Cusp (SEC) is of major interest in understanding the Solar Wind - Magnetosphere coupling. In this paper, we will present the particle properties, mag- netic structure and overall dynamics of this region, based on multi-instrument and multi-spacecraft analysis. One of the interesting features of this region is its direct in- terface with the unperturbed magnetosheath. We will show that this boundary is not a typical magnetopause.

Lavraud, B.; Dunlop, M. W.; Phan, T. D.; Rème, H.; Bosqued, J.-M.; Dandouras, I.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Taylor, M.; Cargill, P.; Lundin, R.; Vontrat-Reberac, A.; Escoubet, C. P.; Eliasson, L.; Carlson, C.; Vallat, C.; Laakso, H.; Balogh, A.; Mouikis, C.; Kistler, L.; Korth, A.; Klecker, B.; Bavassano-Cattaneo, M.-B.; Fazakerley, A.

225

Resonance Rings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about resonance and where it is found in related to astronomy. Learners will construct two differently sized rings out of file folder paper and tape them to a piece of cardboard. Next, they will shake the cardboard from side to side, which shakes the rings, and observe what happens when the frequency of the shaking is gradually increased. This activity is from the Stanford Solar Center's All About the Sun: Sun and Stars activity guide for Grades 5-8 and can also accompany the Stanford Solar Center's Build Your Own Spectroscope activity.

226

Ring accelerators  

SciTech Connect

We present two-dimensional simulations in (r-z) and r-theta) cylinderical geometries of imploding-liner-driven accelerators of rings of charged particles. We address issues of azimuthal and longitudinal stability of the rings. We discuss self-trapping designs in which beam injection and extraction is aided by means of external cusp fields. Our simulations are done with the 2-1/2-D particle-in-cell plasma simulation code CLINER, which combines collisionless, electromagnetic PIC capabilities with a quasi-MHD finite element package.

Gisler, G.; Faehl, R.

1983-01-01

227

Covariant Star Product for Exterior Differential Forms on Symplectic Manifolds  

SciTech Connect

After a brief description of the Z-graded differential Poisson algebra, we introduce a covariant star product for exterior differential forms and give an explicit expression for it up to second order in the deformation parameter h, in the case of symplectic manifolds. The graded differential Poisson algebra endows the manifold with a connection, not necessarily torsion-free, and places upon the connection various constraints.

McCurdy, Shannon; Zumino, Bruno [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 947208162 (United States)

2010-02-10

228

Closeup view of the upper exterior of the forward fuselage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close-up view of the upper exterior of the forward fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The view show a detail of the flight deck windows with protective covers installed to protect the window surfaces during processing. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

229

2. EXTERIOR OF FRONT (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EXTERIOR OF FRONT (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING RECESSED PORCH FRAMED BY CRISS-CROSS WOOD BALUSTRADE, STONE FACING ALONG ORIGINAL PORTION OF HOUSE FRONT, AND ORIGINAL PLANK DOOR TO PORCH BASEMENT AT LOWER PHOTO CENTER. WELDED STEEL PORCH RAILINGS VISIBLE AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER WERE ADDED IN 1972. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

230

Advanced exterior sensor project : final report, September 2004.  

SciTech Connect

This report (1) summarizes the overall design of the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES) system to include detailed descriptions of system components, (2) describes the work accomplished throughout FY04 to evaluate the current health of the original prototype and to return it to operation, (3) describes the status of the AES and the AES project as of September 2004, and (4) details activities planned to complete modernization of the system to include development and testing of the second-generation AES prototype.

Ashby, M. Rodema

2004-12-01

231

Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: white painted ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: white painted brick wall of road and second level, road level: paired four-light casement window and a small single-light wood casement window; second level: four-over-four wood double-hung window and a six-light horizontal pivot over a three-light fixed window; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

232

EXTERIOR VIEW WITH HISTORIC LOCOMOTIVES, COAL AND PASSENGER CARS INCLUDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW WITH HISTORIC LOCOMOTIVES, COAL AND PASSENGER CARS INCLUDING THE WOODWARD IRON COMPANY NO. 38 LOCOMOTIVE AND TENDER LOCATED IN THE HEART OF DIXIE MUSEUM'S POWELL AVENUE YARD AND SOUTHERN RAILROAD BOXCARS ON ACTIVE TRACKS OF BIRMINGHAM'S RAILROAD RESERVATION. IN BACKGROUND AT RIGHT AND CENTER IS THE BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER. - Heart of Dixie Railroad, Rolling Stock, 1800 Block Powell Avenue, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

233

1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF 209 WARE STREET LOOKING SOUTH. THIS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF 209 WARE STREET LOOKING SOUTH. THIS STRUCTURE WAS ONE OF APPROXIMATELY SEVENTEEN DUPLEXES BUILT AS THE ORIGINAL WORKER HOUSING FOR THE LaGRANGE COTTON MILLS, LATER KNOWN AS CALUMET MILL. LaGRANGE MILLS (1888-89) WAS THE FIRST COTTON MILL IN LaGRANGE. NOTE THE GABLE-ON-HIP ROOF FORM AND TWO IDENTICAL STRUCTURES VISIBLE TO THE LEFT. - 209 Ware Street (House), 209 Ware Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

234

12. EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE LOOKING WEST The ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE LOOKING WEST The engine room with the cylinder head of the Corliss steam visible through the open door is on the left (south). The metal updraft chimney is in the center and part of the airway, with a door leading into an airlock, is on the right. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

235

8. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST The ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST The engine room and south airway are in the foreground. The brick walls covering the fan housing and brick upshaft chimney are in the background. The engine room, fan housing, and airways are covered with reinforced concrete roofing. In the left foreground is an airlock leading into the airway. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

236

2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE AND HILLMAN FAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE AND HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST The New Fan House is in the foreground; the metal fan housing and updraft chimney are attached to the north side. The Hillman Fan House is in the background; the brick airway, fan housing, and updraft chimney are visible. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

237

1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ELM CITY PLANT (A. FRANCIS WALKER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ELM CITY PLANT (A. FRANCIS WALKER, 1905-07) FROM SECOND AVENUE ON OPPOSITE SIDE OF ENTRANCE. THIS STRUCTURE WAS ORIGINALLY BUILT AS THE ELM CITY COTTON MILL OF CALLAWAY MILLS. NOTE RESERVOIR IN FOREGROUND. THIS PHOTOGRAPH IS THE LEFT SIDE OF A PANORAMA VIEW THAT INCLUDES HAER Nos. GA-128-2 AND GA-128-3. - Elm City Cotton Mill, 1000 Elm Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

238

Covariant Star Product for Exterior Differential Forms on Symplectic Manifolds  

E-print Network

After a brief description of the $\\mathbb{Z}$-graded differential Poisson algebra, we introduce a covariant star product for exterior differential forms and give an explicit expression for it up to second order in the deformation parameter $\\hbar$, in the case of symplectic manifolds. The graded differential Poisson algebra endows the manifold with a connection, not necessarily torsion-free, and places upon the connection various constraints.

Shannon McCurdy; Bruno Zumino

2009-10-02

239

Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: embedded wood ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: embedded wood beams and interrupted dentil course cornice resulting from the removal of the third floor tuberculosis ward, yard level paneled Dutch door, second level two a typical six-light wood casement windows over a single-panel wood door with four light exits to fire escape; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

240

Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of wood-framed walls and mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation on the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits, including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on the structure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased airtightness and improved water management. For thick layers of exterior insulation (more than 1.5 in.), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location. Although the approach has proven effective, there is significant resistance to its widespread implementation due to a lack of research and understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of the vertical displacement resistance capacity. In addition, the long-term in-service performance of the system has been questioned due to potential creep effects of the assembly under the sustained dead load of the cladding and effects of varying environmental conditions. In addition, the current International Building Code (IBC) and International Residential Code (IRC) do not have a provision that specifically allows this assembly.

Not Available

2013-11-01

241

Lighting the Great Outdoors: LEDs in Exterior Applications  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress in the development of white light LEDs promises great impact by opening up the huge potential for LED illumination in new areas. One such area is general illumination for exterior applications. For example, there are an estimated combined 60.5 million roadway and parking installations in the U.S. These lights account for an estimated 53.3 TWh of electricity usage annually -- nearly 7% of all lighting. If LEDs could provide the same light performance with just 25% greater efficiency, savings of over 13 TWh could be achieved. In 2007, the authors assessed emerging LED lighting technologies in a parking garage and on a city street. The purpose of these tests was to enable a utility to determine whether energy efficiency programs promoting white light LED products might be justified. The results have supported the great promise of LEDs in exterior applications, while also highlighting the barriers that continue to hinder their widespread adoption. Such barriers include 1) inconsistent product quality across manufacturers; 2) lack of key metrics for comparing LEDs to conventional sources; and 3) high upfront cost of LED luminaires compared to conventional luminaires. This paper examines these barriers, ways in which energy-efficiency programs could help to overcome them, and the potential for energy and financial savings from LED lighting in these two exterior applications.

Cook, Tyson D. S.; Bryan, Mary M.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

2008-08-17

242

2 Rings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students develop concepts and language related to position by experimenting with the size and relationships between two circles in a qualitative way. They use terms such as outside, touching and overlapping. The Teachers' Notes page includes suggestions for implementation and discussion questions. Students then can move to a follow-up activity, 3 Rings, cataloged separately.

2007-02-01

243

Detection and Behavior of Pan Wakes in Saturn's A Ring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six previously unseen Pan wakes are found interior and exterior to the Encke gap in Saturn's A ring, one in the Voyager 2 photopolarimeter (PPS) stellar occultation data and five in the Voyager 1 radio science (RSS) Earth occultation data. Pan orbits at the center of the Encke gap and maintains it...The detection of Pan wakes at longitudes greater than 360(deg) demonstrates that wakes persist for much longer than originally hypothesized and may interact with one another.

Horn, L. J.; Showalter, M. R.; Russell, C. T.

1996-01-01

244

Galactic-scale civilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evolutionary arguments are presented in favor of the existence of civilization on a galactic scale. Patterns of physical, chemical, biological, social and cultural evolution leading to increasing levels of complexity are pointed out and explained thermodynamically in terms of the maximization of free energy dissipation in the environment of the organized system. The possibility of the evolution of a global and then a galactic human civilization is considered, and probabilities that the galaxy is presently in its colonization state and that life could have evolved to its present state on earth are discussed. Fermi's paradox of the absence of extraterrestrials in light of the probability of their existence is noted, and a variety of possible explanations is indicated. Finally, it is argued that although mankind may be the first occurrence of intelligence in the galaxy, it is unjustified to presume that this is so.

Kuiper, T. B. H.

1980-01-01

245

Polar ring galaxies as tests of gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar ring galaxies are ideal objects with which to study the three-dimensional shapes of galactic gravitational potentials since two rotation curves can be measured in two perpendicular planes. Observational studies have uncovered systematically larger rotation velocities in the extended polar rings than in the associated host galaxies. In the dark matter context, this can only be explained through dark haloes that are systematically flattened along the polar rings. Here, we point out that these objects can also be used as very effective tests of gravity theories, such as those based on Milgromian dynamics (also known as Modified Newtonian Dynamics or MOND). We run a set of polar ring models using both Milgromian and Newtonian dynamics to predict the expected shapes of the rotation curves in both planes, varying the total mass of the system, the mass of the ring with respect to the host and the size of the hole at the centre of the ring. We find that Milgromian dynamics not only naturally leads to rotation velocities being typically higher in the extended polar rings than in the hosts, as would be the case in Newtonian dynamics without dark matter, but that it also gets the shape and amplitude of velocities correct. Milgromian dynamics thus adequately explains this particular property of polar ring galaxies.

Lüghausen, F.; Famaey, B.; Kroupa, P.; Angus, G.; Combes, F.; Gentile, G.; Tiret, O.; Zhao, H.

2013-07-01

246

Galactic oscillator symmetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Riemann ellipsoids model rotating galaxies when the galactic velocity field is a linear function of the Cartesian coordinates of the galactic masses. In nuclear physics, the kinetic energy in the linear velocity field approximation is known as the collective kinetic energy. But, the linear approximation neglects intrinsic degrees of freedom associated with nonlinear velocity fields. To remove this limitation, the theory of symplectic dynamical symmetry is developed for classical systems. A classical phase space for a self-gravitating symplectic system is a co-adjoint orbit of the noncompact group SP(3,R). The degenerate co-adjoint orbit is the 12 dimensional homogeneous space Sp(3,R)/U(3), where the maximal compact subgroup U(3) is the symmetry group of the harmonic oscillator. The Hamiltonian equations of motion on each orbit form a Lax system X = (X,F), where X and F are elements of the symplectic Lie algebra. The elements of the matrix X are the generators of the symplectic Lie algebra, viz., the one-body collective quadratic functions of the positions and momenta of the galactic masses. The matrix F is composed from the self-gravitating potential energy, the angular velocity, and the hydostatic pressure. Solutions to the hamiltonian dynamical system on Sp(3,R)/U(3) are given by symplectic isospectral deformations. The Casimirs of Sp(3,R), equal to the traces of powers of X, are conserved quantities.

Rosensteel, George

1995-01-01

247

Ring lasers  

SciTech Connect

The invention provides a ring laser having one or more parallelsided prisms, or other refracting device, positioned in the light path of the laser resonant cavity formed by, for example, three mirrors, and including a solenoid or other means for imparting oscillatory translational motion to the prism or prisms or refracting device with a component parallel to the portion of the light path which passes therethrough.

Lindop, A.J.

1981-01-27

248

Implications of the IRAS data for galactic gamma-ray astronomy and EGRET  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using the results of gamma-ray, millimeter wave and far infrared surveys of the galaxy, one can derive a logically consistent picture of the large scale distribution of galactic gas and cosmic rays, one tied to the overall processes of stellar birth and destruction on a galactic scale. Using the results of the IRAS far-infrared survey of the galaxy, the large scale radial distribution of galactic far-infrared emission were obtained independently for both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere sides of the Galaxy. It was found that the dominant feature in these distributions to be a broad peak coincident with the 5 kpc molecular gas cloud ring. Also found was evidence of spiral arm features. Strong correlations are evident between the large scale galactic distributions of far infrared emission, gamma-ray emission and total CO emission. There is a particularly tight correlation between the distribution of warm molecular clouds and far-infrared emission on a galactic scale.

Stecker, F. W.

1990-01-01

249

Modeled and metered energy savings from exterior wall insulation  

SciTech Connect

Millions of single-family masonry (block) houses with slab foundations exist in the southern United States. In fact, approximately 50% of Florida`s six million residences are of concrete block construction. The block walls in these homes are usually uninsulated, and the technology for retrofitting wall insulation is not well developed. Two field tests were performed--one near Phoenix, Arizona and one in Cocoa, Florida--to measure the air-conditioning energy savings and demand reduction impact of applying an exterior insulation and finish system (EEFS) to the exterior of the block wall, and gain practical experience with retrofit application techniques and costs. One field test used a {open_quotes}site-fabricated{close_quotes} insulation system, while the other field test used a commercially available system. The field tests measured a savings of 9% in Arizona and less savings in Florida, and emphasized the impact indoor temperature settings have on cooling energy savings: exterior wall insulation on block homes will produce energy savings in Florida houses only if a low cooling thermostat setting is desirable. The field tests also highlighted an improved comfort benefit from the retrofit - namely, elimination of overheating in rooms with south and west exposures. The DOE-2. ID program was used to analyze the energy savings (air-conditioning and heating) and electric demand impact of applying an EIFS. Air-conditioning energy savings were estimated to be in the range of 8% to 10% in many southern U.S. regions. A 12% savings was predicted for Phoenix, Arizona and a savings of 1% to 4% was predicted for seacoast regions, particularly in Florida. These predictions were in good agreement with the measured values. Peak hour cooling energy savings were predicted to be more uniform throughout the country, generally in the range of %8 to %12.

Ternes, M.; Parker, D.; McLain, H.; Barkaszi, S. Jr.

1996-09-01

250

EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair Facilities, Office Building. Includes lettering detail for front elevation. John Hudspeth, Architect, at foot of Main Street, Alameda, Calif. Sheet no. A3 of 8 sheets, Plan no. 10,007. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. March 18, 1942, last revised 9/21/43. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction October 9, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Office Building No. 137, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

251

Superposition Formulas for Darboux Integrable Exterior Differential Systems  

E-print Network

In this paper we present a far-reaching generalization of E. Vessiot's analysis of the Darboux integrable partial differential equations in one dependent and two independent variables. Our approach provides new insights into this classical method, uncovers the fundamental geometric invariants of Darboux integrable systems, and provides for systematic, algorithmic integration of such systems. This work is formulated within the general framework of Pfaffian exterior differential systems and, as such, has applications well beyond those currently found in the literature. In particular, our integration method is applicable to systems of hyperbolic PDE such as the Toda lattice equations, 2 dimensional wave maps and systems of overdetermined PDE.

I. M. Anderson; M. E. Fels; P. J. Vassiliou

2007-08-05

252

1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE AND HILLMAN FAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE AND HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHWEST The building on the left, the New Fan House, houses a Corliss steam engine which powered a Buffalo Forge Company single inlet Duplex Conoidal centrifugal exhausted fan through a metal updraft chimney. Part of the brick airway leading to the Baltimore shaft is visible to its right rear. The Hillman Fan House, on the right, houses the 1883 double inlet Guibal fan. The south entry, the curve of the fan housing, and brick updraft chimney are visible in this view. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

253

5. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHWEST The ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHWEST The airway, with its airlock entryway is in the foreground. Note the concrete foundation, steps, and sidewalks. The curved fan housing and edge of the iron roof are incorporated into the upshaft chimney; the lighter colored brick in the western section indicates either a modification or expansion of the chimney. The interior curve of the chimney is evident in the upper section of the right (east) wall of the chimney. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

254

6. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING WEST The ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING WEST The engine house is on the right. The end of the 1883 Pittston Steam Engine cylinder head and steam chest is visible in the doorway. Although its stairs are missing, the iron framing of a porch stands in front of what was a doorway. The entrance door to the north airlock is visible inside the enlarged window. The end view of the upshaft chimney shows the brick ribbing for support, the brick corbelling, and concrete capstones. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

255

10. EXTERIOR VIEW OF STONE RETAINING WALL, AIRWAY, BALTIMORE FAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. EXTERIOR VIEW OF STONE RETAINING WALL, AIRWAY, BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE AND HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING EAST The stone retaining wall encloses a pit which may have been the original site of the Hillman Fan House steam engine. The concrete foundations in the left foreground are more recent (c. 1930) additions which may be supports for a porch or stairway. The sloping airshaft, in the middle ground, connected the Baltimore shaft to the New Fan House (not shown) and Hillman Fan House in the background. The Hillman engine house is on the left. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

256

EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF REDUCTION PLANT NO. 6 WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF REDUCTION PLANT NO. 6 WITH PRIMARY AND SECONDARY LIMESTONE REDUCTION ('CRUSHING') IN PROGRESS. FEEDER (RIGHT) FEEDS TO CONVEYOR BELTS (CENTER) AND CRUSHER (LEFT). LIMESTONE PROCESSED THROUGH THIS OPERATION IS FURTHER SCREENED AND PROCESSED AT ANOTHER PLANT ON THE THOMAS SITE. OPERATION OF THIS PLANT, WHICH BEGAN IN 1960, INCORPORATES WITHIN THE FEEDER A CONCRETE RETAINING WALL DATING TO A TURN OF THE CENTURY QUARRY OPERATION FORMERLY ON THIS SITE. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, Reduction Plant No. 6, State Route 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

257

7. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 191828. ADDITIONS FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 1918-28. ADDITIONS FOR PRIMARY THICKENERS No. 1 AND No. 2, SECONDARY THICKENERS No. 1, No. 2, AND No. 3, AGITATORS, AIR COMPRESSOR, AND PORTLAND FILTERS ARE SHOWN COMPLETE. STAIR ON NORTH SIDE OF CRUDE ORE BINS IS PRESENT AS IS THE LIME BIN ADJACENT TO THE WEST CRUDE ORE BIN, AND THE SNOW SHED ADDED OVER THE TRAMLINE SERVING THE EAST AND WEST CRUDE ORE BINS. ALSO PRESENT IS THE BABBITT HOUSE AND ROCK BIN. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

258

11. EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE LOOKING EAST The ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE LOOKING EAST The airway (on the left) leads from the Baltimore shaft to the New Fan House. The metal housing (center foreground) encases a single entry Duplex Conoidal fan, made by the Buffalo Forge Company. The Duplex Conoidal fan had two parts: a disk fan which drew air up the airway and a centrifugal fan set at a right angle to it which exhausted the air. The engine house (on the right) contains a direct connected Corliss engine. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

259

Exterior cloaking with active sources in two dimensional acoustics  

E-print Network

We cloak a region from a known incident wave by surrounding the region with three or more devices that cancel out the field in the cloaked region without significantly radiating waves. Since very little waves reach scatterers within the cloaked region, the scattered field is small and the scatterers are for all practical purposes undetectable. The devices are multipolar point sources that can be determined from Green's formula and an addition theorem for Hankel functions. The cloaking devices are exterior to the cloaked region.

Fernando Guevara Vasquez; Graeme W. Milton; Daniel Onofrei

2010-09-10

260

Accurate boundary conditions for exterior problems in gas dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The numerical solution of exterior problems is typically accomplished by introducing an artificial, far field boundary and solving the equations on a truncated domain. For hyperbolic systems, boundary conditions at this boundary are often derived by imposing a principle of no reflection. However, waves with spherical symmetry in gas dynamics satisfy equations where incoming and outgoing Riemann variables are coupled. This suggests that natural reflections may be important. A reflecting boundary condition is proposed based on an asymptotic solution of the far field equations. Nonlinear energy estimates are obtained for the truncated problem and numerical experiments presented to validate the theory.

Hagstrom, Thomas; Hariharan, S. I.

1988-01-01

261

Galactic Acceleration Phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will review the current status of our observational knowledge of prominent classes of particle accelerators in the Galaxy, especially shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) and pulsar wind nebulae. I will highlight in particular the contribution of the recent improvement in sensitivity of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations, which are currently the most direct probe of particle acceleration in the Galaxy up to energies of several hundreds of TeV. Shell-type SNRs have long been proposed as sources of the Galactic cosmic rays, through Fermi acceleration at their outer blast waves. In recent years, X-ray observations have revealed very thin, non-thermal rims in many young SNRs, and I will discuss the implications of these observations of synchrotron emission from accelerated electrons, in particular for magnetic field amplification and the maximum accelerated particle energy attainable in these shock waves. I will then review the current status of the evidence for high-energy nuclei in these objects, especially in view of recent VHE gamma-ray observations. I will summarise current uncertainties and outline prospects for future progress through greater multi-wavelength studies. As a result of the survey of the Galactic plane in VHE gamma-rays undertaken by the HESS experiment, the most numerous class of identified Galactic VHE sources is currently that of pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), also known as plerionic SNRs. In these objects, the VHE gamma-ray emission is generally thought to be dominantly leptonic, and I will outline the complementarity between the results of these observations and the better-known X-ray observations of synchrotron emission. I will discuss the evolutionary problems posed by the large observed sizes of several of the new gamma-ray pulsar wind nebulae, and outline prospects for progress in our understanding of these objects.

Gallant, Y. A.

2006-08-01

262

Perfect fluid metrics conformal to the Schwarzschild exterior spacetime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct perfect fluid spacetimes by performing a conformal transformation on a non-conformally flat vacuum solution, namely the Schwarzschild exterior metric. It should be noted that conformally Ricci flat perfect fluid solutions, except those that are conformally flat, are rarely reported explicitly. In this article it is demonstrated that perfect fluid metrics conformal to the Schwarzschild exterior line element are necessarily static. The Einstein field equations for the static case reduce to a fully determined system of three differential equations in three unknowns and the conformal factor is uniquely determined in closed form. The solution is analysed for physical plausibility by establishing the positivity of the energy density and pressure profiles graphically. Additionally, the solution is observed to be causal in an appropriate limit and both the energy density and pressure is shown to be decreasing outwards towards the boundary. Finally, the weak, strong and dominant energy conditions are found to be satisfied in the region under investigation. Accordingly, the most common elementary physical conditions are met and the model is seen to be suitable for a core-envelope stellar model.

