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Sample records for galactose

  1. Galactose metabolism by Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Abranches, Jacqueline; Chen, Yi-Ywan M; Burne, Robert A

    2004-10-01

    The galK gene, encoding galactokinase of the Leloir pathway, was insertionally inactivated in Streptococcus mutans UA159. The galK knockout strain displayed only marginal growth on galactose, but growth on glucose or lactose was not affected. In strain UA159, the sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) for lactose and the PTS for galactose were induced by growth in lactose and galactose, although galactose PTS activity was very low, suggesting that S. mutans does not have a galactose-specific PTS and that the lactose PTS may transport galactose, albeit poorly. To determine if the galactose growth defect of the galK mutant could be overcome by enhancing lactose PTS activity, the gene encoding a putative repressor of the operon for lactose PTS and phospho-beta-galactosidase, lacR, was insertionally inactivated. A galK and lacR mutant still could not grow on galactose, although the strain had constitutively elevated lactose PTS activity. The glucose PTS activity of lacR mutants grown in glucose was lower than in the wild-type strain, revealing an influence of LacR or the lactose PTS on the regulation of the glucose PTS. Mutation of the lacA gene of the tagatose pathway caused impaired growth in lactose and galactose, suggesting that galactose can only be efficiently utilized when both the Leloir and tagatose pathways are functional. A mutation of the permease in the multiple sugar metabolism operon did not affect growth on galactose. Thus, the galactose permease of S. mutans is not present in the gal, lac, or msm operons. PMID:15466549

  2. Endogenous galactose formation in galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Schadewaldt, Peter; Kamalanathan, Loganathan; Hammen, Hans-Werner; Kotzka, Jorg; Wendel, Udo

    2014-12-01

    Patients with classical galactosaemia (galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency) manifest clinical complications despite strict dietary galactose restriction. Therefore the significance of endogenous galactose production has been assessed. Previous in vivo studies primarily focused on patients homozygous for the most common genetic variant Q188R but little is known about other genetic variants. In the present study the endogenous galactose release in a group of non-Q188R homozygous galactosaemic patients (n = 17; 4-34 years) exhibiting comparably low residual GALT activity in red blood cells was investigated. Primed continuous infusion studies with D-[1-(13)C]galactose as substrate were conducted under post-absorptive conditions and in good metabolic control. The results demonstrate that all patients exhibiting residual GALT activity of <1.5% of control showed a comparable pathological pattern of increased endogenous galactose release irrespective of the underlying genetic variations. Possible implications of the findings towards a more differentiated dietary regimen in galactosaemia are discussed. PMID:25268296

  3. Genetics Home Reference: glucose-galactose malabsorption

    MedlinePlus

    ... mutations in SGLT1 cause glucose-galactose malabsorption by trafficking defects. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Feb 24;1453( ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of ...

  4. Lactose uptake driven by galactose efflux in Streptococcus thermophilus: Evidence for a galactose-lactose antiporter

    SciTech Connect

    Hutkins, R.W.; Ponne, C. )

    1991-04-01

    Galactose-nonfermenting (Gal{sup {minus}}) Streptococcus thermophilus TS2 releases galactose into the extracellular medium when grown in medium containing excess lactose. Starved and de-energized Gal{sup {minus}} cells, however, could be loaded with galactose to levels approximately equal to the extracellular concentration (0 to 50 mM). When loaded cells were separated from the medium and resuspended in fresh broth containing 5 mM lactose, galactose efflux occurred. De-energized, galactose-loaded cells, resuspended in buffer or medium, accumulated ({sup 14}C)lactose at a greater rate and to significantly higher intracellular concentrations than unloaded cells. Uptake of lactose by loaded cells was inhibited more than that by unloaded cells in the presence of extracellular galactose, indicating that a galactose gradient was involved in the exchange system. When de-energized, galactose-loaded cells were resuspended in carbohydrate-free medium at pH 6.7, a proton motive force ({Delta}p) of 86 to 90 mV was formed, whereas de-energized, nonloaded cells maintained a {Delta}p of about 56 mV. However, uptake of lactose by loaded cells occurred when the proton motive force was abolished by the addition of an uncoupler or in the presence of a proton-translocating ATPase inhibitor. These results support the hypothesis that galactose efflux in Gal{sup {minus}} S. thermophilus is electrogenic and that the exchange reaction (lactose uptake and galactose efflux) probably occurs via an antiporter system.

  5. Glucose and galactose transport in Bifidobacterium bifidum DSM 20082.

    PubMed

    Krzewinski, F; Brassart, C; Gavini, F; Bouquelet, S

    1997-09-01

    Sugar uptake was measured with 3H-galactose and 14C-glucose. Galactose transport system was not modified by inhibitors of known translocases and did not present a saturation kinetic with high concentration of galactose. Glucose incorporation was inhibited by lasalocid (cation symport inhibitor) and increased by KCl. The kinetic parameters KM and Vmax were respectively 9.16 mM and 26.56 nmol/min/mg cell protein. On the basis of this study, galactose crossed through the membrane by diffusion, and glucose was incorporated by a cation symport which is regulated by K+ ions. PMID:9236301

  6. Rapid and efficient galactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Quarterman, Josh; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Feng, Xueyang; Liu, Ian Y; Zhao, Huimin; Arkin, Adam P; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-07-10

    In the important industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, galactose metabolism requires energy production by respiration; therefore, this yeast cannot metabolize galactose under strict anaerobic conditions. While the respiratory dependence of galactose metabolism provides benefits in terms of cell growth and population stability, it is not advantageous for producing fuels and chemicals since a substantial fraction of consumed galactose is converted to carbon dioxide. In order to force S. cerevisiae to use galactose without respiration, a subunit (COX9) of a respiratory enzyme was deleted, but the resulting deletion mutant (Δcox9) was impaired in terms of galactose assimilation. Interestingly, after serial sub-cultures on galactose, the mutant evolved rapidly and was able to use galactose via fermentation only. The evolved strain (JQ-G1) produced ethanol from galactose with a 94% increase in yield and 6.9-fold improvement in specific productivity as compared to the wild-type strain. (13)C-metabolic flux analysis demonstrated a three-fold reduction in carbon flux through the TCA cycle of the evolved mutant with redirection of flux toward the fermentation pathway. Genome sequencing of the JQ-G1 strain revealed a loss of function mutation in a master negative regulator of the Leloir pathway (Gal80p). The mutation (Glu348*) in Gal80p was found to act synergistically with deletion of COX9 for efficient galactose fermentation, and thus the double deletion mutant Δcox9Δgal80 produced ethanol 2.4 times faster and with 35% higher yield than a single knockout mutant with deletion of GAL80 alone. When we introduced a functional COX9 cassette back into the JQ-G1 strain, the JQ-G1-COX9 strain showed a 33% reduction in specific galactose uptake rate and a 49% reduction in specific ethanol production rate as compared to JQ-G1. The wild-type strain was also subjected to serial sub-cultures on galactose but we failed to isolate a mutant capable of utilizing galactose without

  7. 21 CFR 862.1310 - Galactose test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Galactose test system. 862.1310 Section 862.1310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... hereditary disease galactosemia (a disorder of galactose metabolism) in infants. (b) Classification. Class I....

  8. Galactose oxidation using (13)C in healthy and galactosemic children.

    PubMed

    Resende-Campanholi, D R; Porta, G; Ferrioli, E; Pfrimer, K; Ciampo, L A Del; Junior, J S Camelo

    2015-03-01

    Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that occurs mainly as the outcome of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency. The ability to assess galactose oxidation following administration of a galactose-labeled isotope (1-(13)C-galactose) allows the determination of galactose metabolism in a practical manner. We aimed to assess the level of galactose oxidation in both healthy and galactosemic Brazilian children. Twenty-one healthy children and seven children with galactosemia ranging from 1 to 7 years of age were studied. A breath test was used to quantitate (13)CO2 enrichment in exhaled air before and at 30, 60, and 120 min after the oral administration of 7 mg/kg of an aqueous solution of 1-(13)C-galactose to all children. The molar ratios of (13)CO2 and (12)CO2 were quantified by the mass/charge ratio (m/z) of stable isotopes in each air sample by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. In sick children, the cumulative percentage of (13)C from labeled galactose (CUMPCD) in the exhaled air ranged from 0.03% at 30 min to 1.67% at 120 min. In contrast, healthy subjects showed a much broader range in CUMPCD, with values from 0.4% at 30 min to 5.58% at 120 min. The study found a significant difference in galactose oxidation between children with and without galactosemia, demonstrating that the breath test is useful in discriminating children with GALT deficiencies. PMID:25608239

  9. Galactose effects on enterocyte differentiation in the mouse jejunum.

    PubMed

    Smith, M W; James, P S; Peacock, M A

    1991-07-10

    The present work investigates the ability of galactose to affect enterocyte differentiation during normal development in vivo. Energy intake has also been varied to take account of the fact that galactose is poorly metabolized in mice. Brush-border lactase, alpha-glucosidase, dipeptidylpeptidase-IV, aminopeptidase N, alkaline phosphatase and microvillus length were measured as markers of enterocyte differentiation in mice fed diets containing galactose (G diet), corn oil (E diet) or galactose + corn oil (G + E diet). Maintaining mice on a G instead of E diet reduced brush-border lactase activity and enterocyte migration rates; alpha-glucosidase, dipeptidylpeptidase-IV, aminopeptidase N and microvillus length expression increased and alkaline phosphatase activity remained unchanged. Feeding the G + E diet restored enterocyte migration rates, lactase, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidylpeptidase-IV activities to values found in mice fed the E diet. Galactose stimulation of alpha-glucosidase and microvillus length expression was, however, fully maintained in mice fed the G + E diet. Present results show that enterocyte differentiation is affected independently by varying dietary galactose and energy levels; that galactose effects always increase and energy effects usually decrease expression of enterocyte components and that energy stimulation of lactase activity is exceptional. PMID:1907492

  10. Quantification of extracellular UDP-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Lazarowski, Eduardo R.

    2009-01-01

    The human P2Y14 receptor is potently activated by UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc), UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal), UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), and UDP-glucuronic acid. Recently, cellular release of UDP-Glc and UDP-GlcNAc has been reported, but whether additional UDP-sugars are endogenous agonists for the P2Y14 receptor remains poorly defined. In the present study, we describe an assay for the quantification of UDP-Gal with sub-nanomolar sensitivity. This assay is based on the enzymatic conversion of UDP-Gal to UDP, using 1–4-β-galactosyltransferase. UDP is subsequently phosphorylated by nucleoside diphosphokinase in the presence of [γ32P]ATP and the formation of [γ32P]UTP is monitored by high performance liquid chromatography. The overall conversion of UDP-Gal to [γ32P]UTP was linear between 0.5 and 30 nM UDP-Gal. Extracellular UDP-Gal was detected on resting cultures of various cell types, and increased release of UDP-Gal was observed in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells stimulated with the protease-activated receptor agonist thrombin. Occurrence of regulated release of UDP-Gal suggests that, in addition to its role in glycosylation reactions, UDP-Gal is an important extracellular signaling molecule. PMID:19699703

  11. Signal integration in the galactose network of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Semsey, Szabolcs; Krishna, Sandeep; Sneppen, Kim; Adhya, Sankar

    2007-07-01

    The gal regulon of Escherichia coli contains genes involved in galactose transport and metabolism. Transcription of the gal regulon genes is regulated in different ways by two iso-regulatory proteins, Gal repressor (GalR) and Gal isorepressor (GalS), which recognize the same binding sites in the absence of d-galactose. DNA binding by both GalR and GalS is inhibited in the presence of d-galactose. Many of the gal regulon genes are activated in the presence of the adenosine cyclic-3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex. We studied transcriptional regulation of the gal regulon promoters simultaneously in a purified system and attempted to integrate the two small molecule signals, d-galactose and cAMP, that modulate the isoregulators and CRP respectively, at each promoter, using Boolean logic. Results show that similarly organized promoters can have different input functions. We also found that in some cases the activity of the promoter and the cognate gene can be described by different logic gates. We combined the transcriptional network of the galactose regulon, obtained from our experiments, with literature data to construct an integrated map of the galactose network. Structural analysis of the network shows that at the interface of the genetic and metabolic network, feedback loops are by far the most common motif. PMID:17630975

  12. Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus Transmission Characteristics of Galactose α1-3 Galactose-Deficient Pig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Gary; Wood, James C.; Ryan, David J. J.; Suling, Kristen M.; Moran, Kathleen M.; Kolber-Simonds, Donna L.; Greenstein, Julia L.; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Hawley, Robert J.; Patience, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Galactose α1-3 galactose (Gal) trisaccharides are present on the surface of wild-type pig cells, as well as on viruses particles produced from such cells. The recognition of Gal sugars by natural anti-Gal antibodies (NAb) in human and Old World primate serum can cause the lysis of the particles via complement-dependent mechanisms and has therefore been proposed as an important antiviral mechanism. Recently, pigs have been generated that possess disrupted galactosyl-transferase (GGTA1) genes. The cells of these pigs do not express Gal sugars on their surface, i.e., are Gal null. Concerns have been raised that the risk of virus transmission from such pigs may be increased due to the absence of the Gal sugars. We investigated the sensitivity of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) produced from Gal-null and Gal-positive pig cells to inactivation by purified NAb and human serum. PERV produced in Gal-null pig cells was resistant to inactivation by either NAb or human serum. In contrast, although Gal-positive PERV particles were sensitive to inactivation by NAb and human serum, they required markedly higher concentrations of NAb for inactivation compared to the Gal-positive cells from which they were produced. Complete inactivation of Gal-positive PERV particles was not achievable despite the use of high levels of NAb, indicating that NAb-mediated inactivation of cell-free PERV particles is an inefficient process. PMID:15140978

  13. Mathematical model of galactose regulation and metabolic consumption in yeast.

    PubMed

    Mitre, Tina M; Mackey, Michael C; Khadra, Anmar

    2016-10-21

    The galactose network has been extensively studied at the unicellular level to broaden our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms governing galactose metabolism in multicellular organisms. Although the key molecular players involved in the metabolic and regulatory processes of this system have been known for decades, their interactions and chemical kinetics remain incompletely understood. Mathematical models can provide an alternative method to study the dynamics of this network from a quantitative and a qualitative perspective. Here, we employ this approach to unravel the main properties of the galactose network, including equilibrium binary and temporal responses, as a way to decipher its adaptation to actively-changing inputs. We combine its two main components: the genetic branch, which allows for bistable responses, and a metabolic branch, encompassing the relevant metabolic processes that can be repressed by glucose. We use both computational tools to estimate model parameters based on published experimental data, as well as bifurcation analysis to decipher the properties of the system in various parameter regimes. Our model analysis reveals that the interplay between the inducer (galactose) and the repressor (glucose) creates a bistable regime which dictates the temporal responses of the system. Based on the same bifurcation techniques, we explain why the system is robust to genetic mutations and molecular instabilities. These findings may provide experimentalists with a theoretical framework with which they can determine how the galactose network functions under various conditions. PMID:27395401

  14. Galactose-α-1,3-galactose and Delayed Anaphylaxis, Angioedema, and Urticaria in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Joshua L.; Stallings, Amy P.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Oliveira, Walter M.; Workman, Lisa; James, Haley R.; Tripathi, Anubha; Lane, Charles J.; Matos, Luis; Heymann, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Despite a thorough history and comprehensive testing, many children who present with recurrent symptoms consistent with allergic reactions elude diagnosis. Recent research has identified a novel cause for “idiopathic” allergic reactions; immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody specific for the carbohydrate galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) has been associated with delayed urticaria and anaphylaxis that occurs 3 to 6 hours after eating beef, pork, or lamb. We sought to determine whether IgE antibody to α-Gal was present in sera of pediatric patients who reported idiopathic anaphylaxis or urticaria. METHODS: Patients aged 4 to 17 were enrolled in an institutional review board–approved protocol at the University of Virginia and private practice allergy offices in Lynchburg, VA. Sera was obtained and analyzed by ImmunoCAP for total IgE and specific IgE to α-Gal, beef, pork, cat epithelium and dander, Fel d 1, dog dander, and milk. RESULTS: Forty-five pediatric patients were identified who had both clinical histories supporting delayed anaphylaxis or urticaria to mammalian meat and IgE antibody specific for α-Gal. In addition, most of these cases had a history of tick bites within the past year, which itched and persisted. CONCLUSIONS: A novel form of anaphylaxis and urticaria that occurs 3 to 6 hours after eating mammalian meat is not uncommon among children in our area. Identification of these cases may not be straightforward and diagnosis is best confirmed by specific testing, which should certainly be considered for children living in the area where the Lone Star tick is common. PMID:23569097

  15. Drug allergens and food—the cetuximab and galactose-α-1,3-galactose story

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Emily A.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Commins, Scott P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A novel form of food allergy has been described that initially became apparent from IgE reactivity with the drug cetuximab. Ongoing work regarding the etiology, distribution, clinical management, and cellular mechanisms of the IgE response to the oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) is reviewed. Data Sources Brief review of the relevant literature in peer-reviewed journals. Study Selection Studies on the clinical and immunologic features, pathogenesis, epidemiology, laboratory evaluation, and management of IgE to α-gal are included in this review. Results Recent work has identified a novel IgE antibody response to the mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, α-gal, that has been associated with 2 distinct forms of anaphylaxis: (1) immediate-onset anaphylaxis during first exposure to intravenous cetuximab and (2) delayed-onset anaphylaxis 3 to 6 hours after ingestion of mammalian food products (eg, beef and pork). Study results have suggested that tick bites are a cause of IgE antibody responses to α-gal in the United States. Patients with IgE antibody to α-gal continue to emerge, and, increasingly, these cases involve children. Nevertheless, this IgE antibody response does not appear to pose a risk for asthma but may impair diagnostic testing in some situations. Conclusion The practicing physician should understand the symptoms, evaluation, and management when diagnosing delayed allergic reactions to mammalian meat from IgE to α-gal or when initiating treatment with cetuximab in patients who have developed an IgE antibody response to α-gal. PMID:24468247

  16. 21 CFR 862.1310 - Galactose test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Galactose test system. 862.1310 Section 862.1310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1310 - Galactose test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Galactose test system. 862.1310 Section 862.1310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1310 - Galactose test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Galactose test system. 862.1310 Section 862.1310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  19. Contribution of galactose and fructose to glucose homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the contributions of galactose and fructose to glucose formation, 6 subjects (26 +/- 2 years old; body mass index, 22.4 +/-0.2 kg/m2) (mean +/- SE) were studied during fasting conditions. Three subjects received a primed constant intravenous infusion of[6,6-2H2] glucose for 3 hours foll...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1310 - Galactose test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Galactose test system. 862.1310 Section 862.1310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  1. Galactose promotes fat mobilization in obese lactating and nonlactating women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Galactose consumption as the only carbohydrate source, results in little increase in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations when compared with fasting. Lower insulin might promote endogenous lipolysis during meal absorption, which may facilitate fat loss. The objective was to test the hypothesis ...

  2. Elemental and structural studies of the rat galactose cataract

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, C.V.; Unakar, N.J.; Bagchi, M.; Chylack, L.T. Jr.; Jampel, R.S.; Bobrowski, W.F.; Dang, L.; Tsui, J.Y.; Harding, D. )

    1989-01-01

    A series of rat galactose lenses, from 1 to 20 days on the 50% galactose diet, were frozen in the whole eye, and fractured from pole to pole in the frozen state. Lyophilized half-lenses were prepared for analysis by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Following elemental analysis, some specimens were embedded and sectioned for histological studies. Elemental X-ray maps, and/or profiles, were made for K, Na, Cl, Ca, P, and S. As early as two days on the galactose diet, a crescent-shaped region (streak) of Cl, Na, and Ca gain, and K loss develops near the equatorial surface. Between this region and the equatorial surface are the nucleated differentiating fiber cells which maintain low Cl, Na, and Ca, and high K (viable equatorial zone, VEZ). With time the streak expands anteriorly, centrally and posteriorly, eventually (by 20 days) including most of the lens. The VEZ, including the epithelium, however, is non-reactive to the galactose diet, which is deleterious to the fully differentiated fiber cells. Eventually, the VEZ undergoes a characteristic morphological change, apparently due in part to changes in its physical environment.

  3. Overlapping and Distinct Roles of Aspergillus fumigatus UDP-glucose 4-Epimerases in Galactose Metabolism and the Synthesis of Galactose-containing Cell Wall Polysaccharides*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mark J.; Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Cerone, Robert P.; Baptista, Stefanie D.; Campoli, Paolo V.; Choe, Se-In; Kravtsov, Ilia; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Creuzenet, Carole; Liu, Hong; Berghuis, Albert M.; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Filler, Scott G.; Fontaine, Thierry; Sheppard, Donald C.