Hansraj, Sudan

2012-01-01

263

The Galactic Center at Different Wavelengths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from then UCLA Galactic Center Group provides images of the galactic center over most of the electromagnetic spectrum. Each image has explanatory text, and a background section explains the value of observing the galactic center at various wavelengths.

2007-06-22

264

Galactic Discourse Issue 3  

E-print Network

fanzine, edited and produced by: Contents: Title Laurie Huff 208 W. Cro\\'J Eureka, IL 61530 Price: $9.50--by hand $ll--UPS $12--1st class $10.55--book GALACTIC DISCOURSE 3--Ju1y 1980 Copy No. S27 Contributor Page Art C re d i ts...: front cover. Nan Lewis: folio, p. 152. Mary Stacy-t1acDonald: pp. 94, 134. lena Plenty: 98, 99. Eval10u Richardson: p. 9. Gloria-Ann Rovelstad: pp. 40, 159. Carrie Rowles: inside front cover, folio. Pat Stall: p. 165. Harriet Stallings: pp. 3...

Multiple Contributors

1980-01-01

265

Galactic distribution of pulsars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The density distributions of pulsars in luminosity, period, Z-distance, and galactocentric distance were derived using a uniform sample of pulsars detected during a 408 MHz pulsar survey at Jodrell Bank. There are indications of a fine scale structure in the spatial distribution and evidence that there is a general correlation with other galactic populations and the overall spiral structure. The electron layer in the galaxy is shown to be wider than the pulsar layer and uniform on a large scale. The number of pulsars in the galaxy was estimated and used to derive the pulsar birthrate.

Seiradakis, J. H.

1976-01-01

266

The myth of the molecular ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the structure of the Milky Way by determining how features in a spatial map correspond to CO features in a velocity map. We examine structures including logarithmic spiral arms, a ring and a bar. We explore the available parameter space, including the pitch angle of the spiral arms, radius of a ring and rotation curve. We show that, surprisingly, a spiral arm provides a better fit to the observed molecular ring than a true ring feature. This is because both a spiral arm and the observed feature known as the molecular ring are curved in velocity-longitude space. We find that much of the CO emission in the velocity-longitude map can be fitted by a nearly symmetric two-armed spiral pattern. One of the arms corresponds to the molecular ring, whilst the opposite arm naturally reproduces the Perseus arm. Multiple arms also contribute to further emission in the vicinity of the molecular ring and match other observed spiral arms. Whether the Galactic structure consists primarily of two or several spiral arms, the presence of two symmetric logarithmic spirals, which begin in the vicinity of the ends of the bar, suggests a spiral density wave associated with the bar.

Dobbs, C. L.; Burkert, A.

2012-04-01

267

The Myth of the Molecular Ring  

E-print Network

We investigate the structure of the Milky Way by determining how features in a spatial map correspond to CO features in a velocity map. We examine structures including logarithmic spiral arms, a ring and a bar. We explore the available parameter space, including the pitch angle of the spiral arms, radius of a ring, and rotation curve. We show that surprisingly, a spiral arm provides a better fit to the observed molecular ring than a true ring feature. This is because both a spiral arm, and the observed feature known as the molecular ring, are curved in velocity longitude space. We find that much of the CO emission in the velocity longitude map can be fitted by a nearly symmetric 2 armed spiral pattern. One of the arms corresponds to the molecular ring, whilst the opposite arm naturally reproduces the Perseus arm. Multiple arms also contribute to further emission in the vicinity of the molecular ring and match other observed spiral arms. Whether the Galactic structure consists primarily of two, or several spir...

Dobbs, C L

2012-01-01

268

EXTERIORS AND INTERIORS OF THE SPACE POWER RESEARCH LABORATORY SPRL - ENERGY CONVERSION LABORATORY E  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

EXTERIORS AND INTERIORS OF THE SPACE POWER RESEARCH LABORATORY SPRL - ENERGY CONVERSION LABORATORY ECL - REDOX - RESEARCH ANALYSIS CENTER RAC - BASIC MATERIALS LABORATORY BML - VERTICAL LIFT FACILITY VLF

1980-01-01

269

Radio and gamma ray evidence for a molecular-arm feature at 5 kpc from the galactic centre. [observing galactic longitude of CO emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent measurements of the galactic CO distribution as evidenced from 2.6 mm radio observations of the CO emission line intensity are correlated with the SAS-2 measurements of galactic gamma ray emission. Both distributions are indicative of a ring-shaped distribution or arm consisting of cool clouds of molecular hydrogen at a galactocentric distance of approximately 5 kpc. The mean density of H2 in this region is estimated to be between 1 and 5 cu cm. Both a galactic and extra-galactic origin of cosmic rays are consistent with the observations, although the presence of dynamical effects and increased star formation at 5 kpc in the dense molecular clouds may be connected with an increase in cosmic-ray production.

Solomon, P. M.; Stecker, F. W.

1974-01-01

270

The Galactic Center Magnetosphere  

E-print Network

The magnetic field within a few hundred parsecs of the center of the Galaxy is an essential component of any description of that region. The field has several pronounced observational manifestations: 1) morphological structures such as nonthermal radio filaments (NTFs) -- magnetic flux tubes illuminated by synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons -- and a remarkable, large-scale, helically wound structure, 2) relatively strong polarization of thermal dust emission from molecular clouds, presumably resulting from magnetic alignment of the rotating dust grains, and 3) synchrotron emission from cosmic rays. Because most of the NTFs are roughly perpendicular to the Galactic plane, the implied large-scale geometry of the magnetic field is dipolar. Estimates of the mean field strength vary from tens of microgauss to ~ a milligauss. The merits and weaknesses of the various estimations are discussed here. If the field strength is comparable to a milligauss, then the magnetic field is able to exert a strong influence on the dynamics of molecular clouds, on the collimation of a Galactic wind, and on the lifetimes and bulk motions of relativistic particles. Related to the question of field strength is the question of whether the field is pervasive throughout the central zone of the Galaxy, or whether its manifestations are predominantly localized phenomena. Current evidence favors the pervasive model.

Mark Morris

2007-01-02

271

Elusive active galactic nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fraction of active galactic nuclei do not show the classical Seyfert-type signatures in their optical spectra, i.e. they are optically `elusive'. X-ray observations are an optimal tool to identify this class of objects. We combine new Chandra observations with archival X-ray data in order to obtain a first estimate of the fraction of elusive active galactic nuclei (AGN) in local galaxies and to constrain their nature. Our results suggest that elusive AGN have a local density comparable to or even higher than optically classified Seyfert nuclei. Most elusive AGN are heavily absorbed in the X-rays, with gas column densities exceeding 1024 cm-2, suggesting that their peculiar nature is associated with obscuration. It is likely that in elusive AGN the nuclear UV source is completely embedded and the ionizing photons cannot escape, which prevents the formation of a classical narrow-line region. Elusive AGN may contribute significantly to the 30-keV bump of the X-ray background.

Maiolino, R.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Nagar, N. M.; Bianchi, S.; Böker, T.; Colbert, E.; Krabbe, A.; Marconi, A.; Matt, G.; Salvati, M.

2003-10-01

272

Testing Galactic Cosmic Ray Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Environment are used for designing and planning space missions. The exising models will be reviewed. Spectral representations from these models will be compared with measurements of galactic cosmic ray spectra made on balloon flights and satellite flights over a period of more than 50 years.

Adams, James H., Jr.

2010-01-01

273

Testing Galactic Cosmic Ray Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Environment are used for designing and planning space missions. The existing models will be reviewed. Spectral representations from these models will be compared with measurements of galactic cosmic ray spectra made on balloon flights and satellite flights over a period of more than 50 years.

Adams, James H., Jr.

2009-01-01

274

Galactic cosmic rays and nucleosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

The nucleosynthesis of the light elements Li, Be and B by galactic cosmic rays is presented. Observations of cosmic rays and the nuclear reactions responsible for Li, Be and B nucleosynthesis are described, followed by some words on propagation. At the end, some open questions concerning galactic cosmic rays are discussed.

Kiener, Juergen [CSNSM, CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Paris-Sud, Bat. 104-108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France)

2010-03-01

275

Galactic Hearts of Glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger graph

This artist's concept shows delicate greenish crystals sprinkled throughout the violent core of a pair of colliding galaxies. The white spots represent a thriving population of stars of all sizes and ages. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope detected more than 20 bright and dusty galactic mergers like the one depicted here, all teeming with the tiny gem-like crystals.

When galaxies collide, they trigger the birth of large numbers of massive stars. Astronomers believe these blazing hot stars act like furnaces to produce silicate crystals in the same way that glass is made from sand. The stars probably shed the crystals as they age, and as they blow apart in supernovae explosions.

At the same time the crystals are being churned out, they are also being destroyed. Fast-moving particles from supernova blasts easily convert silicates crystals back to their amorphous, or shapeless, form.

How is Spitzer seeing the crystals if they are rapidly disappearing? Astronomers say that, for a short period of time at the beginning of galactic mergers, massive stars might be producing silicate crystals faster than they are eliminating them. When our own galaxy merges with the Andromeda galaxy in a few billion years, a similar burst of massive stars and silicate crystals might occur.

Crystal Storm in Distant Galaxy The graph (see inset above) of infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope tells astronomers that a distant galaxy called IRAS 08752+3915 is experiencing a storm of tiny crystals made up of silicates. The crystals are similar to the glass-like grains of sand found on Earth's many beaches.

The data were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, which splits light open to reveal its rainbow-like components. The resulting spectrum shown here reveals the signatures of both crystalline (green) and non-crystalline (brown) silicates.

Spitzer detected the same crystals in 20 additional galaxies, all belonging to a class called ultraluminous infrared galaxies. These extremely bright and dusty galaxies usually consist of two galaxies in the process of smashing into each other. Astronomers believe massive stars at the hearts of the galaxies are churning out clouds of silicate crystals. This phenomenon may represent a short-lived phase in the evolution of galactic mergers.

2006-01-01

276

GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, OF THE SURFACE PLANT WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, OF THE SURFACE PLANT WITH CONVEYORS. JIM WALTER RESOURCES INC. MINING DIVISION OPERATES FOUR UNDERGROUND COAL MINES IN THE BLUE CREEK COAL FIELD OF BIRMINGHAM DISTRICT, THREE IN TUSCALOOSA COUNTY AND ONE IN JEFFERSON COUNTY. TOTAL ANNUAL PRODUCTION IS 8,000,000 TONS. AT 2,300 DEEP, JIM WALTER'S BROOKWOOD MINES ARE THE DEEPEST UNDERGROUND COAL MINES IN NORTH AMERICA. THEY PRODUCE A HIGH-GRADE MEDIUM VOLATILE LOW SULPHUR METALLURGICAL COAL. THE BROOKWOOD NO. 5 MINE (PICTURED IN THIS PHOTOGRAPH) EMPLOYS THE LONGWALL MINING TECHNIQUES WITH BELTS CONVEYING COAL FROM UNDERGROUND OPERATIONS TO THE SURFACE. - JIm Walter Resources, Incorporated, Brookwood No. 5 Mine, 12972 Lock 17 Road, Brookwood, Tuscaloosa County, AL

277

Closeup view of the exterior of the starboard side of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close-up view of the exterior of the starboard side of the forward fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the forward facing observation windows of the flight deck. Note the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) surrounding the window openings, the Low-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (LRSI) immediately beyond the HRSI tiles and the Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation blankets just beyond the LRSI tiles. The holes in the tiles are injection points for the application of waterproofing material. The windows are composed of redundant pressure window panes of thermal glass. This image was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

278

Electrochemical cell apparatus having an exterior fuel mixer nozzle  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical apparatus is made having a generator section containing electrochemical cells, a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet, a gaseous feed oxidant inlet, and at least one hot gaseous spent fuel recirculation channel, where the spent fuel recirculation channel, a portion of which is in contact with the outside of a mixer chamber, passes from the generator chamber to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet at the entrance to the mixer chamber, and a mixer nozzle is located at the entrance to the mixer chamber, where the mixer chamber connects with the reforming chamber, and where the mixer-diffuser chamber and mixer nozzle are exterior to and spaced apart from the combustion chamber, and the generator chamber, and the mixer nozzle can operate below 400 C. 2 figs.

Reichner, P.; Doshi, V.B.

1992-12-08

279

The acoustical testing of thermally insulated exterior building elements  

SciTech Connect

Often, but not always, acoustical insulation is used in place of thermal insulation, and vice versa. Often also, both are used for the same purpose. But the thermal and acoustical properties of a material are different and often not related. Hence a good thermal insulator may or may not be a good acoustical insulator. The physics of heat transfer and sound are different. As a result, the results of testing of the materials for one property do not necessarily provide any indication of the other property. This paper discusses the commonalties and differences of the thermal and acoustical materials used for exterior building elements and discuss national and international methods of acoustical test, emphasizing ASTM testing where appropriate.

Peppin, R.J. [Larson Davis, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Duersch, G.M. [Larson Davis, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Beam, M.J.; Miller, K. [Miller Henning Associates, McLean, VA (United States)

1997-11-01

280

7. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE, AIRWAY, AND HILLMAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE, AIRWAY, AND HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING SOUTHEAST The roof of the 1908 Baltimore Fan House is to the left; the doorway opens onto the rear of the metal fan housing. In the immediate foreground is a section of the blast doors installed in the airway directly over the shaft to protect the fans in case of a mine explosion. The sloping airway, to the right, connects with the New Fan House, whose metal updraft chimney is evident in the right background. The engine house of the Hillman Fan House is in the left background with the fan housing and updraft chimney connected. The boiler house stack is in the background. All of the engines in the fan complex were powered by the boiler house. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

281

Electrochemical cell apparatus having an exterior fuel mixer nozzle  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical apparatus (10) is made having a generator section (22) containing electrochemical cells (16), a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet (28), a gaseous feed oxidant inlet (30), and at least one hot gaseous spent fuel recirculation channel (46), where the spent fuel recirculation channel (46), a portion of which is in contact with the outside of a mixer chamber (52), passes from the generator chamber (22) to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet (28) at the entrance to the mixer chamber, and a mixer nozzle (50) is located at the entrance to the mixer chamber, where the mixer chamber (52) connects with the reforming chamber (54), and where the mixer-diffuser chamber (52) and mixer nozzle (50) are exterior to and spaced apart from the combustion chamber (24), and the generator chamber (22), and the mixer nozzle (50) can operate below 400.degree. C.

Reichner, Philip (Plum Borough, PA); Doshi, Vinod B. (Monroeville, PA)

1992-01-01

282

4. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST This ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST This view shows the concrete roof covering the airways and the engine room. The reinforced concrete roof is supported by metal beams. Note how the airshaft, in the foreground, widens to create an airway on either side for the double inlet fan. The brick fan housing is capped by a curved sheet metal roof whose segments are bolted together. The brick updraft chimney, capped with concrete, is to the rear (northeast). Also evident on the wall is the cover over the air velocity indicator. The Hollenback Cemetery, which adjoins the Dorrance Colliery property is in the background. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

283

3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTH The ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTH The airway, with sloping concrete roof, is in the foreground. Two periods of construction are evident. In the center of the wall, to the left of the window, is a cover over the air velocity indicator. The building houses a 35 foot diameter cast iron and wood Guibal centrifugal fan. The curve of the fan housing with its iron roof are in the middle ground, and the rectangular upshaft chimney is in the background. The brick, metal, and concrete building was designed to be fireproof. The metal upshaft chimney of the New Fan House is to the left. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

284

Dynamical Effects of Nuclear Rings in Disk Galaxies  

E-print Network

We investigate the dynamical response of stellar orbits in a rotating barred galaxy potential to the perturbation by a nuclear gaseous ring. The change in 3D periodic orbit families is examined as the gas accumulates between the inner Lindblad resonances. It is found that the phase space allowable to the x2 family of orbits is substantially increased and a vertical instability strip appears with the growing mass of the ring. A significant distortion of the x1 orbits is observed in the vicinity of the ring, which leads to the intersection between orbits with different values of the Jacobi integral. We also examine the dependence of the orbital response to the eccentricity and alignment of the ring with the bar. Misalignment between an oval ring and a bar can leave observational footprints in the form of twisted near-infrared isophotes in the vicinity of the ring. It is inferred that a massive nuclear ring acts to weaken and dissolve the stellar bar exterior to the ring, whereas only weakly affecting the orbits interior to the inner Lindblad resonances. Consequences for gas evolution in the circumnuclear regions of barred galaxies are discussed as well.

C. H. Heller; I. Shlosman

1996-05-20

285

Earth: A Ringed Planet?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the most beautiful findings of the Space Age have been the discoveries of planetary rings. Not only Saturn but also Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune have rings; Saturn's ring system has structures newly discovered; even Saturn's moon Rhea itself has a ring. All these are apparently supplied by material from the planetary moons (Rhea's ring by Rhea itself). The question

L. O. Hancock; H. Povenmire

2010-01-01

286

Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to a low-cost process for insulating walls comprising: (a) stacking bags filled with insulating material next to the exterior surface of a wall until the wall is covered, the stack of bags thus formed having fasteners to attach to a wire mesh (e.g., straps looped between the bags and fastened to the wall); (b) stretching a wire mesh (e.g., chicken wire or stucco netting) over the stack of bags, covering the side of the bags which is not adjacent to the wall; (c) fastening the wire mesh to stationary objects; (d) attaching the wire mesh to said fasteners on said stack of bags; and (e) applying a cemetitious material (e.g., stucco) to the wire mesh and allowing it to harden. Stacking the bags against the wall is preferably preceded by laying a base on the ground at the foot of the wall using a material such as cement or crushed stone wrapped in a non-woven fabric (e.g., geosynthetic felt). It is also preferred to erect stationary corner posts at the ends of the wall to be insulated, the top ends of the posts being tied to each other and/or tied or otherwise anchored to the wall. The invention also includes the structure made by this process. The structure comprises a stack of bags of insulating material next to the exterior wall of a building, said stack of bags of insulating material being attached to said wall and having a covering of cementitious material on the side not adjacent to said wall.

Vohra, Arun

1997-12-01

287

How the airplane wing cut through the exterior columns of the World Trade Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of the airplane wing cutting through the exterior columns of the World Trade Center is treated analytically. The exterior columns are thin-walled box beam made of high strength steel. The complex structure of the airplane is lumped into another box, but it has been found that the equivalent thickness of the box is an order of magnitude larger

T. Wierzbicki; X. Teng

2003-01-01

288

Industria, Comercio Exterior y Desarrollo en Argentina y Mercosur, 1976-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analizamos la evolucion de la industria, el comercio exterior y el turismo en Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay, durante la decada 1990-2000. Se presentan modelos econometricos que muestran el importante impacto positivo que el crecimiento industrial tiene sobre el PIB, y se analiza la contribucion del comercio exterior y de los ingresos por turismo el desarrollo. Los resultados muestran que

Rodrigo J. Gardella; Federico J. Lupo

2003-01-01

289

DISS. ETH Nr. 19312 Exterior Powers of Barsotti-Tate Groups  

E-print Network

DISS. ETH Nr. 19312 Exterior Powers of Barsotti-Tate Groups ABHANDLUNG zur Erlangung des Titels. Richard Pink (ETH Z¨urich) Korreferent: Prof. Dr. Ching-Li Chai (University of Pennsylvania) Korreferent one states that the exterior powers of a -divisible O-module scheme of dimension at most 1 over

Pink, Richard

290

Computational Fluid Dynamics and Experimental Validations of the Direct Coupling Between Interior, Intermediate and Exterior Ballistics  

E-print Network

, Intermediate and Exterior Ballistics Using the Euler Equations Dr. R. Cayzac1 , E. Carette1 , Pr. T. Alziary de been working on the development of a CFD ballistics code called FREIN. This code is the result and exterior ballistics were modeled as well as the weapon system environment. The complex phenomena

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

291

A. Advertising and Signs Exterior signage is allowed for students sponsored activities, clubs and events to  

E-print Network

A. Advertising and Signs Exterior signage is allowed for students sponsored activities, clubs and events to promote student participation. 1. Student organizations may use exterior signs to advertise. A maximum of three wood signs may be posted for advertising an activity, club or event. 4. All signs must

Wu, Shin-Tson

292

Some statistics of Galactic SNRs  

E-print Network

The selection effects applicable to the identification of Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) at radio wavelengths are discussed. Low surface brightness remnants are missing, as are those with small angular sizes (including young but distant SNRs). Several statistical properties of Galactic SNRs are discussed, including the surface-brightness/diameter (Sigma-D) relation. The wide range of intrinsic properties of Galactic remnants with known distances, and the observational selection effects, means that the Sigma-D relation is of limited use to derive diameters and hence distances for individual SNRs, or for statistical studies.

D. A. Green

2005-05-20

293

The galactic distribution of carbon monoxide: An out-of-plane survey. Ph.D. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Galactic CO line emission at 115 GHz has been surveyed. This survey confirms the finding that CO is concentrated in a ring. It provides a determination of the thickness of this molecular ring as a function of galactic radius and shows that CO is displaced from the conventional galactic plane. These results were arrived at by least-squares fitting the survey data to a circularly symmetric model of the Galaxy. A comparison of the CO and HI distributions shows that there are marked differences in the distributions of these species, both radially and out of the plane. A detailed discussion of the antenna characteristics, including the radiation pattern and pointing characteristics is presented.

Cohen, R. S.

1978-01-01

294

Asymmetric dipolar ring  

DOEpatents

A device having a dipolar ring surrounding an interior region that is disposed asymmetrically on the ring. The dipolar ring generates a toroidal moment switchable between at least two stable states by a homogeneous field applied to the dipolar ring in the plane of the ring. The ring may be made of ferroelectric or magnetic material. In the former case, the homogeneous field is an electric field and in the latter case, the homogeneous field is a magnetic field.

Prosandeev, Sergey A. (Fayetteville, AR); Ponomareva, Inna V. (Tampa, FL); Kornev, Igor A. (Ill-de-France, FR); Bellaiche, Laurent M. (Fayetteville, AR)

2010-11-16

295

Saturn's Ring: Pre-Cassini Status and Mission Goals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In November 1980, and again in August 1981, identical Voyager spacecraft flew through the Saturn system, changing forever the way we think about planetary rings. Although Saturn's rings had been the only known ring system for three centuries, a ring system around Uranus had been discovered by stellar occultations from Earth in 1977, and the nearly transparent ring of Jupiter was imaged by Voyager in 1979 (the presence of material there had been inferred from charged particle experiments on Pioneer 10 and 11 several years earlier). While Saturn had thus temporarily lost its uniqueness as having the only ring system, with Voyager it handily recaptured the role of having the most fascinating one. The Voyager breakthroughs included spiral density and bending waves such as cause galactic structure; ubiquitous fine-scale radial 'irregular' structure, with the appearance of record-grooves; regional and local variations in particle color; complex, azimuthally variable ring structure; empty gaps in the rings, some containing very regular, sharp-edged, elliptical rings and one containing both a small moonlet and incomplete arcs of dusty material; and shadowy 'spokes' that flicker across the main rings. One of the paradigm shifts of this period was the realization that many aspects of planetary rings, and even the ring systems themselves, could be 'recent' on geological timescales. These early results are reviewed and summarized in the Arizona Space Science series volumes 'Saturn'. (An excellent review of ring dynamics at a formative stage is by Goldreich and Tremaine.) From the mid 1980's to the time of this writing, progress has been steady, while at a less heady pace, and some of the novel ring properties revealed by Voyager 1 and 2 are beginning to be better understood. It is clearly impossible to cite, much less review, every advance over the last decade; however, below we summarize the main advances in understanding of Saturn's rings since the mid 1980's, in the context of the Cassini Science Objectives.