    2014-01-01

    The cell wall of Aspergillus fumigatus contains two galactose-containing polysaccharides, galactomannan and galactosaminogalactan, whose biosynthetic pathways are not well understood. The A. fumigatus genome contains three genes encoding putative UDP-glucose 4-epimerases, uge3, uge4, and uge5. We undertook this study to elucidate the function of these epimerases. We found that uge4 is minimally expressed and is not required for the synthesis of galactose-containing exopolysaccharides or galactose metabolism. Uge5 is the dominant UDP-glucose 4-epimerase in A. fumigatus and is essential for normal growth in galactose-based medium. Uge5 is required for synthesis of the galactofuranose (Galf) component of galactomannan and contributes galactose to the synthesis of galactosaminogalactan. Uge3 can mediate production of both UDP-galactose and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) and is required for the production of galactosaminogalactan but not galactomannan. In the absence of Uge5, Uge3 activity is sufficient for growth on galactose and the synthesis of galactosaminogalactan containing lower levels of galactose but not the synthesis of Galf. A double deletion of uge5 and uge3 blocked growth on galactose and synthesis of both Galf and galactosaminogalactan. This study is the first survey of glucose epimerases in A. fumigatus and contributes to our understanding of the role of these enzymes in metabolism and cell wall synthesis. PMID:24257745

  4. Five Arab children with glucose-galactose malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Assiri, Asaad; Saeed, Anjum; Alnimri, Abdulrehman; Ahmad, Sarfaraz; Saeed, Elshazalay; Jameel, Sajjad

    2013-05-01

    Five children with glucose-galactose malabsorption (GGM) are presented. Two infants from Saudi Arabia were first-degree relatives, the third infant was unrelated and the other two were of Yemeni and Syrian origin, respectively. All the infants had chronic diarrhoea and four had failed to thrive since early infancy. All had stools positive for reducing substances, and sugar chromatography showed glucose and galactose malabsorption. Small bowel biopsies were normal in all. One infant developed gangrene of both legs as a complication of hypernatraemia and dehydration, necessitating bilateral amputation. Two infants had nephrolithiasis. All the infants responded well to fructose-based formulae. GGM should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhoea in infants breastfed or artificially fed from early life. PMID:23925285

  5. Galactose as Broad Ligand for Multiple Tumor Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yuxiang; Chen, Haiyan; Su, Shanyuhan; Wang, Tong; Zhang, Congying; Fida, Guissi; Cui, Sisi; Zhao, Juan; Gu, Yueqing

    2015-01-01

    Galactose residues could be specifically recognized by the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) which is highly exhibited on liver tissues. However, ASGPR has not been widely investigated on different tumor cell lines except for hepatoma carcinoma cells, which motivates us to investigate the possibility of galactose serving as a board tumor ligand. In this study, a galactose (Gal)-based probe conjugated with fluorescence dye MPA (Gal-MPA) was constructed for the evaluation of tumor affinities/targeted ability on different tumor cell lines. In the vitro cell study, it was indicated that the fluorescence probe Gal-MPA displayed higher cell affinity to tumor cells (HepG2, MCF-7 and A549) than that of the normal liver cells l02. In the vivo dynamic study of Gal-MPA in tumor-bearing mice (HepG2, MCF-7, A549, HCT116, U87, MDA-MB-231 and S180), it was shown that its high tumor targeted ability with the maximal tumor/normal tissue ratio reached up to 6.8. Meanwhile, the fast tumor-targeted ability within 2 hours and long retention on tumor site up to 120 hours were observed. Our results demonstrated that galactose should be a promising broad ligand for multiple tumor imaging and targeted therapy. Subsequently, Gal was covalently conjugated to doxorubicin (DOX) to form prodrug Gal-DOX for tumor targeted therapy. The therapeutic results of Gal-DOX than DOX being better suggested that galactosylated prodrugs might have the prospective potential in tumor targeted therapy. PMID:26078797

  6. Galactose Recognition by the Apicomplexan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii*

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Jan; Cowper, Ben; Liu, Yan; Lai, Livia; Pinzan, Camila; Marq, Jean Baptiste; Friedrich, Nikolas; Sawmynaden, Kovilen; Liew, Lloyd; Chai, Wengang; Childs, Robert A.; Saouros, Savvas; Simpson, Peter; Roque Barreira, Maria Cristina; Feizi, Ten; Soldati-Favre, Dominique; Matthews, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Toxosplasma gondii is the model parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, which contains numerous obligate intracellular parasites of medical and veterinary importance, including Eimeria, Sarcocystis, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Plasmodium species. Members of this phylum actively enter host cells by a multistep process with the help of microneme protein (MIC) complexes that play important roles in motility, host cell attachment, moving junction formation, and invasion. T. gondii (Tg)MIC1-4-6 complex is the most extensively investigated microneme complex, which contributes to host cell recognition and attachment via the action of TgMIC1, a sialic acid-binding adhesin. Here, we report the structure of TgMIC4 and reveal its carbohydrate-binding specificity to a variety of galactose-containing carbohydrate ligands. The lectin is composed of six apple domains in which the fifth domain displays a potent galactose-binding activity, and which is cleaved from the complex during parasite invasion. We propose that galactose recognition by TgMIC4 may compromise host protection from galectin-mediated activation of the host immune system. PMID:22399295

  7. Leishmania major UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase salvages galactose for glycoconjugate biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Damerow, Sebastian; Hoppe, Carolin; Bandini, Giulia; Zarnovican, Patricia; Buettner, Falk F.R.; Ferguson, Michael A.J.; Routier, Françoise H.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a set of tropical and sub-tropical diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania whose severity ranges from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral infections. Leishmania parasites synthesise a wide array of cell surface and secreted glycoconjugates that play important roles in infection. These glycoconjugates are particularly abundant in the promastigote form and known to be essential for establishment of infection in the insect midgut and effective transmission to the mammalian host. Since they are rich in galactose, their biosynthesis requires an ample supply of UDP-galactose. This nucleotide-sugar arises from epimerisation of UDP-glucose but also from an uncharacterised galactose salvage pathway. In this study, we evaluated the role of the newly characterised UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USP) of Leishmania major in UDP-galactose biosynthesis. Upon deletion of the USP encoding gene, L. major lost the ability to synthesise UDP-galactose from galactose-1-phosphate but its ability to convert glucose-1-phosphate into UDP-glucose was fully maintained. Thus USP plays a role in UDP-galactose activation but does not significantly contribute to the de novo synthesis of UDP-glucose. Accordingly, USP was shown to be dispensable for growth and glycoconjugate biosynthesis under standard growth conditions. However, in a mutant seriously impaired in the de novo synthesis of UDP-galactose (due to deficiency of the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) addition of extracellular galactose increased biosynthesis of the cell surface lipophosphoglycan. Thus under restrictive conditions, such as those encountered by Leishmania in its natural habitat, galactose salvage by USP may play a substantial role in biosynthesis of the UDP-galactose pool. We hypothesise that USP recycles galactose from the blood meal within the midgut of the insect for synthesis of the promastigote glycocalyx and thereby contributes to successful vector infection. PMID

  8. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a)...

  10. Galactose uncovers face recognition and mental images in congenital prosopagnosia: the first case report.

    PubMed

    Esins, Janina; Schultz, Johannes; Bülthoff, Isabelle; Kennerknecht, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    A woman in her early 40s with congenital prosopagnosia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder observed for the first time sudden and extensive improvement of her face recognition abilities, mental imagery, and sense of navigation after galactose intake. This effect of galactose on prosopagnosia has never been reported before. Even if this effect is restricted to a subform of congenital prosopagnosia, galactose might improve the condition of other prosopagnosics. Congenital prosopagnosia, the inability to recognize other people by their face, has extensive negative impact on everyday life. It has a high prevalence of about 2.5%. Monosaccharides are known to have a positive impact on cognitive performance. Here, we report the case of a prosopagnosic woman for whom the daily intake of 5 g of galactose resulted in a remarkable improvement of her lifelong face blindness, along with improved sense of orientation and more vivid mental imagery. All these improvements vanished after discontinuing galactose intake. The self-reported effects of galactose were wide-ranging and remarkably strong but could not be reproduced for 16 other prosopagnosics tested. Indications about heterogeneity within prosopagnosia have been reported; this could explain the difficulty to find similar effects in other prosopagnosics. Detailed analyses of the effects of galactose in prosopagnosia might give more insight into the effects of galactose on human cognition in general. Galactose is cheap and easy to obtain, therefore, a systematic test of its positive effects on other cases of congenital prosopagnosia may be warranted. PMID:24164936

  11. Selection of Galactose-Fermenting Streptococcus thermophilus in Lactose-Limited Chemostat Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Terence D.; Crow, Vaughan L.

    1984-01-01

    Stock cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus are essentially galactose negative (Gal−). Although both galactose 1-phosphate uridyl transferase and uridine-5-diphospho-glucose 4-epimerase are present, suggesting that the genes for the Leloir pathway exist, cells cannot induce high levels of galactokinase. Therefore, galactose is largely excreted when cultures are grown on lactose, and most strains cannot be readily adapted to grow on free galactose. Gal− cultures were grown in a chemostat under lactose limitation in which high concentrations of residual galactose were present. Under this selection pressure, Gal+ organisms eventually took over the culture with all four strains examined. Gal+ cells had induced galactokinase, and three of the four strains grew on free galactose with doubling times of 40 to 50 min. When Gal+ organisms were grown on lactose in batch culture, the galactose moiety was only partially utilized while lactose was still present. As lactose was exhausted, and catabolite repression was lifted, the Leloir pathway enzymes (especially galactokinase) were induced and the residual galactose fermented. Neither phospho-β-galactosidase activity nor the enzymes of the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway were detected in S. thermophilus. In contrast to Streptococcus cremoris and Streptococcus lactis, fermentation was homolactic with galactose in batch cultures and with lactose limitation in the chemostat. When mixed Gal+-Gal− cultures were repeatedly transferred in milk, the Gal− cells became the dominant cell type. The Gal− phenotype of stock cultures probably reflects their prolonged maintenance in milk. PMID:16346586

  12. Galactose inhibits auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles by two mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, S. P.; Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Galactose inhibits auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles by at least two mechanisms. First, it inhibits auxin-induced H(+)-excretion needed for the initiation of rapid elongation. Galactose cannot be doing so by directly interfering with the ATPase since fusicoccin-induced H(+)-excretion is not affected. Secondly, galactose inhibits long-term auxin-induced growth, even in an acidic (pH 4.5) solution. This may be due to an inhibition of cell wall synthesis. However, galactose does not reduce the capacity of walls to be loosened by H+, given exogenously or excreted in response to fusicoccin.

  13. Kinetic Analysis of Guanidine Hydrochloride Inactivation of β-Galactosidase in the Presence of Galactose

    PubMed Central

    Nwamba, Charles O.; Chilaka, Ferdinand C.

    2012-01-01

    Inactivation of purified β-Galactosidase was done with GdnHCl in the absence and presence of varying [galactose] at 50°C and at pH 4.5. Lineweaver-Burk plots of initial velocity data, in the presence and absence of guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) and galactose, were used to determine the relevant Km and Vmax values, with p-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside (pNPG) as substrate, S. Plots of ln([P]∞ − [P]t) against time in the presence of GdnHCl yielded the inactivation rate constant, A. Plots of A versus [S] at different galactose concentrations were straight lines that became increasingly less steep as the [galactose] increased, showing that A was dependent on [S]. Slopes and intercepts of the 1/[P]∞ versus 1/[S] yielded k+0 and k'+0, the microscopic rate constants for the free enzyme and the enzyme-substrate complex, respectively. Plots of k+0 and k'+0 versus [galactose] showed that galactose protected the free enzyme as well as the enzyme-substrate complex (only at the lowest and highest [galactose]) against GdnHCl inactivation. In the absence of galactose, GdnHCl exhibited some degree of non-competitive inhibition. In the presence of GdnHCl, galactose exhibited competitive inhibition at the lower [galactose] of 5 mM which changed to non-competitive as the [galactose] increased. The implications of our findings are further discussed. PMID:23008759

  14. Galactose promotes fat mobilization in obese lactating and non-lactating women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Galactose consumption results in a lower rise in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations when compared to glucose. The lower insulin might promote lipolysis during meal absorption. An isocaloric galactose drink, when compared to glucose, will sustain fat mobilization during meal consumption while...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. 862.1315 Section 862.1315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... hereditary disease galactosemia (disorder of galactose metabolism) in infants. (b) Classification. Class II....

  16. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. 862.1315 Section 862.1315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... hereditary disease galactosemia (disorder of galactose metabolism) in infants. (b) Classification. Class II....

  17. Electrochemical biosensing of galactose based on carbon materials: graphene versus multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Dalkıran, Berna; Erden, Pınar Esra; Kılıç, Esma

    2016-06-01

    In this study, two enzyme electrodes based on graphene (GR), Co3O4 nanoparticles and chitosan (CS) or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), Co3O4 nanoparticles, and CS, were fabricated as novel biosensing platforms for galactose determination, and their performances were compared. Galactose oxidase (GaOx) was immobilized onto the electrode surfaces by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. Optimum working conditions of the biosensors were investigated and the analytical performance of the biosensors was compared with respect to detection limit, linearity, repeatability, and stability. The MWCNTs-based galactose biosensor provided about 1.6-fold higher sensitivity than its graphene counterpart. Moreover, the linear working range and detection limit of the MWCNTs-based galactose biosensor was superior to the graphene-modified biosensor. The successful application of the purposed biosensors for galactose biosensing in human serum samples was also investigated. PMID:27074783

  18. Mutations in GAL2 or GAL4 alleviate catabolite repression produced by galactose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez; Flores

    2000-06-01

    Galactose does not allow growth of pyruvate carboxylase mutants in media with ammonium as a nitrogen source, and inhibits growth of strains defective in phosphoglyceromutase in ethanol-glycerol mixtures. Starting with pyc1, pyc2, and gpm1 strains, we isolated mutants that eliminated those galactose effects. The mutations were recessive and were named dgr1-1 and dgr2-1. Strains bearing those mutations in an otherwise wild-type background grew slower than the wild type in rich galactose media, and their growth was dependent on respiration. Galactose repression of several enzymes was relieved in the mutants. Biochemical and genetic evidence showed that dgr1-1 was allelic with GAL2 and dgr2-1 with GAL4. The results indicate that the rate of galactose consumption is critical to cause catabolite repression. PMID:10862881

  19. Timing and Variability of Galactose Metabolic Gene Activation Depend on the Rate of Environmental Change

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bo; Ott, William; Josić, Krešimir; Bennett, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of gene network activity allows cells to respond to changes in environmental conditions. For example, the galactose utilization network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is activated by the presence of galactose but repressed by glucose. If both sugars are present, the yeast will first metabolize glucose, depleting it from the extracellular environment. Upon depletion of glucose, the genes encoding galactose metabolic proteins will activate. Here, we show that the rate at which glucose levels are depleted determines the timing and variability of galactose gene activation. Paradoxically, we find that Gal1p, an enzyme needed for galactose metabolism, accumulates more quickly if glucose is depleted slowly rather than taken away quickly. Furthermore, the variability of induction times in individual cells depends non-monotonically on the rate of glucose depletion and exhibits a minimum at intermediate depletion rates. Our mathematical modeling suggests that the dynamics of the metabolic transition from glucose to galactose are responsible for the variability in galactose gene activation. These findings demonstrate that environmental dynamics can determine the phenotypic outcome at both the single-cell and population levels. PMID:26200924

  20. Lithium Induces ER Stress and N-Glycan Modification in Galactose-Grown Jurkat Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kátai, Emese; Yahiro, Rikki K. K.; Poór, Viktor S.; Montskó, Gergely; Zrínyi, Zita; Kovács, Gábor L.; Miseta, Attila

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that lithium had a significant impact on Ca2+ regulation and induced unfolded protein response (UPR) in yeast cells grown on galactose due to inhibition of phosphoglucomutase (PGM), however the exact mechanism has not been established yet. In this study, we analysed lithium's effect in galactose-fed cells to clarify whether these ER-related changes are the result of a relative hypoglycemic state. Furthermore, we investigated whether the alterations in galactose metabolism impact protein post-translational modifications. Thus, Jurkat cells were incubated in glucose or galactose containing media with or without lithium treatment. We found that galactose-fed and lithium treated cells showed better survivability than fasting cells. We also found higher UDP-Hexose and glycogen levels in these cells compared to fasting cells. On the other hand, the UPR (X-box binding protein 1 mRNA levels) of galactose-fed and lithium treated cells was even greater than in fasting cells. We also found increased amount of proteins that contained N-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine, similar to what was reported in fasting cells by a recent study. Our results demonstrate that lithium treatment of galactose-fed cells can induce stress responses similar to hypoglycemia, however cell survival is still secured by alternative pathways. We propose that clarifying this process might be an important addition toward the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate ER-associated stress response. PMID:23894652

  1. Effects of Exendin-4 on Male Reproductive Parameters of D-Galactose Induced Aging Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of exendin-4 on reproductive alteration in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 72 male Naval Medical Research Institute mice (20~25 g) were randomly divided into six groups: control, exendin-4 (1 nmol/kg), exendin-4 (10 nmol/kg), D-galactose (500 mg/kg), D-galactose+exendin-4 (1 nmol/kg), and D-galactose+exendin-4 (10 nmol/kg). The aging model animals were gavaged with D-galactose for six weeks, and exendin-4 was injected intraperitoneally in the last 10 days. At the end of treatment serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone levels were evaluated and the cauda epididymis and testis were removed to analyze the sperm count and testis morphology. Results The testis weight and volume decreased in the D-galactose group (p<0.01 and p<0.05) respectively. Exendin-4 (1, 10 nmol/kg) increased these parameters in the normal and aging mouse models. Serum LH and FSH levels increased and the sperm count decreased in the D-galactose group (p<0.05). Further, exendin-4 (1 nmol/kg) decreased LH and FSH levels and increased the serum testosterone level and sperm count in both normal and aging animals. Conclusions D-galactose can induce aging alternations in the male reproductive system such as decreased sperm count and increased serum LH and FSH levels through reactive oxygen species over production and reduced antioxidant enzyme activity. Further, co-administration of exendin-4 reduced reproductive complications of D-galactose in an aging mouse model. PMID:25606567

  2. Effects of IMOD™ and Angipars™ on mouse D-galactose-induced model of aging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two registered herbal drugs called IMOD and Angipars on mouse model. Aging was induced by D-galactose (500 mg/kg) administered to animals for 6 weeks through drinking water. Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 5 groups receiving D-galactose (D-galactose, 500 mg/kg) for 6 weeks; positive control (D-galactose [500 mg/kg] for 6 weeks + Vitamin E [200 mg/kg/day] intraperitoneally for 4 weeks); IMOD (D-galactose [500 mg/kg] for 6 weeks + IMOD [20 mg/kg/day] intraperitoneally for 4 weeks), Angipars (D-galactose [500 mg/kg] for 6 weeks + Angipars [2.1 mg/kg/day] by gavage for 4 weeks); and the fifth group that was sham and not given D-galactose. At the end of treatment, pro-inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interlukine-1β (IL-β), interlukine-6 (IL-6), Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-κb), total antioxidant power (TAP), lipid peroxides (LPO) and male sex hormones i.e. testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) were measured in the blood. Results showed that D-Galactose induces a significant oxidative stress and proinflammatory cascade of aging while both IMOD and Angipars recovered all of them. Interestingly, IMOD and Angipars were better than Vitamin E in improving male sex hormones in aged mice. This effect is so important and should be considered as an advantage although it cannot be explained with current knowledge. The conclusion is that IMOD and Angipars have marked anti-aging effect on D-galactose-induced model of aging. PMID:23351487

  3. Effects of IMOD™ and Angipars™ on mouse D-galactose-induced model of aging.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Samane; Yonessi, Mahsa; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Gholami, Mahdi; Baeeri, Maryam; Khorram-Khorshid, Hamid Reza; Gharibdoost, Farhad; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two registered herbal drugs called IMOD and Angipars on mouse model. Aging was induced by D-galactose (500 mg/kg) administered to animals for 6 weeks through drinking water. Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 5 groups receiving D-galactose (D-galactose, 500 mg/kg) for 6 weeks; positive control (D-galactose [500 mg/kg] for 6 weeks + Vitamin E [200 mg/kg/day] intraperitoneally for 4 weeks); IMOD (D-galactose [500 mg/kg] for 6 weeks + IMOD [20 mg/kg/day] intraperitoneally for 4 weeks), Angipars (D-galactose [500 mg/kg] for 6 weeks + Angipars [2.1 mg/kg/day] by gavage for 4 weeks); and the fifth group that was sham and not given D-galactose. At the end of treatment, pro-inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interlukine-1β (IL-β), interlukine-6 (IL-6), Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-κb), total antioxidant power (TAP), lipid peroxides (LPO) and male sex hormones i.e. testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) were measured in the blood.Results showed that D-Galactose induces a significant oxidative stress and proinflammatory cascade of aging while both IMOD and Angipars recovered all of them. Interestingly, IMOD and Angipars were better than Vitamin E in improving male sex hormones in aged mice. This effect is so important and should be considered as an advantage although it cannot be explained with current knowledge. The conclusion is that IMOD and Angipars have marked anti-aging effect on D-galactose-induced model of aging. PMID:23351487

  4. Polyvinylamine-G-galactose is a route to bioactivated silica surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Hajir; Pelton, Robert; Jin, Liqiang

    2014-01-01

    Polyvinylamine (PVAm) was derivatized with lactobionic acid to give PVAm-GAL with pendant galactose groups along the PVAm chain. The galactose substituents were shown to undergo two types of specific interactions: (1) condensation with phenylboronic acid moieties on polymers and on surfaces; and, (2) the specific binding of RCA120, a galactose-specific lectin. Surface binding and assembly was monitored with Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM-D) measurements. Multilayer assemblies based on boronic ester formation were destroyed by lowering the pH, or by introducing sorbitol. We propose that the physical adsorption of PVAm-GAL onto silica or other negatively charged support surfaces is a simple route to galactose-rich interfaces, possibly useful for affinity separations, cell targeting and cell culturing. PMID:24183434

  5. Impairments of astrocytes are involved in the D-galactose-induced brain aging

    SciTech Connect

    Lei Ming; Hua Xiangdong; Xiao Ming Ding Jiong; Han Qunying Hu Gang

    2008-05-16

    Astrocyte dysfunction is implicated in course of various age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Chronic injection of D-galactose can cause a progressive deterioration in learning and memory capacity and serve as an animal model of aging. To investigate the involvement of astrocytes in this model, oxidative stress biomarkers, biochemical and pathological changes of astrocytes were examined in the hippocampus of the rats with six weeks of D-galactose injection. D-galactose-injected rats displayed impaired antioxidant systems, an increase in nitric oxide levels, and a decrease in reduced glutathione levels. Consistently, western blotting and immunostaining of glial fibrillary acidic protein showed extensive activation of astrocytes. Double-immunofluorescent staining further showed activated astrocytes highly expressed inducible nitric oxide synthase. Electron microscopy demonstrated the degeneration of astrocytes, especially in the aggregated area of synapse and brain microvessels. These findings indicate that impairments of astrocytes are involved in oxidative stress-induced brain aging by chronic injection of D-galactose.