Cuzzi, Jeff N.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

296

Observations of Galactic OH Emission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 120-foot Haystack antenna of Massachussetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory was used to observe polarized OH emission in the galactic sources W49, NGC6334, W51, and W75. Results are given.

J. A. Ball, M. L. Meeks

1968-01-01

297

The galactic structure towards the galactic centre. II. A study of the fields near the clusters NGC 6603, Lynga 7 and Terzan 1.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results are presented from a study of Colour-Magnitude Diagrams in three fields, located in the galactic plane towards the Galactic Centre. First the extinction is determined in the line of sight. In two fields a significant increase in the absorption is found. For the field near Terzan 1 the increase starts immediately at 0kpc in the line of sight and for the field near NGC 6603 it occurs between 3.5kpc and 4.0kpc. The latter apparently coincides with the position of the molecular ring. The abrupt end in the steep increment in the absorption is likely the result of gas consumption by star formation. In two fields a significant increase in the number of stars with probably a contribution from a stellar ring has been found. The stellar ring can be described with a Gaussian centered around 3.5kpc from the Galactic Centre with ?_ring_=0.5kpc. Between 1.0 to about 3.0kpc in the line of sight a stellar contribution is present from the Sagittarius spiral arm. In the fields near the clusters Lynga 7 and Terzan 1 relatively young stars are present from a recent burst of star formation. The field of NGC 6603 crosses a patchy region in this arm where this recent burst is absent. In all fields the major contribution for V<22mag is due to disc stars. Around 2.5kpc from the Galactic Centre we find a sharp drop in the stellar density of the disc. The stellar density towards the Galactic Centre is still increasing due to the stellar contribution from the Bulge. Therefore we identify this as the disc/bulge transition. For the Bulge we suggest the presence of a super metal rich population.

Bertelli, G.; Bressan, A.; Chiosi, C.; Ng, Y. K.; Ortolani, S.

1995-09-01

298

Galactic turbulence and paleoclimate variability  

E-print Network

The wavelet regression detrended fluctuations of the reconstructed temperature for the past three ice ages: approximately 340000 years (Antarctic ice cores isotopic data), exhibit clear evidences of the galactic turbulence modulation up to 2500 years time-scales. The observed strictly Kolmogorov turbulence features indicates the Kolmogorov nature of galactic turbulence, and provide explanation to random-like fluctuations of the global temperature on the millennial time scales.

Bershadskii, A

2010-01-01

299

The VLA Galactic Plane Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VLA Galactic Plane Survey (VGPS) is a survey of H I and 21 cm continuum emission in the Galactic plane between longitude 18deg and 67deg with latitude coverage from |b|<1.3d to |b|<2.3d. The survey area was observed with the Very Large Array in 990 pointings. Short-spacing information for the H I line emission was obtained by additional observations with the Green Bank Telescope. H I spectral line images are presented with a resolution of 1'×1'×1.56 km s-1 (FWHM) and an rms noise of 2 K per 0.824 km s-1 channel. Continuum images made from channels without H I line emission have 1' (FWHM) resolution. The VGPS images reveal structures of atomic hydrogen and 21 cm continuum as large as several degrees with unprecedented resolution in this part of the Galaxy. With the completion of the VGPS, it is now possible for the first time to assess the consistency between arcminute-resolution surveys of Galactic H I emission. VGPS images are compared with images from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS) and the Southern Galactic Plane Survey (SGPS). In general, the agreement between these surveys is impressive, considering the differences in instrumentation and image-processing techniques used for each survey. The differences between VGPS and CGPS images are small, <~6 K (rms) in channels in which the mean H I brightness temperature in the field exceeds 80 K. A similar degree of consistency is found between the VGPS and SGPS. The agreement we find between arcminute-resolution surveys of the Galactic plane is a crucial step toward combining these surveys into a single uniform data set that covers 90% of the Galactic disk: the International Galactic Plane Survey. The VGPS data will be made available on the World Wide Web through the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre.

Stil, J. M.; Taylor, A. R.; Dickey, J. M.; Kavars, D. W.; Martin, P. G.; Rothwell, T. A.; Boothroyd, A. I.; Lockman, Felix J.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.

2006-09-01

300

Galactic Distance Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter begins with a discussion of the basic methods of determining astronomical distances, particularly, trigonometrical, statistical, and pulsational parallaxes. It then summarizes the current state of the calibration of various classes of pulsating variables (Classical Cepheids, type-II Cepheids, RR Lyraes, Miras, and ? Sct and SX Phe stars). Work on other distance indicators (e.g., the red giant clump and the tip of the red giant branch) is also summarized. The use of spectroscopic parallaxes and their application to supergiants and common stars as well as the methods of determining the distances to open and globular clusters are discussed. To illustrate and compare different distance indicators, their use in estimating the scale length of our Galaxy, and the distance to Galactic centre as well as the distances to the LMC, the Fornax dwarf spheroidal, and the spiral galaxy NGC4258 is discussed in some detail. An appendix summarizes some common bias problems that arise in the calibration and use of distance indicators.

Feast, Michael W.

301

Galactic planetary science.  

PubMed

Planetary science beyond the boundaries of our Solar System is today in its infancy. Until a couple of decades ago, the detailed investigation of the planetary properties was restricted to objects orbiting inside the Kuiper Belt. Today, we cannot ignore that the number of known planets has increased by two orders of magnitude nor that these planets resemble anything but the objects present in our own Solar System. Whether this fact is the result of a selection bias induced by the kind of techniques used to discover new planets--mainly radial velocity and transit--or simply the proof that the Solar System is a rarity in the Milky Way, we do not know yet. What is clear, though, is that the Solar System has failed to be the paradigm not only in our Galaxy but even 'just' in the solar neighbourhood. This finding, although unsettling, forces us to reconsider our knowledge of planets under a different light and perhaps question a few of the theoretical pillars on which we base our current 'understanding'. The next decade will be critical to advance in what we should perhaps call Galactic planetary science. In this paper, I review highlights and pitfalls of our current knowledge of this topic and elaborate on how this knowledge might arguably evolve in the next decade. More critically, I identify what should be the mandatory scientific and technical steps to be taken in this fascinating journey of remote exploration of planets in our Galaxy. PMID:24664916

Tinetti, Giovanna

2014-04-28

302

Metal concentrations in aggregate interiors, exteriors, whole aggregates, and bulk of Costa Rican soils  

SciTech Connect

In many temperate soils the preferential weathering and leaching of aggregate surfaces and the nonaggregated material between aggregates depletes geogenic metals. It also shifts metals from strongly to more weakly bound metal forms. Deposited metals are sorbed preferentially on aggregate surfaces and between aggregates. The authors examined whether preferential desilication under tropical climate causes an enrichment in the aggregate exteriors in oxidic forms of metals. They also studied where deposited metals are bound in these soils. Aggregates (2--20 mm) were selected manually from the A horizons of eight Oxisols, six Andisols, two Mollisols, and two Inceptisols in Costa Rica. All samples were fractionated into interior and exterior portions and treated with a seven-step sequence to extract Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn. Total concentrations of all metals except Zn were higher in the aggregate exteriors than in the interiors. The average Cd and Pb concentrations in easily extractable fractions were significantly higher in the aggregate exteriors. There were no significant differences in metal partitioning between interiors and exteriors except for Pb, which had higher proportions in extractable forms with NH{sub 2}OH {center{underscore}dot} HCl {gt} NH{sub 4} - acetate, pH 6.0 {gt} EDTA in the exteriors. There were few significant differences in metal concentrations and partitioning between bulk soil and whole aggregates. The results may be explained by (i) preferential desilication of the aggregate exteriors and (ii) preferential sorption of deposited heavy metals mainly in easily extractable forms.

Wilcke, W.; Kretzschmar, S.; Bundt, M.; Zech, W.

1999-10-01

303

The galactic habitable zone of the Milky Way and M31 from chemical evolution models with gas radial flows  

E-print Network

The galactic habitable zone is defined as the region with sufficient abundance of heavy elements to form planetary systems in which Earth-like planets could be born and might be capable of sustaining life, after surviving to close supernova explosion events. Galactic chemical evolution models can be useful for studying the galactic habitable zones in different systems. We apply detailed chemical evolution models including radial gas flows to study the galactic habitable zones in our Galaxy and M31. We compare the results to the relative galactic habitable zones found with "classical" (independent ring) models, where no gas inflows were included. For both the Milky Way and Andromeda, the main effect of the gas radial inflows is to enhance the number of stars hosting a habitable planet with respect to the "classical" model results, in the region of maximum probability for this occurrence, relative to the classical model results. These results are obtained by taking into account the supernova destruction process...

Spitoni, E; Sozzetti, A

2014-01-01

304

The Rot-Div System in Exterior Domains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this paper is to reconsider the classical elliptic system rot v = f, div v = g in simply connected domains with bounded connected boundaries (bounded and exterior sets). The main result shows solvability of the problem in the maximal regularity regime in the L p -framework taking into account the optimal/minimal requirements on the smoothness of the boundary. A generalization for the Besov spaces is studied, too, for {{f} in dot B^s_{p,q}(?)} for {-1+frac 1p < s < frac 1p} . As a limit case we prove the result for {{f} in dot B^0_{3,1}(?)} , provided the boundary is merely in {B^{2-1/3}_{3,1}} . The dimension three is distinguished due to the physical interpretation of the system. In other words we revised and extended the classical results of Friedrichs (Commun Pure Appl Math 8;551-590, 1955) and Solonnikov (Zap Nauch Sem LOMI 21:112-158, 1971).

Mucha, Piotr B.; Pokorný, Milan

2014-08-01

305

FDDI Ring Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates an FDDI ring. Users may add or delete stations (or computers) from the ring. The applet allows the user to show data being circulated around the ring. Users may also select to demonstrate the cases when the ring becomes broken or when one of the stations is switched off. (UNC E-Learning Grant)

2007-01-23

306

Freestanding nanowire ring laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a freestanding nanowire ring laser, assembled by splicing the two ends of a CdS nanowire via a dissolved polymer nanowire. With ring diameter of less than 50 ?m, the free-standing nanowire ring laser shows low lasing threshold, high robustness, and excellent mechanical flexibility. Also, the nanowire ring laser works well in liquid environment, showing the possibility of integrating the nano-ring laser into an optofluidic system.

Hu, Zhifang; Guo, Xin; Tong, Limin

2013-10-01

307

Galactic Halos of Hydrogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows two companion galaxies, NGC 4625 (top) and NGC 4618 (bottom), and their surrounding cocoons of cool hydrogen gas (purple). The huge set of spiral arms on NGC 4625 (blue) was discovered by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. Though these arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light, they glow brightly in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light.

The vibrant spiral arms are also quite lengthy, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far.

Astronomers do not know why NGC 4625 grew arms while NGC 4618 did not. The purple nebulosity shown here illustrates that hydrogen gas - an ingredient of star formation - is diffusely distributed around both galaxies. This means that other unknown factors led to the development of the arms of NGC 4625.

Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own.

The image is composed of ultraviolet, visible-light and radio data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, the Netherlands, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. Radio emissions are colored purple.

2005-01-01

308

Galactic Spiral Structure  

E-print Network

We describe the structure and composition of six major stellar streams in a population of 20 574 local stars in the New Hipparcos Reduction with known radial velocities. We find that, once fast moving stars are excluded, almost all stars belong to one of these streams. The results of our investigation have lead us to re-examine the hydrogen maps of the Milky Way, from which we identify the possibility of a symmetric two-armed spiral with half the conventionally accepted pitch angle. We describe a model of spiral arm motions which matches the observed velocities and composition of the six major streams, as well as the observed velocities of the Hyades and Praesepe clusters at the extreme of the Hyades stream. We model stellar orbits as perturbed ellipses aligned at a focus in coordinates rotating at the rate of precession of apocentre. Stars join a spiral arm just before apocentre, follow the arm for more than half an orbit, and leave the arm soon after pericentre. Spiral pattern speed equals the mean rate of precession of apocentre. Spiral arms are shown to be stable configurations of stellar orbits, up to the formation of a bar and/or ring. Pitch angle is directly related to the distribution of orbital eccentricities in a given spiral galaxy. We show how spiral galaxies can evolve to form bars and rings. We show that orbits of gas clouds are stable only in bisymmetric spirals. We conclude that spiral galaxies evolve toward grand design two-armed spirals. We infer from the velocity distributions that the Milky Way evolved into this form about 9 Gyrs ago.

Charles Francis; Erik Anderson

2009-01-22

309

3. Exterior view of Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T28), looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Exterior view of Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking southeast. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

310

4. Exterior view of Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T28), looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Exterior view of Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking northwest. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

311

MOVEMENT AND DEPOSITION OF PESTICIDES WITHIN RESIDENCES AFTER INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a study begun in 1999, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) investigated the temporal and spatial distributions of pesticides applied by homeowners and commercial applicators for indoor crack and crevice and exterior perimeter treatments. In each participating househol...

312

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD TO THE CENTER, HEYL & PATTERSON CAR DUMPER TO THE LEFT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

313

24 CFR 3280.405 - Standard for swinging exterior passage doors for use in manufactured homes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...doors used for access to utilities and compartments. This standard applies only to the door frame consisting of jambs, head and sill and the attached door or doors. (b) Performance requirements. The design and construction of exterior door units...

2010-04-01

314

3. EXTERIOR, SOUTH REAR VIEW OF C.F. WHEELER GROCERY GARTON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EXTERIOR, SOUTH REAR VIEW OF C.F. WHEELER GROCERY GARTON BAKERY AND CONFECTIONERY AND NIELSEN, GEHRKE AND HANSEN CLOTHING STORE - East Locust Street Commercial District, 521-529 East Locust Street, Des Moines, Polk County, IA

315

3. Historic American Buildings Survey Bruce CunninghamWerdnigg, Photographer, 1970 EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Historic American Buildings Survey Bruce Cunningham-Werdnigg, Photographer, 1970 EXTERIOR FACING WHITNEY AVENUE Credit line of photographer must accompany reproduction - Atwater-Ciampolini House, 321 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

316

Exterior view, looking west OvertheHorizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior view, looking west - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Receiver Building, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

317

Exterior view, looking southwest OvertheHorizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior view, looking southwest - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Receiver Building, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

318

Exterior view, looking west OvertheHorizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior view, looking west - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Receiver Building, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

319

Exterior view, looking southeast OvertheHorizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior view, looking southeast - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Receiver Building, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

320

Parametrisations of elements of spinor and orthogonal groups using exterior exponents  

E-print Network

We present new parametrizations of elements of spinor and orthogonal groups of dimension 4 using Grassmann exterior algebra. Theory of spinor groups is an important tool in theoretical and mathematical physics namely in the Dirac equation for an electron.

Nikolay Marchuk

2009-12-29

321

5. Historic American Buildings Survey Exterior photocopy from C.M. Pepper, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Historic American Buildings Survey Exterior photocopy from C.M. Pepper, Everyday Life in Washington (1900, p. 371) - Robert P. Dodge House, 1534 Twenty-eighth Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

322

Optimal secondary source position in exterior spherical acoustical holophony  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exterior spherical acoustical holophony is a branch of spatial audio reproduction that deals with the rendering of a given free-field radiation pattern (the primary field) by using a compact spherical loudspeaker array (the secondary source). More precisely, the primary field is known on a spherical surface surrounding the primary and secondary sources and, since the acoustic fields are described in spherical coordinates, they are naturally subjected to spherical harmonic analysis. Besides, the inverse problem of deriving optimal driving signals from a known primary field is ill-posed because the secondary source cannot radiate high-order spherical harmonics efficiently, especially in the low-frequency range. As a consequence, a standard least-squares solution will overload the transducers if the primary field contains such harmonics. Here, this is avoided by discarding the strongly decaying spherical waves, which are identified through inspection of the radiation efficiency curves of the secondary source. However, such an unavoidable regularization procedure increases the least-squares error, which also depends on the position of the secondary source. This paper deals with the above-mentioned questions in the context of far-field directivity reproduction at low and medium frequencies. In particular, an optimal secondary source position is sought, which leads to the lowest reproduction error in the least-squares sense without overloading the transducers. In order to address this issue, a regularization quality factor is introduced to evaluate the amount of regularization required. It is shown that the optimal position improves significantly the holophonic reconstruction and maximizes the regularization quality factor (minimizes the amount of regularization), which is the main general contribution of this paper. Therefore, this factor can also be used as a cost function to obtain the optimal secondary source position.

Pasqual, A. M.; Martin, V.

2012-02-01

323

Morphology of Galactic Open Clusters  

E-print Network

We analyzed the shapes of Galactic open clusters by the star counting technique with the 2MASS star catalog database. Morphological parameters such as the ellipticity and size have been derived via stellar density distribution, weighed by clustering probability. We find that most star clusters are elongated, even for the youngest star clusters of a few million years old, which are located near to the Galactic disk. The shapes of young star clusters must reflect the conditions in the parental molecular clouds and during the cluster formation process. As an open cluster ages, stellar dynamics cause the inner part of the cluster to circularize, but the overall radius gets larger and the stellar density becomes sparser. We discuss how internal relaxation process competes with Galactic external perturbation during cluster evolution.

W. P. Chen; C. W. Chen; C. G. Shu

2004-08-02

324

Where Galactic Snakes Live  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows what astronomers are referring to as a 'snake' (upper left) and its surrounding stormy environment. The sinuous object is actually the core of a thick, sooty cloud large enough to swallow dozens of solar systems. In fact, astronomers say the 'snake's belly' may be harboring beastly stars in the process of forming.

The galactic creepy crawler to the right of the snake is another thick cloud core, in which additional burgeoning massive stars might be lurking. The colorful regions below the two cloud cores are less dense cloud material, in which dust has been heated by starlight and glows with infrared light. Yellow and orange dots throughout the image are monstrous developing stars; the red star on the 'belly' of the snake is 20 to 50 times as massive as our sun. The blue dots are foreground stars.

The red ball at the bottom left is a 'supernova remnant,' the remains of massive star that died in a fiery blast. Astronomers speculate that radiation and winds from the star before it died, in addition to a shock wave created when it exploded, might have played a role in creating the snake.

Spitzer was able to spot the two black cloud cores using its heat-seeking infrared vision. The objects are hiding in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy, invisible to optical telescopes. Because their heat, or infrared light, can sneak through the dust, they first showed up in infrared images from past missions. The cloud cores are so thick with dust that if you were to somehow transport yourself into the middle of them, you would see nothing but black, not even a star in the sky. Now, that's spooky!

Spitzer's new view of the region provides the best look yet at the massive embryonic stars hiding inside the snake. Astronomers say these observations will ultimately help them better understand how massive stars form. By studying the clustering and range of masses of the stellar embryos, they hope to determine if the stars were born in the same way that our low-mass sun was formed - out of a collapsing cloud of gas and dust - or by another mechanism in which the environment plays a larger role.

The snake is located about 11,000 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius.

This false-color image is a composite of infrared data taken by Spitzer's infrared array camera and multiband imaging photometer. Blue represents 3.6-micron light; green shows light of 8 microns; and red is 24-micron light.

2006-01-01

325

Rotation Curve Anomaly and Galactic Warp in M 51  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the anomaly of rotation curve in the nearly face-on galaxy M 51 that shows an apparently faster decrease of rotation velocity than the Keplerian law in the outer disk, further showing apparent counter rotation in the outermost H I disk. We interpreted this anomaly as being due to warping of the galactic disk, and determined the warping structure of M 51's disk using the tilted-ring method, while assuming that the intrinsic rotation curve is normal. It has been shown that the disk is nearly flat in the inner disk at a constant inclination angle, but the disk suddenly bends at radius 7.5 kpc by about 27°. The inclination angle, then, decreases monotonically outward, reaching a perfect face-on ring at 18 kpc, beyond which the disk is warped in the opposite sense to the inner disk, resulting in apparent counter rotation.

Oikawa, Shouta; Sofue, Yoshiaki

2014-07-01

326

Relativistic Ring Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativistic thick ring models are constructed using previously found analytical Newtonian potential-density pairs for flat rings and toroidal structures obtained from Kuzmin-Toomre family of disks. In particular, we present systems with one ring, two rings and a disk with a ring. Also, the circular velocity of a test particle and its stability when performing circular orbits are presented in all these models. In general, we find that regions of non-stability appear between the rings when they become thinner.

Ujevic, Maximiliano; Letelier, Patricio S.; Vogt, Daniel

327

Supernovae and the Galactic Ecosystem  

E-print Network

Supernovae are the dominant source of stellar feedback, which plays an important role in regulating galaxy formation and evolution. While this feedback process is still quite uncertain, it is probably not due to individual supernova remnants as commonly observed. Most supernovae likely take place in low-density, hot gaseous environments, such as superbubbles and galactic bulges, and typically produce no long-lasting bright remnants. I review recent observational and theoretical work on the impact of such supernovae on galaxy ecosystems, particularly on hot gas in superbubbles and galactic spheroids.

Wang, Q Daniel

2014-01-01

328

The Heliosphere and Galactic Cosmic Rays  

NASA Video Gallery

The heliosphere deflects galactic cosmic rays from entering the system. Galactic cosmic rays are a very high energy form of particle radiation that are extremely difficult to shield against and are...

329

Galactic gamma-ray observations and galactic structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent observations of gamma-rays originating in the galactic disk together with radio observations, support an emerging picture of the overall structure of our galaxy with higher interstellar gas densities and star formation rates in a region which corresponds to that of the inner arms. The emerging picture is one where molecular clouds make up the dominant constituent of the interstellar gas in the inner galaxy and play a key role in accounting for the gamma-rays and phenomena associated with the production of young stars and other population 1 objects. In this picture, cosmic rays are associated with supernovae and are primarily of galactic origin. These newly observed phenomena can be understood as consequences of the density wave theories of spiral structure. Based on these new developments, the suggestion is made that a new galactic population class, Population O, be added to the standard Populations 1 and 2 in order to recognize important differences in dynamics and distribution between diffuse galactic H1 and interstellar molecular clouds.

Stecker, F. W.

1975-01-01

330

Dynamical evolution of Saturn's F ring dust particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturn's F ring has been the subject of study due to its peculiar structure and the proximity to two satellites, named Prometheus (interior) and Pandora (exterior to the ring), which cause perturbations to the ring particles. Early results from Voyager data have proposed that the ring is populated with centimetre- and micrometre-sized particles. The Cassini spacecraft also detected a less dense part in the ring with width of 700km. Small particles suffer the effects of solar radiation. Burns et al. showed that due to effects of one component of the solar radiation, the Poynting-Robertson drag, a ring particle will decay in the direction of the planet in a time much shorter than the age of the Solar system. In this work, we have analysed a sample of dust particles (1, 3, 5 and 10?m) under the effects of solar radiation, the Poynting-Robertson drag and the radiation pressure components and the gravitational effects of the satellites Prometheus and Pandora. In this case, the high increase of the eccentricity of the particles leads almost all of them to collide with the outer edge of the A ring. The inclusion of the oblateness of Saturn in this system significantly changes the outcome, since the large variation of the eccentricity is reduced by the oblateness effect. As a result, there is an increase in the lifetime of the particle in the envelope region. Our results show that even the small dust particles, which are very sensitive to the effects of solar radiation, have an orbital evolution similar to larger particles located in the F ring. The fate of all particles is a collision with Prometheus or Pandora in less than 30 years. On the other hand, collisions of these particles with moonlets/clumps present in the F ring could change this scenario.

Sfair, R.; Winter, S. M. Giuliatti; Mourão, D. C.; Winter, O. C.