  6. Insights into the role of the aromatic residue in galactose-binding sites: MP2/6-311G++** study on galactose- and glucose-aromatic residue analogue complexes.

    PubMed

    Sujatha, Mannargudi S; Sasidhar, Yellamraju U; Balaji, Petety V

    2005-06-14

    The presence of an aromatic residue (Trp, Phe, Tyr) facing the nonpolar face of galactose is a common feature of galactose-specific lectins. The interactions such as those between the C-H groups of galactose and the pi-electron cloud of aromatic residues have been characterized as weak hydrogen bonds between soft acids and soft bases, largely governed by dispersive and charge transfer interactions. An analysis of the binding sites of several galactose-specific lectins revealed that the spatial position-orientation of galactose relative to the binding site aromatic residue varies substantially. The effect of variations in position-orientations of galactose on the interaction energies of galactose-aromatic residue complexes has not been determined so far. In view of this, MP2/6-311G++** calculations were performed on galactose- and glucose-aromatic residue analogue complexes in eight position-orientations. The results show that the strength of the C-H...pi interactions in galactose-aromatic residue complexes is comparable to that of a hydrogen bond. Rather than the type of aromatic residue, the position-orientation of the saccharide appears to be more critical in determining the strength of their interactions. Earlier studies have found the binding site aromatic residue to be critical, but its role was not clear. This study shows that the aromatic residue is important for discriminating galactose from glucose, in addition to its contribution to binding energy. PMID:15938646

  7. Gene Transcriptional and Metabolic Profile Changes in Mimetic Aging Mice Induced by D-Galactose

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue-Yue; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Li, Rong-Hua; Mu, Chang-Kao; Wang, Chun-Lin; Song, Wei-Wei

    2015-01-01

    D-galactose injection has been shown to induce many changes in mice that represent accelerated aging. This mouse model has been widely used for pharmacological studies of anti-aging agents. The underlying mechanism of D-galactose induced aging remains unclear, however, it appears to relate to glucose and 1ipid metabolic disorders. Currently, there has yet to be a study that focuses on investigating gene expression changes in D-galactose aging mice. In this study, integrated analysis of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabonomics and gene expression profiles was used to investigate the changes in transcriptional and metabolic profiles in mimetic aging mice injected with D-galactose. Our findings demonstrated that 48 mRNAs were differentially expressed between control and D-galactose mice, and 51 potential biomarkers were identified at the metabolic level. The effects of D-galactose on aging could be attributed to glucose and 1ipid metabolic disorders, oxidative damage, accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), reduction in abnormal substance elimination, cell apoptosis, and insulin resistance. PMID:26176541

  8. Galactose content of legumes, caseinates, and some hard cheeses: implications for diet treatment of classic galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Van Calcar, Sandra C; Bernstein, Laurie E; Rohr, Frances J; Yannicelli, Steven; Berry, Gerard T; Scaman, Christine H

    2014-02-12

    There are inconsistent reports on the lactose and/or galactose content of some foods traditionally restricted from the diet for classic galactosemia. Therefore, samples of cheeses, caseinates, and canned black, pinto, kidney, and garbanzo beans were analyzed for free galactose content using HPLC with refractive index or pulsed amperometric detection. Galactose concentrations in several hard and aged cheeses and three mild/medium Cheddars, produced by smaller local dairies, was <10 mg/100 g sample compared to 55.4 mg/100 g sample in four sharp Cheddars produced by a multinational producer. Galactose in sodium and calcium caseinate ranged from undetectable to 95.5 mg/100 g sample. Free galactose level in garbanzo beans was lower than previously reported at 24.6 mg/100 g sample; black beans contained 5.3 mg/100 g, and free galactose was not detected in red kidney or pinto beans. These data provide a basis for recommending inclusion of legumes, caseinate-containing foods, and some aged hard cheeses that had been previously restricted in the diet for individuals with galactosemia. PMID:24456566

  9. Preparation of low galactose yogurt using cultures of Gal(+) Streptococcus thermophilus in combination with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Anbukkarasi, Kaliyaperumal; UmaMaheswari, Thiyagamoorthy; Hemalatha, Thiagarajan; Nanda, Dhiraj Kumar; Singh, Prashant; Singh, Rameshwar

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is an important lactic starter used in the production of yogurt. Most strains of S. thermophilus are galactose negative (Gal(-)) and are able to metabolize only glucose portion of lactose and expel galactose into the medium. This metabolic defect leads to the accumulation of free galactose in yogurt, resulting in galactosemia among consumers. Hence there is an absolute need to develop low galactose yogurt. Therefore, in this study, three galactose positive (Gal(+)) S. thermophilus strains from National Collection of Dairy Cultures (NCDC) viz. NCDC 659 (AJM), NCDC 660 (JM1), NCDC 661 (KM3) and a reference galactose negative (Gal(-)) S. thermophilus NCDC 218 were used for preparation of low galactose yogurt. In milk fermented using S. thermophilus isolates alone, NCDC 659 released less galactose (0.27 %) followed by NCDC 661 (0.3 %) and NCDC 660 (0.45 %) after 10 h at 42 °C. Milk was fermented in combination with Gal(-) L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCDC 04, in which NCDC 659 released least galactose upto 0.49 % followed by NCDC 661 (0.51 %) and NCDC 660 (0.60 %) than reference Gal(-) NCDC 218(0.79 %). Low galactose yogurt was prepared following standard procedure using Gal(+) S. thermophilus isolates and Gal(-) L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCDC 04 in 1:1 ratio. Among which low galactose yogurt by NCDC 659 combination contained less galactose 0.37 % followed by NCDC 661 (0.51 %), NCDC 660 (0.65 %) and reference Gal(-) NCDC 218 (0.98 %) after 4 h of fermentation. This study clearly reveals that Gal(+) S. thermophilus isolates can be paired with Gal(-) L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus for developing low galactose yogurt. PMID:25190881

  10. Highly swelling hydrogels from ordered galactose-based polyacrylates.

    PubMed

    Martin, B D; Linhardt, R J; Dordick, J S

    1998-01-01

    High swelling galactose-based hydrogels have been prepared using a chemoenzymatic procedure. Regioselective acylation of beta-O-methyl-galactopyranoside in nearly anhydrous pyridine with lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia yields the 6-acryloyl derivative (Compound I). Further lipase-catalysed acylation of the monoacrylate derivative in nearly anhydrous acetone yielded 2,6-diacryloyl-beta-O-methyl galactopyranoside (Compound II) that can act as a cross-linker with a structure similar to that of the sugar-based monomer. The high selectivity of enzyme catalysis yielded apparently highly regular hydrogel networks with swelling ratios at equilibrium ranging from 170 to 1100. elastic moduli ranging from 0.005 to 0.088 MPa and calculated mesh sizes ranging from 1160 to 6600 A. These values are far higher than conventional uncharged or lightly charged hydrogels at similar elastic moduli. Gel swelling was fast, with 75% of the equilibrium swelling value reached in a fractional time of 0.17. Non-selective chemical acryloylation of beta-O-methyl galactopyranoside followed by polymerization yielded a far lower-swelling hydrogel than that obtained using selective enzyme catalysis. These results indicate that the highly regular polymer structure achieved by regioselective enzyme-catalysed acylation yields relatively strong and highly swellable materials. Sugar-based hydrogels, such as those described herein, may find particular use as biomaterials because of their high water content, homogeneity, stability and expected non-toxicity. A wide range of pore sizes can be attained, suggesting that they may also be especially useful as matrices for enzyme immobilization and controlled delivery of biological macromolecules. PMID:9678852

  11. A phylogenetic study on galactose-containing Candida species based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Suh, Sung-Oui; Sugita, Takashi; Nakase, Takashi

    1999-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of 33 Candida species containing galactose in the cells were investigated by using 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Galactose-containing Candida species and galactose-containing species from nine ascomycetous genera were a heterogeneous assemblage. They were divided into three clusters (II, III, and IV) which were phylogenetically distant from cluster I, comprising 9 galactose-lacking Candida species, C. glabrata, C. holmii, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (the type species of Candida), C. albicans, C. viswanathii, C. maltosa, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, and C. lusitaniae, and 17 related ascomycetous yeasts. These three clusters were also phylogenetically distant from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which contains galactomannan in its cell wall. Cluster II comprised C. magnoliae, C. vaccinii, C. apis, C. gropengiesseri, C. etchellsii, C. floricola, C. lactiscondensi, Wickerhamiella domercqiae, C. versatilis, C. azyma, C. vanderwaltii, C. pararugosa, C. sorbophila, C. spandovensis, C. galacta, C. ingens, C. incommunis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Galactomyces geotrichum, and Dipodascus albidus. Cluster III comprised C. tepae, C. antillancae and its synonym C. bondarzewiae, C. ancudensis, C. petrohuensis, C. santjacobensis, C. ciferrii (anamorph of Stephanoascus ciferrii), Arxula terrestris, C. castrensis, C. valdiviana, C. paludigena, C. blankii, C. salmanticensis, C. auringiensis, C. bertae, and its synonym C. bertae var. chiloensis, C. edax (anamorph of Stephanoascus smithiae), Arxula adeninivorans, and C. steatolytica (synonym of Zygoascus hellenicus). Cluster IV comprised C. cantarellii, C. vinaria, Dipodascopsis uninucleata, and Lipomyces lipofer. Two galactose-lacking and Q-8-forming species, C. stellata and Pichia pastoris, and 5 galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. apicola, C. bombi, C. bombicola, C. geochares, and C. insectalens, were included in Cluster II. Two galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. drimydis and C

  12. D-Galactose as an autoinducer 2 inhibitor to control the biofilm formation of periodontopathogens.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Eun-Ju; Sim, Jaehyun; Sim, Jun; Lee, Julian; Choi, Bong-Kyu

    2016-09-01

    Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) is a quorum sensing molecule to which bacteria respond to regulate various phenotypes, including virulence and biofilm formation. AI-2 plays an important role in the formation of a subgingival biofilm composed mostly of Gram-negative anaerobes, by which periodontitis is initiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate D-galactose as an inhibitor of AI-2 activity and thus of the biofilm formation of periodontopathogens. In a search for an AI-2 receptor of Fusobacterium nucleatum, D-galactose binding protein (Gbp, Gene ID FN1165) showed high sequence similarity with the ribose binding protein (RbsB), a known AI-2 receptor of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. D-Galactose was evaluated for its inhibitory effect on the AI-2 activity of Vibrio harveyi BB152 and F. nucleatum, the major coaggregation bridge organism, which connects early colonizing commensals and late pathogenic colonizers in dental biofilms. The inhibitory effect of D-galactose on the biofilm formation of periodontopathogens was assessed by crystal violet staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy in the absence or presence of AI-2 and secreted molecules of F. nucleatum. D-Galactose significantly inhibited the AI-2 activity of V. harveyi and F. nucleatum. In addition, D-galactose markedly inhibited the biofilm formation of F. nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia induced by the AI-2 of F. nucleatum without affecting bacterial growth. Our results demonstrate that the Gbp may function as an AI-2 receptor and that galactose may be used for prevention of the biofilm formation of periodontopathogens by targeting AI-2 activity. PMID:27572513

  13. Utilization of lactose and galactose by Streptococcus mutans: transport, toxicity, and carbon catabolite repression.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lin; Das, Satarupa; Burne, Robert A

    2010-05-01

    Abundant in milk and other dairy products, lactose is considered to have an important role in oral microbial ecology and can contribute to caries development in both adults and young children. To better understand the metabolism of lactose and galactose by Streptococcus mutans, the major etiological agent of human tooth decay, a genetic analysis of the tagatose-6-phosphate (lac) and Leloir (gal) pathways was performed in strain UA159. Deletion of each gene in the lac operon caused various alterations in expression of a P(lacA)-cat promoter fusion and defects in growth on either lactose (lacA, lacB, lacF, lacE, and lacG), galactose (lacA, lacB, lacD, and lacG) or both sugars (lacA, lacB, and lacG). Failure to grow in the presence of galactose or lactose by certain lac mutants appeared to arise from the accumulation of intermediates of galactose metabolism, particularly galatose-6-phosphate. The glucose- and lactose-PTS permeases, EII(Man) and EII(Lac), respectively, were shown to be the only effective transporters of galactose in S. mutans. Furthermore, disruption of manL, encoding EIIAB(Man), led to increased resistance to glucose-mediated CCR when lactose was used to induce the lac operon, but resulted in reduced lac gene expression in cells growing on galactose. Collectively, the results reveal a remarkably high degree of complexity in the regulation of lactose/galactose catabolism. PMID:20190045

  14. Long-term oral galactose treatment prevents cognitive deficits in male Wistar rats treated intracerebroventricularly with streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Salkovic-Petrisic, Melita; Osmanovic-Barilar, Jelena; Knezovic, Ana; Hoyer, Siegfried; Mosetter, Kurt; Reutter, Werner

    2014-02-01

    Basic and clinical research has demonstrated that dementia of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD) type is associated with dysfunction of the insulin-receptor (IR) system followed by decreased glucose transport via glucose transporter GLUT4 and decreased glucose metabolism in brain cells. An alternative source of energy is d-galactose (the C-4-epimer of d-glucose) which is transported into the brain by insulin-independent GLUT3 transporter where it might be metabolized to glucose via the Leloir pathway. Exclusively parenteral daily injections of galactose induce memory deterioration in rodents and are used to generate animal aging model, but the effects of oral galactose treatment on cognitive functions have never been tested. We have investigated the effects of continuous daily oral galactose (200 mg/kg/day) treatment on cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced (STZ-icv) rat model of sAD, tested by Morris Water Maze and Passive Avoidance test, respectively. One month of oral galactose treatment initiated immediately after the STZ-icv administration, successfully prevented development of the STZ-icv-induced cognitive deficits. Beneficial effect of oral galactose was independent of the rat age and of the galactose dose ranging from 100 to 300 mg/kg/day. Additionally, oral galactose administration led to the appearance of galactose in the blood. The increase of galactose concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid was several times lower after oral than after parenteral administration of the same galactose dose. Oral galactose exposure might have beneficial effects on learning and memory ability and could be worth investigating for improvement of cognitive deficits associated with glucose hypometabolism in AD. PMID:24055495

  15. In utero and lactational β-carotene supplementation attenuates D-galactose-induced hearing loss in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Hao, Shuai; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Hui; Fan, Xiao-Lan; Yang, Jun

    2011-08-01

    D-Galactose could give rise to free radical damage by disturbing the some maternal antioxidants. The oxidative stress induced by D-galactose is a potent inducer of apoptosis, which is accompanied by the activation of protein-splitting enzymes called caspases. Apoptosis is a crucial physiological determinant of embryonic and neonatal development, and play an essential role in the development of the inner ear structures. Recently the increasing of D-galactose exposure is due to high consumption of dairy foods or reduced galactose metabolism. An overwhelming presence of D-galactose is known to become highly ototoxicity to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether supplementation of pregnant and lactational mothers with β-carotene could attenuate cochlear function damage and hair cells apoptosis induced by d-galactose in newborn rats. Pregnant rats were supplemented with D-galactose, or D-galactose and β-carotene from gestational day (GD) 7 until postnatal day (PND) 21. On PND 22, offspring were examined in the distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) task, cochleae were then harvested for assessment of apoptosis by immunohistochemical stain for cysteine-aspartic acid proteases 3 (caspase-3) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Maternal and offspring blood samples were then collected by direct cardiac puncture in heparin tubes, blood levels of D-galactose and β-carotene were measured, plasma was separated for malondialdehyde (MDA) analysis, erythrocytes were left for superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione (GSH). D-Galactose could significantly disturb the balance between maternal antioxidants and free radicals, and induce hearing loss in the offspring and cochlear hair cell apoptosis. In contrast, β-carotene supplementation, coincidentally with D-galactose exposure, ameliorated these changes. Our data offer a conceptual framework for designing

  16. Galactose and Lactose Genes from the Galactose-Positive Bacterium Streptococcus salivarius and the Phylogenetically Related Galactose-Negative Bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus: Organization, Sequence, Transcription, and Activity of the gal Gene Products

    PubMed Central

    Vaillancourt, Katy; Moineau, Sylvain; Frenette, Michel; Lessard, Christian; Vadeboncoeur, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a lactose- and galactose-positive bacterium that is phylogenetically closely related to Streptococcus thermophilus, a bacterium that metabolizes lactose but not galactose. In this paper, we report a comparative characterization of the S. salivarius and S. thermophilus gal-lac gene clusters. The clusters have the same organization with the order galR (codes for a transcriptional regulator and is transcribed in the opposite direction), galK (galactokinase), galT (galactose-1-P uridylyltransferase), galE (UDP-glucose 4-epimerase), galM (galactose mutarotase), lacS (lactose transporter), and lacZ (β-galactosidase). An analysis of the nucleotide sequence as well as Northern blotting and primer extension experiments revealed the presence of four promoters located upstream from galR, the gal operon, galM, and the lac operon of S. salivarius. Putative promoters with virtually identical nucleotide sequences were found at the same positions in the S. thermophilus gal-lac gene cluster. An additional putative internal promoter at the 3′ end of galT was found in S. thermophilus but not in S. salivarius. The results clearly indicated that the gal-lac gene cluster was efficiently transcribed in both species. The Shine-Dalgarno sequences of galT and galE were identical in both species, whereas the ribosome binding site of S. thermophilus galK differed from that of S. salivarius by two nucleotides, suggesting that the S. thermophilus galK gene might be poorly translated. This was confirmed by measurements of enzyme activities. PMID:11790749