2009-06-01

331

Galactic cosmic rays M.-B. Kallenrode  

E-print Network

Galactic cosmic rays M.-B. Kallenrode University of L¨uneburg, 21332 L¨uneburg, Germany Camera.: ??? First author: Kallenrode 1 Galactic cosmic rays M.-B. Kallenrode University of L¨uneburg, 21332 L¨uneburg, Germany This presentation gives a brief review of galactic cosmic rays. It starts with observations made

Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

332

The Galactic Magnetic Field as Viewed from the VLA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interstellar magnetic fields play critical roles in many astrophysical processes. Yet despite their importance, our knowledge about magnetic fields in our Galaxy remains limited. For the field within the Milky Way much of what we do know comes from radio astronomy, through observations of polarization and Faraday rotation measures (RMs) of extragalactic sources and pulsars. A high angular density of RM measurements in several critical areas of the Galaxy is needed to clarify the Galactic magnetic field structure. Understanding the overall structure of the magnetic field will subsequently help us determine the origin and evolution of the field. In an effort to determine the overall structure of the field, Sun et al. (2008) produced 3 models of the Galactic magnetic field based on RM measurements available at the time. These models made distinct predictions for RMs in a region of the inner Galaxy at low Galactic latitude. Using observations made with the Very Large Array (VLA), we have determined RMs for sources in this critical region. In this talk we will present the results of our study and show how the RMs strongly support the ASS+RING model.

van Eck, Cameron; Brown, Jo-Anne

2009-05-01

333

The Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS): The Full Poster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GPIPS will be completed in 2013, and the first data release (DR1) took place in August 2012 (see poster by L. Cashman). All of the 3,237 independent field observations, designed for the 10x10 arcmin Mimir instrument field of view, have been obtained, though a small number are being re-observed to meet our 2 arcsec seeing criterion. GPIPS data products include catalogs of stellar polarizations (POLCATs), catalogs of stellar photometry in the H-band (PHOTCATs), and deep co-added images for each field. The images for the entire 76 square degree region of the northern Galactic midplane surveyed have been mosaicked to create a large-format poster, which can be found elsewhere in the room. On the poster, data from the POLCATs are overlaid as polarization vectors, or circled stars for those exhibiting significant upper limits. Comparisons with other key data sets for correlative studies, such as the Galactic Ring Survey (Jackson et al. 2006), 2MASS (Skrutskie et al. 2006), WISE (Wright et al. 2010), the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS; Aguirre et al. 2011), GLIMPSE (Benjamin et al. 2003), and MIPSGAL (Mizuno et al. 2008) are also shown. Access to released GPIPS data is currently through our web server (gpips0.bu.edu), with planned upgrades to VO compliance and mirroring from other sites. This work is partially supported by NSF/MPS grants AST 06-07500 and AST 09-07790.

Clemens, Dan P.; Cashman, L. R.; Hoq, S.; Montgomery, J.; Pavel, M. D.

2013-01-01

334

Galactic Twins of the Nebula Around SN 1987A: Hints that LBVs may be supernova progenitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I discuss outstanding questions about the formation of the ring nebula around SN1987A and some implications of similar ring nebulae around Galactic B supergiants. There are notable obstacles for the formation of SN1987A's bipolar nebula through interacting winds in a transition from a red supergiant to a blue supergiant. Instead, several clues hint that the nebula may have been ejected in an LBV-like event. In addition to the previously known example of Sher 25, there are two newly-discovered Galactic analogs of SN1987A's ringed nebula. Of these three Galactic analogs around blue supergiants, two (Sher 25 and SBW1) have chemical abundances indicating that they have not been through a red supergiant phase, and the remaining ringed bipolar nebula surrounds a luminous blue variable (HD168625). Although SK-69 202's initial mass of ~20 Msolar is lower than those atributed to most LBVs, it is not far off and the low-luminosity end of the LBV phenomenon is not well defined. Furthermore, HD168625's luminosity indicates an initial mass of only ~25 Msolar, that of SBW1 is consistent with ~20 Msolar, and there is a B[e] star in the SMC with an initial mass of ~20 Msolar that experienced an LBV outburst in the 1990s. These similarities may be giving us important clues about Sk-69 202's pre-SN evolution and the formation mechanism of its nebula.

Smith, Nathan

2007-10-01

335

Galactic Twins of the Nebula Around SN 1987A: Hints that LBVs may be supernova progenitors  

E-print Network

I discuss outstanding questions about the formation of the ring nebula around SN1987A and some implications of similar ring nebulae around Galactic B supergiants. There are notable obstacles for the formation of SN1987A's bipolar nebula through interacting winds in a transition from a red supergiant to a blue supergiant. Instead, several clues hint that the nebula may have been ejected in an LBV-like event. In addition to the previously known example of Sher25, there are two newly-discovered Galactic analogs of SN1987A's ringed nebula. Of these three Galactic analogs around blue supergiants, two (Sher25 and SBW1) have chemical abundances indicating that they have not been through a red supergiant phase, and the remaining ringed bipolar nebula surrounds a luminous blue variable (HD168625). Although SK-69 202's initial mass of 20 Msun is lower than those atributed to most LBVs, it is not far off, and the low-luminosity end of the LBV phenomenon is not well defined. Furthermore, HD168625's luminosity indicates an initial mass of only 25 Msun, that of SBW1 is consistent with 20 Msun, and there is a B[e] star in the SMC with an initial mass of 20 Msun that experienced an LBV outburst in the 1990s. These similarities may be giving us important clues about Sk-69 202's pre-SN evolution and the formation mechanism of its nebula.

Nathan Smith

2007-05-21

336

Vaginal ring (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The vaginal ring is a flexible ring about 2 inches in diameter that is inserted into the vagina. It releases progestin and estrogen into the body to avoid pregnancy. The woman inserts it herself and it stays in the vagina ...

337

Removing a Ring Safely  

MedlinePLUS

... ASSH Hand Safety Fireworks Lawnmowers Snowblowers Pumpkin Carving Gardening Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Hand and Arm ... ASSH Hand Safety Fireworks Lawnmowers Snowblowers Pumpkin Carving Gardening Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Hand and Arm ...

338

Rings in drugs.  

PubMed

We have analyzed the rings, ring systems, and frameworks in drugs listed in the FDA Orange Book to understand the frequency, timelines, molecular property space, and the application of these rings in different therapeutic areas and target classes. This analysis shows that there are only 351 ring systems and 1197 frameworks in drugs that came onto the market before 2013. Furthermore, on average six new ring systems enter drug space each year and approximately 28% of new drugs contain a new ring system. Moreover, it is very unusual for a drug to contain more than one new ring system and the majority of the most frequently used ring systems (83%) were first used in drugs developed prior to 1983. These observations give insight into the chemical novelty of drugs and potentially efficient ways to assess compound libraries and develop compounds from hit identification to lead optimization and beyond. PMID:24471928

Taylor, Richard D; MacCoss, Malcolm; Lawson, Alastair D G

2014-07-24

339

Saturn's F-Ring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This narrow-angle camera image of Saturn's F Ring was taken through the Clear filter while at a distance of 6.9 million km from Saturn on 8 November 1980. The brightness variations of this tightly-constrained ring shown here indicate that the ring is less uniform in makeup than the larger rings. JPL managed the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science

2000-01-01

340

STRUCTURED MOLECULAR GAS REVEALS GALACTIC SPIRAL ARMS  

SciTech Connect

We explore the development of structures in molecular gas in the Milky Way by applying the analysis of the brightness distribution function and the brightness distribution index (BDI) in the archival data from the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 Galactic Ring Survey. The BDI measures the fractional contribution of spatially confined bright molecular emission over faint emission extended over large areas. This relative quantity is largely independent of the amount of molecular gas and of any conventional, pre-conceived structures, such as cores, clumps, or giant molecular clouds. The structured molecular gas traced by higher BDI is located continuously along the spiral arms in the Milky Way in the longitude-velocity diagram. This clearly indicates that molecular gas changes its structure as it flows through the spiral arms. Although the high-BDI gas generally coincides with H II regions, there is also some high-BDI gas with no/little signature of ongoing star formation. These results support a possible evolutionary sequence in which unstructured, diffuse gas transforms itself into a structured state on encountering the spiral arms, followed by star formation and an eventual return to the unstructured state after the spiral arm passage.

Sawada, Tsuyoshi [Joint ALMA Office, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile); Hasegawa, Tetsuo [NAOJ Chile Observatory, Joaquin Montero 3000 Oficina 702, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0409 (Chile); Koda, Jin, E-mail: sawada.tsuyoshi@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

2012-11-01

341

Saturn's F-Ring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This narrow-angle camera image of Saturn's F Ring was taken through the Clear filter while at a distance of 0.75 million km from Saturn on 12 November 1980. The kinks and braids of this tightly-constrained ring are visible along with the outer edge of the A Ring. JPL managed the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

2000-01-01

342

Token Ring Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates a Token Ring. Users may add or delete stations (or computers) from the ring. The applet allows the user to show data being circulated around the ring. Users may also select to demonstrate the cases when one of the stations is switched off, or monitoring. (UNC E-Learning Grant)

2007-01-23

343

The Jumping Ring Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…

Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

2009-01-01

344

Reasoning about rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ring is a useful means of structuring concurrent processes. Processes communicate by passing a token in a fixed direction; the process that possesses the token is allowed to make certain moves. Usually, correctness properties are expected to hold irrespective of the size of the ring. We show that the problem of checking many useful correctness properties for rings of

E. Allen Emerson; Kedar S. Namjoshi

1995-01-01

345

Birth Control Ring  

MedlinePLUS

... the hormones in the ring don't take effect immediately, another form of birth control (such as a condom) should be used ... that always prevents pregnancy and STDs. Possible Side Effects The vaginal ring is a safe and effective method of birth control. Most young women who use the ring ...

346

The galactic cycle of extinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global extinction and geological events have previously been linked with galactic events such as spiral arm crossings and galactic plane oscillation. The expectation that these are repeating predictable events has led to studies of periodicity in a wide set of biological, geological and climatic phenomena. Using data on carbon isotope excursions, large igneous provinces and impact craters, we identify three time zones of high geological activity which relate to the timings of the passage of the Solar System through the spiral arms. These zones are shown to include a significantly large proportion of high extinction periods. The mass extinction events at the ends of the Ordovician, Permian and Cretaceous occur in the first zone, which contains the predicted midpoints of the spiral arms. The start of the Cambrian, end of the Devonian and end of the Triassic occur in the second zone. The pattern of extinction timing in relation to spiral arm structure is supported by the positions of the superchrons and the predicted speed of the spiral arms. The passage times through an arm are simple multiples of published results on impact and fossil record periodicity and galactic plane half-periods. The total estimated passage time through four arms is 703.8 Myr. The repetition of extinction events at the same points in different spiral arm crossings suggests a common underlying galactic cause of mass extinctions, mediated through galactic effects on geological, solar and extra-solar processes. The two largest impact craters (Sudbury and Vredefort), predicted to have occurred during the early part of the first zone, extend the possible pattern to more than 2000 million years ago.

Gillman, Michael; Erenler, Hilary

2008-01-01

347

Galactic H II regions: Evolution and galactic structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nebulae ionized by OB stars, H II regions, are the formation sites of massive stars in our Galaxy. Since OB stars are short-lived, H II regions trace the locations of recent star formation. H II region classifications are based mainly on angular size, which is not an adequate indicator of an H I1 region's evolutionary state. The study of Galactic structure with H II regions has been hampered by the kinematic distance ambiguity (KDA) and by incomplete H II region samples. A large sample of H II regions is necessary to establish an H II region evolutionary sequence and to ascertain Galactic structure. Our sample contains 301 previously known ultra-compact (UC), compact, and diffuse inner Galaxy H II regions and 149 H II regions which were discovered by an ongoing survey using the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The combined sample is sensitive enough to locate all H II regions ionized by single O-stars within the Solar orbit. H II regions are commonly thought to evolve from UC to compact, before ending their lives as diffuse nebulae. The infrared, radio continuum, and molecular H II region properties derived here show no evidence that UC and compact nebulae are in different evolutionary stages. The properties of diffuse H II regions, however, suggest that the diffuse class does represent a later evolutionary state. We propose replacing the current classification scheme with one based on the physical size and radio continuum luminosity. We resolve the KDA for 392 H II regions. The resulting nebular distances give a face-on map of the most recent sites of star formation in the first Galactic quadrant. This map shows two spiral arc features at Galactocentric radii of 4.5 and 6kpc, and a paucity of H II regions within 3.5 kpc of the Galactic center. The location of these features is independent of the choice of rotation curve, streaming motions, or a change in the Galactic rotation parameters. The GBT survey found 16 first-quadrant sources with negative recombination line velocities, placing them beyond the Solar orbit. These sources show good agreement with the Outer Arm of the Galaxy and appear to follow the Galactic warp.

Anderson, Loren D.

348

Resolution of the Distance Ambiguity for Galactic HII Regions  

E-print Network

We resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity for 266 inner Galaxy HII regions out of a sample of 291 using existing HI and 13CO sky surveys. Our sample contains all HII regions with measured radio recombination line (RRL) emission over the extent of the 13CO Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey (18 deg, < l < 55 deg. and |b| < 1) and contains ultra compact, compact, and diffuse HII regions. We use two methods for resolving the distance ambiguity for each HII region: HI emission/absorption (HIEA) and HI self-absorption (HISA). We find that the HIEA and HISA methods can resolve the distance ambiguity for 72% and 87% of our sample, respectively. When projected onto the Galactic plane, this large sample appears to reveal aspects of Galactic structure, with spiral arm-like features at Galactocentric radii of 4.5 and 6 kpc, and a lack of HII regions within 3.5 kpc of the Galactic center. Our HII regions are approximately in the ratio of 2 to 1 for far verses near distances. The ratio of far to near distances for ultra-compact HII regions is 2.2 to 1. Compact HII regions are preferentially at the near distance; their ratio of far to near distances is 1.6 to 1. Diffuse HII regions are preferentially at the far distance; their ratio of far to near distances is 3.8 to 1. This implies that the distinction between ultra compact and compact HII regions is due largely to distance, and that the large angular size of diffuse HII regions is not due solely to proximity to the Sun.

L. D. Anderson; T. M. Bania

2008-10-30

349

The Solar System Linked to a Gigantic Interstellar Cloud, During 500 Myr: Implications for a Galactic Theory of Terrestrial Catatrophism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local galactic environment within 1 Kpc of the Sun comprises a massive, expanding ring of interstellar matter associated with star-forming molecular clouds and a group of relatively young OB stars known as Gould's Belt. This structure is likely the result of the disintegration of a formerly bound supercloud. Gould's belt is a discrete system that forms part of the

C. A. Olano

2000-01-01

350

The physics of galactic winds driven by active galactic nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active galactic nuclei (AGN) drive fast winds in the interstellar medium of their host galaxies. It is commonly assumed that the high ambient densities and intense radiation fields in galactic nuclei imply short cooling times, thus making the outflows momentum conserving. We show that cooling of high-velocity shocked winds in AGN is in fact inefficient in a wide range of circumstances, including conditions relevant to ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), resulting in energy-conserving outflows. We further show that fast energy-conserving outflows can tolerate a large amount of mixing with cooler gas before radiative losses become important. For winds with initial velocity vin ? 10 000 km s-1, as observed in ultraviolet and X-ray absorption, the shocked wind develops a two-temperature structure. While most of the thermal pressure support is provided by the protons, the cooling processes operate directly only on the electrons. This significantly slows down inverse Compton cooling, while free-free cooling is negligible. Slower winds with vin ˜ 1000 km s-1, such as may be driven by radiation pressure on dust, can also experience energy-conserving phases but under more restrictive conditions. During the energy-conserving phase, the momentum flux of an outflow is boosted by a factor ˜vin/2vs by work done by the hot post-shock gas, where vs is the velocity of the swept-up material. Energy-conserving outflows driven by fast AGN winds (vin ˜ 0.1c) may therefore explain the momentum fluxes ??LAGN/c of galaxy-scale outflows recently measured in luminous quasars and ULIRGs. Shocked wind bubbles expanding normal to galactic discs may also explain the large-scale bipolar structures observed in some systems, including around the Galactic Centre, and can produce significant radio, X-ray and ?-ray emission. The analytic solutions presented here will inform implementations of AGN feedback in numerical simulations, which typically do not include all the important physics.

Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Quataert, Eliot

2012-09-01

351

Dust and Planetary Rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ABSTRACT Space is not empty it has comic radiations (CMBR), dust etc. Cosmic dust is that type of dust which is composed of particles in space which vary from few molecules to 0.1micro metres in size. This type of dust is made up of heavier atoms born in the heart of stars and supernova. Mainly it contains dust grains and when these dust grains starts compacting then it turns to dense clouds, planetary ring dust and circumstellar dust. Dust grains are mainly silicate particles. Dust plays a major role in our solar system, for example in zodiacal light, Saturn's B ring spokes, planetary rings at Jovian planets and comets. Observations and measurements of cosmic dust in different regions of universe provide an important insight into the Universe's recycling processes. Astronomers consider dust in its most recycled state. Cosmic dust have radiative properties by which they can be detected. Cosmic dusts are classified as intergalactic dusts, interstellar dusts and planetary rings. A planetary ring is a ring of cosmic dust and other small particles orbiting around a planet in flat disc shape. All of the Jovian planets in our solar system have rings. But the most notable one is the Saturn's ring which is the brightest one. In March 2008 a report suggested that the Saturn's moon Rhea may have its own tenuous ring system. The ring swirling around Saturn consists of chunks of ice and dust. Most rings were thought to be unstable and to dissipate over course of tens or hundreds of millions of years but it now appears that Saturn's rings might be older than that. The dust particles in the ring collide with each other and are subjected to forces other than gravity of its own planet. Such collisions and extra forces tend to spread out the rings. Pluto is not known to have any ring system but some Astronomers believe that New Horizons probe might find a ring system when it visits in 2015.It is also predicted that Phobos, a moon of Mars will break up and form into a planetary ring. Many theories are present regarding the formation of rings for example when moons collide, when moon breaks up and due to dust formation in supernova. But the most important question is, that how they maintain their orbit and why they are present there.

Siddiqui, Muddassir

352

Traceable Ring Signature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ring signature allows a signer to leak secrets anonymously, without the risk of identity escrow. At the same time, the ring signature provides great flexibility: No group manager, no special setup, and the dynamics of group choice. The ring signature is, however, vulnerable to malicious or irresponsible signers in some applications, because of its anonymity. In this paper, we propose a traceable ring signature scheme. A traceable ring scheme is a ring signature except that it can restrict “excessive” anonymity. The traceable ring signature has a tag that consists of a list of ring members and an issue that refers to, for instance, a social affair or an election. A ring member can make any signed but anonymous opinion regarding the issue, but only once (per tag). If the member submits another signed opinion, possibly pretending to be another person who supports the first opinion, the identity of the member is immediately revealed. If the member submits the same opinion, for instance, voting “yes” regarding the same issue twice, everyone can see that these two are linked. The traceable ring signature can suit to many applications, such as an anonymous voting on a BBS. We formalize the security definitions for this primitive and show an efficient and simple construction in the random oracle model.

Fujisaki, Eiichiro; Suzuki, Koutarou

353

The Galactic Gravitational wave foreground  

E-print Network

I present an overview of the Galactic binaries that form the foreground for the ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The currently known population is discussed, as well as current and near-future large-scale surveys that will find new systems. The astrophysics that can be done when the LISA data becomes available is presented, with particular attention to verification binaries, the overall Galactic populations, neutron star and black hole binaries and sources in globular clusters. I discuss the synergy with electro-magnetic observations and correct an error in the estimate of the number of LISA systems that can be found in the optical compared to Nelemans (2006a) and conclude that at least several hundreds of systems should be detectable.

G. Nelemans

2009-01-13

354

Sunset on Saturn's Rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a rare view of Saturn's rings seen just after the Sun has set below the ring plane, taken with the Hubble Space Telescope on Nov. 21, 1995.

This perspective is unusual because the Earth is slightly above (2.7 degrees latitude) Saturn's rings and the Sun is below them. Normally we see the rings fully illuminated by the Sun.

The photograph shows three bright ring features: the F Ring, the Cassini Division, and the C Ring (moving from the outer rings to the inner). The low concentration of material in these rings allows light from the Sun to shine through them. The A and B rings are much denser, which limits the amount of light that penetrates through them. Instead, they are faintly visible because they reflect light from Saturn's disk.

Scientists believe that the F Ring is slightly warped because it disappears part way around on the right (West) side. Hubble's high resolution shows the that A Ring's shadow obscures part of the F ring (right).

The image was assembled from 20 exposures taken with Wide Field Planetary Camera-2 over 8 hours.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1996-01-01

355

Five-Dimensional Tangent Vectors in Space-Time: IV. Generalization of Exterior Calculus  

E-print Network

This part of the series is devoted to the generalization of exterior differential calculus. I give definition to the integral of a five-vector form over a limited space-time volume of appropriate dimension; extend the notion of the exterior derivative to the case of five-vector forms; and formulate the corresponding analogs of the generalized Stokes theorem and of the Poincare theorem about closed forms. I then consider the five-vector generalization of the exterior derivative itself; prove a statement similar to the Poincare theorem; define the corresponding five-vector generalization of flux; and derive the analog of the formula for integration by parts. I illustrate the ideas developed in this paper by reformulating the Lagrange formalism for classical scalar fields in terms of five-vector forms. In conclusion, I briefly discuss the five-vector analog of the Levi-Civita tensor and dual forms.

Alexander Krasulin

1998-08-18

356

Gas in active galactic nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of line-emitting regions in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is presented. Most existing AGN gas line-intensity measurements are accounted for by detailed photoionization models used in conjunction with spectrophotometric observations. The Seyfert 1 galaxy and quasar picture includes gravity as the primary energy source, and a black hole of 1-10 billion solar masses with a radiating accretion disk. None

G. M. MacAlpine

1986-01-01

357

Bicycling Black Rings  

E-print Network

We present detailed physics analyses of two different 4+1-dimensional asymptotically flat vacuum black hole solutions with spin in two independent planes: the doubly spinning black ring and the bicycling black ring system ("bi-rings"). The latter is a new solution describing two concentric orthogonal rotating black rings which we construct using the inverse scattering technique. We focus particularly on extremal zero-temperature limits of the solutions. We construct the phase diagram of currently known zero-temperature vacuum black hole solutions with a single event horizon, and discuss the non-uniqueness introduced by more exotic black hole configurations such as bi-rings and multi-ring saturns.

Henriette Elvang; Maria J. Rodriguez

2007-12-14

358

On Multiple Einstein Rings  

E-print Network

A number of recent surveys for gravitational lenses have found examples of double Einstein rings. Here, we investigate analytically the occurrence of multiple Einstein rings. We prove, under very general assumptions, that at most one Einstein ring can arise from a mass distribution in a single plane lensing a single background source. Two or more Einstein rings can therefore only occur in multi-plane lensing. Surprisingly, we show that it is possible for a single source to produce more than one Einstein ring. If two point masses (or two isothermal spheres) in different planes are aligned with observer and source on the optical axis, we show that there are up to three Einstein rings. We also discuss the image morphologies for these two models if axisymmetry is broken, and give the first instances of magnification invariants in the case of two lens planes.

M. C. Werner; J. An; N. W. Evans

2008-04-23

359

First Principles Study of Double Photoionization of H2 UsingExterior Complex Scaling  

SciTech Connect

Exterior complex scaling provides a practical path forfirst-principles studies of atomic and molecular ionizationproblemssince it avoids explicit enforcement of asymptotic boundary conditionsfor 3-body Coulomb breakup. We have used the method of exterior complexscaling, implemented with both the discrete variable representation andB-splines, to obtain the first-order wave function for molecular hydrogencorresponding to a single photon having been absorbed by a correlatedinitial state. These wave functions are used to construct convergedtriple differential cross sections for double photoionization of alignedH2 molecules.

Rescigno, Thomas N.; Vanroose, Wim; Horner, Daniel A.; Martin,Fernando; McCurdy, C. William

2006-07-21

360

A Crack in the C Ring?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most prominent wavelike feature in Saturn's C ring, at a radius of 77520 - 77600 km, was identified by Rosen & Lissauer (1988; Science 241, 690) in Voyager radio occultation data as a vertical or bending wave driven at the Titan -1:0 nodal resonance. At such a resonance, the nodal regression rate of ring particles approximately matches the negative of the satellite's mean motion. Unlike other bending waves, this wave propagates radially outwards due to its negative pattern speed; its prominence in the Voyager profile was attributed to the very low elevation angle of 6 degrees, which amplified the effect of subtle vertical corrugations. However, the same wave appears in twenty stellar occultation profiles of the C ring obtained with the Cassini VIMS instrument at elevation angles as high as 62 degrees, casting some doubt on its identification as a bending wave. Also troubling is an apparently empty gap in the inner part of the Voyager wave profile, which also appears in about one-half of the VIMS profiles. When these data are organized by their position with respect to the predicted spiral pattern, the gap is seen to extend over 180 degrees in longitude, with varying width. A simple model which can account for these observations consists of a very narrow (< 1 km), continuous gap, one of whose edges is inclined with respect to the other by a few km. This is comparable to the amplitude of the bending wave inferred by Rosen & Lissauer. The gap is located only 14 km exterior to the nominal location of the -1:0 resonance, suggesting that the vertical displacement of its edge is resonantly forced. We acknowledge helpful discussions with R.G. French of the Cassini RSS team, and support from the Cassini/Huygens project.

Nicholson, Philip D.; Hedman, M. M.; Cassini VIMS Team

2010-10-01

361

Features in Saturn's rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systematic, uniform search of Voyage 2 photopolarimeter system (PSS) data set for all significant features of Saturn's rings is described. On August 25, 1981, the PSS observed the occultation of the star Delta Scorpii by the rings of Saturn, and the timing of the data taking was rapid enough that the spatial resolution in the radial direction in the ring plane was better than 100 m. Tabular information and figures for 216 significant features that were found are presented.

Esposito, Larry W.; Harris, Craig C.; Simmons, Karen E.

1987-01-01

362

Radioactive gold ring dermatitis  

SciTech Connect

A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy.

Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))

1990-08-01

363

Saturn's Rings are Fractal  

E-print Network

Over the past few decades, various conjectures were advanced that Saturn's rings are Cantor-like sets, although no convincing fractal analysis of actual images has ever appeared. We focus on the images sent by the Cassini spacecraft mission: slide #42 "Mapping Clumps in Saturn's Rings" and slide #54 "Scattered Sunshine". Using the box-counting method, we determine the fractal dimension of rings seen here (and in several other images from the same source) to be consistently about 1.6~1.7. This supports many conjectures put forth over several decades that Saturn's rings are indeed fractal.

Li, Jun

2012-01-01

364

Semigroups and ring endomorphisms  

E-print Network

B A ring p. -uch that End R properly contains the above semigroup, is display"d in Tai'le XXIlI The endomorphiams cf the shove ring are I = (01234567), 0 = ', 00000000, ', A = (00440044), B = (00224466), 0 = (00664422), D = (01010101&, E... B A ring p. -uch that End R properly contains the above semigroup, is display"d in Tai'le XXIlI The endomorphiams cf the shove ring are I = (01234567), 0 = ', 00000000, ', A = (00440044), B = (00224466), 0 = (00664422), D = (01010101&, E...

McDaniel, Johnnie Carl

2012-06-07

365

Star formation and stellar populations across nuclear rings in galaxies  

E-print Network

(Abridged) We present a study of the optical spectra of a sample of eight star-forming nuclear rings and the nuclei of their host galaxies. The spectra were obtained with the ISIS spectrograph on the William Herschel Telescope and cover a wide range in wavelength, enabling the measurement of several stellar absorption features and gas emission lines. We compared the strength of the absorption lines to a variety of population synthesis models for the star-formation history in the nuclear rings, including also the contribution of the older bulge and disc stellar components. We find that the stars in our sample of nuclear rings have most likely formed over a prolonged period of time characterised by episodic bursts of star-formation activity. Constant star formation is firmly ruled out by the data, whereas a one-off formation event is an unlikely explanation for a common galactic component such as nuclear rings. We have used emission-line measurements to constrain the physical conditions of the ionised gas within the rings. Emission in all nuclear rings originates from HII-regions with electron densities typical for these kinds of objects, and that the rings are characterised by values for the gas metallicity ranging from slightly below to just above solar. As 20% of nearby spiral galaxies hosts nuclear rings that are currently forming massive stars, our finding of an episodic star formation history in nuclear rings implies that a significant population remains to be identified of young nuclear rings that are not currently in a massive star formation phase.

M. Sarzi; E. L. Allard; J. H. Knapen; L. M. Mazzuca

2007-07-04

366

SAS-2 galactic gamma ray results, 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuing analysis of the data from the SAS-2 high energy gamma-ray experiment has produced an improved picture of the sky at photon energies above 35 MeV. On a large scale, the diffuse emission from the galactic plane is the dominant feature observed by SAS-2. This galactic plane emission is most intense between galactic longitude 310 and 45 deg, corresponding to a region within 7kpc of the galactic center. Within the high-intensity region, SAS-2 observes peaks around galactic longitudes 315 deg, 330 deg, 345 deg, 0 deg, and 35 deg. These peaks appear to be correlated with such galactic features and components as molecular hydrogen, atomic hydrogen, magnetic fields, cosmic ray concentrations, and photon fields.

Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Bignami, G. F.; Lamb, R. C.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

1976-01-01

367

ATOMIC HYDROGEN IN A GALACTIC CENTER OUTFLOW  

SciTech Connect

We describe a population of small, high-velocity, atomic hydrogen clouds, loops, and filaments found above and below the disk near the Galactic center. The objects have a mean radius of 15 pc, velocity widths of {approx}14 km s{sup -1}, and are observed at |z| heights up to 700 pc. The velocity distribution of the clouds shows no signature of Galactic rotation. We propose a scenario where the clouds are associated with an outflow from a central star-forming region at the Galactic center. We discuss the clouds as entrained material traveling at {approx}200 km s{sup -1} in a Galactic wind.

McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Green, J. A.; Hill, A. S. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield, NSW 2122 (Australia); Lockman, F. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Dickey, J. M. [School of Physics and Mathematics, University of Tasmania, TAS 7001 (Australia); Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J., E-mail: naomi.mcclure-griffiths@csiro.au [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

2013-06-10

368

Problem of Vain Energy Consumption in a VAV Air Conditioning System Shared By an Inner Zone and Exterior Zone  

E-print Network

In northern China, there are a large number of space buildings divided in inner zone and exterior zone based on usage requirements. The exterior zone needs to be heated in winter and cooled in summer, while the inner zone needs to be cooled both...

Wenji, G.; Ling, C.; Dongdong, L.; Mei, S.; Li, Z.

2006-01-01

369

Outer structure of the Galactic warp and flare: explaining the Canis Major over-density  

E-print Network

(Abridged) We derive the structure of the Galactic stellar Warp and Flare using 2MASS RC and RGB stars, selected at mean heliocentric distances of 3, 7 and 17 kpc. Our results are: (i) a clear stellar warp signature is derived for the 3 selected rings; (ii) the derived stellar warp is consistent (both in amplitude and phase-angle) with that for the Galactic interstellar dust and HI gas; (iii) the Sun seems not to fall on the line of nodes. The stellar warp phase-angle orientation (+15 degrees) is close to the orientation angle of the Galactic bar and this produces an asymmetric warp for the inner rings; (iv) a Northern/Southern warp symmetry is observed only for the ring at 17 kpc; (v) treating a mixture of thin and thick disk populations we trace the disk flaring and derive a constant scale-height (~0.65 kpc) within R(GC)~15 kpc. Further out, the disk flaring increase gradually reaching a mean scale-height of ~1.5 kpc at R(GC)~23 kpc; and (vi) these results provide further robust evidence that there is no disk radial truncation at R(GC)~14 kpc. In the particular case of the Canis Major over-density we confirm its coincidence with the Southern stellar maximum warp occurring near l=240. We present evidence to conclude that all observed parameters (e.g. number density, radial velocities, proper motion etc) of CMa are consistent with it being a normal Milky Way outer-disk population, thereby leaving no justification for a more complex interpretations of its origin. The present analysis does not provide a conclusive test of the structure or origin of the Monoceros Ring. Nevertheless, we show that a warped flared Milky Way contributes significantly at the locations of the Monoceros Ring.

Y. Momany; S. Zaggia; G. Gilmore; G. Piotto; G. Carraro; L. R. Bedin; F. De Angeli

2006-03-15

370

Illustration of Saturn's Rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This illustration shows a close-up of Saturn's rings. These rings are thought to have formed from material that was unable to form into a Moon because of tidal forces from Saturn, or from a Moon that was broken up by Saturn's tidal forces.

2001-01-01

371

Jitter in Ring Oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jitter in ring oscillators is theoretically described, and predictions are experimentally verified. A design procedure is developed in the context of time domain measures of oscillator jitter in a phase-locked loop (PLL). A major contribution is the identification of a design figure of merit , which is independent of the number of stages in the ring. This figure of merit

John Mcneill

1994-01-01

372

Smoke Ring Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The behavior of smoke rings, tornados, and quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium has many features in common. These features can be described by the same mathematics we use when introducing Ampere's law in an introductory physics course. We discuss these common features. (Contains 7 figures.)

Huggins, Elisha

2011-01-01

373

The Fermilab recycler ring  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab Recycler is a permanent magnet storage ring for the accumulation of antiprotons from the Antiproton Source, and the recovery and cooling of the antiprotons remaining at the end of a Tevatron store. It is an integral part of the Fermilab III luminosity upgrade. The following paper describes the design features, operational and commissioning status of the Recycler Ring.

Martin Hu

2001-07-24

374

EBT ring physics  

SciTech Connect

This workshop attempted to evaluate the status of the current experimental and theoretical understanding of hot electron ring properties. The dominant physical processes that influence ring formation, scaling, and their optimal behavior are also studied. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 27 included papers. (MOW)

Uckan, N.A. (ed.)

1980-04-01

375

Child sex rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Details of 11 child sex rings identified in one working class community were obtained by interviewing investigating police officers and examining health and social services records. The rings contained 14 adult male perpetrators and 175 children aged 6-15 years. Most perpetrators used child ringleaders to recruit victims; others became a \\

N J Wild; J M Wynne

1986-01-01

376

On the non-existence of surface waves trapped by submerged obstructions having exterior cusp points  

E-print Network

On the non-existence of surface waves trapped by submerged obstructions having exterior cusp points or establishing their non-existence in a variety of problems of the surface wave theory. We shall not present energy to large distances and which are spatially periodic along the generator of the cylindrical

377

Exterior direct detail view of 2nd floor balcony at west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior direct detail view of 2nd floor balcony at west side of Building 6, showing curved concrete rail and tapered concrete column, looking north - North Beach Place, 401 Bay Street, 500 Francisco Street, 401 Bay Street, 500 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

378

LPT. Shield test facility (TAN646) exterior, as modified for EBOR. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LPT. Shield test facility (TAN-646) exterior, as modified for EBOR. Camera facing northeast. Heat exchange fans, helium storage tanks, and completed EBOR perimeter road. Photographer: Page Comisky. Date: ca. August 20, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-4328 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

379

OBLIQUE/EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH SINTERING PLANT RUINS AND TRACES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE/EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH SINTERING PLANT RUINS AND TRACES OF L. & N. RAILROAD EXTENDING THROUGH GRACE'S GAP TOWARD THE BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER. - Republic Steel, Spaulding Red Ore Mine (Ruins), Spanning Grace's Pass at Louisville & Nashville Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

380

7. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T27), looking south. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking south. The wing in the immediate foreground houses the equipment room. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

381

2. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T27), looking southeast. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking southeast. The building wing on the left houses the equipment room and that on the right houses Test Cell 8 (oxidizer) and the oxidizer storage pit or vault. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

382

3. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T27), looking southeast. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking southeast. The building wing on the left houses the equipment room, and that on the right houses Test Cell 8 (oxidizer) and the oxidizer storage pit or vault. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

383

A SpaceTime Finite Element Method for the Exterior Structural Acoustics Problem  

E-print Network

in an infinite acoustic fluid and requiring solution of the coupled wave equation subject to a far­ ational equation is presented for both the elastic structure and the acoustic fluid, togetherA Space­Time Finite Element Method for the Exterior Structural Acoustics Problem: Time

Thompson, Lonny L.

384

1. EXTERIOR, OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH FRONT FACADES OF C.F. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR, OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH FRONT FACADES OF C.F. WHEELER GROCERY, GARTON BAKERY AND CONFECTIONERY AND NIELSEN, GEHRKE AND HANSEN CLOTHING STORE (RIGHT TO LEFT) - East Locust Street Commercial District, 521-529 East Locust Street, Des Moines, Polk County, IA

385

Sustainable wall construction and exterior insulation retrofit technology process and structure  

DOEpatents

A low-cost process for exterior wall insulation retrofit, or new wall construction by stacking layers of fabric tube filled with insulating material against a wall and covering them with mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value.

Vohra, Arun (Bethesda, MD)

2000-01-01

386

Inversión colombiana en el exterior: Bavaria y su estrategia internacional con las \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muy pocas investigaciones se han realizado sobre los motivantes, destinos, resultados y tendencias de la inversión colombiana en el exterior. Este artículo presenta la estrategia de adquisiciones internacionales que ha tenido el Grupo Empresarial Bavaria en el mercado cervecero de Europa, Panamá, Ecuador y recientemente Perú. Se destaca la reacción estratégica - vía inversión extranjera - que una empresa colombiana

Carlos Enrique Ramírez; Angela María Jimenez; Juan Fernando Garrido

2002-01-01

387

5. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T27), looking northwest. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking northwest. The building wing on the left houses Test Cell 10 (environmental), and that on the right houses Test Cell 9 (fuel) and the fuel storage pit or vault. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

388

4. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T27), looking northeast. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Exterior view of Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking northeast. The building wing on the left houses Test Cell 8 (oxidizer) and the oxidizer storage pit or vault, and that on the right houses Test Cell 10 (environmental). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

389

2. Exterior view of LongTerm Hydrazine Silo (T28E), looking east. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Exterior view of Long-Term Hydrazine Silo (T-28E), looking east. The low-lying building to the immediate right of the silo is the Fuel Purification Structure T-28E). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Long-Term Hydrazine Silo, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

390

2. Exterior view of Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T28), looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Exterior view of Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking southwest. The low-lying concrete Signal Transfer Building (T-28A) is located in the immediate foreground. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

391

3. Exterior view of LongTerm Hydrazine Silo (T28E), looking southwest. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Exterior view of Long-Term Hydrazine Silo (T-28E), looking southwest. The low-lying building to the immediate left of the silo is the Fuel Purification Structure (T-28E). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Long-Term Hydrazine Silo, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

392

4. Exterior view of LongTerm Hydrazine Silo (T28E), looking west. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Exterior view of Long-Term Hydrazine Silo (T-28E), looking west. The low-lying building to the immediate left of the silo is the Fuel Purification Structure (T-28E). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Long-Term Hydrazine Silo, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

393

2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING 25B (TEST CHAMBER BUILDING) AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING 25B (TEST CHAMBER BUILDING) AND WIND TUNNEL, LOOKING NORTHWEST (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

394

1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING 25A (COLD CHAMBER), LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING 25A (COLD CHAMBER), LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH WIND TUNNEL IN BACKGROUND (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

395

Investigation about the effects of exterior surface paint color on temperature development in aboveground pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical analytical model for predicting temperature development of incompressible flow inside an aboveground pipeline has been constructed and presented in this research work. The outer surface of the pipeline is exposed to solar radiation and wind stream. The radiation heat exchange with ambient is also taken into account. The effects of exterior surface paint color represented by emissivity and

Mahmood Farzaneh-Gord; Alireza Rasekh; Amin Nabati; Morteza Saadat

396

Investigation about the effects of exterior surface paint color on temperature development in aboveground pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical analytical model for predicting temperature development of incompressible flow inside an aboveground pipeline has been constructed and presented in this research work. The outer surface of the pipeline is exposed to solar radiation and wind stream. The radiation heat exchange with ambient is also taken into account. The effects of exterior surface paint color represented by emissivity and

Mahmood Farzaneh-Gord; Alireza Rasekh; Amin Nabati; Morteza Saadat

2010-01-01

397

EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF TOWER HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. (The building?s interior ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF TOWER HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. (The building?s interior space is divided into three rooms: the workshop, the mill room, and the tank house. In the tower, the original wood tank that fed water to the Harmon house and the milk house still remains.) - Engle Farm, Tank House, 89 South Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

398

Introduction This work is concerned with the exterior structural acoustics problem involving the  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Introduction This work is concerned with the exterior structural acoustics problem involving the interaction of vibrating structures submerged in an infinite acoustic fluid and requires solution of the coupled wave equation subject to a far­field radiation condition. The acoustic fluid

Thompson, Lonny L.

399

Proceedings of Thermal VII, Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings,  

E-print Network

LBNL-42871 BS-400 Proceedings of Thermal VII, Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes locations. The user describes the physical, thermal and optical properties of the windows in each of the house. The RESFEN program then models a prototypical house for that location and calculates the energy

400

Augmented Reality for Exterior Construction Applications Gudrun Klinker (1), Didier Stricker (2), Dirk Reiners (2)  

E-print Network

Augmented Reality for Exterior Construction Applications Gudrun Klinker (1), Didier Stricker (2 Arcisstr. 21, D-80290 München (2) Fraunhofer Projektgruppe für Augmented Reality am ZGDV, Rundeturmstr. 6, D-64283 Darmstadt, Germany Abstract Augmented reality (AR) constitutes a very promising new user

Bruegge, Bernd

401

Almost global existence for nonlinear wave equations in an exterior domain in two space dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we deal with the exterior problem for a system of nonlinear wave equations in two space dimensions, assuming that the initial data is small and smooth. We establish the same type of lower bound of the lifespan for the problem as that for the Cauchy problem, despite of the weak decay property of the solution in two space dimensions.

Kubo, Hideo

2014-10-01

402

Exterior detail direct view of typical entry steps (including 3story ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior detail direct view of typical entry steps (including 3-story trash-dump tower) at east side of Building 7, looking south - North Beach Place, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

403

VIEW OF STATION SAXTON FACING NORTHEAST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR,FRONT AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF STATION SAXTON FACING NORTHEAST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR,FRONT AND RIGHT SIDE OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT. THE VISIBLE SANDSTONE FLANK-WALL ILLUSTRATES THE TYPICAL RELATIONSHIP OF THE FLANK WALLS TO THE VIEW APERTURE - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"2, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

404

25. EXTERIOR WEST VIEW OF STORAGE TANK (1991). WrightPatterson ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. EXTERIOR WEST VIEW OF STORAGE TANK (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

405

Exterior view of west wall of LongTerm Oxidizer Silo (T28B) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior view of west wall of Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B) at left (taller structure) and adjacent Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D) at right (lower structure) - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Long-Term Oxidizer Silo, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

406

A&M. Jet engine test building (TAN609). Exterior. Equipment inside rollup ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

A&M. Jet engine test building (TAN-609). Exterior. Equipment inside roll-up door is blowdown test facility, part of loft-semiscale program. Note width of central section serving as blast protection for operator on left side. Photographer: Cahoon. Date: July 22, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-3703 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

407

The population of propellers in Saturn's A Ring  

E-print Network

We present an extensive data set of ~150 localized features from Cassini images of Saturn's Ring A, a third of which are demonstrated to be persistent by their appearance in multiple images, and half of which are resolved well enough to reveal a characteristic "propeller" shape. We interpret these features as the signatures of small moonlets embedded within the ring, with diameters between 40 and 500 meters. The lack of significant brightening at high phase angle indicates that they are likely composed primarily of macroscopic particles, rather than dust. With the exception of two features found exterior to the Encke Gap, these objects are concentrated entirely within three narrow (~1000 km) bands in the mid-A Ring that happen to be free from local disturbances from strong density waves. However, other nearby regions are similarly free of major disturbances but contain no propellers. It is unclear whether these bands are due to specific events in which a parent body or bodies broke up into the current moonlets, or whether a larger initial moonlet population has been sculpted into bands by other ring processes.

Matthew S. Tiscareno; Joseph A. Burns; Matthew M. Hedman; Carolyn C. Porco

2007-10-24

408

Rings in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saturn, Jupiter, and Uranus have rings with different structure and composition. The rings consist of tiny masses in independent orbits. Photographs and data obtained by the Voyager project have aided in the understanding of Saturn's rings. Spokes have been found in B ring and boards, knots, and twist in F ring. Particles on the order of a micrometer in size

James B. Pollack; Jeffrey N. Cuzzi

1981-01-01

409

Stabilizer Codes over Frobenius Rings  

E-print Network

as the Frobenius rings. This thesis focuses on developing the theory of stabilizer codes over the Frobenius rings and provides a systematic construction of codes over these rings. A special class of Frobenius rings called finite chain rings will be the emphasis...

Nadella, Sushma

2012-07-16

410

Jupiter's Rings: Sharpest View  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The New Horizons spacecraft took the best images of Jupiter's charcoal-black rings as it approached and then looked back at Jupiter. The top image was taken on approach, showing three well-defined lanes of gravel- to boulder-sized material composing the bulk of the rings, as well as lesser amounts of material between the rings. New Horizons snapped the lower image after it had passed Jupiter on February 28, 2007, and looked back in a direction toward the sun. The image is sharply focused, though it appears fuzzy due to the cloud of dust-sized particles enveloping the rings. The dust is brightly illuminated in the same way the dust on a dirty windshield lights up when you drive toward a 'low' sun. The narrow rings are confined in their orbits by small 'shepherding' moons.

2007-01-01

411

Galactic Black HOle Binary Systems  

E-print Network

I review observations of the X-ray spectra of Galactic Black Hole Candidates, and theoretical ideas as to how these can be produced. X-ray reflection should enable different source geometries to be distinguished, but the ionisation instability of X-ray irradiated material in hydrostatic equilibrium gives rise to large ambiguities in interpretation. It is not currently possible to determine whether the underlying emission mechanism in the low state is an advective flow or magnetic reconnection above the disk, but more detailed modelling of the ionisation instability {\\it may} allow us to distinguish between these scenarios.

C. Done

2000-12-18

412

Motions near the galactic center and the '3-kpc arm.'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a first approximation, the motions of the neutral hydrogen in the region between 1 and 5 kpc from the galactic center are found to be well represented in the Tb(l, V) diagram by a disk in differential rotation, and no evidence is found for a general field of expanding motions. Consequently, a rotation curve for this region has been derived from the observations. The new curve indicates a more uniform distribution of mass in the inner region of the Galaxy than many previous models. In a second approximation, a set of parameters is derived for an elliptical dispersion ring that represents not only the 3-kpc arm but also the + 70 km/sec expanding arm in the Tb(l, V) diagram.

Simonson, S. C., III; Mader, G. L.

1973-01-01

413

The ring around SN1987A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stars in the 9-40 solar mass range play a prominent role in the hydrodynamical and chemical evolution of galaxies. Their stellar winds and supernova explosions are believed to create the hot component of the interstellar medium (ISM). In some galactic disks, the kiloparsec sized super bubbles formed around clusters of massive stars may blow out of the disk plane and release hot, metal enriched gas into the galaxy's halo. Additionally, the expanding shock front of a super bubble in the disk may trigger additional star formation. Furthermore, similar processes probably drive the galactic winds associated with star burst nuclei that enrich the intracluster and intergalactic mediums. Nonetheless, the explosion of a blue super giant in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), SN1987A, illuminated the incompleteness of our understanding of massive stars. Evolutionary models of massive stars do not synthesize the observed super giant populations in either the Milky Way or LMC. Our modeling of the formation of SN1987A's ring will improve our knowledge of both the post-main-sequence evolution of massive stars and their coupling to the ISM in galaxies.