  17. Serum galactose-deficient IgA1 levels in children with IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mengjie; Jiang, Xiaoyun; Rong, Liping; Xu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lizhi; Qiu, Zeting; Mo, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is an immunopathologic diagnosis based on a renal biopsy, it is characterized by deposits of IgA-containing immune complexes in the mesangium. Adults with IgAN have a galactose-deficient IgA1 in the circulation and glomerular deposition. There are few studies on the glycosylation of serum IgA1 in children with IgAN. To measure the serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in pediatric patients with IgAN, 72 biopsy-proven IgAN children were divided into 3 groups based on the clinical features: isolated hematuria group (24 patients), hematuria and proteinuria group (22 patients), and nephritic syndrome group (26 patients). They were also divided into 3 groups according to pathologic grading: grade I + II group (25 patients), grade III group (33 patients) and grade IV + V group (14 patients). 30 healthy children were recruited as a control group. We used vicia villosa lectin binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure the serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in all groups and controls. Serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in children with IgAN were higher than controls (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 among the different clinical and pathologic grading groups. The values of the area under the curve for galactose-deficient IgA1 levels were 0.976 (95% CI, 0.953-1.000). The cutoff point for galactose-deficient IgA1 levels was 0.125, with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 83.3%, with a positive predictive value of 92.6% and a negative predictive value of 73.5% (P < 0.01). Children with IgAN presented serum galactose-deficient IgA1, which has shown no relationship with the clinical manifestations and pathologic grading of the disease. Detection of serum galactose-deficient IgA1 levels by vicia villosa lectin binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has a certain clinical value in diagnosis of children with IgAN. PMID:26221341

  18. Serum galactose-deficient IgA1 levels in children with IgA nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Mengjie; Jiang, Xiaoyun; Rong, Liping; Xu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lizhi; Qiu, Zeting; Mo, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is an immunopathologic diagnosis based on a renal biopsy, it is characterized by deposits of IgA-containing immune complexes in the mesangium. Adults with IgAN have a galactose-deficient IgA1 in the circulation and glomerular deposition. There are few studies on the glycosylation of serum IgA1 in children with IgAN. To measure the serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in pediatric patients with IgAN, 72 biopsy-proven IgAN children were divided into 3 groups based on the clinical features: isolated hematuria group (24 patients), hematuria and proteinuria group (22 patients), and nephritic syndrome group (26 patients). They were also divided into 3 groups according to pathologic grading: grade I + II group (25 patients), grade III group (33 patients) and grade IV + V group (14 patients). 30 healthy children were recruited as a control group. We used vicia villosa lectin binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure the serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in all groups and controls. Serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in children with IgAN were higher than controls (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 among the different clinical and pathologic grading groups. The values of the area under the curve for galactose-deficient IgA1 levels were 0.976 (95% CI, 0.953-1.000). The cutoff point for galactose-deficient IgA1 levels was 0.125, with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 83.3%, with a positive predictive value of 92.6% and a negative predictive value of 73.5% (P < 0.01). Children with IgAN presented serum galactose-deficient IgA1, which has shown no relationship with the clinical manifestations and pathologic grading of the disease. Detection of serum galactose-deficient IgA1 levels by vicia villosa lectin binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has a certain clinical value in diagnosis of children with IgAN. PMID:26221341

  19. Transport of galactose, glucose and their molecular analogues by Escherichia coli K12.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, P J; Giddens, R A; Jones-Mortimer, M C

    1977-01-01

    1. Strains of Escherichia coli K12 were made that are unable to assimilate glucose by the phosphotransferase system, since they lack the glucose-specific components specified by the genes ptsG and ptsM. 2. Derivative organisms lacking the methyl galactoside or galactose-specific transport system were examined for their ability to transport galactose, d-fucose, methyl beta-D-galactoside, glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose and methyl alpha-D-glucoside. 3. Galactose, glucose and to a lesser extent fucose are substrates for both transport systems. 4. 2-Deoxyglucose is transported on the galactose-specific but not the methyl galactoside system. 5. The ability of sugars to elicit anaerobic proton transport is associated with the galactose-specific, but not with the methyl galactoside transport activity. Hence a chemiosmotic mechanism of energization is likely to apply to the former but not to the latter. Alternatively the methyl galactoside system may be switched off under certain conditions, which would indicate a novel regulatory mechanism. 6. Details of the procedure for the derivation of strains may be obtained from the authors, and have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50074 (8 pages at the) British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1977), 161,1. PMID:15558

  20. Transport of d-galactose by the gastrointestinal tract of the locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Pascual, I; Berjón, A; Lostao, M P; Barber, A

    2006-01-01

    Due to exoskeleton, the absorption of nutrients in adult insects takes place across the gastrointestinal tract epithelium. In most physiological studies, sugar intestinal absorption has been described as a diffusional process and to date no sugar transporter has been cloned from the digestive tract of insects. In the present work, the existence of a saturable transport system for galactose in the gastric caeca of Locusta migratoria is clearly demonstrated. This transport shows a relatively high affinity for galactose (apparent K0.5=2-3 mM) and is inhibited by glucose, 2-deoxyglucose and with less potency by fructose and alpha-methyl-d-glucoside. The absence of sodium or the presence of phloridzin hardly affects galactose absorption, indicating that it is not mediated by a SGLT1-like transporter. The absence of K+, Cl-, Mg2+ and Ca2+ or changes in the pH do not modify galactose absorption either. Nevertheless, phloretin, cytochalasin B and theophylline (inhibitors of facilitative transporters) decrease sugar uptake around 50%. Xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected with poly A+ RNA isolated from gastric caeca show sodium-independent galactose uptake that is three times higher than in non-injected oocytes, further supporting the existence of a mRNA coding for at least one equilibrative sugar transporter in L. migratoria gastric caeca. PMID:16314134

  1. Balamuthia mandrillaris: role of galactose in encystment and identification of potential inhibitory targets.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Jarroll, Edward L; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2010-09-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a causative agent of granulomatous encephalitis that almost always proves fatal. A major concern during the course of therapy is that B. mandrillaris can transform into cysts. Cysts are highly resistant to physical and chemical conditions and present a problem in successful antimicrobial chemotherapy. However, the underlying mechanisms of B. mandrillaris transformation into cysts are not known. In this study, we examined the effects of exogenous sugars on B. mandrillaris encystment. The findings revealed that free exogenous galactose, but not other sugars, enhanced parasite differentiation into cysts, and apparently a galactose-binding protein is involved in B. mandrillaris encystment. Cytoskeletal re-arrangements and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated pathways are involved in B. mandrillaris encystment based on inhibitor studies. Dual functionality of galactose-binding protein in B. mandrillaris pathogenesis and encystment is discussed further. PMID:19766634

  2. Solubility and selective crystallization of lactose from solutions of its hydrolysis products glucose and galactose.

    PubMed

    Bourne, J R; Hegglin, M; Prenosil, J E

    1983-06-01

    A high degree of conversion is desired when lactose is hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose. This produces, however, a high concentration of galactose, which is inhibitory for the enzyme catalyst (beta-galactosidase). The inhibition can be reduced by limiting the conversion per pass over the enzyme (e.g. to ca. 50%), separating unconverted lactose from the reactor effluent, and recycling it to the reactor inlet. (This allows the overall conversion to be raised to ca. 80-90%). The solubilities of lactose, glucose, and galactose have been determined at various temperatures and for sugar mixtures having different concentrations and degrees of hydrolysis. Various cooling crystallizations have defined convenient and simple processes for the selective separation of lactose from its hydrolysis products. PMID:18551445

  3. Substitution of L-fucose by L-galactose in cell walls of arabidopsis mur1

    SciTech Connect

    Zablackis, E.; York, W.S.; Pauly, M.

    1996-06-21

    An Arabidopsis thaliana mutant (mur1) has less than 2 percent of the normal amounts of L-fucose in the primary cell walls of aerial portions of the plant. The survival of mur1 plants challenged the hypothesis that fucose is a required component of biologically active oligosaccharides derived from cell wall xyloglucan. However, the replacement of L-fucose (that is, 6-deoxyl-L-galactose) by L-galactose does not detectably alter the biological activity of the oligosaccharides derived from xyloglucan. Thus, essential structural and conformational features of xyloglucan and xyloglucan-derived oligosaccharides are retained when L-galactose replaces L-fucose. 29 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Targeted allylation and propargylation of galactose-containing polysaccharides in water.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Ann-Sofie; Xu, Chunlin; Parikka, Kirsti; Eklund, Patrik; Sjöholm, Rainer; Brumer, Harry; Tenkanen, Maija; Willför, Stefan

    2014-01-16

    Galactose units of spruce galactoglucomannan (GGM), guar galactomannan (GM), and tamarind (galacto)xyloglucan (XG) were selectively allylated. Firstly aldehyde functionalities were formed at the C-6 position via enzymatic oxidation by galactose oxidase. The formed aldehydes were further derivatized by an indium mediated Barbier-Grignard type reaction, resulting in the formation of homoallylic alcohols. In addition to allylic halides, the same reaction procedure was also applicable for GGM, when using propargyl bromide as halide. All reaction steps were done in water, thus the polysaccharides were modified in a one-pot reaction. The formation of the allylated, or propargylated, product was identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. All polysaccharide products were isolated and further characterized by GC-MS or NMR spectroscopy. By this chemo-enzymatic process, we have demonstrated a novel method for derivatization of GGM and other galactose-containing polysaccharides. The derivatized polysaccharides are potential platforms for further functionalizations. PMID:24188837

  5. Accumulation of myoinositol and rubidium ions in galactose-exposed rat lens

    SciTech Connect

    Kawaba, T.; Cheng, H.M.; Kinoshita, J.H.

    1986-10-01

    When rat lens is incubated in 30 mM galactose overnight, the extent of accumulation of rubidium ions (Rb) and myoinositol (MI) are affected, as well as the Na-K ATPase activity. Rb accumulation and Na-K ATPase activity are only slightly affected compared to the dramatic drop in MI accumulation. These changes are completely abolished by sorbinil, which blocks polyol formation, or by rendering the galactose medium hypertonic to offset the osmotic effect of polyol formation. On the other hand, the addition of excess MI to the galactose medium had no effect on correcting these changes. The results obtained are consistent with the polyol-osmotic theory of sugar cataract formation.

  6. A Second GDP-l-galactose Phosphorylase in Arabidopsis en Route to Vitamin C

    PubMed Central

    Linster, Carole L.; Adler, Lital N.; Webb, Kristofor; Christensen, Kathryn C.; Brenner, Charles; Clarke, Steven G.

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana VTC2 gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GDP-l-galactose to l-galactose 1-phosphate in the first committed step of the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway to plant vitamin C synthesis. Mutations in VTC2 had previously been found to lead to only partial vitamin C deficiency. Here we show that the Arabidopsis gene At5g55120 encodes an enzyme with high sequence identity to VTC2. Designated VTC5, this enzyme displays substrate specificity and enzymatic properties that are remarkably similar to those of VTC2, suggesting that it may be responsible for residual vitamin C synthesis in vtc2 mutants. The exact nature of the reaction catalyzed by VTC2/VTC5 is controversial because of reports that kiwifruit and Arabidopsis VTC2 utilize hexose 1-phosphates as phosphorolytic acceptor substrates. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and a VTC2-H238N mutant, we provide evidence that the reaction proceeds through a covalent guanylylated histidine residue within the histidine triad motif. Moreover, we show that both the Arabidopsis VTC2 and VTC5 enzymes catalyze simple phosphorolysis of the guanylylated enzyme, forming GDP and l-galactose 1-phosphate from GDP-l-galactose and phosphate, with poor reactivity of hexose 1-phosphates as phosphorolytic acceptors. Indeed, the endogenous activities from Japanese mustard spinach, lemon, and spinach have the same substrate requirements. These results show that Arabidopsis VTC2 and VTC5 proteins and their homologs in other plants are enzymes that guanylylate a conserved active site His residue with GDP-l-galactose, forming l-galactose 1-phosphate for vitamin C synthesis, and regenerate the enzyme with phosphate to form GDP. PMID:18463094

  7. Subfertility and growth restriction in a new galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) - deficient mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Manshu; Siddiqi, Anwer; Witt, Benjamin; Yuzyuk, Tatiana; Johnson, Britt; Fraser, Nisa; Chen, Wyman; Rascon, Rafael; Yin, Xue; Goli, Harish; Bodamer, Olaf A; Lai, Kent

    2014-01-01

    The first GalT gene knockout (KO) mouse model for Classic Galactosemia (OMIM 230400) accumulated some galactose and its metabolites upon galactose challenge, but was seemingly fertile and symptom free. Here we constructed a new GalT gene-trapped mouse model by injecting GalT gene-trapped mouse embryonic stem cells into blastocysts, which were later implanted into pseudo-pregnant females. High percentage GalT gene-trapped chimera obtained were used to generate heterozygous and subsequently, homozygous GalT gene-trapped mice. Biochemical assays confirmed total absence of galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) activity in the homozygotes. Although the homozygous GalT gene-trapped females could conceive and give birth when fed with normal chow, they had smaller litter size (P=0.02) and longer time-to-pregnancy (P=0.013) than their wild-type littermates. Follicle-stimulating hormone levels of the mutant female mice were not significantly different from the age-matched, wild-type females, but histological examination of the ovaries revealed fewer follicles in the homozygous mutants (P=0.007). Administration of a high-galactose (40% w/w) diet to lactating homozygous GalT gene-trapped females led to lethality in over 70% of the homozygous GalT gene-trapped pups before weaning. Cerebral edema, abnormal changes in the Purkinje and the outer granular cell layers of the cerebellum, as well as lower blood GSH/GSSG ratio were identified in the galactose-intoxicated pups. Finally, reduced growth was observed in GalT gene-trapped pups fed with normal chow and all pups fed with high-galactose (20% w/w) diet. This new mouse model presents several of the complications of Classic Galactosemia and will be useful to investigate pathogenesis and new therapies. PMID:24549051

  8. Subfertility and growth restriction in a new galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) - deficient mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tang, Manshu; Siddiqi, Anwer; Witt, Benjamin; Yuzyuk, Tatiana; Johnson, Britt; Fraser, Nisa; Chen, Wyman; Rascon, Rafael; Yin, Xue; Goli, Harish; Bodamer, Olaf A; Lai, Kent

    2014-10-01

    The first GalT gene knockout (KO) mouse model for Classic Galactosemia (OMIM 230400) accumulated some galactose and its metabolites upon galactose challenge, but was seemingly fertile and symptom free. Here we constructed a new GalT gene-trapped mouse model by injecting GalT gene-trapped mouse embryonic stem cells into blastocysts, which were later implanted into pseudo-pregnant females. High percentage GalT gene-trapped chimera obtained were used to generate heterozygous and subsequently, homozygous GalT gene-trapped mice. Biochemical assays confirmed total absence of galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) activity in the homozygotes. Although the homozygous GalT gene-trapped females could conceive and give birth when fed with normal chow, they had smaller litter size (P=0.02) and longer time-to-pregnancy (P=0.013) than their wild-type littermates. Follicle-stimulating hormone levels of the mutant female mice were not significantly different from the age-matched, wild-type females, but histological examination of the ovaries revealed fewer follicles in the homozygous mutants (P=0.007). Administration of a high-galactose (40% w/w) diet to lactating homozygous GalT gene-trapped females led to lethality in over 70% of the homozygous GalT gene-trapped pups before weaning. Cerebral edema, abnormal changes in the Purkinje and the outer granular cell layers of the cerebellum, as well as lower blood GSH/GSSG ratio were identified in the galactose-intoxicated pups. Finally, reduced growth was observed in GalT gene-trapped pups fed with normal chow and all pups fed with high-galactose (20% w/w) diet. This new mouse model presents several of the complications of Classic Galactosemia and will be useful to investigate pathogenesis and new therapies. PMID:24549051

  9. How strict is galactose restriction in adults with galactosaemia? International practice.

    PubMed

    Adam, S; Akroyd, R; Bernabei, S; Bollhalder, S; Boocock, S; Burlina, A; Coote, T; Corthouts, K; Dalmau, J; Dawson, S; Defourny, S; De Meyer, A; Desloovere, A; Devlin, Y; Diels, M; Dokoupil, K; Donald, S; Evans, S; Fasan, I; Ferguson, C; Ford, S; Forga, M; Gallo, G; Grünert, S C; Heddrich-Ellerbrok, M; Heidenborg, C; Jonkers, C; Lefebure, K; Luyten, K; MacDonald, A; Meyer, U; Micciche, A; Müller, E; Portnoi, P; Ripley, S; Robert, M; Robertson, L V; Rosenbaum-Fabian, S; Sahm, K; Schultz, S; Singleton, K; Sjöqvist, E; Stoelen, L; Terry, A; Thompson, S; Timmer, C; Vande Kerckhove, K; van der Ploeg, L; Van Driessche, M; van Rijn, M; van Teeffelen-Heithoff, A; Vitoria, I; Voillot, C; Wenz, J; Westbrook, M; Wildgoose, J; Zweers, H

    2015-05-01

    Dietary management of 418 adult patients with galactosaemia (from 39 centres/12 countries) was compared. All centres advised lactose restriction, 6 restricted galactose from galactosides ± fruits and vegetables and 12 offal. 38% (n=15) relaxed diet by: 1) allowing traces of lactose in manufactured foods (n=13) or 2) giving fruits, vegetables and galactosides (n=2). Only 15% (n=6) calculated dietary galactose. 32% of patients were lost to dietetic follow-up. In adult galactosaemia, there is limited diet relaxation. PMID:25873073

  10. Intracerebroventricular D-galactose administration impairs memory and alters activity and expression of acetylcholinesterase in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, André Felipe; Biasibetti, Helena; Zanotto, Bruna Stela; Sanches, Eduardo Farias; Pierozan, Paula; Schmitz, Felipe; Parisi, Mariana Migliorini; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Wyse, Angela T S

    2016-05-01

    Tissue accumulation of galactose is a hallmark in classical galactosemia. Cognitive deficit is a symptom of this disease which is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of galactose on memory (inhibitory avoidance and novel object recognition tasks) of adult rats. We also investigated the effects of galactose on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, immunocontent and gene expression in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Wistar rats received a single injection of galactose (4mM) or saline (control). For behavioral parameters, galactose was injected 1h or 24h previously to the testing. For biochemical assessment, animals were decapitated 1h, 3h or 24h after galactose or saline injection; hippocampus and cerebral cortex were dissected. Results showed that galactose impairs the memory formation process in aversive memory (inhibitory avoidance task) and recognition memory (novel object recognition task) in rats. The activity of AChE was increased, whereas the gene expression of this enzyme was decreased in hippocampus, but not in cerebral cortex. These findings suggest that these changes in AChE may, at least in part, to lead to memory impairment caused by galactose. Taken together, our results can help understand the etiopathology of classical galactosemia. PMID:26948151

  11. Moderate exercise prevents neurodegeneration in D-galactose-induced aging mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Xu, Meng; Shen, Bo; Li, Man; Gao, Qian; Wei, Shou-Gang

    2016-05-01

    D-galactose has been widely used in aging research because of its efficacy in inducing senescence and accelerating aging in animal models. The present study investigated the benefits of exercise for preventing neurodegeneration, such as synaptic plasticity, spatial learning and memory abilities, in mouse models of aging. D-galactose-induced aging mice were administered daily subcutaneous injections of D-galactose at the base of the neck for 10 consecutive weeks. Then, the mice were subjected to exercise training by running on a treadmill for 6 days a week. Shortened escape latency in a Morris water maze test indicated that exercise improved learning and memory in aging mice. The ameliorative changes were likely induced by an upregulation of Bcl-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, the repression of apoptosis factors such as Fas and Bax, and an increase in the activity of glucose transporters-1 and 4. The data suggest moderate exercise may retard or inhibit neurodegeneration in D-galactose-induced aging mice. PMID:27335566

  12. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. 862.1315 Section 862.1315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES...