Martin, Crystal L.; Arnett, David

1993-01-01

414

Illuminating Galactic Accelerators with CTA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of astrophysical particle accelerators---some or all of which may be implicated in the production of cosmic rays up to 10^15 eV---have been observed within our own Galaxy, including supernova remnants (SNRs), pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), and binary systems. These accelerators reveal themselves indirectly through the production of high-energy and very-high-energy gamma rays. The next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory known as the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will survey the inner Galactic Plane above 10 GeV with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution, allowing us to probe the nature of and in some cases map the distribution of particle populations within these accelerators. CTA is also expected to reveal classes of Galactic accelerators previously too faint to detect. Careful study of the interactions of these objects with their surroundings may shed light not only the nature of cosmic-ray accelerators themselves, but on the process by which they inject cosmic rays into the interstellar medium. Prospects for probing pulsar physics with CTA will also be discussed, particularly in light of the recent detection of the Crab pulsar above 100 GeV.

Weinstein, Amanda J.

2011-09-01

415

Chemical complexity in galactic nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years our knowledge of the chemical complexity in the nuclei of galaxies has dramatically changed. Recent observations of the nucleus of the Milky Way, of the starburst galaxy NGC253 and of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp220 have shown large abundance of complex organic molecules believed to be formed on grains. The Galactic center appears to be the largest repository of complex organic molecule like aldehydes and alcohols in the galaxy. We also measure large abundance of methanol in starburst galaxies and in ULIRGs suggesting that complex organic molecules are also efficiently produced in the central region of galaxies with strong star formation activity. From the systematic observational studies of molecular abundance in regions dominated by different heating processes like shocks, UV radiation, X-rays and cosmic rays in the center of the Milky Way, we are opening the possibility of using chemistry as a diagnostic tool to study the highly obscured regions of galactic centers. The templates found in the nucleus of the Milky Way will be used to establish the main mechanisms driving the heating and the chemistry of the molecular clouds in galaxies with different type of activity. The role of grain chemistry in the chemical complexity observed in the center of galaxies will be also briefly discussed.

Martin-Pintado, Jesus

2007-12-01

416

Direct Detection of Galactic Halo Dark Matter  

E-print Network

Direct Detection of Galactic Halo Dark Matter B. R. Oppenheimer,1 * N. C. Hambly,2 A. P. Digby,2 S detection of galactic halo dark matter. Dark matter in the spherical halo of the Milky Way galaxy has been as half of this "dark matter" may be in the form of old, very cool white dwarfs, the remnants

Oppenheimer, Ben R.

417

Galactic Variable Sky with EGRET and GLAST  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of the largely-unidentified Galactic sources of gamma rays that were detected by EGRET are reviewed. Proposed source populations that may have the correct spatial, spectral, luminosity, and variability properties to be the origins of the EGRET sources are also presented. Finally, the prospects for studying Galactic gamma-ray sources with the GLAST LAT are reviewed.

Digel, S.W.; /SLAC

2006-11-28

418

Dark Matter Substructure within Galactic Halos  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use numerical simulations to examine the substructure within galactic and cluster mass halos that form within a hierarchical universe. Clusters are easily reproduced with a steep mass spectrum of thousands of substructure clumps that closely matches the observations. However, the survival of dark matter substructure also occurs on galactic scales, leading to the remarkable result that galaxy halos appear

Ben Moore; Sebastiano Ghigna; Fabio Governato; George Lake; Thomas Quinn; Joachim Stadel; Paolo Tozzi

1999-01-01

419

Mass Distributions Implying Flat Galactic Rotation Curves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rotational speeds of stars in the disc of a spiral galaxy are virtually independent of the distances of the stars from the centre of the galaxy. In common parlance, the stellar speed versus distance plot known as a galactic rotation curve is by observation typically nearly flat. This observation provides strong evidence that most galactic

Keeports, David

2010-01-01

420

Factors affecting piston ring friction  

E-print Network

The piston ring pack friction is a major contributor to the internal combustion engine mechanical friction loss. The oil control ring decides the oil supply to the top two rings in addition to being the major friction ...

Liao, Kai, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

421

Seal ring installation tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A seal ring tool that allows an installer to position a primary seal ring between hub ends of pipe flanges that are being assembled together. The tool includes a pivoting handle member and extension arms attached to the pivoting handle member. The ends of the arms have side indentation type longitudinal grooves angled toward one another for holding the primary seal ring in place between the hubs of respective pipes that are to be attached together. The arms of the tool can also have flat sides that can be used to abut against an optional second larger seal that is supported within a groove in one of the hub ends so that the second hub end can then be moved against the other side of the primary seal ring. Once the seal ring is positioned between the pipe hubs, the pipe hubs can be moved about the seal ring due to the flat sides of the arms of the tool. The tool eliminates the chances of damaging and contaminating seal rings being installed within pipe hubs that are being attached to one another.

Haselmaier, L. Haynes (Inventor)

2004-01-01

422

Hot piston ring tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project, tests were made at NASA Lewis Research Center to determine whether appendix gap losses could be reduced and Stirling engine performance increased by installing an additional piston ring near the top of each piston dome. An MTI-designed upgraded Mod I Automotive Stirling Engine was used. Unlike the conventional rings at the bottom of the piston, these hot rings operated in a high temperature environment (700 C). They were made of a high temperature alloy (Stellite 6B) and a high temperature solid lubricant coating (NASA Lewis-developed PS-200) was applied to the cylinder walls. Engine tests were run at 5, 10, and 15 MPa operating pressure over a range of operating speeds. Tests were run both with hot rings and without to provide a baseline for comparison. Minimum data to assess the potential of both the hot rings and high temperature low friction coating was obtained. Results indicated a slight increase in power and efficiency, an increase over and above the friction loss introduced by the hot rings. Seal leakage measurements showed a significant reduction. Wear on both rings and coating was low.

Allen, David J.; Tomazic, William A.

1987-12-01

423

Hot piston ring tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project, tests were made at NASA Lewis Research Center to determine whether appendix gap losses could be reduced and Stirling engine performance increased by installing an additional piston ring near the top of each piston dome. An MTI-designed upgraded Mod I Automotive Stirling Engine was used. Unlike the conventional rings at the bottom of the piston, these hot rings operated in a high temperature environment (700 C). They were made of a high temperature alloy (Stellite 6B) and a high temperature solid lubricant coating (NASA Lewis-developed PS-200) was applied to the cylinder walls. Engine tests were run at 5, 10, and 15 MPa operating pressure over a range of operating speeds. Tests were run both with hot rings and without to provide a baseline for comparison. Minimum data to assess the potential of both the hot rings and high temperature low friction coating was obtained. Results indicated a slight increase in power and efficiency, an increase over and above the friction loss introduced by the hot rings. Seal leakage measurements showed a significant reduction. Wear on both rings and coating was low.

Allen, David J.; Tomazic, William A.

1987-01-01

424

Anisotropy and Corotation of Galactic Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

The intensity of Galactic cosmic rays is nearly isotropic because of the influence of magnetic fields in the Milky Way. Here, we present two-dimensional high-precision anisotropy measurement for energies from a few to several hundred teraelectronvolts (TeV), using the large data sample of the Tibet Air Shower Arrays. Besides revealing finer details of the known anisotropies, a new component of Galactic cosmic ray anisotropy in sidereal time is uncovered around the Cygnus region direction. For cosmic-ray energies up to a few hundred TeV, all components of anisotropies fade away, showing a corotation of Galactic cosmic rays with the local Galactic magnetic environment. These results have broad implications for a comprehensive understanding of cosmic rays, supernovae, magnetic fields, and heliospheric and Galactic dynamic environments.

Tibet AS-gamma Collaboration; M. Amenomori

2006-10-23

425

Anisotropy and Corotation of Galactic Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

The intensity of Galactic cosmic rays is nearly isotropic because of the influence of magnetic fields in the Milky Way. Here, we present two-dimensional high-precision anisotropy measurement for energies from a few to several hundred teraelectronvolts (TeV), using the large data sample of the Tibet Air Shower Arrays. Besides revealing finer details of the known anisotropies, a new component of Galactic cosmic ray anisotropy in sidereal time is uncovered around the Cygnus region direction. For cosmic-ray energies up to a few hundred TeV, all components of anisotropies fade away, showing a corotation of Galactic cosmic rays with the local Galactic magnetic environment. These results have broad implications for a comprehensive understanding of cosmic rays, supernovae, magnetic fields, and heliospheric and Galactic dynamic environments.

Amenomori, M; Bi, X J; Chen, D; Cui, S W; Danzengluobu; Ding, L K; Ding, X H; Feng Cun Feng; Zhaoyang Feng; Feng, Z Y; Gao, X Y; Geng, Q X; Guo, H W; He, H H; He, M; Hibino, K; Hotta, N; Haibing, H; Hu, H B; Huang, J; Huang, Q; Jia, H Y; Kajino, F; Kasahara, K; Katayose, Y; Kato, C; Kawata, K; Labaciren; Le, G M; Li, A F; Li, J Y; Lou, Y Q; Lü, H; Lu, S L; Meng, X R; Mizutani, K; Mu, J; Munakata, K; Nagai, A; Nanjo, H; Nishizawa, M; Ohnishi, M; Ohta, I; Onuma, H; Ouchi, T; Ozawa, S; Ren, J R; Saitô, T; Saito, T Y; Sakata, M; Sako, T K; Sasaki, T; Shibata, M; Shiomi, A; Shirai, T; Sugimoto, H; Takita, M; Tan, Y H; Tateyama, N; Torii, S; Tsuchiya, H; Udo, S; Wang, B; Wang, H; Wang, X; Wang, Y G; Wu, H R; Xue Liang; Yamamoto, Y; Yan, C T; Yang, X C; Yasue, S; Ye, Z H; Yu, G C; Yuan, A F; Yuda, T; Zhang, H M; Zhang, J L; Zhang, N J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X X

2006-01-01

426

The Ring of Fire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students will learn about the theory of plate tectonics and the geological history of Earth. They will investigate the region known as the Ring of Fire, where 75 percent of the active and dormant volcanoes of Earth are located. Students will review the theory of plate tectonics; use the Internet to research the Ring of Fire and answer questions about this region; view an animation of the tectonic history of Earth and draw maps predicting what the Ring of Fire region will look like in one hundred million years; and write paragraphs explaining what they have drawn.

2007-12-12

427

The galactic habitable zone of the Milky Way and M31 from chemical evolution models with gas radial flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The galactic habitable zone is defined as the region with sufficient abundance of heavy elements to form planetary systems in which Earth-like planets could be born and might be capable of sustaining life, after surviving to close supernova explosion events. Galactic chemical evolution models can be useful for studying the galactic habitable zones in different systems. We apply detailed chemical evolution models including radial gas flows to study the galactic habitable zones in our Galaxy and M31. We compare the results to the relative galactic habitable zones found with `classical' (independent ring) models, where no gas inflows were included. For both the Milky Way and Andromeda, the main effect of the gas radial inflows is to enhance the number of stars hosting a habitable planet with respect to the `classical' model results, in the region of maximum probability for this occurrence, relative to the classical model results. These results are obtained by taking into account the supernova destruction processes. In particular, we find that in the Milky Way the maximum number of stars hosting habitable planets is at 8 kpc from the Galactic Centre, and the model with radial flows predicts a number which is 38 per cent larger than what was predicted by the classical model. For Andromeda we find that the maximum number of stars with habitable planets is at 16 kpc from the centre and that in the case of radial flows this number is larger by 10 per cent relative to the stars predicted by the classical model.

Spitoni, E.; Matteucci, F.; Sozzetti, A.

2014-05-01

428

Is the galactic corona produced by galactic flares?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of the differential rotation of the disk of the Galaxy on magnetic field which penetrates the disk is considered. The magnetic field will be progressively distorted from a potential (current-free) form and will at some stage become unstable. It is expected that an MHD instability, a resistive instability, or a combination of the two, will result in the release of the excess magnetic energy and that part of the released energy will be converted into heat. By estimating the energy release and the rate at which this process will occur and by assuming that this energy input is balanced by radiation, estimates were obtained of the parameters of the resulting plasma. It appears that this process alone can heat a galactic corona to temperatures of order 10 to the 6th power K.

Sturrock, P. A.; Stern, R.

1979-01-01

429

Field studies of exterior-only applications with fipronil (Termidor SC) for the post-construction control of interior populations of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)  

E-print Network

Thirty-two privately owned structures were treated with a 0.06% exterior and interior, 0.06% exterior-only, or 0.125% exterior-only application of fipronil (Termidor SC®) in order to compare their efficacies in the post-construction control...

Waite, Troy David

2005-02-17

430

Noncommutative ring spectra  

E-print Network

Let A be an Ax ring spectrum. We give an explicit construction of topological Hochschild homology and cohomology of A using the Stasheff associahedra and another family of polyhedra called cyclohedra. Using this construction ...

Angeltveit, Vigleik

2006-01-01

431

Ring opening metathesis polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article intends to provide the reader with a basic knowledge of Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization. Some historic background, mechanistic aspects, living polymerization, as well as current catalyst development and new applications are discussed.

Marcelo E. Piotti

1999-01-01

432

Ringed-Carbon Compounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from NOVA, learn about alkaloids and steroids, both examples of compounds with carbon rings. Short videos with interviews,animations, and photographs are featured.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-02-12

433

Galactic Motions and Dynamics Stellar Motions  

E-print Network

of Rest Define a Local Standard of Rest (LSR), which follows the mean motion of disk material in the solar rotation in the immediate solar neighborhood. Stars interior (exterior) to Sun have higher (lower) rotation waves in water, or cars caught in a traffic jam · Different material in arms at different times · System

Basu, Shantanu

434

Saturn's B rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This narrow-angle camera image of Saturn's B Ring and Cassini Division was taken through the Clear filter from a distance of 12.6 million km on 3 November 1980. The Cassini Division separating the A and B Rings is clearly not an empty region. The Division shows several substantial well-defined ringlets. JPL managed the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

2000-01-01

435

Mosaic of Saturn's rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This detailed mosaic of the underside of the Cassini Division was obtained by Voyager 1 with a resolution of about 10 kilometers. The classical Cassini Division appears here to the right of center as five bright rings with substantial blacks gap on either side. The inner edge of the A Ring, to the left of center, is the brightest part of this image. The fine-scale wave structure in this region has been interpreted as being the result of gravitational density waves.

2000-01-01

436

Modeling Mushroom Fairy Rings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sometimes in a forest or yard, mushrooms seem magically to grow in circles, which we call "fairy rings". In this module, we develop simulations for the expansion and interactions of such mushroom fairy rings. After analyzing the system, formulating the model, and considering appropriate rules for the spreading of mushrooms, we create a simulation using the graphical computer algebra system Mathematica. Projects involve various refinements of the model.

Shiflet, Angela B.; Shiflet, George W.

437

Nardo Ring, Italy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nardo Ring is a striking visual feature from space, and astronauts have photographed it several times. The Ring is a race car test track; it is 12.5 kilometers long and steeply banked to reduce the amount of active steering needed by drivers. The Nardo Ring lies in a remote area on the heel of Italy's 'boot,' 50 kilometers east of the naval port of Taranto. The Ring encompasses a number of active (green) and fallow (brown to dark brown) agricultural fields. In this zone of intensive agriculture, farmers gain access to their fields through the Ring via a series of underpasses. Winding features within the southern section of the Ring appear to be smaller, unused race tracks.

The image covers an area of 18.8 x 16.4 km, was acquired on August 17. 2007, and is located at 49.3 degrees north latitude, 17.8 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

438

Observation of Chariklo's rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dense and sharply confined rings have recently been discovered during a stellar occultation around the small Centaur object Chariklo (Braga-Ribas et al., 2014). This is the first body after the giant planets found to possess a ring system. We propose to use HST to (1) obtain direct images of the rings, confirming their existence and their orientation, (2) derive multi-wavelength photometry, thus constraining their composition (concerning in particular the presence of water ice), (3) perform for the first time a deep search of small satellites and (4) faint dusty rings around Chariklo, and (5) search for material around another Centaur similar to Chariklo, Chiron, which is known to be surrounded by cometary material and narrow jets. The presence (or absence) of satellites and dusty material around Chariklo will discriminate the various theoretical models that are invoked to explain the origin, evolution and stability of rings around this minor body. The motion of putative Chariklo satellites will also provide an estimation of the mass of the primary, from which its density can be derived, which eventually tells us where the rings are relative to Chariklo's Roche limit.

Sicardy, Bruno

2014-10-01

439

Carbon and Oxygen Galactic Gradients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chemical evolution model of the Galaxy has been computed to reproduce the O/H gradients from Galactic HII regions. This model solves the C enrichment problem because it fits the C/H and C/O gradients and the C and O histories of the solar vicinity. The model is based on C yields dependent on metallicity (Z) owing to stellar winds. The C yields of massive stars (MS) increase with Z and those of low and intermediate mass stars (LIMS) decrease with Z. An important result is that the fraction of carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) due to MS and LIMS is strongly dependent on Z of the ISM, therefore, that fraction depends on time and on the Galactocentric distance. At present and in the solar vicinity about half of the C in the interstellar medium has been produced by MS and half by LIMS.

Carigi, L.; Peimbert, M.; Esteban, C.; García-Rojas, J.

2006-06-01

440

Theory of active galactic nuclei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The involvement of accretion disks around supermassive black holes in the theory of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is discussed. The physics of thin and thick accretion disks is discussed and the partition between thermal and nonthermal energy production in supermassive disks is seen as uncertain. The thermal limit cycle may operate in supermassive disks (Shields, 1985), with accumulation of gas in the disk for periods of 10 to the 4th to 10 to the 7th years, punctuated by briefer outbursts during which the mass is rapidly transferred to smaller radii. An extended X-ray source in AGN is consistent with observations (Tennant and Mushotsky, 1983), and a large wind mass loss rate exceeding the central accretion rate means that only a fraction of the mass entering the disk will reach the central object; the rest being lost to the wind. Controversy in the relationship between the broad lines and the disk is also discussed.

Shields, G. A.

1986-01-01

441

Galactic microlensing with rotating binaries  

E-print Network

The influence of rotating binary systems on the light curves of galactic microlensing events is studied. Three different rotating binary systems are discussed: a rotating binary lens, a rotating binary source, and the motion of the earth around the sun (parallax effect). The most dramatic effects arise from the motion of a binary lens because of the changes of the caustic structure with time. I discuss when the treatment of a microlensing event with a static binary model is appropriate. It is shown that additional constraints on the unknown physical quantities of the lens system arise from a fit with a rotating binary lens as well as from the earth-around-sun motion. For the DUO#2 event, a fit with a rotating binary lens is presented.

M. Dominik

1997-02-04

442

PREFACE: Galactic Center Workshop 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are pleased to present the proceedings from the Galactic Center Workshop 2006—From the Center of the Milky Way to Nearby Low-Luminosity Galactic Nuclei. The conference took place in the Physikzentrum, Bad Honnef, Germany, on 18 to 22 April 2006. It is the third workshop of this kind, following the Galactic Center Workshops held 1998 in Tucson, Arizona, and 2002 in Kona, Hawaii. The center of the Milky Way is the only galactic nucleus of a fairly common spiral galaxy that can be observed in great detail. With a distance of roughly 8 kpc, the resolution that can currently be achieved is of the order 40 mpc/8000 AU in the X-ray domain, 2 mpc/400 AU in the near-infrared, and 0.01 mpc/1 AU with VLBI in the millimeter domain. This is two to three orders of magnitude better than for any comparable nearby galaxy, making thus the center of the Milky Way thetemplate object for the general physical interpretation of the phenomena that can be observed in galactic nuclei. We recommend the summary article News from the year 2006 Galactic Centre workshopby Mark Morris and Sergei Nayakshin—who also gave the summary talk of the conference—to the reader in order to obtain a first, concise overview of the results presented at the workshop and some of the currently most exciting—and debated—developments in recent GC research. While the workshops held in 1998 and 2002 were dedicated solely to the center of the Milky Way, the field of view was widened in Bad Honnef to include nearby low-luminosity nuclei. This new feature followed the realization that not only the GC serves as a template for understanding extragalactic nuclei, but that the latter can also provide the context and broader statistical base for understanding the center of our Milky Way. This concerns especially the accretion and emission processes related to the Sagittarius A*, the manifestation of the super massive black hole in the GC, but also the surprising observation of great numbers of massive, young stars in an environment that was previously thought hostile to star formation. Highlights of the GC Workshop 2002 in Kona were certainly the extraordinary evidence for the black hole nature of Sagittarius A* provided by the observation of orbits of individual stars around the central dark mass of the Milky Way, and the observations of short radiation outbreaks from Sgr A* in the X-ray regime, the so-called flares. These events with their variability on the minute time scale provided additional hard evidence for the black hole nature of Sgr A*. Also, the new observational capabilities provided by Chandraand XMMprovided spectacular new insights into the physics of the GC. With the black hole nature of Sagittarius A* now confirmed beyond reasonable doubt, theory and observation are zooming into ever smaller scales, trying to understand the exact physics behind the extreme under-luminosity (10-9 10-10 in terms of Eddington luminosity) of Sagittarius A*. Especially observations of the submm, NIR, and X-ray flares appear to be promising sources to analyze the accretion physics of Sagittarius A* near its event horizon. Some flares may carry the actual imprint of plasma moving at relativistic velocities near the last orbit of the black hole. Another topic that has moved into the focus of attention is star formation near the central black hole. One, possibly two, disks of young massive stars in the central half parsec, generally assumed hostile to star formation, challenge current theories of star formation. Through new infrared integral field spectrometers there is now strong evidence that the stars in the immediate environment of Sagittarius A*, the so-called S-stars are B-type main sequence stars. There are many hypothesis for their origin, but no model could yet provide entirely satisfactory explanations for their existence. A significant number of new telescopes and instruments access ever greater detail at all wavelengths. The continuing development of (sub)-millimeter instrumentation, for example, provides high spatial resolution as well as important spectroscopic d

Schödel, Rainer; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Muno, Michael P.; Nayakshin, Sergei; Ott, Thomas

2006-12-01

443

4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 103 SHOWING 1LIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 103 SHOWING 1-LIGHT SIDE EXIT DOOR AND ORIGINAL WOOD-FRAMED SLIDING GLASS KITCHEN WINDOWS AT PHOTO LEFT, CRISS-CROSS WOOD BALUSTRADE AROUND FRONT PORCH WITH OPEN DOOWAY TO BASEMENT BENEATH, AND STONE FACING ALONG ORIGINAL PORTION OF HOUSE FRONT AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

444

3. EXTERIOR/STREET LEVEL VIEW, LOOKING WEST ALONG FIRST AVENUE NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EXTERIOR/STREET LEVEL VIEW, LOOKING WEST ALONG FIRST AVENUE NORTH WITH (LEFT TO RIGHT) CALDWELL-MILNER, MCADORY, JOHN HAND, WOODWARD BUILDINGS AND BROWN MARX BUILDING (RIGHT). ALSO PICTURED IS THE BANK FOR SAVINGS BUILDING (TOP RIGHT) AND THE RAILROAD RESERVATION (TOP LEFT TO RIGHT). VIEW TAKEN AS CITY THAWS FROM A MARCH BLIZZARD. - Heaviest Corner on Earth (Commercial), First Avenue, North & Twentieth (20th) Street, North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

445

Experimental and theoretical behavior of exterior wood coatings subjected to artificial weathering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several solvent- and water-borne exterior wood coatings were artificially weathered to study their performance behavior. Penetration\\u000a and layer thickness were measured on unweathered samples and compared to theoretical estimates by means of measured basic\\u000a parameters of coating and substrate. Color, surface roughness, gloss, and adhesion were monitored during aging, and the latter\\u000a two were also calculated and compared to their

Jan Van den Bulcke; Joris Van Acker; Marc Stevens

2008-01-01

446

5. Exterior view of LongTerm Hydrazine Silo (T28E), looking west. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Exterior view of Long-Term Hydrazine Silo (T-28E), looking west. The low-lying building to the left of the silo is the Fuel Purification Structure (T-28E). A hydrazine tank is in the concrete truck well in the immediate foreground. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Long-Term Hydrazine Silo, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

447

EXTERIOR VIEW FROM 21ST STREET VIADUCT WITH RAILROAD TRACKS (CENTER), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW FROM 21ST STREET VIADUCT WITH RAILROAD TRACKS (CENTER), SHEDS FOR L. & N. STATION (CENTER TO RIGHT), BANK FOR SAVINGS BUILDINGS (RIGHT) AT THE 20TH STREET UNDERPASS (CENTER) AND ALABAMA POWER COMPANY-POWELL AVENUE POWER PLANT (TOP LEFT). - Railroad Reservation, Bounded by Thirty-eighth Street on the east, Sixteenth Street on the west, First Avenue on the north, & First Avenue on the south, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

448

1. Exterior view of Signal Transfer Building (T28A), looking southwest. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Exterior view of Signal Transfer Building (T-28A), looking southwest. This structure houses controls for propellant transfer, instrumentation for testing, test data transmission receivers, data verification equipment, and centralized utilities for the Systems Integration Laboratory complex. The gantries of the Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28) are visible to the rear of this structure. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Signal Transfer Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

449

Exterior view of north wall of LongTerm Oxidizer Silo (T28B) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior view of north wall of Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B) and Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D) behind and to its immediate left, looking south. A nitrogen line, used to prepare the Titan II's nitrogen-tetroxide oxidizer, is in the right foreground - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Long-Term Oxidizer Silo, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

450

Exterior view of LongTerm Oxidizer Silo (T28D) in left background ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior view of Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28D) in left background (taller structure) and adjacent Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28B) at extreme left background, looking south. At far right in foreground is a nitrogen tank in a concrete truck well - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Long-Term Oxidizer Silo, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

451

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. STRUCTURAL FOUNDATION PLAN. FOOTINGS FOR EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. STRUCTURAL FOUNDATION PLAN. FOOTINGS FOR EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR WALLS. EQUIPMENT PADS. STRAINER PIT DETAILS. BEARING STRENGTH FOR EAST WALL TO SUPPORT FUTURE FLOOR AND ROOF LOADS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-805-1, 11/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0605-62-098-100657, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

452

Dark galactic halos without dark matter  

E-print Network

Using standard Einstein theory, baryonic mass cannot account for observed galactic rotation velocities and gravitational lensing, attributed to galactic dark matter halos. In contrast, theory constrained by Weyl conformal scaling symmetry explains observed galactic rotation in the halo region without invoking dark matter. An explanation of dark halos, gravitational lensing, and structural stabilization, without dark matter and consistent with conformal theory, is proposed here. Condensation of uniform primordial matter into a material cloud or galaxy vacates a large surrounding spherical halo. Within such an extended vacancy in the original cosmic background mass-energy density, conformal theory predicts centripetal acceleration of the observed magnitude.