  13. Possible role of metal ionophore against zinc induced cognitive dysfunction in D-galactose senescent mice.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Kanchan; Majeed, Abu Bakar Abdul; Prakash, Atish

    2016-06-01

    Metal ionophores are considered as potential anti-dementia agents, and some are currently undergoing clinical trials. Many metals are known to accumulate and distribute abnormally in the aging brain. Alterations in zinc metal homeostasis in the glutaminergic synapse could contribute to ageing and the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study was designed to investigate the effect of metal ionophores on long term administration of zinc in D-galactose induced senescent mice. The ageing model was established by combined administration of zinc and D-galactose to mice for 6 weeks. A novel metal ionophore, PBT-2 was given daily to zinc-induced d-galactose senescent mice. The cognitive behaviour of mice was monitored using the Morris Water Maze. The anti-oxidant status and amyloidogenic activity in the ageing mouse was measured by determining mito-oxidative parameters and deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain. Systemic administration of both zinc and D-galactose significantly produced memory deficits, mito-oxidative damage, heightened acetylcholinesterase enzymatic activity and deposition of amyloid-β. Treatment with PBT-2 significantly improved behavioural deficits, biochemical profiles, cellular damage, and curbed the deposition of APP in zinc-induced senescent mice. These findings suggest that PBT-2, acting as a metal protein attenuating compound, may be helpful in the prevention of AD or alleviation of ageing. PMID:26923568

  14. Delayed Anaphylaxis to Red Meat Associated With Specific IgE Antibodies to Galactose

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Liping; Zhou, Junxiong; Sun, Jin-lu; Sun, Yi; Wu, Kai; Katial, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    A novel delayed anaphylactic reaction to red meat, associated with tick bites and IgE antibodies against galactose-α-1, 3-galactose (α-gal), was reported in 2009 in the US, Australia and Europe. In this case, serum specific IgE to galactose-α-1, 3-galactose (>100 kU/L) and IgE to multiple non-primate mammalian proteins were positive. However, the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear. We report the first case in Asia of delayed anaphylactic reaction to red meat, which was induced by bites from the hard tick, Hematophagous ixodidae. We confirmed the increased concentration of IgE reactive epitopes in non-primate mammalian organs, which may be rich in α-gal proteins in lymphatic and endothelial tissues. All confirmed ticks associated with this disorder in the literature and in our case belonged to the hard tick family. We hypothesize that hard tick saliva is enriched with blood-type substances, such as oligosaccharides, from the non-primate mammal victim's blood after days to weeks of blood sucking, which sensitizes humans through the injection route while blood sucking. PMID:25553269

  15. Moderate exercise prevents neurodegeneration in D-galactose-induced aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Xu, Meng; Shen, Bo; Li, Man; Gao, Qian; Wei, Shou-gang

    2016-01-01

    D-galactose has been widely used in aging research because of its efficacy in inducing senescence and accelerating aging in animal models. The present study investigated the benefits of exercise for preventing neurodegeneration, such as synaptic plasticity, spatial learning and memory abilities, in mouse models of aging. D-galactose-induced aging mice were administered daily subcutaneous injections of D-galactose at the base of the neck for 10 consecutive weeks. Then, the mice were subjected to exercise training by running on a treadmill for 6 days a week. Shortened escape latency in a Morris water maze test indicated that exercise improved learning and memory in aging mice. The ameliorative changes were likely induced by an upregulation of Bcl-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, the repression of apoptosis factors such as Fas and Bax, and an increase in the activity of glucose transporters-1 and 4. The data suggest moderate exercise may retard or inhibit neurodegeneration in D-galactose-induced aging mice. PMID:27335566

  16. Fap2 of Fusobacterium nucleatum Is a Galactose-Inhibitable Adhesin Involved in Coaggregation, Cell Adhesion, and Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Coppenhagen-Glazer, S.; Sol, A.; Abed, J.; Naor, R.; Zhang, X.

    2015-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is a common oral anaerobe involved in periodontitis that is known to translocate and cause intrauterine infections. In the oral environment, F. nucleatum adheres to a large diversity of species, facilitating their colonization and creating biological bridges that stabilize the multispecies dental biofilm. Many of these interactions (called coadherences or coaggregations) are galactose sensitive. Galactose-sensitive interactions are also involved in the binding of F. nucleatum to host cells. Hemagglutination of some F. nucleatum strains is also galactose sensitive, suggesting that a single galactose-sensitive adhesin might mediate the interaction of fusobacteria with many partners and targets. In order to identify the fusobacterial galactose-sensitive adhesin, a system for transposon mutagenesis in fusobacteria was created. The mutant library was screened for hemagglutination deficiency, and three clones were isolated. All three clones were found to harbor the transposon in the gene coding for the Fap2 outer membrane autotransporter. The three fap2 mutants failed to show galactose-inhibitable coaggregation with Porphyromonas gingivalis and were defective in cell binding. A fap2 mutant also showed a 2-log reduction in murine placental colonization compared to that of the wild type. Our results suggest that Fap2 is a galactose-sensitive hemagglutinin and adhesin that is likely to play a role in the virulence of fusobacteria. PMID:25561710

  17. A re-evaluation of life-long severe galactose restriction for the nutrition management of classic galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Van Calcar, Sandra C; Bernstein, Laurie E; Rohr, Frances J; Scaman, Christine H; Yannicelli, Steven; Berry, Gerard T

    2014-07-01

    The galactose-restricted diet is life-saving for infants with classic galactosemia. However, the benefit and extent of dietary galactose restriction required after infancy remain unclear and variation exists in practice. There is a need for evidence-based recommendations to better standardize treatment for this disorder. This paper reviews the association between diet treatment and outcomes in classic galactosemia and evaluates the contribution of food sources of free galactose in the diet. Recommendations include allowing all fruits, vegetables, legumes, soy products that are not fermented, various aged cheeses and foods containing caseinates. Further research directions are discussed. PMID:24857409

  18. Delayed Anaphylaxis to Red Meat in Patients with IgE Specific for Galactose alpha-1,3-Galactose (alpha-gal)

    PubMed Central

    Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can be rapidly progressing and fatal. In instances where the triggering allergen is not known, establishing the etiology of anaphylaxis is pivotal to long-term risk management. Our recent work has identified a novel IgE antibody (Ab) response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), that has been associated with two distinct forms of anaphylaxis: (1) immediate onset anaphylaxis during first exposure to intravenous cetuximab, and (2) delayed onset anaphylaxis 3–6 h after ingestion of mammalian food products (e.g., beef and pork). The results of our studies strongly suggest that tick bites are a cause, if not the only significant cause, of IgE Ab responses to alpha-gal in the southern, eastern and central United States. Patients with IgE Ab to alpha-gal continue to emerge and, increasingly, these cases involve children. This IgE Ab response cross-reacts with cat and dog but does not appear to pose a risk for asthma; however, it may impair diagnostic testing in some situations. PMID:23054628

  19. Galactose-functionalized multi-responsive nanogels for hepatoma-targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Shaofeng; Gao, Shan; Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Chun; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling; Zhao, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    We report here a hepatoma-targeting multi-responsive biodegradable crosslinked nanogel, poly(6-O-vinyladipoyl-d-galactose-ss-N-vinylcaprolactam-ss-methacrylic acid) P(ODGal-VCL-MAA), using a combination of enzymatic transesterification and emulsion copolymerization for intracellular drug delivery. The nanogel exhibited redox, pH and temperature-responsive properties, which can be adjusted by varying the monomer feeding ratio. Furthermore, the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the nanogels was close to body temperature and can result in rapid thermal gelation at 37 °C. Scanning electron microscopy also revealed that the P(ODGal-VCL-MAA) nanogel showed uniform spherical monodispersion. With pyrene as a probe, the fluorescence excitation spectra demonstrated nanogel degradation in response to glutathione (GSH). X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed an amorphous property of DOX within the nanogel, which was used in this study as a model anti-cancer drug. Drug-releasing characteristics of the nanogel were examined in vitro. The results showed multi-responsiveness of DOX release by the variation of environmental pH values, temperature or the availability of GSH, a biological reductase. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay showed a higher anti-tumor activity of the galactose-functionalized DOX-loaded nanogels against human hepatoma HepG2 cells, which was, at least in part, due to specific binding between the galactose segments and the asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGP-Rs) in hepatic cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometric profiles further confirmed elevated cellular uptake of DOX by the galactose-functionalised nanogels. Thus, we report here a multi-responsive P(ODGal-VCL-MAA) nanogel with a hepatoma-specific targeting ability for anti-cancer drug delivery.We report here a hepatoma-targeting multi-responsive biodegradable crosslinked nanogel, poly(6-O-vinyladipoyl-d-galactose-ss-N-vinylcaprolactam-ss-methacrylic acid) P(ODGal-VCL-MAA), using

  20. A novel reagentless sensing system for measuring glucose based on the galactose/glucose-binding protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salins, L. L.; Ware, R. A.; Ensor, C. M.; Daunert, S.

    2001-01-01

    The galactose/glucose-binding protein (GBP) is synthesized in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli in a precursor form and exported into the periplasmic space upon cleavage of a 23-amino-acid leader sequence. GBP binds galactose and glucose in a highly specific manner. The ligand induces a hinge motion in GBP and the resultant protein conformational change constitutes the basis of the sensing system. The mglB gene, which codes for GBP, was isolated from the chromosome of E. coli using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Since wild-type GBP lacks cysteines in its structure, introducing this amino acid by site-directed mutagenesis ensures single-label attachment at specific sites with a sulfhydro-specific fluorescent probe. Site-directed mutagenesis by overlap extension PCR was performed to prepare three different mutants to introduce a single cysteine residue at positions 148, 152, and 182. Since these residues are not involved in ligand binding and since they are located at the edge of the binding cleft, they experience a significant change in environment upon binding of galactose or glucose. The sensing system strategy is based on the fluorescence changes of the probe as the protein undergoes a structural change on binding. In this work a reagentless sensing system has been rationally designed that can detect submicromolar concentrations of glucose. The calibration plots have a linear working range of three orders of magnitude. Although the system can sense galactose as well, this epimer is not a potential interfering substance since its concentration in blood is negligible. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  1. Galactose-functionalized multi-responsive nanogels for hepatoma-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Lou, Shaofeng; Gao, Shan; Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Chun; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling; Zhao, Qiang

    2015-02-21

    We report here a hepatoma-targeting multi-responsive biodegradable crosslinked nanogel, poly(6-O-vinyladipoyl-D-galactose-ss-N-vinylcaprolactam-ss-methacrylic acid) P(ODGal-VCL-MAA), using a combination of enzymatic transesterification and emulsion copolymerization for intracellular drug delivery. The nanogel exhibited redox, pH and temperature-responsive properties, which can be adjusted by varying the monomer feeding ratio. Furthermore, the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the nanogels was close to body temperature and can result in rapid thermal gelation at 37 °C. Scanning electron microscopy also revealed that the P(ODGal-VCL-MAA) nanogel showed uniform spherical monodispersion. With pyrene as a probe, the fluorescence excitation spectra demonstrated nanogel degradation in response to glutathione (GSH). X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed an amorphous property of DOX within the nanogel, which was used in this study as a model anti-cancer drug. Drug-releasing characteristics of the nanogel were examined in vitro. The results showed multi-responsiveness of DOX release by the variation of environmental pH values, temperature or the availability of GSH, a biological reductase. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay showed a higher anti-tumor activity of the galactose-functionalized DOX-loaded nanogels against human hepatoma HepG2 cells, which was, at least in part, due to specific binding between the galactose segments and the asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGP-Rs) in hepatic cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometric profiles further confirmed elevated cellular uptake of DOX by the galactose-functionalised nanogels. Thus, we report here a multi-responsive P(ODGal-VCL-MAA) nanogel with a hepatoma-specific targeting ability for anti-cancer drug delivery. PMID:25613320

  2. Galacturonic Acid Inhibits the Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Galactose, Xylose, and Arabinose

    PubMed Central

    Huisjes, Eline H.; de Hulster, Erik; van Dam, Jan C.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    The efficient fermentation of mixed substrates is essential for the microbial conversion of second-generation feedstocks, including pectin-rich waste streams such as citrus peel and sugar beet pulp. Galacturonic acid is a major constituent of hydrolysates of these pectin-rich materials. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main producer of bioethanol, cannot use this sugar acid. The impact of galacturonic acid on alcoholic fermentation by S. cerevisiae was investigated with anaerobic batch cultures grown on mixtures of glucose and galactose at various galacturonic acid concentrations and on a mixture of glucose, xylose, and arabinose. In cultures grown at pH 5.0, which is well above the pKa value of galacturonic acid (3.51), the addition of 10 g · liter−1 galacturonic acid did not affect galactose fermentation kinetics and growth. In cultures grown at pH 3.5, the addition of 10 g · liter−1 galacturonic acid did not significantly affect glucose consumption. However, at this lower pH, galacturonic acid completely inhibited growth on galactose and reduced galactose consumption rates by 87%. Additionally, it was shown that galacturonic acid strongly inhibits the fermentation of xylose and arabinose by the engineered pentose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain IMS0010. The data indicate that inhibition occurs when nondissociated galacturonic acid is present extracellularly and corroborate the hypothesis that a combination of a decreased substrate uptake rate due to competitive inhibition on Gal2p, an increased energy requirement to maintain cellular homeostasis, and/or an accumulation of galacturonic acid 1-phosphate contributes to the inhibition. The role of galacturonic acid as an inhibitor of sugar fermentation should be considered in the design of yeast fermentation processes based on pectin-rich feedstocks. PMID:22582063

  3. Metabolic pathway of 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose in carrageenan-degrading microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Bok; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lim, Hyun Seung

    2016-05-01

    Complete hydrolysis of κ-carrageenan produces two sugars, D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose (D-AnG). At present, however, we do not know how carrageenan-degrading microorganisms metabolize D-AnG. In this study, we investigated the metabolic pathway of D-AnG degradation by comparative genomic analysis of Cellulophaga lytica LIM-21, Pseudoalteromonas atlantica T6c, and Epulopiscium sp. N.t. morphotype B, which represent the classes Flavobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Clostridia, respectively. In this bioinformatic analysis, we found candidate common genes that were believed to be involved in D-AnG metabolism. We then experimentally confirmed the enzymatic function of each gene product in the D-AnG cluster. In all three microorganisms, D-AnG metabolizing genes were clustered and organized in operon-like arrangements, which we named as the dan operon (3,6-d-anhydro-galactose). Combining bioinformatic analysis and experimental data, we showed that D-AnG is metabolized to pyruvate and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate via four enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the following route: 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose → 3,6-anhydro-D-galactonate → 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-galactonate (D-KDGal) → 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-galactonate → pyruvate + D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The pathway of D-AnG degradation is composed of two parts: transformation of D-AnG to D-KDGal using two D-AnG specific enzymes and breakdown of D-KDGal to two glycolysis intermediates using two DeLey-Doudoroff pathway enzymes. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the metabolic pathway of D-AnG degradation. PMID:26875872

  4. Separation of galactose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid in acid hydrolysate of agarose by nanofiltration and electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyung; Na, Jeong-Geol; Yang, Ji-Won; Chang, Yong Keun

    2013-07-01

    A two-stage membrane process for the separation of galactose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and levulinic acid (LA) has been proposed. The first step of nanofiltration (NF) is to remove 5-HMF and LA from galactose solution obtained by the hydrolysis of agarose, the main component of red algal galactan for the reduction of its microbial toxicity. 5-HMF and LA are inhibitory to fermentation but at the same time useful compounds themselves with many applications. The second step of electrodialysis (ED) is to separate 5-HMF and LA in the permeate from NF. More than 91% of 5-HMF and up to 62% of LA could be removed from agarose hydrolysate, while galactose was almost completely retained by NF. Further removal of LA was expected to be possible with no loss of galactose by operating the NF process in a diafiltration mode. 5-HMF and LA could be effectively separated from each other by ED. PMID:23672940

  5. [Neonatal diarrhea due to congenital glucose-galactose malabsorption: report of seven cases].

    PubMed

    Chedane-Girault, C; Dabadie, A; Maurage, C; Piloquet, H; Chailloux, E; Colin, E; Pelatan, C; Giniès, J-L

    2012-12-01

    Congenital glucose-galactose malabsorption (CGGM) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, which presents as a protracted diarrhea in early neonatal life. We describe the clinical history, diagnostic evaluation, and management of 7 children with CGGM in western France. There were 4 girls and 3 boys from 5 families, born between 1984 and 2010. The principal complaint was a neonatal onset of watery and acidic severe diarrhea complicated by hypertonic dehydration. The diarrhea stopped with fasting. In 2 cases, the family history supported the diagnosis. In the other cases, elimination of glucose and galactose (lactose) from the diet resulted in the complete resolution of diarrhea symptoms. In 2 cases, the H2 breath tests were positive. In 2 cases, the HGPO or oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) demonstrated an abnormal curve with glucose and a normal curve with fructose. DNA sequencing was not used. When glucose and galactose were eliminated from the diet, the infants had normal growth and development. In conclusion, CGGM is a rare etiology of neonatal diarrhea; however, the diagnosis is easy to make and the prognosis is excellent. PMID:23107089

  6. Yulangsan polysaccharide improves redox homeostasis and immune impairment in D-galactose-induced mimetic aging.

    PubMed

    Doan, Van Minh; Chen, Chunxia; Lin, Xing; Nguyen, Van Phuc; Nong, Zhihuan; Li, Weisi; Chen, Qingquan; Ming, Jianjun; Xie, Qiuqiao; Huang, Renbin

    2015-05-01

    Yulangsan polysaccharide (YLSP) is a traditional Chinese medicine used in long-term treatment as a modulator of brain dysfunction and immunity. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of YLSP against D-galactose-induced impairment of oxidative stress and the immune system and evaluated its possible mechanism of action. D-galactose was subcutaneously injected into the dorsal neck of mice daily for 8 weeks to establish the aging model. YLSP was simultaneously administered once daily. The results indicate that YLSP significantly improves the general appearance of the aging mice. YLSP significantly increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and total anti-oxidation capability, while decreasing the content of malondialdehyde in different tissues, including the liver, brain, and serum. YLSP also increased the interleukin-2 level while decreasing the interleukin-6 level. Moreover, YLSP significantly inhibited advanced glycation end product formation. Furthermore, YLSP decreased p21 and p53 gene expressions in the liver and brain of D-galactose-treated mice. These results suggest that YLSP may have a protective effect suppressing the aging process by enhancing antioxidant activity and immunity, as well as modulating aging-related gene expression. PMID:25920068

  7. Structure–function characterization reveals new catalytic diversity in the galactose oxidase and glyoxal oxidase family

    PubMed Central

    Yin, DeLu (Tyler); Urresti, Saioa; Lafond, Mickael; Johnston, Esther M.; Derikvand, Fatemeh; Ciano, Luisa; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Henrissat, Bernard; Walton, Paul H.; Davies, Gideon J.; Brumer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol oxidases, including carbohydrate oxidases, have a long history of research that has generated fundamental biological understanding and biotechnological applications. Despite a long history of study, the galactose 6-oxidase/glyoxal oxidase family of mononuclear copper-radical oxidases, Auxiliary Activity Family 5 (AA5), is currently represented by only very few characterized members. Here we report the recombinant production and detailed structure–function analyses of two homologues from the phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum graminicola and C. gloeosporioides, CgrAlcOx and CglAlcOx, respectively, to explore the wider biocatalytic potential in AA5. EPR spectroscopy and crystallographic analysis confirm a common active-site structure vis-à-vis the archetypal galactose 6-oxidase from Fusarium graminearum. Strikingly, however, CgrAlcOx and CglAlcOx are essentially incapable of oxidizing galactose and galactosides, but instead efficiently catalyse the oxidation of diverse aliphatic alcohols. The results highlight the significant potential of prospecting the evolutionary diversity of AA5 to reveal novel enzyme specificities, thereby informing both biology and applications. PMID:26680532

  8. Effects of rhein lysinate on D-galactose-induced aging mice

    PubMed Central

    ZHEN, YONG-ZHAN; LIN, YA-JUN; LI, KAI-JI; ZHANG, GUANG-LING; ZHAO, YU-FANG; WANG, MEI-MEI; WEI, JING-BO; WEI, JIE; HU, GANG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-aging effects of rhein lysinate (RHL), and to explore its mechanism of action in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model. Aging was induced by D-galactose (100 mg/kg/day) that was subcutaneously injected to animals for 8 weeks. RHL was simultaneously administered once a day by intragastric gavage. The appetite, mental condition, body weight and organ index of the mice were monitored. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined, and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver, kidney and serum were measured by appropriate assay kits. Western blot analysis was used to detect proteins associated with age. The results indicated that RHL may improve the appetite, mental state and organ conditions of the model mice, improve the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, reduce MDA levels and modulate the expression of age-associated proteins (Sirtuin 1, p21 and p16) in D-galactose-induced mice. Therefore, RHL may be effective at suppressing the aging process through a combination of enhancing antioxidant activity, scavenging free radicals and modulating aging-associated gene expression. PMID:26889258

  9. A Potential Pathway for Galactose Metabolism in Cucumis sativus L., A Stachyose Transporting Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Pharr, David M.