R. K. Nesbet

2011-09-15

453

Pitch Angle of Galactic Spiral Arms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key parameters that characterizes spiral arms in disk galaxies is a pitch angle that measures the inclination of a spiral arm to the direction of galactic rotation. The pitch angle differs from galaxy to galaxy, which suggests that the rotation law of galactic disks determines it. In order to investigate the relation between the pitch angle of spiral arms and the shear rate of galactic differential rotation, we perform local N-body simulations of pure stellar disks. We find that the pitch angle increases with the epicycle frequency and decreases with the shear rate and obtain the fitting formula. This dependence is explained by the swing amplification mechanism.

Michikoshi, Shugo; Kokubo, Eiichiro

2014-06-01

454

New instability of Saturn's ring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perturbations in the Saturn ring's mass density are noted to be prone to instabilities through the sporadic elevation of submicron-size dust particles above the rings, which furnishes an effective angular momentum exchange between the rings and Saturn. The dust thus elevated from the ring settles back onto it at a different radial distance. The range of wavelength instability is determinable

C. K. Goertz; G. Morfill

1988-01-01

455

The elusive rings of Neptune  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of investigations of Neptune's rings is presented in which the recent data and findings from the Voyager 2 mission are emphasized. The evolving interpretation of the ring arcs is outlined, and the concept of resonance in the rings is described. Illustrations of the rings, the moons of Neptune, and the interactions between the two are given, and attention

C. C. Porco

1992-01-01

456

Optofluidic ring resonator dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We overview the recent progress on optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) dye lasers developed in our research group. The fluidics and laser cavity design can be divided into three categories: capillary optofluidic ring resonator (COFRR), integrated cylindrical optofluidic ring resonator (ICOFRR), and coupled optofluidic ring resonator (CpOFRR). The COFRR dye laser is based on a micro-sized glass capillary with a wall

Yuze Sun; Jonathan D. Suter; Xudong Fan

2010-01-01

457

Behaviour of fibre-reinforced high-performance concrete in exterior beam-column joint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the effect of reinforced high performance concrete (HPC) in exterior beam-column joint with and without fibre under monotonic loading. In this experimental investigation, cross-diagonal bars have been provided at the joint for reducing the congestion of reinforcement in joints, and also M75 grade of concrete with optimum mix proportion of 10 % silica fume and 0.3 % glass fibre was used. Four exterior beam-column joint sub-assemblages were tested. The specimens were divided into two types based on the reinforcement detailing. Type A comprises two joint sub-assemblages with joint detailing as per construction code of practice in India (IS 456-2000), and Type B comprises two joint sub-assemblages with joint detailing as per ductile detailing code of practice in India (IS 13920-1993). In each group there was one specimen of control mix and the remaining one specimen of fibre-reinforced mix. All the test specimens were designed to satisfy the strong column-weak beam concept. The performances of specimens were compared with the control mix and the fibre-reinforced mix. The results show that exterior beam-column joint specimens with silica fume and glass fibre in the HPC mix showed better performance.

Muthupriya, P.; Boobalan, S. C.; Vishnuram, B. G.

2014-09-01

458

Properties, Structure and Dynamics of the Exterior Cusp Under Northward IMF, Cluster Multi Event Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied in detail multi-spacecraft observations of four Cluster exterior cusp passes during the years 2001 and 2002. All of them occurred during northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) intervals. A well-bounded region where the magnetic field exhibits very low diamagnetic values and the ions display high levels of isotropisation is sampled. We refer to this region as the Stagnant Exterior Cusp (SEC). We show that the overall picture of the region is compatible with a reconnection site poleward of the cusp for all four events. The global topology of the exterior cusp and SEC can be inferred and reveals that the solar-wind plasma at least partly gets access to the magnetosphere through a sharp boundary delimiting the SEC from the unperturbed magnetosheath. Multi spacecraft data analysis further permits to highlight that the whole region is highly dynamic. The SEC-magnetosheath boundary presents abrupt changes in the magnetic field and plasma parameters and is shown to be rotational in nature. We will put particular emphasis on the exact characteristics and possible nature of this key boundary of the magnetosphere.

Lavraud, B.; Dunlop, M.; Phan, T.; Reme, H.; Bosqued, J.; Dandouras, I.; Sauvaud, J.; Lundin, R.; Taylor, M.; Cargill, P.; Mazelle, C.; Escoubet, C.; Carlson, C.; McFadden, J.; Parks, G.; Moebius, E.; Kistler, L.; Bavassano-Cattaneo, M.; Korth, A.; Klecker, B.; Balogh, A.

2002-12-01

459

Measurement of Exterior Foundation Insulation to Assess Durability in Energy-Saving Performance  

SciTech Connect

The foundation of a house is a sometimes ignored component of the building because of its low visibility. It is increasingly evident, however, that attention to good foundation design and construction significantly benefits the homeowner and the builder by mitigating future problems. Good foundation design and construction practice involves not only insulating to save energy but also providing effective structural design as well as moisture, termite, and radon control techniques as appropriate. Energy efficiency in housing is augmented by use of exterior slab and basement insulation, but high moisture content in the insulation material has led to concerns about its durability. The activity under this task was to extract six different exterior insulation systems that were characterized at installation and have been in the ground for 9 months to 15 years. R-value and moisture content were measured and inspections conducted for evidence of termite intrusion or deterioration. Based on the results, the durability of the various systems has been documented and assessments made of which systems appear to be best practice. Heat flux and temperature measurement data had been archived for some of the exterior insulation tests, thereby providing a unique opportunity to assess energy-saving performance and durability over the long term. The results show that the durability of foundation insulation systems depends on insulation type as well as on foundation type and local boundary conditions, the latter of which may have a marked influence on the durability of energy-saving performance.

Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Christian, Jeff [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2012-04-01

460

Epichromatin is conserved in Toxoplasma gondii and labels the exterior parasite chromatin throughout the cell cycle  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan intracellular protozoan parasite responsible for toxoplasmosis, a disease with considerable medical and economic impact worldwide. Toxoplasma gondii cells never lose the nuclear envelope and their chromosomes do not condense. Here, we tested the murine monoclonal antibody PL2-6, which labels epichromatin (a conformational chromatin epitope based on histones H2A and H2B complexed with DNA), in T. gondii cultured in human fibroblasts. This epitope is present at the exterior chromatin surface of interphase nuclei and on the periphery of mitotic chromosomes in higher eukaryotes. PL2-6 reacted with T. gondii H2A and H2B histones in Western blot (WB) assays. In addition, the antibody reacted with the nuclear fraction of tachyzoites, as a single band coincident with H2B histone. In the T. gondii tachyzoite stage, PL2-6 also had peripheral nuclear localization, as observed by epifluorescence/confocal microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy. Confocal analysis showed that epichromatin is slightly polarized to one face of the parasite exterior chromatin surface. In replicating tachyzoites, PL2-6 also labels the exterior chromatin surface, covering the face of both segregating nuclei, facing the plasma membrane of the mother cell. The possible role of epichromatin in T. gondii is discussed. PMID:23701822

VANAGAS, LAURA; DALMASSO, MARIA C.; DUBREMETZ, JEAN F.; PORTIANSKY, ENRIQUE L.; OLINS, DONALD E.; ANGEL, SERGIO O.

2014-01-01

461

Peering into the Heart of Galactic Star Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key to the advancement of a star formation study is the identification and characterization of the earliest stages of the process. Infrared dark clouds are excellent candidates for the precursors to massive stars and stellar clusters. Furthermore, the location of many IRDCs is in the Galactic Molecular Ring, where the majority of stars are born in our Galaxy. Given the larger distances, the similarity between the process of star formation in the Ring and in the local clouds is relatively unexplored. We have developed a technique for isolating fragmenting clumps with IRDCs and determining their properties in an automated manner based on absorbing structures evident in IRAC 8-micron and MIPS 24-micron images. We propose here to exploit the wealth of data in the GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL archives to compile a sample of thousands of clumps with the following scientific goals: determine the clump mass function, isolate the pre-stellar phase of massive stars, examine the clump mass-size relation, and evaluate the level of mass segregation. The proposed study offers the opportunity to characterize and contrast star formation in a new environment as has been done for local clouds.

Bergin, Edwin; Ragan, Sarah

2007-05-01

462

Ring statistics of silica bilayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent synthesis and characterisation of bilayers of vitreous silica has produced valuable new information on ring sizes and distributions. In this paper, we compare the ring statistics of experimental samples with computer generated samples. The average ring size is fixed at six by topology, but the width, skewness and other moments of the distribution of ring edges are characteristics of particular samples. We examine the Aboav-Weaire law that quantifies the propensity of smaller rings to be adjacent to larger rings, and find similar results for available experimental samples which however differ somewhat from computer-generated bilayers. We introduce a new law for the areas of rings of various sizes.

Kumar, Avishek; Sherrington, David; Wilson, Mark; Thorpe, M. F.

2014-10-01

463

Thermodynamic black di-rings  

SciTech Connect

Previously the five dimensional S{sup 1}-rotating black rings have been superposed in a concentric way by some solitonic methods, and regular systems of two S{sup 1}-rotating black rings were constructed by the authors and then Evslin and Krishnan (we called these solutions 'black di-rings'). In this place we show some characteristics of the solutions of five dimensional black di-rings, especially in thermodynamic equilibrium. After the summary of the di-ring expressions and their physical quantities, first we comment on the equivalence of the two different solution sets of the black di-rings. Then the existence of thermodynamic black di-rings is shown, in which both isothermality and isorotation between the inner black ring and the outer black ring are realized. We also give detailed analysis of peculiar properties of the thermodynamic black di-ring including discussion about a certain kind of thermodynamic stability (instability) of the system.

Iguchi, Hideo; Mishima, Takashi [Laboratory of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Narashinodai, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8501 (Japan)

2010-10-15

464

Temperature and Density Variations in Galactic Nebulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results from spectrophotometric studies of several galactic emission nebulae are discussed. Details of the spatial variation of the electron temperature (Te) and density (Ne) are given for the Orion Nebula (M42), with a less in-depth discussion of the Lagoon Nebula (M8) and the Ring Nebula (M57), both of which are covered elsewhere in these proceedings by Anthony Williams and Latongia Groce respectively. The data set consists of ground based longslit spectra and CCD imagery taken through narrow-band interference filters centered on important diagnostic lines of O(sup ++), N(sup +) and S(sup +) and H(sup +). These seeing-limited (less than 2") images show significant spatial variations in Te and Ne on scales as small as 0.005 parsec. Global trends and local variations of these diagnostics will be examined. For the Orion Nebula it has been known for some time that Ne determined from the S+ double at lambda(lambda)6717,31 decreases with distance from the stellar ionizing source, theta(sup 1)C Ori. Our data show a similar trend for the Cl(sup -+) ion using the doublet at lambda(lambda)5518,5538. These results are consistent with models of H h regions in the champagne phase of evolution. The existence of temperature gradients in the Orion Nebula has been debated for over twenty years. We have used one, self-consistent set of data to convincingly show that these gradients do exist and are different for each ion. The O(sup ++) and S(sup +) data can be fit with a gradients which increase with distance from (theta)'C Ori, but do show local deviations from the fits. The value for Te of the N(sup +) ion shows a sharp drop in temperature out to a distance of 100 arcseconds from (theta)'C Ori and then a very gradual decrease to a low of 8500 K at a distance of 300 arcseconds. These results must be taken into account by future models of H h regions. Since nebular abundances are normally determined from forbidden-line ratios, and these lines are very sensitive to temperature (proportional to exp [- 1/kT] ) a difference of only 500-1000 K can result in abundance calculations which differ by a factor of two or more. For nebular abundance calculations, the importance of using local, on-the-spot values for Te and Ne rather than global values is demonstrated.

Walter, Donald K.

1997-02-01

465

Propellers in Saturn's rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical studies and simulations have demonstrated the effects caused by objects embedded in planetary rings. Even if the objects are too small to be directly observed, each creates a much larger gravitational imprint on the surrounding ring material. These strongly depend on the mass of the object and range from "S" like propeller-shaped structures for about 100m-sized icy bodies to the opening of circumferential gaps as in the case of the embedded moons Pan and Daphnis and their corresponding Encke and Keeler Gaps. Since the beginning of the Cassini mission many of these smaller objects (~<500m in size) have been indirectly identified in Saturn's A ring through their propeller signature in the images. Furthermore, recent Cassini observations indicate the possible existence of objects embedded even in Saturn's B and C ring. In this paper we present evidence for the existence of propellers in Saturn's B ring by combining data from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) experiments. We show evidence that B ring seems to harbor two distinct populations of propellers: "big" propellers covering tens of degrees in azimuth situated in the densest part of B ring, and "small" propellers in less dense inner B ring that are similar in size and shape to known A ring propellers. The population of "big" propellers is exemplified with a single object which is observed for 5 years of Cassini data. The object is seen as a very elongated bright stripe (40 degrees wide) in unlit Cassini images, and dark stripe in lit geometries. In total we report observing the feature in images at 18 different epochs between 2005 and 2010. In UVIS occultations we observe this feature as an optical depth depletion in 14 out of 93 occultation cuts at corrotating longitudes compatible with imaging data. Combining the available Cassini data we infer that the object is a partial gap located at r=112,921km embedded in the high optical depth region of the B ring. The gap moves at Kepler speed appropriate for its radial location. Radial offsets of the gap locations in UVIS occultations are consistent with an asymmetric propeller shape. The asymmetry of the observed shape is most likely a consequence of the strong surface mass density gradient, as the feature is located at an edge between high and relatively low optical depth. From the radial separation of the propeller wings we estimate that the embedded body is about 1.5km in size. In addition to the population of "big" propellers we found evidence for a population of much smaller propellers which are more similar to known A ring propellers (size <500m). We have found one significant feature in beta Centauri Rev96 UVIS occultation at r=94,958km. The feature represents a gap with a width of 300m. This gap is statistically significant and consists of 6 consequent high counts. All other UVIS occultations show a flat and boring profile at this location. The r=94,958km feature is very similar in shape and size to a known detection of A ring propeller Bleriot from zeta Persei Rev42 occultation. This feature is also found as a dark spot moving at Kepler speed across several ISS images. Additionally we found 5 more small propeller candidates in ISS images of the inner B ring.

Sremcevic, M.; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.

2013-12-01

466

Electronic detection of molecules on the exterior and molecular transport through the interior of single walled carbon nanotubes  

E-print Network

Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are unique materials with high surface to volume ratio and all atoms residing on the surface. Due to their tubular shape both exterior and interior of the SWNT are available for ...

Lee, Chang Young

2010-01-01

467

Symmetries of vector exterior differential systems and the inverse problem in second-order Ostrohrads'kyj mechanics  

E-print Network

Symmetries of variational problems are considered as symmetries of vector bundle valued exterior differential systems. This approach is then applied to third order ordinary variational equations of motion of the semi-classical spinning particle.

R. Ya. Matsyuk

2014-06-23

468

Rings in the solar system  

SciTech Connect

Saturn, Jupiter, and Uranus have rings with different structure and composition. The rings consist of tiny masses in independent orbits. Photographs and data obtained by the Voyager project have aided in the understanding of Saturn's rings. Spokes have been found in B ring and boards, knots, and twist in F ring. Particles on the order of a micrometer in size are believed to occur in F, B, and A rings. The dominant component is water ice. The rings of Uranus are narrow and separated by broad empty regions. The technique used to study them has been stellar occulation. Nothing is known of particle size. The dominant component is believed to be silicates rich in compounds that absorb sunlight. Jupiter's rings consist of 3 main parts: a bright ring, a diffuse disk, and a halo. Use of Pioneer 10 data and other techniques have indicated particle sizes on the order of several micrometers and some at least a centimeter in diameter. The architecture of the ring system results from the interplay of a number of forces. These include gravitational forces due to moons outside the rings and moonlets embedded in them, electromagnetic forces due to the planet's rotating magnetic field, and even the gentle forces exerted by the dilute gaseous medium in which the rings rotate. Each of these forces is discussed. Several alternative explanations of how the rings arose are considered. The primary difference in these hypotheses is the account of the relationship between the ring particles of today and the primordial ring material. (SC)

Pollack, J.B.; Cuzzi, J.N.

1981-11-01

469

EEE: A PROTOTYPE TOOL FOR THE EVALUATION OF EMBODIED ENERGY AND GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS OF EXTERIOR ENVELOPE OF CANADIAN HOUSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exterior envelope has a major contribution to the life-cycle energy use, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and life-cycle cost of a house. Therefore, there is a need to design the exterior envelope in such a way as to minimize these environmental and economical impacts. The Energy & Emissions Estimator (EEE), a prototype tool, is developed in order to help engineers

Rym Baouendi; Radu Zmeureanu; Brian Bradley; Avi Friedman

470

Magnetic Spiral Arms and Galactic Outflows  

E-print Network

Galactic magnetic arms have been observed between the gaseous arms of some spiral galaxies; their origin remains unclear. We suggest that magnetic spiral arms can be naturally generated in the interarm regions because the galactic fountain flow or wind is likely to be weaker there than in the arms. Galactic outflows lead to two countervailing effects: removal of small-scale magnetic helicity, which helps to avert catastrophic quenching of the dynamo, and advection of the large-scale magnetic field, which suppresses dynamo action. For realistic galactic parameters, the net consequence of outflows being stronger in the gaseous arms is higher saturation large-scale field strengths in the interarm regions as compared to in the arms. By incorporating rather realistic models of spiral structure and evolution into our dynamo models, an interlaced pattern of magnetic and gaseous arms can be produced.

Chamandy, Luke; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

2014-01-01

471

Evaluation of Galactic Cosmic Ray Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models of the galactic cosmic ray spectra have been tested by comparing their predictions to an evaluated database containing more than 380 measured cosmic ray spectra extending from 1960 to the present.

Adams, James H., Jr.; Heiblim, Samuel; Malott, Christopher

2009-01-01

472

SAGA: Stellar Abundances for Galactic Archaeology  

E-print Network

A tutorial for the Stellar Abundances for Galactic Archaeology (SAGA) database is presented. This paper describes the outline of the database, reports the current status of the data compilation and known problems, and presents plans for future updates and extensions.

Suda, Takuma

2012-01-01

473

Spitzer Digs Up Galactic Fossil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

This false-color image taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows a globular cluster previously hidden in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy. Globular clusters are compact bundles of old stars that date back to the birth of our galaxy, 13 or so billion years ago. Astronomers use these galactic 'fossils' as tools for studying the age and formation of the Milky Way.

Most clusters orbit around the center of the galaxy well above its dust-enshrouded disc, or plane, while making brief, repeated passes through the plane that each last about a million years. Spitzer, with infrared eyes that can see into the dusty galactic plane, first spotted the newfound cluster during its current pass. A visible-light image (inset of Figure 1) shows only a dark patch of sky.

The red streak behind the core of the cluster is a dust cloud, which may indicate the cluster's interaction with the Milky Way. Alternatively, this cloud may lie coincidentally along Spitzer's line of sight.

Follow-up observations with the University of Wyoming Infrared Observatory helped set the distance of the new cluster at about 9,000 light-years from Earth - closer than most clusters - and set the mass at the equivalent of 300,000 Suns. The cluster's apparent size, as viewed from Earth, is comparable to a grain of rice held at arm's length. It is located in the constellation Aquila.

Astronomers believe that this cluster may be one of the last in our galaxy to be uncovered.

This image composite was taken on April 21, 2004, by Spitzer's infrared array camera. It is composed of images obtained at four wavelengths: 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red).

Galactic Fossil Found Behind Curtain of Dust In Figure 2, the image mosaic shows the same patch of sky in various wavelengths of light. While the visible-light image (left) shows a dark sky speckled with stars, infrared images (middle and right), reveal a never-before-seen bundle of stars, called a globular cluster. The left panel is from the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey; the middle panel includes images from the NASA-funded Two Micron All-Sky Survey and the University of Wyoming Infrared Observatory (circle inset); and the right panel is from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

The Two Micron All-Sky Survey false-color image was obtained using near-infrared wavelengths ranging from 1.3 to 2.2 microns. The University of Wyoming Observatory false-color image was captured on July 31, 2004, at wavelengths ranging from 1.2 to 2.2 microns. The Spitzer false-color image composite was taken on April 21, 2004, by its infrared array camera. It is composed of images obtained at four mid-infrared wavelengths: 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red).