    1982-01-01

    Conversion of [14C]galactose (Gal) 1-P, UDP-[14C]Gal, or UDP-[14C]glucose to [14C]sucrose was observed when cell-free homogenates of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit peduncles were incubated with individual 14C-labeled substrates, appropriate cofactors, and fructose. The sucrose product was labeled only in the glucose moiety. Conversion of [14C]Gal-1-P to [14C]sucrose was catalyzed by extracts of peduncles from all other stachyose transporting species tested, as well as green bean (a sucrose transporter) but was not catalyzed by peduncle extracts from three other sucrose transporting species. In cucumber, the ability of extracts to form [14C]sucrose from [14C]Gal-1-P was greater when peduncles were harvested from growing fruit than from unpollinated ovaries. [14C]Sucrose formation from [14C]Gal-1-P was inhibited by Mg · PPi, Mg · UDP, UMP, and sucrose. α-Galactosidase, galactokinase, UDP-gal pyrophosphorylase, UDP-Gal-4′-epimerase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, and sucrose synthase activities were detected in peduncle extracts. Neither sucrose phosphate synthetase nor hexose-1-P uridyltransferase were detected. Peduncle tissue contained a small pool of free galactose. These results suggest a potential pathway for the metabolism of galactose moieties hydrolyzed from stachyose, the major sugar transported by cucumber plants. PMID:16662141

  10. Structure-function characterization reveals new catalytic diversity in the galactose oxidase and glyoxal oxidase family.

    PubMed

    Yin, DeLu Tyler; Urresti, Saioa; Lafond, Mickael; Johnston, Esther M; Derikvand, Fatemeh; Ciano, Luisa; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Henrissat, Bernard; Walton, Paul H; Davies, Gideon J; Brumer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol oxidases, including carbohydrate oxidases, have a long history of research that has generated fundamental biological understanding and biotechnological applications. Despite a long history of study, the galactose 6-oxidase/glyoxal oxidase family of mononuclear copper-radical oxidases, Auxiliary Activity Family 5 (AA5), is currently represented by only very few characterized members. Here we report the recombinant production and detailed structure-function analyses of two homologues from the phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum graminicola and C. gloeosporioides, CgrAlcOx and CglAlcOx, respectively, to explore the wider biocatalytic potential in AA5. EPR spectroscopy and crystallographic analysis confirm a common active-site structure vis-à-vis the archetypal galactose 6-oxidase from Fusarium graminearum. Strikingly, however, CgrAlcOx and CglAlcOx are essentially incapable of oxidizing galactose and galactosides, but instead efficiently catalyse the oxidation of diverse aliphatic alcohols. The results highlight the significant potential of prospecting the evolutionary diversity of AA5 to reveal novel enzyme specificities, thereby informing both biology and applications. PMID:26680532

  11. Crystal structure of rice alpha-galactosidase complexed with D-galactose.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Zui; Kaneko, Satoshi; Momma, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2003-05-30

    alpha-Galactosidases catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-1,6-linked galactosyl residues from galacto-oligosaccharides and polymeric galacto-(gluco)mannans. The crystal structure of rice alpha-galactosidase has been determined at 1.5A resolution using the multiple isomorphous replacement method. The structure consisted of a catalytic domain and a C-terminal domain and was essentially the same as that of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, which is the same member of glycosyl hydrolase family 27. The catalytic domain had a (beta/alpha)8-barrel structure, and the C-terminal domain was made up of eight beta-strands containing a Greek key motif. The structure was solved as a complex with d-galactose, providing a mode of substrate binding in detail. The d-galactose molecule was found bound in the active site pocket on the C-terminal side of the central beta-barrel of the catalytic domain. The d-galactose molecule consisted of a mixture of two anomers present in a ratio equal to their natural abundance. Structural comparisons of rice alpha-galactosidase with chicken alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase provided further understanding of the substrate recognition mechanism in these enzymes. PMID:12657636

  12. IgG N-Glycosylation Galactose Incorporation Ratios for the Monitoring of Classical Galactosaemia.

    PubMed

    Stockmann, Henning; Coss, Karen P; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Knerr, Ina; Fitzgibbon, Maria; Maratha, Ashwini; Wilson, James; Rudd, Pauline; Treacy, Eileen P

    2016-01-01

    Classical galactosaemia (OMIM #230400) is a rare disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by deficiency of the galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase enzyme (EC 2.7.7.12). The cause of the long-term complications, including neurological, cognitive and fertility problems in females, remains poorly understood. The relatively small number of patients with galactosaemia and the lack of validated biomarkers pose a substantial challenge for determining prognosis and monitoring disease progression and responses to new therapies. We report an improved method of automated robotic hydrophilic interaction ultra-performance liquid chromatography N-glycan analysis for the measurement of IgG N-glycan galactose incorporation ratios applied to the monitoring of adult patients with classical galactosaemia. We analysed 40 affected adult patients and 81 matched healthy controls. Significant differences were noted between the G0/G1 and G0/G2 incorporation ratios between galactosaemia patients and controls (p < 0.001 and <0.01, respectively). Our data indicate that the use of IgG N-glycosylation galactose incorporation analysis may be now applicable for monitoring patient dietary compliance, determining prognosis and the evaluation of potential new therapies. PMID:26419375

  13. Galactose utilization sheds new light on sugar metabolism in the sequenced strain Dekkera bruxellensis CBS 2499.

    PubMed

    Moktaduzzaman, Md; Galafassi, Silvia; Capusoni, Claudia; Vigentini, Ileana; Ling, Zhihao; Piškur, Jure; Compagno, Concetta

    2015-03-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are considered two phylogenetically distant relatives, but they share several industrial relevant traits such as the ability to produce ethanol under aerobic conditions (Crabtree effect), high tolerance towards ethanol and acids, and ability to grow without oxygen. Beside a huge adaptability, D. bruxellensis exhibits a broader spectrum in utilization of carbon and nitrogen sources in comparison to S. cerevisiae. With the aim to better characterize its carbon source metabolism and regulation, the usage of galactose and the role that glucose plays on sugar metabolism were investigated in D. bruxellensis CBS 2499. The results indicate that in this yeast galactose is a non-fermentable carbon source, in contrast to S. cerevisiae that can ferment it. In particular, its metabolism is affected by the nitrogen source. Interestingly, D. bruxellensis CBS 2499 exhibits the 'short-term Crabtree effect', and the expression of genes involved in galactose utilization and in respiratory metabolism is repressed by glucose, similarly to what occurs in S. cerevisiae. PMID:25673757

  14. Piperine and curcumin exhibit synergism in attenuating D-galactose induced senescence in rats.

    PubMed

    Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J F; Dasaroju, Swetha; Annamalai, A R

    2013-03-01

    Aging is associated with progressive decline in mental abilities and functional capacities. Postmitotic tissues are most vulnerable to alteration due to oxidative damage leading to behavioral and biochemical changes. We hypothesized that the anatomical and functional facets of the brain could be protected with powerful antioxidants such as piperine and curcumin by examining their effects individually and in combination in delaying senescence induced by d-galactose. Young adult male Wistar rats were treated with piperine (12 mg/kg) alone, and curcumin (40 mg/kg) alone; and in combination for a period of 49 days by the oral route with treatment being initiated a week prior to d-galactose (60 mg/kg, i.p.). A control group, d-galactose alone and naturally aged control were also evaluated. Behavioral tests, hippocampal volume, CA1 neuron number, oxidative parameters, formation of lipofuscin like autofluorescent substances, neurochemical estimation, and histopathological changes in CA1 region of hippocampus were established. Our results suggest that the combination exerted a superior response compared to monotherapy as evidenced by improved spatial memory, reduced oxidative burden, reduced accumulation of lipofuscin; improvement in signaling, increase in hippocampal volume and protection of hippocampal neurons. We speculate that the powerful antioxidant nature of both, augmented response of curcumin in the presence of piperine and enhanced serotoninergic signaling was responsible for improved cognition and prevention in senescence. PMID:23200897

  15. Assessment of liver function in dogs using the 13C-galactose breath test.

    PubMed

    Silva, S; Wyse, C A; Goodfellow, M R; Yam, P S; Preston, T; Papasouliotis, K; Hall, E J

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the 13C-galactose breath test (13C-GBT) in assessing canine liver function by applying it to a group of healthy dogs, and to a group with clinicopathological evidence of liver dysfunction. Breath samples were collected 30 min before ingestion of 13C-galactose, and then at regular intervals thereafter for 6 h. The proportion of 13CO2/12CO2 in the breath samples was measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. There was no significant difference in recovery of 13CO2 in the diseased group, compared to the healthy controls, but there was considerable inter-subject variation in both groups, possibly due to differences in the rate of gastric emptying, which could preclude detection of alterations in hepatic metabolism of galactose. The results of this study do not support the application of the 13C-GBT for assessment of canine liver function. PMID:19546016

  16. Identification of PblB mediating galactose-specific adhesion in a successful Streptococcus pneumoniae clone

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yu-Chia; Lin, Tzu-Lung; Lin, Che-Ming; Wang, Jin-Town

    2015-01-01

    The pneumococcal genome is variable and there are minimal data on the influence of the accessory genome on phenotype. Pneumococcal serotype 14 sequence type (ST) 46 had been the most prevalent clone causing pneumonia in children in Taiwan. A microarray was constructed using the genomic DNA of a clinical strain (NTUH-P15) of serotype 14 ST46. Using DNA hybridization, genomic variations in NTUH-P15 were compared to those of 3 control strains. Microarray analysis identified 7 genomic regions that had significant increases in hybridization signals in the NTUH-P15 strain compared to control strains. One of these regions encoded PblB, a phage-encoded virulence factor implicated (in Streptococcus mitis) in infective endocarditis. The isogenic pblB mutant decreased adherence to A549 human lung epithelial cell compared to wild-type NTUH-P15 strain (P = 0.01). Complementation with pblB restored the adherence. PblB is predicted to contain a galactose-binding domain-like region. Preincubation of NTUH-P15 with D-galactose resulted in decreases of adherence to A549 cell in a dose-dependent manner. Challenge of mice with NTUH-P15, isogenic pblB mutant and pblB complementation strains determined that PblB was required for bacterial persistence in the nasopharynx and lung. PblB, as an adhesin mediating the galactose-specific adhesion activity of pneumococci, promote pneumococcal clonal success. PMID:26193794

  17. Study on galactose-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lysine) as novel gene vector for targeting hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hai-mei; Zhang, Xuan; Zhong, Nv-qi; Pan, Shi-rong

    2012-01-01

    A non-viral gene-delivery system has been used to deliver plasmid DNA into specific cell types because of its safety and ease of manufacture. Receptor-mediated gene transfer is currently a promising gene-delivery technique. To specifically target genes to asialoglycoprotein receptor of hepatocytes, a galactose moiety was combined into the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-terminal end by reductive coupling using lactose and sodium cyanoborohydride. A synthesis method of conjugating poly(L-lysine) (PLL) derivatives with terminally galactose-graft-PEG was developed using ring-opening polymerization of N(ε)-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine-N(α)-carboxyan-hydride (Z-Lys-NCA) initiated onto galactose graft amine-terminated PEG (galactose-PEG-NH₂) as a macro-initiator. The synthesis was characterized with ¹H-, ¹³C-NMR, IR and UV spectroscopy, and all of them successfully verified the formation of the co-polymers. The gel-retardation assay of the complexes between galactose-PEG-PLL and plasmid DNA indicated that these polymeric gene carriers demonstrated the potent ability to condense plasmid DNA electrostatically as well as PLL. The particle size and zeta potential of polymer/DNA complexes were measured, and their cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency in different cells were evaluated. The results indicate that galactose-PEG-PLL can form a complex with plasmid DNA and serve as an effective gene-delivery carrier with lower cytotoxicity compared to that of PLL. Transfection experiments clearly showed that galactose-PEG-PLL effectively delivered DNA into hepatoma cells in vitro. Such data demonstrates that galactose and its complex with plasmid DNA may serve as a safe and effective gene-transfer system targeting hepatocytes. PMID:21375808

  18. Metadynamics simulations reveal a Na+ independent exiting path of galactose for the inward-facing conformation of vSGLT.

    PubMed

    Bisha, Ina; Rodriguez, Alex; Laio, Alessandro; Magistrato, Alessandra

    2014-12-01

    Sodium-Galactose Transporter (SGLT) is a secondary active symporter which accumulates sugars into cells by using the electrochemical gradient of Na+ across the membrane. Previous computational studies provided insights into the release process of the two ligands (galactose and sodium ion) into the cytoplasm from the inward-facing conformation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium/galactose transporter (vSGLT). Several aspects of the transport mechanism of this symporter remain to be clarified: (i) a detailed kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the exit path of the two ligands is still lacking; (ii) contradictory conclusions have been drawn concerning the gating role of Y263; (iii) the role of Na+ in modulating the release path of galactose is not clear. In this work, we use bias-exchange metadynamics simulations to characterize the free energy profile of the galactose and Na+ release processes toward the intracellular side. Surprisingly, we find that the exit of Na+ and galactose is non-concerted as the cooperativity between the two ligands is associated to a transition that is not rate limiting. The dissociation barriers are of the order of 11-12 kcal/mol for both the ion and the substrate, in line with kinetic information concerning this type of transporters. On the basis of these results we propose a branched six-state alternating access mechanism, which may be shared also by other members of the LeuT-fold transporters. PMID:25522004

  19. Cyclic voltammetry at TCNQ and TTF-TCNQ modified platinum electrodes: A study of the glucose oxidase/glucose and galactose oxidase/galactose systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, P.D.; Skotheim, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the synthetic metal TTF-TCNQ can be used as an electrode material for the oxidation of enzymes containing the prosthetic group flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). This direct electron transfer (direct in the sense that oxygen is not a mediator) between reduced enzyme and electrode, a process which does not occur to any measurable extent at a typical metal electrode, is not very well understood. In the present work, electron transfer between reduced glucose oxidase and TTF-TCNQ is investigated using cyclic voltammetry, and it is also shown that TCNQ itself can mediate this electron transfer between the enzyme and a platinum electrode. In addition to the glucose oxidase studies, cyclic voltammetric experiments have been performed on the galactose oxidase system, which contains a copper redox center rather than FAD. The results of these experiments demonstrate that the catalytic ability of TTF-TCNQ in enzyme-based electrochemical sensors is quite general. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  20. The relevance of tick bites to the production of IgE antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Commins, Scott P.; James, Hayley R.; Kelly, Elizabeth A.; Pochan, Shawna L.; Workman, Lisa J.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Kocan, Katherine M.; Fahy, John V.; Nganga, Lucy W.; Ronmark, Eva; Cooper, Philip J.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2009, we reported a novel form of delayed anaphylaxis to red meat, which is related to serum IgE antibodies to the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). Most of these patients had tolerated meat for many years previously. The implication is that some exposure in adult life had stimulated the production of these IgE antibodies. Objectives To investigate possible causes of this IgE antibody response, focusing on evidence related to tick bites, which are common in the region where these reactions occur. Methods Serum assays were carried out using biotinylated proteins and extracts bound to a streptavidin ImmunoCAP. Results Prospective studies on IgE antibodies in three subjects following tick bites showed an increase in IgE to alpha-gal of twenty-fold or greater. Other evidence included i) a strong correlation between histories of tick bites and IgE to alpha-gal (χ2=26.8, p<0.001), ii) evidence that these IgE antibodies are common in areas where the tick Amblyomma americanum is common, and iii) a significant correlation between IgE antibodies to alpha-gal and IgE antibodies to proteins derived from A. americanum (rs=0.75, p<0.001). Conclusion The results presented here provide evidence that tick bites are a cause, or possibly the only cause, of IgE specific for alpha-gal in this area of the United States. Both the number of subjects becoming sensitized and the titer of IgE antibodies to alpha-gal are striking. Here we report the first example of a response to an ectoparasite giving rise to an important form of food allergy. PMID:21453959

  1. Delayed anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria after consumption of red meat in patients with IgE antibodies specific for galactose-α-1,3-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Commins, Scott P.; Satinover, Shama M.; Hosen, Jacob; Mozena, Jonathan; Borish, Larry; Lewis, Barrett D.; Woodfolk, Judith A.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Carbohydrate moieties are frequently encountered in food and can elicit IgE responses, the clinical significance of which has been unclear. Recent work, however, has shown that IgE antibodies to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal), a carbohydrate commonly expressed on nonprimate mammalian proteins, are capable of eliciting serious, even fatal, reactions. Objective We sought to determine whether IgE antibodies to α-gal are present in sera from patients who report anaphylaxis or urticaria after eating beef, pork, or lamb. Methods Detailed histories were taken from patients presenting to the University of Virginia Allergy Clinic. Skin prick tests (SPTs), intradermal skin tests, and serum IgE antibody analysis were performed for common indoor, outdoor, and food allergens. Results Twenty-four patients with IgE antibodies to α-gal were identified. These patients described a similar history of anaphylaxis or urticaria 3 to 6 hours after the ingestion of meat and reported fewer or no episodes when following an avoidance diet. SPTs to mammalian meat produced wheals of usually less than 4 mm, whereas intradermal or fresh-food SPTs provided larger and more consistent wheal responses. CAP-RAST testing revealed specific IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cow’s milk, cat, and dog but not turkey, chicken, or fish. Absorption experiments indicated that this pattern of sensitivity was explained by an IgE antibody specific for α-gal. Conclusion We report a novel and severe food allergy related to IgE antibodies to the carbohydrate epitope α-gal. These patients experience delayed symptoms of anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria associated with eating beef, pork, or lamb. PMID:19070355

  2. Mechanism of the anticataract effect of liposomal magnesium taurate in galactose-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Iezhitsa, Igor; Saad, Sarah Diyana Bt; Zakaria, Fatin Kamilah Bt; Agarwal, Puneet; Krasilnikova, Anna; Rahman, Thuhairah Hasrah Abdul; Rozali, Khairul Nizam Bin; Spasov, Alexander; Ozerov, Alexander; Alyautdin, Renad; Ismail, Nafeeza Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Increased lenticular oxidative stress and altered calcium/magnesium (Ca/Mg) homeostasis underlie cataractogenesis. We developed a liposomal formulation of magnesium taurate (MgT) and studied its effects on Ca/Mg homeostasis and lenticular oxidative and nitrosative stress in galactose-fed rats. Methods The galactose-fed rats were topically treated with liposomal MgT (LMgT), liposomal taurine (LTau), or corresponding vehicles twice daily for 28 days with weekly anterior segment imaging. At the end of the experimental period, the lenses were removed and subjected to analysis for oxidative and nitrosative stress, Ca and Mg levels, ATP content, Ca2+-ATPase, Na+,K+-ATPase, and calpain II activities. Results The LTau and LMgT groups showed significantly lower opacity index values at all time points compared to the corresponding vehicle groups (p<0.001). However, the opacity index in the LMgT group was lower than that in the LTau group (p<0.05). Significantly reduced oxidative and nitrosative stress was observed in the LTau and LMgT groups. The lens Ca/Mg ratio in LMgT group was decreased by 1.15 times compared to that in the LVh group. Calpain II activity in the LMgT group was decreased by 13% compared to the LVh group. The ATP level and Na+,K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase activities were significantly increased in the LMgT group compared to the LVh group (p<0.05). Conclusions Topical liposomal MgT delays cataractogenesis in galactose-fed rats by maintaining the lens mineral homeostasis and reducing lenticular oxidative and nitrosative stress. PMID:27440992

  3. Qing'E formula alleviates the aging process in D-galactose-induced aging mice

    PubMed Central

    ZHONG, LIN; HUANG, FEI; SHI, HAILIAN; WU, HUI; ZHANG, BEIBEI; WU, XIAOJUN; WEI, XIAOHUI; WANG, ZHENGTAO

    2016-01-01

    Qing'E formula (QEF) is a clinically used prescription with four ingredients, Eucommiae Cortex, Psoraleae Fructus, Juglandis Semen and Garlic Rhizoma, from the Song dynasty (10th century CE). The present study aimed to investigate the anti-aging effect and mechanisms of QEF on D-galactose-induced aging mice. A mouse subacute aging model was established by subcutaneous injection of D-galactose at the neck consecutively for 8 weeks. Motor activity and memory impairment of the mice were evaluated by the rotarod test and passive avoidance test, respectively. Serum and liver parameters were analyzed with biochemical kits. Hippocampal mRNA and protein expression levels were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. QEF administration significantly ameliorated the impaired motor and memory of aging mice. In the serum, QEF reduced blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and inhibited alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. In the liver, QEF increased the glutathione level, enhanced total antioxidant capacity and catalase activity, deceased NO and MDA production, and reduced NO synthase activity. In the hippocampus, QEF elevated gene expression levels of Klotho, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), forkhead box transcription factor O3, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), insulin-like growth factor-1 and peroxiredoxin-3. QEF increased protein expression levels of Klotho and SIRT1, and decreased that of PGC-1α in the hippocampus. In conclusion, QEF attenuated the aging process in D-galactose-treated mice, which may be mediated through enhancing the antioxidants in the body, protecting renal and hepatic health, and balancing hippocampal expression levels of the longevity-related genes. PMID:27347412

  4. Glycoproteomics enabled by tagging sialic acid- or galactose-terminated glycans

    PubMed Central

    Ramya, T N C; Weerapana, Eranthie; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Paulson, James C

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present two complementary strategies for enrichment of glycoproteins on living cells that combine the desirable attributes of “robust enrichment” afforded by covalent-labeling techniques and “specificity for glycoproteins” typically provided by lectin or antibody affinity reagents. Our strategy involves the selective introduction of aldehydes either into sialic acids by periodate oxidation (periodate oxidation and aniline-catalyzed oxime ligation (PAL)) or into terminal galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine residues by galactose oxidase (galactose oxidase and aniline-catalyzed oxime ligation (GAL)), followed by aniline-catalyzed oxime ligation with aminooxy-biotin to biotinylate the glycans of glycoprotein subpopulations with high efficiency and cell viability. As expected, the two methods exhibit reciprocal tagging efficiencies when applied to fully sialylated cells compared with sialic acid-deficient cells. To assess the utility of these labeling methods for glycoproteomics, we enriched the PAL- and GAL-labeled (biotinylated) glycoproteome by adsorption onto immobilized streptavidin. Glycoprotein identities (IDs) and N-glycosylation site information were then obtained by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on total tryptic peptides and on peptides subsequently released from N-glycans still bound to the beads using peptide N-glycosidase F. A total of 175 unique N-glycosylation sites were identified, belonging to 108 nonredundant glycoproteins. Of the 108 glycoproteins, 48 were identified by both methods of labeling and the remainder was identified using PAL on sialylated cells (40) or GAL on sialic acid-deficient cells (20). Our results demonstrate that PAL and GAL can be employed as complementary methods of chemical tagging for targeted proteomics of glycoprotein subpopulations and identification of glycosylation sites of proteins on cells with an altered sialylation status. PMID:23070960

  5. Genetics and Evolution of the Salmonella Galactose-Initiated Set of O Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Peter R.; Cunneen, Monica M.; Liu, Bin; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers eight Salmonella serogroups, that are defined by O antigens with related structures and gene clusters. They include the serovars that are now most frequently isolated. Serogroups A, B1, B2, C2-C3, D1, D2, D3 and E have O antigens that are distinguished by having galactose as first sugar, and not N-acetyl glucosamine or N-acetyl galactosamine as in the other 38 serogroups, and indeed in most Enterobacteriaceae. The gene clusters for these galactose-initiated appear to have entered S. enterica since its divergence from E. coli, but sequence comparisons show that much of the diversification occurred long before this. We conclude that the gene clusters must have entered S. enterica in a series of parallel events. The individual gene clusters are discussed, followed by analysis of the divergence for those genes shared by two or more gene clusters, and a putative phylogenic tree for the gene clusters is presented. This set of O antigens provides a rare case where it is possible to examine in detail the relationships of a significant number of O antigens. In contrast the more common pattern of O-antigen diversity within a species is for there to be only a few cases of strains having related gene clusters, suggesting that diversity arose through gain of individual O-antigen gene clusters by lateral gene transfer, and under these circumstances the evolution of the diversity is not accessible. This paper on the galactose-initiated set of gene clusters gives new insights into the origins of O-antigen diversity generally. PMID:23874940

  6. Hepatic uptake and metabolism of galactose can be quantified in vivo by 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxygalactose positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Michael; Munk, Ole Lajord; Mortensen, Frank Viborg; Olsen, Aage Kristian; Bender, Dirk; Bass, Ludvik; Keiding, Susanne

    2008-07-01

    Metabolism of galactose is a specialized liver function. The purpose of this PET study was to use the galactose analog 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxygalactose (FDGal) to investigate hepatic uptake and metabolism of galactose in vivo. FDGal kinetics was studied in 10 anesthetized pigs at blood concentrations of nonradioactive galactose yielding approximately first-order kinetics (tracer only; n = 4), intermediate kinetics (0.5-0.6 mmol galactose/l blood; n = 2), and near-saturation kinetics (>3 mmol galactose/l blood; n = 4). All animals underwent liver C15O PET (blood volume) and FDGal PET (galactose kinetics) with arterial and portal venous blood sampling. Flow rates in the hepatic artery and the portal vein were measured by ultrasound transit-time flowmeters. The hepatic uptake and net metabolic clearance of FDGal were quantified by nonlinear and linear regression analyses. The initial extraction fraction of FDGal from blood-to-hepatocyte was unity in all pigs. Hepatic net metabolic clearance of FDGal, K(FDGal), was 332-481 ml blood.min(-1).l(-1) tissue in experiments with approximately first-order kinetics and 15.2-21.8 ml blood.min(-1).l(-1) tissue in experiments with near-saturation kinetics. Maximal hepatic removal rates of galactose were on average 600 micromol.min(-1).l(-1) tissue (range 412-702), which was in agreement with other studies. There was no significant difference between K(FDGal) calculated with use of the dual tracer input (Kdual(FDGal)) or the single arterial input (Karterial(FDGal)). In conclusion, hepatic galactose kinetics can be quantified with the galactose analog FDGal. At near-saturated kinetics, the maximal hepatic removal rate of galactose can be calculated from the net metabolic clearance of FDGal and the blood concentration of galactose. PMID:18483186

  7. Adsorption characteristics of metal ions on chitosan chemically modified by D-galactose

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Kazuo; Sumi, Hisaharu; Matsumoto, Michiaki

    1996-07-01

    The adsorption characteristics of metal ions on chitosan chemically modified by D-galactose were examined. The pH dependency on the distribution ratio was found to be affected by the valency of the metal ion, and the apparent adsorption equilibrium constants of the metal ions were determined. The order of adsorption of the metal ions is Ga > In > Nd > Eu for the trivalent metal ions and Cu > Ni > Co for the divalent metal ions. It is believed that amino and hydroxyl groups in the chitosan act as a chelating ligand.

  8. Effectiveness of topical caffeine in cataract prevention: Studies with galactose cataract

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Shambhu D.; Kovtun, Svitlana

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of the study was to investigate the possible inhibition of cataract formation by topical administration of caffeine using the galactosemic rat model. It was hypothesized that caffeine will do so by acting as scavenger of reactive oxygen species known to be generated under hyperglycemic conditions. Methods Cataract was induced by feeding young rats a diet containing 24% galactose for a period of 25 days. A control group of such rats was treated with a placebo eye drop preparation containing hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose as a wetting agent. In the experimental group, the rats were treated with the above preparation mixed with 72 mM caffeine. Results Administration of caffeine eye drops was found to significantly inhibit the onset as well as the progress of cataract formation. By day 25 on the galactose diet, all the animals in the control group developed advanced white opacity spread over the entire area of the lens. In the caffeine group, the formation of such opacity remained strikingly inhibited. The lenses remained largely transparent. The transparency data paralleled the higher concentration of glutathione maintained by caffeine treatment. Its levels in the placebo group were 0.8, 0.5, and 0.4 µmoles/g lens wt. on days 5, 15, and 25 against a consistent basal control value of ~3 µmoles/g over the entire period. In the caffeine group, the corresponding values were nearly 3 µmoles/g till day 15, but decreasing to ~2 µmoles/g on day 25. The levels were hence significantly higher than in the caffeine untreated group, remaining relatively closer to the basal controls. In addition, the compound was found effective in inhibiting morphological changes induced by galactose. Conclusions Micromolar amounts of topical caffeine have been found to be significantly effective in inhibiting the formation of galactose cataract, strongly suggesting its possible usefulness against diabetic cataracts. The effects are attributed to its ability to

  9. Host Glycan Sugar-Specific Pathways in Streptococcus pneumonia: Galactose as a Key Sugar in Colonisation and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Paixão, Laura; Oliveira, Joana; Veríssimo, André; Vinga, Susana; Lourenço, Eva C.; Ventura, M. Rita; Kjos, Morten; Veening, Jan-Willem; Fernandes, Vitor E.; Andrew, Peter W.; Yesilkaya, Hasan; Neves, Ana Rute

    2015-01-01

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a strictly fermentative organism that relies on glycolytic metabolism to obtain energy. In the human nasopharynx S. pneumoniae encounters glycoconjugates composed of a variety of monosaccharides, which can potentially be used as nutrients once depolymerized by glycosidases. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesise that the pneumococcus would rely on these glycan-derived sugars to grow. Here, we identified the sugar-specific catabolic pathways used by S. pneumoniae during growth on mucin. Transcriptome analysis of cells grown on mucin showed specific upregulation of genes likely to be involved in deglycosylation, transport and catabolism of galactose, mannose and N acetylglucosamine. In contrast to growth on mannose and N-acetylglucosamine, S. pneumoniae grown on galactose re-route their metabolic pathway from homolactic fermentation to a truly mixed acid fermentation regime. By measuring intracellular metabolites, enzymatic activities and mutant analysis, we provide an accurate map of the biochemical pathways for galactose, mannose and N-acetylglucosamine catabolism in S. pneumoniae. Intranasal mouse infection models of pneumococcal colonisation and disease showed that only mutants in galactose catabolic genes were attenuated. Our data pinpoint galactose as a key nutrient for growth in the respiratory tract and highlights the importance of central carbon metabolism for pneumococcal pathogenesis. PMID:25826206

  10. Synthesis of three different galactose-based methacrylate monomers for the production of sugar-based polymers.

    PubMed

    Desport, Jessica S; Mantione, Daniele; Moreno, Mónica; Sardón, Haritz; Barandiaran, María J; Mecerreyes, David

    2016-09-01

    Glycopolymers, synthetic sugar-containing macromolecules, are attracting ever-increasing interest from the chemistry community. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) is an important building block for the synthesis of sugar based methacrylate monomers and polymers. Normally, glycidyl methacrylate shows some advantages such as reactivity against nucleophiles or milder synthetic conditions such as other reactive methacrylate monomers. However, condensation reactions of glycidyl methacrylate with for instance protected galactose monomer leads to a mixture of two products due to a strong competition between the two possible pathways: epoxide ring opening or transesterification. In this paper, we propose two alternative routes to synthesize regiospecific galactose-based methacrylate monomers using the epoxy-ring opening reaction. In the first alternative route, the protected galactose is first oxidized to the acid in order to make it more reactive against the epoxide of GMA. In the second route, the protected sugar was first treated with epichlorohydrin followed by the epoxy ring opening reaction with methacrylic acid, to create an identical analogue of the ring-opening product of GMA. These two monomers were polymerized using conventional radical polymerization and were compared to the previously known galactose-methacrylate one. The new polymers show similar thermal stability but lower glass transition temperature (Tg) with respect to the known galactose methacrylate polymer. PMID:27394038

  11. The Molecular Dynamics of Trypanosoma brucei UDP-Galactose 4′-Epimerase: A Drug Target for African Sleeping Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Aaron J; Durrant, Jacob D; Pierce, Levi C T; McCorvie, Thomas J; Timson, David J; McCammon, J Andrew

    2012-01-01

    During the past century, several epidemics of human African trypanosomiasis, a deadly disease caused by the protist Trypanosoma brucei, have afflicted sub-Saharan Africa. Over 10 000 new victims are reported each year, with hundreds of thousands more at risk. As current drug treatments are either highly toxic or ineffective, novel trypanocides are urgently needed. The T. brucei galactose synthesis pathway is one potential therapeutic target. Although galactose is essential for T. brucei survival, the parasite lacks the transporters required to intake galactose from the environment. UDP-galactose 4′-epimerase (TbGalE) is responsible for the epimerization of UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose and is therefore of great interest to medicinal chemists. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the atomistic motions of TbGalE in both the apo and holo states. The sampled conformations and protein dynamics depend not only on the presence of a UDP-sugar ligand, but also on the chirality of the UDP-sugar C4 atom. This dependence provides important insights into TbGalE function and may help guide future computer-aided drug discovery efforts targeting this protein. PMID:22487100

  12. [Urinary metabolomics study of the effects of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi ethanol extract on D-galactose-induced rats].

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan-fen; Gong, Wen-xia; Zheng, Yan-hong; Li, Jian-wei; Zhou, Yu-zhi; Qin, Xue-mei; Du, Guan-hua

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-aging effects and reveal the underlying mechanism of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi ethanol extract (SBG) in D-galactose-induced rats. Fifty rats were randomly divided into five groups: vehicle control group, D-galactose group, and D-galactose combined with 50, 100, 200 mg x kg(-1) SBG. A rat aging model was induced by injecting subcutaneously D-galactose (100 mg x kg(-1)) for ten weeks. At the tenth week, the locomotor activity (in open-field test) and the learning and memory abilities (in Morris water maze test) were examined respectively. The urine was collected using metabolic cages and analyzed by high-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy combined with multivariate statistical analyses. The SBG at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg x kg(-1) treatments groups could significantly ameliorate aging process in rats' cognitive performance. The 50, 100, 200 mg x kg(-1) SBG regulated citrate, pyruvate, lactate, trimethylamine (TMA), pantothenate, β-hydroxybutyrate in urine favorably toward the control group. These biochemical changes are related to the disturbance in energy metabolism, glycometabolism and microbiome metabolism, which is helpful to further understanding the D-galactose induced aging rats and the therapeutic mechanism of SBG. PMID:27405167

  13. Enhanced UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose by homologous overexpression of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Yebra, María J

    2011-07-20

    UDP-sugars are widely used as substrates in the synthesis of oligosaccharides catalyzed by glycosyltransferases. In the present work a metabolic engineering strategy aimed to direct the carbon flux towards UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose biosynthesis was successfully applied in Lactobacillus casei. The galU gene coding for UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (GalU) enzyme in L. casei BL23 was cloned under control of the inducible nisA promoter and it was shown to be functional by homologous overexpression. Notably, about an 80-fold increase in GalU activity resulted in approximately a 9-fold increase of UDP-glucose and a 4-fold increase of UDP-galactose. This suggested that the endogenous UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (GalE) activity, which inter-converts both UDP-sugars, is not sufficient to maintain the UDP-glucose/UDP-galactose ratio. The L. casei galE gene coding for GalE was cloned downstream of galU and the resulting plasmid was transformed in L. casei. The new recombinant strain showed about a 4-fold increase of GalE activity, however this increment did not affect that ratio, suggesting that GalE has higher affinity for UDP-galactose than for UDP-glucose. The L. casei strains constructed here that accumulate high intracellular levels of UDP-sugars would be adequate hosts for the production of oligosaccharides. PMID:21663774

  14. [Biological assay for galactose-1 phosphate measurement application in subjects with galactosemia].

    PubMed

    Braham, Imene; Charfeddine, Bassem; Ben Othmene, Leila; Neffati, Souhir; Mtar, Aida; Ben Abdallah, Jihene; Ali Smach, Med; Dridi, Hedi; Limem, Khalifa

    2012-01-01

    Congenital galactosemia is a hereditary, autosomal recessive and metabolic disease. It is linked to an enzyme deficiency, more commonly known by the deficiency of galactose-1- phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT), which is responsible for an accumulation of galactose-1- phosphate in the blood. Clinical symptoms appear early in infancy from the second week of life. They generally manifested by some disorders within liver, kidney, eye, gastrointestinal, neurological and also with cataracts. Currently, the clinical diagnosis remains difficult hence the importance of further investigations based on effective biological assessments to highlight the disease. The diagnosis of galactosemia is made by the laboratory test. The latter includes the determination of Gal-1-P which is done by a fluorometric method spot test. This study was conducted in order to assess the repeatability, reproducibility, accuracy, and effectiveness of the techniques used. We have found the CV for a repeatability (CV = 5 %), reproducibility (CV = 4 %) which confirms the accuracy of the method proceeded in this study. This method allows us to have a degree of inaccuracy less than 1%. According to the study of the effectiveness of "spot test", we found that our technique is specific (Sp = 93 %) and sensitive (Se = 83 %). PMID:22294140

  15. Isolation and partial characterisation of galactose-specific lectins from African yam beans, Sphenostyles stenocarpa Harms.

    PubMed

    Machuka, J S; Okeola, O G; Van Damme Els, J M; Chrispeels, M J; Van Leuven, F; Peumans, W J

    1999-07-01

    A new galactose-specific lectin was isolated from African yam bean (Sphenostyles stenocarpa Harms) by affinity chromatography on galactose-Sepharose 4B. SDS-PAGE analysis resulted in four polypeptide bands of approximately 27, 29, 32 and 34 kDa, respectively. Based on the analysis of carbohydrate content and native PAGE, it is likely that the Sphenostyles lectin is a tetrameric glycoprotein with M(r) of approximately 122 kDa. N-terminal protein sequencing of purified lectins from four different Sphenostyles accessions shows that the four polypeptides have largely identical amino acid sequences. The sequences contain the conserved consensus sequence F-F-LILG characteristic of legume lectins, as well as Phaseolus vulgaris proteins in the arcelin-alpha-amylase inhibitor gene family. The lectin agglutinates both rabbit and human erythrocytes, but with a preference for blood types A and O. Using Western blotting, the lectin was shown to accumulate rapidly during seed development, but levels dropped slightly as seeds attained maturity. This is the first time a lectin has been purified from the genus Sphenostyles. The new lectin was assigned the abbreviation LECp.SphSte.se.Hga1. PMID:10389271

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Shingo; Fujikawa, Yukichi; Tanaka, Nobukazu; Esaka, Muneharu

    2012-01-01

    L-Galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPPase) is an enzyme involved in ascorbate biosynthesis in higher plants. We isolated a cDNA encoding GPPase from tobacco, and named it NtGPPase. The putative amino acid sequence of NtGPPase contained inositol monophosphatase motifs and metal binding sites. Recombinant NtGPPase hydrolyzed not only L-galactose-1-phosphate, but also myo-inositol-1-phosphate. The optimum pH for the GPPase activity of NtGPPase was 7.5. Its enzyme activity required Mg2+, and was inhibited by Li+ and Ca2+. Its fluorescence, fused with green fluorescence protein in onion cells and protoplasts of tobacco BY-2 cells, was observed in both the cytosol and nucleus. The expression of NtGPPase mRNA and protein was clearly correlated with L-ascorbic acid (AsA) contents of BY-2 cells during culture. The AsA contents of NtGPPase over expression lines were higher than those of empty lines at 13 d after subculture. This suggests that NtGPPase contributes slightly to AsA biosynthesis. PMID:22790939

  17. Structural Determinants of Water Permeation through the Sodium-Galactose Transporter vSGLT

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, Joshua L.; Sheng, Ying; Choe, Seungho; Abramson, Jeff; Wright, Ernest M.; Rosenberg, John M.; Grabe, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Sodium-glucose transporters (SGLTs) facilitate the movement of water across the cell membrane, playing a central role in cellular homeostasis. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the mechanism of water permeation through the inward-facing state of vSGLT based on nearly 10 μs of molecular dynamics simulations. These simulations reveal the transient formation of a continuous water channel through the transporter that permits water to permeate the protein. Trajectories in which spontaneous release of galactose is observed, as well as those in which galactose remains in the binding site, show that the permeation rate, although modulated by substrate occupancy, is not tightly coupled to substrate release. Using a, to our knowledge, novel channel-detection algorithm, we identify the key residues that control water flow through the transporter and show that solvent gating is regulated by side-chain motions in a small number of residues on the extracellular face. A sequence alignment reveals the presence of two insertion sites in mammalian SGLTs that flank these outer-gate residues. We hypothesize that the absence of these sites in vSGLT may account for the high water permeability values for vSGLT determined via simulation compared to the lower experimental estimates for mammalian SGLT1. PMID:24655503

  18. A De Novo Variant in Galactose-1-P Uridylyltransferase (GALT) Leading to Classic Galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thanh-Thanh Claire V; Liu, Ying; Zwick, Michael E; Ramachandran, Dhanya; Cutler, David J; Huang, Xiaoping; Berry, Gerard T; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L