2004-01-01

474

Tunnelling through black rings  

E-print Network

Hawking radiation of black ring solutions to 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity theory is analyzed by use of the Parikh-Wilczek tunnelling method. To get the correct tunnelling amplitude and emission rate, we adopted and developed the Angheben-Nadalini-Vanzo-Zerbini covariant approach to cover the effects of rotation and electronic discharge all at once, and the effect of back reaction is also taken into account. This constitute a unified approach to the tunnelling problem. Provided the first law of thermodynamics for black rings holds, the emission rate is proportional to the exponential of the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Explicit calculation for black ring temperatures agree exactly with the results obtained via the classical surface gravity method and the quasilocal formalism.

Liu Zhao

2006-02-07

475

The galactic globular cluster system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We explore correlations between various properties of Galactic globular clusters, using a database on 143 objects. Our goal is identify correlations and trends which can be used to test and constrain theoretical models of cluster formation and evolution. We use a set of 13 cluster parameters, 9 of which are independently measured. Several arguments suggest that the number of clusters still missing in the obscured regions of the Galaxy is of the order of 10, and thus the selection effects are probably not severe for our sample. Known clusters follow a power-law density distribution with a slope approximately -3.5 to -4, and an apparent core with a core radius approximately 1 kpc. Clusters show a large dynamical range in many of their properties, more so for the core parameters (which are presumably more affected by dynamical evolution) than for the half-light parameters. There are no good correlations with luminosity, although more luminous clusters tend to be more concentrated. When data are binned in luminosity, several trends emerge: more luminous clusters tend to have smaller and denser cores. We interpret this as a differential survival effect, with more massive clusters surviving longer and reaching more evolved dynamical states. Cluster core parameters and concentrations also correlate with the position in the Galaxy, with clusters closer to the Galactic center or plane being more concentrated and having smaller and denser cores. These trends are more pronounced for the fainter (less massive) clusters. This is in agreement with a picture where tidal shocks form disk or bulge passages accelerate dynamical evolution of clusters. Cluster metallicities do not correlate with any other parameter, including luminosity and velocity dispersion; the only detectable trend is with the position in the Galaxy, probably reflecting Zinn's disk-halo dichotomy. This suggests that globular clusters were not self-enriched systems. Velocity dispersions show excellent correlations with luminosity and surface brightness. Their origin is not well understood, but they may well reflect initial conditions of cluster formation, and perhaps even be used to probe the initial density perturbation spectrum on a approximately 10(exp 6) solar mass scale. Core radii and concentrations play a role of a 'second parameter' in these correlations. While a global manifold of cluster properties has a high statistical dimensionality (D greater than 4), a subset of structural, photometric, and dynamical parameters forms a statistically three-dimensional family, as expected from objects following King models; we propose to call this set of quantities the King Manifold. Some of the observed correlations may be usable as distance indicator relations for globular clusters.

Djorgovski, S.; Meylan, G.

1994-01-01

476

Galactic structure, near and far  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate galactic structure in closeby galaxies inside the local group as well as in distant galaxies. In the first chapter, we present a homogeneously selected sample of high resolution R-band images of the central regions of 67 early-type galaxies obtained with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We find complex morphologies of the central regions of early-type galaxies which have become apparent from previous studies with HST, in particular various forms of dust, embedded stellar disks, and disk-like structures misaligned with the main galaxy. We analyze the luminosity profiles of the galaxies in our sample, and classify galaxies according to their central cusp slope. To a large extent we confirm the results from previous HST surveys in that early-type galaxies reveal a clear dichotomy: the bright ellipticals (M B ? -20.5) are generally boxy and have luminosity profiles that break from steep outer power-laws to shallow inner cusps (referred to as “core” galaxies). The fainter ellipticals, on the other hand, typically have disky isophotes and luminosity profiles that lack a clear break and have a steep central cusp (referred to as “power- law” galaxies). In the second part of this dissertation we go from the central cores of the galaxies to its outer parts, the halos. The flat rotation curves of late-type galaxies indicate that galaxies possess besides the visible matter an unknown yet gravitationally dominating component called “dark matter” (DM), located in halos which reaches far beyond the visible matter. In recent years, microlensing surveys towards the LMC have found an event rate which can be interpreted as being caused by a lens population of astrophysical dark matter located in the Galactic halo (e.g., Alcock et al., 2000b). Other possible, alternative explanations for the observed microlensing event rate include lensing by a previously undetected thick disk component of the Milky way, self- lensing of the LMC, or an intervening dwarf galaxy or tidal tails. The different candidate populations can be broadly categorized into any lensing caused by a uniform foreground lensing population (screen-lensing ), and lensing for which the lensing population is spatially close to the source population (self-lensing). The goal of the SuperMacho project, a next generation microlensing survey towards the LMC, is to determine which or what mixture of these two categories causes the observed microlensing rates by utilizing their spatial differences in lensing rates. We introduce the difference image analysis pipeline which is essential to handle the enormous amount of data, and perform completeness tests by adding fake stars. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Rest, Armin

477

ARCADE 2 OBSERVATIONS OF GALACTIC RADIO EMISSION  

SciTech Connect

We use absolutely calibrated data from the ARCADE 2 flight in 2006 July to model Galactic emission at frequencies 3, 8, and 10 GHz. The spatial structure in the data is consistent with a superposition of free-free and synchrotron emission. Emission with spatial morphology traced by the Haslam 408 MHz survey has spectral index {beta}{sub synch} = -2.5 {+-} 0.1, with free-free emission contributing 0.10 {+-} 0.01 of the total Galactic plane emission in the lowest ARCADE 2 band at 3.15 GHz. We estimate the total Galactic emission toward the polar caps using either a simple plane-parallel model with csc |b| dependence or a model of high-latitude radio emission traced by the COBE/FIRAS map of C II emission. Both methods are consistent with a single power law over the frequency range 22 MHz to 10 GHz, with total Galactic emission toward the north polar cap T{sub Gal} = 10.12 {+-} 0.90 K and spectral index {beta} = -2.55 {+-} 0.03 at reference frequency 0.31 GHz. Emission associated with the plane-parallel structure accounts for only 30% of the observed high-latitude sky temperature, with the residual in either a Galactic halo or an isotropic extragalactic background. The well-calibrated ARCADE 2 maps provide a new test for spinning dust emission, based on the integrated intensity of emission from the Galactic plane instead of cross-correlations with the thermal dust spatial morphology. The Galactic plane intensity measured by ARCADE 2 is fainter than predicted by models without spinning dust and is consistent with spinning dust contributing 0.4 {+-} 0.1 of the Galactic plane emission at 23 GHz.

Kogut, A.; Fixsen, D. J.; Mirel, P.; Wollack, E. [Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Levin, S. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Limon, M.; Seiffert, M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550W 120th Street, Mail Code 5247, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Lubin, P. M. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Singal, J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A., E-mail: Alan.J.Kogut@nasa.gov [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Divisao de Astrofisica, Caixa Postal 515, 12245-970, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

2011-06-10

478

Synergies in extragalactic and Galactic jet research  

E-print Network

The discovery of relativistic jets and superluminal sources associated with accreting X-ray binaries in the Galaxy opened new ways of investigating the physics of outflows from compact objects. The short timescales and relatively large angular sizes of Galactic jets allow to probe the physics of relativistic outflows to unprecedented details. In this article I discuss results of recent modelling of Galactic jets, covering both radiative and dynamical aspects, which can shed light on different features of their extragalactic cousins.

Romero, Gustavo E

2014-01-01

479

Galactic Rotation Curves and Linear Potential Laws  

E-print Network

We study the possibility that galactic rotation curves can be explained by a gravitational potential that contains a linear term as well as a Newtonian one. This hypothesis, suggested by conformal gravity, does allow good fits to the galactic rotation curves of the galaxies we study, which have a wide range of luminosities. However, the universality one might have expected of the parameter describing the strength of the linear potential does not emerge. Instead, a different regularity is seen.

Carl E. Carlson; Eric J. Lowenstein

1996-02-19

480

The atomic quantum ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dynamics of neutral fermions trapped in a one-dimensional ring. We construct an effective magnetic field in the ring using the adiabatic motion of dark states created by light beams carrying an orbital angular momentum. We illustrate the effect of the orbital angular momentum by looking at the induced mass current and show how the Aharonov-Bohm effect manifests itself in an atomic Fermi gas as a periodic mass current as a function of the optically induced artificial magnetic flux.

Öhberg, P.

2011-06-01

481

Physics of planetary rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult to enumerate all the surprises presented by the planetary rings. The Saturnian rings are stratified into thousands of ringlets and the Uranian rings are compressed into narrow streams, which for some reason or other differ from circular orbits like the wheel of an old bicycle. The edge of the rings is jagged and the rings themselves are pegged down under the gravitational pressure of the satellites, bending like a ship's wake. There are spiral waves, elliptical rings, strange interlacing of narrow ringlets, and to cap it all one has observed in the Neptunian ring system three dense, bright arcs - like bunches of sausages on a transparent string. For celestial mechanics this is a spectacle as unnatural as a bear's tooth in the necklace of the English queen. In the dynamics of planetary rings the physics of collective interaction was supplemented by taking collisions between particles into account. One was led to study a kinetic equation with a rather complex collision integral - because the collisions are inelastic - which later on made it possible, both by using the Chapman-Enskog method and by using the solution of the kinetic equation for a plasma in a magnetic field, to reduce it to a closed set of (hydrodynamical) moment equations [1]. The hydrodynamical instabilities lead to the growth of short-wavelength waves and large-scale structures of the Saturnian rings [1]. We have shown that the formation of the existing dense Uranian rings is connected with the capture of positively drifting ring particles in inner Lindblad resonances which arrest this drift [1]. After the formation of dense rings at the positions of satellite resonances the collective interaction between resonant particles is amplified and the rings can leave the resonance and drift away from the planet and the parent resonance. We can expect in the C ring an appreciable positive ballistic particle drift caused by the erosion of the B ring by micrometeorites. It is therefore natural to assume that the mechanism for the formation of the narrow Saturnian and Uranian rings is the same and that the elliptical Titan, Maxwell and Huygens ringlets are direct relations of the Uranian rings. A reliable theory of the planetary rings would enable us to consider from completely different perspective the evolution of other cosmic disk systems: protosatellite disks [2], zodiacal and protoplanetary disks [3-5]. In this review we also discuss numerical models of the 3D structure and infrared emission of circumstellar dust disks, incorporating all relevant physical processes. We review the resonant structures of a dusty disk induced by the presence of planets [3-5]. It is shown that the planet, via resonances and gravitational scattering, produces an asymmetric resonant dust belt with one or more clumps intermittent with one or a few off-center cavities. These features can serve as indicators of a planet embedded in the circumstellar dust disk and, moreover, can be used to determine its major orbital parameters and even the mass of the planet. The results of our study reveal a remarkable similarity with various types of highly asymmetric circumstellar disks observed with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and other telescopes around Epsilon Eridani and Vega. The proposed interpretation of the clumps in those disks as being resonant patterns is testable - it predicts the asymmetric design around the star to revolve by ? 1 deg/yr about Vega and 0.6-0.8 deg/yr about Epsilon Eri. Our simulations indicate that Vega may have a massive planet ? 2 Jupiter mass at a distance ? 80-100 AU [3,5], and Epsilon Eri may have a less massive planet ? 0.2 Jovian mass as a distance of 55-60 AU [3]. Dynamical model of the origin of the warping of the Beta Pictoris disk includes the gravitational influence of a planet with a mass of about 10 masses of Earth, at a distance of 70 AU, and a small inclination (2.5 deg) of the planetary orbit to the main dust disk. The optical image from the Hubble Space Telescope (STIS, observation of team by Sara Heap, our co-author) and re

Gorkavyi, N.

2007-08-01

482

BIOCHEMISTRY: Five Golden Rings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Despite its worldwide use as a food preservative for more than four decades, the antibiotic nisin has not induced widespread biological resistance (1-4), making its biosynthesis particularly intriguing. Li et al. report that the antibiotic nisin bears five rings of different sizes in its structure. The enzyme that catalyzes the five distinct cyclization reactions is flexible, yet stringent, enough to form each ring in the correct order and conformation.

David W. Christianson (University of Pennsylvania;Roy and Diana Vagelos Laboratories, Department of Chemistry)

2006-03-10

483

Unidirectional ring lasers  

DOEpatents

Unidirectional ring lasers formed by integrating nonreciprocal optical elements into the resonant ring cavity. These optical elements either attenuate light traveling in a nonpreferred direction or amplify light traveling in a preferred direction. In one preferred embodiment the resonant cavity takes the form of a circle with an S-shaped crossover waveguide connected to two points on the interior of the cavity such that light traveling in a nonpreferred direction is diverted from the cavity into the crossover waveguide and reinjected out of the other end of the crossover waveguide into the cavity as light traveling in the preferred direction.

Hohimer, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Craft, David C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01

484

Black Rings in Supergravity  

E-print Network

We construct black ring solutions in five-dimensional $U(1)^3$ supergravity which carry three dipole charges, three electric charges and one angular momentum parameter. These solutions are written in a form that is sufficiently compact that their global and thermodynamic properties can be studied explicitly. In particular, we find that the Smarr formula is obeyed regardless of whether or not conical singularities are present, whereas the first law of thermodynamics holds only in the absence of conical singularities. We also present black ring solutions with three background magnetic fields.

Lu, H; Vazquez-Poritz, Justin F; Zhang, Zhibai

2014-01-01

485

Saturn's rings - high resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voyager 2 obtained this high-resolution picture of Saturn's rings Aug. 22, when the spacecraft was 4 million kilometers (2.5 million miles) away. Evident here are the numerous 'spoke' features, in the B-ring; their very sharp, narrow appearance suggests short formation times. Scientists think electromagnetic forces are responsible in some way for these features, but no detailed theory has been worked out. Pictures such as this and analyses of Voyager 2's spoke movies may reveal more clues about the origins of these complex structures. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

1981-01-01

486

Ring laser gyroscope anode  

SciTech Connect

An anode for a ring laser gyroscope which provides improved current stability in the glow discharge path is disclosed. The anode of this invention permits operation at lower currents thereby allowing a reduction of heat dissipation in the ring laser gyroscope. The anode of one embodiment of this invention is characterized by a thumbtack appearance with a spherical end where the normal sharp end of the thumbtack would be located. The stem of the anode extends from the outside of the gyroscope structure to the interior of the structure such that the spherical end is substantially adjacent to the laser beam.

Ljung, B.H.

1981-03-17

487

Saturn's Rings, the Yarkovsky Effects, and the Ring of Fire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dimensions of Saturn's A and B rings may be determined by the seasonal Yarkovsky effect and the Yarkovsky-Schach effect; the two effects confine the rings between approximately 1.68 and approximately 2.23 Saturn radii, in reasonable agreement with the observed values of 1.525 and 2.267. The C ring may be sparsely populated because its particles are transients on their way to Saturn; the infall may create a luminous Ring of Fire around Saturn's equator. The ring system may be young: in the past heat flow from Saturn's interior much above its present value would not permit rings to exist.

Rubincam, David Parry

2004-01-01

488

Precessing Gamma Jets in extended and evaporating galactic halo as a source of GRB  

E-print Network

Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) by a relativistic electron beam jet at GeV energies (emitted by a compact object as a NS, BH,...), a NSJ, onto thermal BBR photons (from a nearby stellar companion) may originate a collinear gamma jet (GJ). Due to the binary system interaction the GJ precession would blaze suddenly toward the observer leading to a GRB event. The internal GJ cone structure is ruled by relativistic kinematics into a concentric onion-like sequence of photon rings, the softer in the external boundaries, the harder in the inner cone. The pointing and the crossing of such different GJ photon rings to the detector lead to a GRB hardness spectra evolution nearly corresponding to most observed ones. Moreover expected time integral spectra are also comparable with known GRB spectra. The total energy input of tens of thousands of such NSJ in an extended galactic halo, mainly cosmic rays electrons, should be reflected into the recent observational evidence (COMPTEL) of a diffused relic extended halo. Evidences of such precessing jets are offered by the discover of galactic superluminal sources, recent HH jets, SN1987A outer rings, Hourglass Nebula, planetary Egg Nebula, GROJ1744-28 binary X-rays pulsar.

D. Fargion; A. Salis

1996-05-28

489

Eccentric disc instability in stellar discs formed from inspiralling gas clouds in the Galactic Centre  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inspiral of a turbulent molecular cloud in the Galactic Centre may result in the formation of a small, dense and moderately eccentric gas disc around the supermassive black hole (SMBH). Such a disc is unstable to fragmentation and may lead to the formation of young massive stars in the central parsec of the Galaxy. Here we perform high-accuracy direct summation N-body simulations of a ring of massive stars (with initial semimajor axes 0.1 ? a (pc) ? 0.4 and eccentricities 0.2 ? e ? 0.4), subject to the potential of the SMBH, a stellar cusp and the parent gas disc, to study how the orbital elements of the ring evolve in time. The initial conditions for the stellar ring are drawn from the results of previous simulations of molecular cloud infall and disruption in the SMBH potential. While semimajor axes do not evolve significantly, the distribution of eccentricities spreads out very fast (?1 Myr) as a consequence of cusp precession. In particular, stellar orbits with initial eccentricity e > 0.3 (e < 0.3) tend to become even more (less) eccentric, resulting in a bimodal eccentricity distribution. The distribution is qualitatively consistent with that of the massive stars observed in the Galactic Centre's clockwise disc.

Gualandris, Alessia; Mapelli, Michela; Perets, Hagai B.

2012-12-01

490

Ring Autosomes: Some Unexpected Findings  

PubMed Central

Ring chromosomes are rare entities, usually associated with phenotypic abnormalities in correlation with the loss of genetic material. There are various breakpoints and sometimes there is a dynamic mosaicism that is reflected in clinical features. Most of the ring chromosomes are de novo occurrences. Our study reflects the experience of three Romanian cytogenetic laboratories in the field of ring chromosomes. We present six cases with ring chromosomes involving chromosomes 5, 13, 18, and 21. All ring chromosomes were identified after birth in children with plurimalformative syndromes. The ring chromosome was present in mosaic form in three cases, and this feature reflects the ring’s instability. In case of ring chromosome 5, we report a possible association with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum. PMID:24052730

Caba, L; Rusu, C; Pl?ia?u; Gug, G; Gr?mescu, M; Bujoran, C; Ochian?, D; Volo?ciuc, M; Popescu, R; Braha, E; Pânzaru, M; Butnariu, L; Sireteanu, A; Covic, M; Gorduza, EV

2012-01-01

491

The elusive rings of Neptune  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of investigations of Neptune's rings is presented in which the recent data and findings from the Voyager 2 mission are emphasized. The evolving interpretation of the ring arcs is outlined, and the concept of resonance in the rings is described. Illustrations of the rings, the moons of Neptune, and the interactions between the two are given, and attention is given to the development of the rings by means of the catastrophic breakup of a planetary satellite. The very large crater on the Mimas satellite is given as evidence of potentially catastrophic impacts, and the implications of further breakup are discussed. A total of four rings are identified which include 3 pronounced rings and one ring that is more diaphanous. Clumps in the arcs are discussed in terms of the possible existence of large objects within the rings, and interparticle collisions are theorized to account for the large arc dust content.

Porco, C. C.

1992-04-01

492

The Galactic evolution of phosphorus  

E-print Network

As a galaxy evolves, its chemical composition changes and the abundance ratios of different elements are powerful probes of the underlying evolutionary processes. Phosphorous is an element whose evolution has remained quite elusive until now, because it is difficult to detect in cool stars. The infrared weak P I lines of the multiplet 1, at 1050-1082 nm, are the most reliable indicators of the presence of phosphorus. The availability of CRIRES at VLT has permitted access to this wavelength range in stellar spectra.We attempt to measure the phosphorus abundance of twenty cool stars in the Galactic disk. The spectra are analysed with one-dimensional model-atmospheres computed in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE). The line formation computations are performed assuming LTE. The ratio of phosphorus to iron behaves similarly to sulphur, increasing towards lower metallicity stars. Its ratio with respect to sulphur is roughly constant and slightly larger than solar, [P/S]=0.10+- 0.10. We succeed in taking an impo...

Caffau, E; Faraggiana, R; Steffen, M

2011-01-01

493

Ring Polymers Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains an activity related to ring polymers. The topic is covered in relation to nanotechnology and requires background knowledge in eight grade science. The 1:30 minute video details the materials needed and steps required to complete this lesson. Visitors must complete a quick and free registration to access the materials.

2014-09-08

494

Ring of Stellar Death  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This false-color image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows a dying star (center) surrounded by a cloud of glowing gas and dust. Thanks to Spitzer's dust-piercing infrared eyes, the new image also highlights a never-before-seen feature -- a giant ring of material (red) slightly offset from the cloud's core. This clumpy ring consists of material that was expelled from the aging star.

The star and its cloud halo constitute a 'planetary nebula' called NGC 246. When a star like our own Sun begins to run out of fuel, its core shrinks and heats up, boiling off the star's outer layers. Leftover material shoots outward, expanding in shells around the star. This ejected material is then bombarded with ultraviolet light from the central star's fiery surface, producing huge, glowing clouds -- planetary nebulas -- that look like giant jellyfish in space.

In this image, the expelled gases appear green, and the ring of expelled material appears red. Astronomers believe the ring is likely made of hydrogen molecules that were ejected from the star in the form of atoms, then cooled to make hydrogen pairs. The new data will help explain how planetary nebulas take shape, and how they nourish future generations of stars.

This image composite was taken on Dec. 6, 2003, by Spitzer's infrared array camera, and is composed of images obtained at four wavelengths: 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red).

2004-01-01

495

Accelerated ring laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of a ring laser rotating with nonuniform angular velocity has become of interest, both experimental and theoretical. Within a framework of modest idealizations, a classical, relativistically exact theoretical analysis is presented. The beat frequency is found to be given by an expression of the Sagnac form but with the instantaneous angular velocity in place of the usual constant

Takamasa Takahashi; Ralph Baierlein

1977-01-01

496

Experiments with Plasma Rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE use of a coaxial plasma gun with radial magnetic field for the production of magnetized plasma rings was suggested1 by H. Alfvén in 1958. Experiments with a plasma gun of that type were started in the spring of 1958 and a detailed report is to be published2. We present here some new results obtained during continued experiments with a

L. Lindberg; E. Witalis; C. T. Jacobsen

1960-01-01

497

Achistrum tentacle ring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The plates surrounding the "tentacle ring" of the sea cucumber are faintly visible in the close-up above. Sea cucumbers are scavengers and detritus feeders. These "tentacles" or tube feet help the sea cucumber feed by gathering organic-rich sediment for it to ingest.

2001-03-21

498

Fiber ring interferometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ring interferometer rotation detector (gyroscope) using optical fiber waveguide is designed. The sensitivity of the device is enhanced via multiple traverses of counterrotating beams around an area, but restrictions on the optimum fiber length are imposed by the photon noise limit. A well-defined wavefront and efficient coupling of light into the fiber are required. Laser light divided by a

V. Vali; R. W. Shorthill

1976-01-01

499

Ring Flame Stabilizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ring Flame Stabilizer has been developed in conjunction with Lewis Research Center. This device can lower pollutant emissions (which contribute to smog and air pollution) from natural-gas appliances such as furnaces and water heaters by 90 percent while improving energy efficiency by 2 percent.

1996-01-01

500

Neptune may have polar rings  

SciTech Connect

Perturbations from Neptune's highly inclined satellite Triton can maintain rings passing nearly over Neptune's poles. These hypothetical polar rings are nearly perpendicular to Triton's orbit as well, and lie within several degrees of the plane of Voyager II's trajectory through the Neptunian system. Polar rings can coexist with equatorial rings at different radii. A randomly oriented torus of debris around Neptune has a probability of several percent to settle into a polar ring. Voyager II stands a significant chance of encountering a polar ring.

Dobrovolskis, A.R.; Steiman-Cameron, T.Y. (NASA Ames Research Center, IA (USA)); Borderies, N.J. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA))

1989-08-01