    2015-01-01

    Classic galactosemia (CG) is a potentially lethal genetic disease that results from profound impairment of galactose-1-P uridylyltransferase (GALT), the middle enzyme in the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism. Patients with CG carry pathogenic loss-of-function mutations in both of their GALT alleles; the parents of patients are considered obligate carriers. We report here a first exception to that rule - a de novo GALT variant in a patient with classic galactosemia. The new variant, c.563A>C (p.Q188P), which introduces a missense substitution near the active site of the GALT enzyme, was found in the compound heterozygous state in a child with classic galactosemia, but not in either of her parents. Extensive genomic studies of DNA from the child and both parents confirmed the expected degrees of relationship in the trio as well as inheritance of a common c.563A>G (p.Q188R) GALT mutation from the mother. This result demonstrates that not all pathogenic GALT mutations are inherited and raises concern that GALT may have a higher new mutation rate than previously believed. PMID:25681079

  19. Metallization of double-stranded DNA triggered by bound galactose-modified naphthalene diimide.

    PubMed

    Komizo, Kohei; Ikedo, Hideyuki; Sato, Shinobu; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2014-08-20

    Naphthalene diimide (NDI) derivatives bearing galactose moieties through different spacers, NDI-DS1 and NDI-DS2, were synthesized by the click reaction of the acetylene derivatives of NDI with galactose azide. They bound to double-stranded DNA with threading intercalation, as confirmed by the topoisomerase I assay and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The binding affinities of these ligands were on the order of 10(5) M(-1) with several-fold higher affinity for double-stranded DNA than for single-stranded DNA. The silver mirror reaction on the double-stranded DNA bound to these ligands afforded silver nanowires that were converted to gold nanowires. In the atomic force microscopy measurements, the increased height of DNA areas on a mica plate was observed in the case of double-stranded DNA after NDI-DS2 treatment and subsequently silver mirror reaction, whereas the increased height of DNA areas was not observed in the case of single-stranded DNA after the same treatment. PMID:25011665

  20. Inhalation with Fucose and Galactose for Treatment of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hauber, Hans-Peter; Schulz, Maria; Pforte, Almuth; Mack, Dietrich; Zabel, Peter; Schumacher, Udo

    2008-01-01

    Background: Colonisation of cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is facilitated by two lectins, which bind to the sugar coat of the surface lining epithelia and stop the cilia beating. Objectives: We hypothesized that P. aeruginosa lung infection should be cleared by inhalation of fucose and galactose, which compete for the sugar binding site of the two lectins and thus inhibit the binding of P. aeruginosa. Methods: 11 adult CF patients with chronic infection with P. aeruginosa were treated twice daily with inhalation of a fucose/galactose solution for 21 days (4 patients only received inhalation, 7 patients received inhalation and intravenous antibiotics). Microbial counts of P. aeruginosa, lung function measurements, and inflammatory markers were determined before and after treatment. Results: The sugar inhalation was well tolerated and no adverse side effects were observed. Inhalation alone as well as combined therapy (inhalation and antibiotics) significantly decreased P. aeruginosa in sputum (P < 0.05). Both therapies also significantly reduced TNFα expression in sputum and peripheral blood cells (P < 0.05). No change in lung function measurements was observed. Conclusions: Inhalation of simple sugars is a safe and effective measure to reduce the P. aeruginosa counts in CF patients. This may provide an alternative therapeutical approach to treat infection with P. aeruginosa. PMID:19043609

  1. Elemental distribution in frozen-hydrated rat lenses with galactose cataract

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama-Ito, H. )

    1990-01-01

    The elemental distributions in frozen-hydrated rat lenses with galactose cataract were compared before and after the onset of the nuclear cataract to investigate the possible role of ion levels in the lens opacification due to the phase separation of the lens cytoplasm. The maps of the weight concentrations of the minor elements, S, Cl, K and Ca, on the basis of wet weight in the central plane of lens were obtained by X-ray analysis with the high energy ion microprobe at a resolution of 50 microns. Before the onset of the nuclear cataract, the distributions of Cl and K, were almost normal, except in the lens posterior periphery with high Cl and low K. In the lens with the nuclear opacity, sudden changes were observed. The Cl increased throughout the lens, and K decreased throughout the lens except at lens anterior thin layer. However, the totalized monovalent ion level changed only slightly. The Ca level increased throughout the lens after the onset of the nuclear cataract, suggesting a possible role of Ca in the nuclear opacification of galactose cataract of rats. The distributions of S were similar to the protein density distributions previously known both in the normal and in the cataractous lenses.

  2. The cloning and sequencing of the UDP-galactose 4-epimerase gene (galE) from Avibacterium paragallinarum.

    PubMed

    Roodt, Yolande; Bragg, Robert; Albertyn, Jacobus

    2007-08-01

    The putative uridine diphosphate (UDP)-galactose 4-epimerase encoding gene, galE, was isolated from Avibacterium paragallinarum with the use of degenerate primers, colony hybridization and inverse PCR. The data revealed an open reading frame of 1017 bp encoding a protein of 338 amino acids with a molecular weight of 37 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.5. High sequence homology was obtained with an 87, 91 and 89% sequence identity on protein level towards the galE genes from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Pasteurella multocida, respectively. To verify that the cloned galE gene encodes for a UDP-galactose 4-epimeras, this gene was cloned into the pYES-2 expression vector, followed by transformation in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gal10 deletion strain. Complementation of the gal10 deletion mutant with the galE gene confirmed that this gene encodes a UDP-galactose 4-epimerase. PMID:17541831

  3. Molecular and Biochemical Analysis of the Galactose Phenotype of Dairy Streptococcus thermophilus Strains Reveals Four Different Fermentation Profiles

    PubMed Central

    de Vin, Filip; Rådström, Peter; Herman, Lieve; De Vuyst, Luc

    2005-01-01

    Lactose-limited fermentations of 49 dairy Streptococcus thermophilus strains revealed four distinct fermentation profiles with respect to galactose consumption after lactose depletion. All the strains excreted galactose into the medium during growth on lactose, except for strain IMDOST40, which also displayed extremely high galactokinase (GalK) activity. Among this strain collection eight galactose-positive phenotypes sensu stricto were found and their fermentation characteristics and Leloir enzyme activities were measured. As the gal promoter seems to play an important role in the galactose phenotype, the galR-galK intergenic region was sequenced for all strains yielding eight different nucleotide sequences (NS1 to NS8). The gal promoter played an important role in the Gal-positive phenotype but did not determine it exclusively. Although GalT and GalE activities were detected for all Gal-positive strains, GalK activity could only be detected for two out of eight Gal-positive strains. This finding suggests that the other six S. thermophilus strains metabolize galactose via an alternative route. For each type of fermentation profile obtained, a representative strain was chosen and four complete Leloir gene clusters were sequenced. It turned out that Gal-positive strains contained more amino acid differences within their gal genes than Gal-negative strains. Finally, the biodiversity regarding lactose-galactose utilization among the different S. thermophilus strains used in this study was shown by RAPD-PCR. Five Gal-positive strains that contain nucleotide sequence NS2 in their galR-galK intergenic region were closely related. PMID:16000774

  4. Ovotoxic Effects of Galactose Involve Attenuation of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Bioactivity and Up-Regulation of Granulosa Cell p53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sayani; Chakraborty, Pratip; Saha, Piyali; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Banerjee, Sutapa; Kabir, Syed N.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical evidence suggests an association between galactosaemia and premature ovarian insufficiency (POI); however, the mechanism still remains unresolved. Experimental galactose toxicity in rats produces an array of ovarian dysfunction including ovarian development with deficient follicular reserve and follicular resistance to gonadotrophins that characterize the basic tenets of human POI. The present investigation explores if galactose toxicity in rats attenuates the bioactivity of gonadotrophins or interferes with their receptor competency, and accelerates the rate of follicular atresia. Pregnant rats were fed isocaloric food-pellets supplemented with or without 35% D-galactose from day-3 of gestation and continuing through weaning of the litters. The 35-day old female litters were autopsied. Serum galactose-binding capacity, galactosyltransferase (GalTase) activity, and bioactivity of FSH and LH together with their receptor competency were assessed. Ovarian follicular atresia was evaluated in situ by TUNEL. The in vitro effects of galactose were studied in isolated whole follicles in respect of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of caspase 3, and in isolated granulosa cells in respect of mitochondrial membrane potential, expression of p53, and apoptosis. The rats prenatally exposed to galactose exhibited significantly decreased serum GalTase activity and greater degree of galactose-incorporation capacity of sera proteins. LH biopotency and LH-FSH receptor competency were comparable between the control and study population, but the latter group showed significantly attenuated FSH bioactivity and increased rate of follicular atresia. In culture, galactose increased follicular generation of ROS and expression of caspase 3. In isolated granulosa cells, galactose disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, stimulated p53 expression, and induced apoptosis in vitro; however co-treatment with either FSH or estradiol significantly prevented

  5. [Protective effect of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides on subacute renal damages induced by D-galactose in mice and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Fan, Yan-ling; Xia, Jie-yu; Jia, Dao-yong; Zhang, Meng-si; Zhang, Yan-yan; Wang, Lu; Huang, Guo-ning; Wang, Ya-ping

    2015-11-01

    To explore the protective effect of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides(ASP) on subacute renal damages induced by D-galactose in mice and its mechanism. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 3 groups, with 10 mice in each group. The D-galactose model group was subcutaneously injected with D-galactose (120 mg x kg(-1)), qd x 42; the ASP + D-galactose model group was intraperitoneally injected with ASP since the 8th day of the replication of the D-galactose model, qd x 35; and the normal control group was subcutaneously injected with saline at the same dose and time. On the 2nd day of after the injection, the peripheral blood was collected to measure the content of BUN, Crea, UA, Cys-C; paraffin sections were made to observe the renal histomorphology by HE staining; senescence-associated β-g-alactosidase (SA-β-Gal) stain was used to observe the relative optical density (ROD) in renal tissues; transmission electron microscopy was assayed to observe the renal ultrastructure; the renal tissue homogenate was prepared to measure the content of SOD, GSH-PX, MDA; the content of AGEs and 8-OH-dG were measured by ELISA. According to the result, compared with the D-galactose model group, the ASP + D-galactose model group showed obviously decreases in the content of BUN, Crea, UA, Cysc, AGES, 8-OH-dG, the number of hardening renal corpuscle, renal capsular space and renal tubular lumen, ROD of SA-β-Gal staining positive kidney cells, mesangial cells, basement membrane thickness, podocyte secondary processes fusion and MDA and increases in the number of normal renal corpuscle, ribosome and rough endoplasmic reticulum in podocytes, the activity of SOD and GSH-PX. In Conclusion, A. sinensis polysaccharides can antagonize kidney subacute damages induced by D-galactose in mice. Its protective mechanism may be correlated with the inhibition of the oxidative stress injury. PMID:27071262

  6. Multifunctional supramolecular vesicles based on the complex of ferrocenecarboxylic acid capped pillar[5]arene and a galactose derivative for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yincheng; Hou, Chenxi; Ren, Jingli; Xin, Xiaoting; Pei, Yuxin; Lu, Yuchao; Cao, Shoupeng; Pei, Zhichao

    2016-07-21

    Supramolecular vesicles based on the host-guest complexation of ferrocenecarboxylic acid capped pillar[5]arene and a galactose derivative have been constructed, which showed dual-responsiveness and cancer cells targetability resulting from its ferrocenecarboxylic acid units and galactose units, respectively. This work provides a good example for the construction of multifunctional nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery. PMID:27387299

  7. Head-group acylation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol is a common stress response, and the acyl-galactose acyl composition varies with the plant species and applied stress

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Hieu Sy; Roth, Mary R.; Tamura, Pamela; Samarakoon, Thilani; Shiva, Sunitha; Honey, Samuel; Lowe, Kaleb; Schmelz, Eric A.; Williams, Todd D.; Welti, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Formation of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols has been shown to be induced by leaf homogenization, mechanical wounding, avirulent bacterial infection, and thawing after snap-freezing. Here, lipidomic analysis using mass spectrometry showed that galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols, formed in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves upon wounding, have acyl-galactose profiles that differ from those of wounded Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that different plant species accumulate different acyl-galactose components in response to the same stress. Additionally, the composition of the acyl-galactose component of Arabidopsis acMGDG depends on the stress treatment. After sub-lethal freezing treatment, acMGDG contained mainly non-oxidized fatty acids esterified to galactose, whereas mostly oxidized fatty acids accumulated on galactose after wounding or bacterial infection. Compositional data are consistent with acMGDG being formed in vivo by transacylation with fatty acids from digalactosyldiacylglycerols. Oxophytodienoic acid, an oxidized fatty acid, was more concentrated on the galactosyl ring of acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols than in galactolipids in general. Also, oxidized fatty acid-containing acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols increased cumulatively when wounded Arabidopsis leaves were wounded again. These findings suggest that, in Arabidopsis, the pool of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols may serve to sequester oxidized fatty acids during stress responses. PMID:24286212

  8. Quantification of Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyltransferase Enzyme Activity by Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijun; Ptolemy, Adam S.; Harmonay, Lauren; Kellogg, Mark; Berry, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of galactosemia usually involves the measurement of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) activity. Traditional radioactive and fluorescent GALT assays are nonspecific, laborious, and/or lack sufficient analytical sensitivity. We developed a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)–based assay for GALT enzyme activity measurement. Method Our assay used stable isotope-labeled α-galactose-1-phosphate ([13C6]-Gal-1-P) as an enzyme substrate. Sample cleanup and separation were achieved by reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography, and the enzymatic product, isotope-labeled uridine diphosphate galactose ([13C6]-UDPGal), was detected by MS/MS at mass transition (571 > 323) and quantified by use of [13C6]-Glu-1-P (265 > 79) as an internal standard. Results The method yielded a mean (SD) GALT enzyme activity of 23.8 (3.8) µmol · (gHgb)−1 · h−1 in erythrocyte extracts from 71 controls. The limit of quantification was 0.04 µmol · (g Hgb)−1 · h−1 (0.2% of normal control value). Intraassay imprecision was determined at 4 different levels (100%, 25%, 5%, and 0.2% of the normal control values), and the CVs were calculated to be 2.1%, 2.5%, 4.6%, and 9.7%, respectively (n = 3). Interassay imprecision CVs were 4.5%, 6.7%, 8.2%, and 13.2% (n = 5), respectively. The assay recoveries at the 4 levels were higher than 90%. The apparent Km of the 2 substrates, Gal-1-P and UDPGlc, were determined to be 0.38 mmol/L and 0.071 mmol/L, respectively. The assay in erythrocytes of 33 patients with classical galactosemia revealed no detectable activity. Conclusions This LC-MS/MS–based assay for GALT enzyme activity will be useful for the diagnosis and study of biochemically heterogeneous patients with galactosemia, especially those with uncommon genotypes and detectable but low residual activities. PMID:20348403

  9. Arabidopsis VTC2 Encodes a GDP-l-Galactose Phosphorylase, the Last Unknown Enzyme in the Smirnoff-Wheeler Pathway to Ascorbic Acid in Plants*

    PubMed Central

    Linster, Carole L.; Gomez, Tara A.; Christensen, Kathryn C.; Adler, Lital N.; Young, Brian D.; Brenner, Charles; Clarke, Steven G.

    2008-01-01

    The first committed step in the biosynthesis of l-ascorbate from d-glucose in plants requires conversion of GDP-l-galactose to l-galactose 1-phosphate by a previously unidentified enzyme. Here we show that the protein encoded by VTC2, a gene mutated in vitamin C-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana strains, is a member of the GalT/Apa1 branch of the histidine triad protein superfamily that catalyzes the conversion of GDP-l-galactose to l-galactose 1-phosphate in a reaction that consumes inorganic phosphate and produces GDP. In characterizing recombinant VTC2 from Arabidopsis thaliana as a specific GDP-l-galactose/GDP-d-glucose phosphorylase, we conclude that enzymes catalyzing each of the ten steps of the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway from glucose to ascorbate have been identified. Finally, we identify VTC2 homologs in plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates, suggesting that a similar reaction is used widely in nature. PMID:17462988

  10. Role of Snf1p in regulation of intracellular sorting of the lactose and galactose transporter Lac12p in Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Wiedemuth, Christian; Breunig, Karin D

    2005-04-01

    The protein kinase Snf1/AMPK plays a central role in carbon and energy homeostasis in yeasts and higher eukaryotes. To work out which aspects of the Snf1-controlled regulatory network are conserved in evolution, the Snf1 requirement in galactose metabolism was analyzed in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. Whereas galactose induction was only delayed, K. lactis snf1 mutants failed to accumulate the lactose/galactose H+ symporter Lac12p in the plasma membran,e as indicated by Lac12-green fluorescent protein fusions. In contrast to wild-type cells, the fusion protein was mostly intracellular in the mutant. Growth on galactose and galactose uptake could be restored by the KHT3 gene, which encodes a new transporter of the HXT subfamily of major facilitators These findings indicate a new role of Snf1p in regulation of sugar transport in K. lactis. PMID:15821131

  11. The organization and transcription of the galactose gene cluster of Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, T D; Dickson, R C

    1988-01-01

    The yeast Kluyveromyces lactis grows on galactose by inducing the Leloir pathway enzymes-kinase, epimerase, and transferase. To investigate the molecular mechanism for regulating expression of this metabolic pathway we isolated GAL1, GAL7, GAL10, which code for kinase, transferase, and epimerase, respectively, and characterized their size, organization, and transcriptional regulation. Our results indicate that induction of the Leloir pathway in K. lactis occurs at the level of transcription and that the organization and regulation of the GAL gene cluster in K. lactis is closely related to the homologous gene cluster in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Likewise, the Upstream Activator Sequences that regulate induction of the GAL genes are similar in base sequence, number and relative location in the two yeasts. Images PMID:3047676

  12. Structural basis for the unusual carbohydrate-binding specificity of jacalin towards galactose and mannose.

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Yves; Astoul, Corinne Houlès; Zamboni, Véronique; Peumans, Willy J; Menu-Bouaouiche, Laurence; Van Damme, Els J M; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the specificity of jacalin, the seed lectin from jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia), is not directed exclusively against the T-antigen disaccharide Galbeta1,3GalNAc, lactose and galactose, but also against mannose and oligomannosides. Biochemical analyses based on surface-plasmon-resonance measurements, combined with the X-ray-crystallographic determination of the structure of a jacalin-alpha-methyl-mannose complex at 2 A resolution, demonstrated clearly that jacalin is fully capable of binding mannose. Besides mannose, jacalin also interacts readily with glucose, N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid. Structural analyses demonstrated that the relatively large size of the carbohydrate-binding site enables jacalin to accommodate monosaccharides with different hydroxyl conformations and provided unambiguous evidence that the beta-prism structure of jacalin is a sufficiently flexible structural scaffold to confer different carbohydrate-binding specificities to a single lectin. PMID:11988090

  13. Structural basis for the unusual carbohydrate-binding specificity of jacalin towards galactose and mannose.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Yves; Astoul, Corinne Houlès; Zamboni, Véronique; Peumans, Willy J; Menu-Bouaouiche, Laurence; Van Damme, Els J M; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre

    2002-05-15

    Evidence is presented that the specificity of jacalin, the seed lectin from jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia), is not directed exclusively against the T-antigen disaccharide Galbeta1,3GalNAc, lactose and galactose, but also against mannose and oligomannosides. Biochemical analyses based on surface-plasmon-resonance measurements, combined with the X-ray-crystallographic determination of the structure of a jacalin-alpha-methyl-mannose complex at 2 A resolution, demonstrated clearly that jacalin is fully capable of binding mannose. Besides mannose, jacalin also interacts readily with glucose, N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid. Structural analyses demonstrated that the relatively large size of the carbohydrate-binding site enables jacalin to accommodate monosaccharides with different hydroxyl conformations and provided unambiguous evidence that the beta-prism structure of jacalin is a sufficiently flexible structural scaffold to confer different carbohydrate-binding specificities to a single lectin. PMID:11988090

  14. Characterization of pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris and its application in the C-2 specific conversion of D-galactose.

    PubMed

    Sygmund, Christoph; Kittl, Roman; Volc, Jindrich; Halada, Petr; Kubátová, Elena; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens K

    2008-02-01

    Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) of the mushroom Agaricus meleagris was purified from mycelial culture media to substantial homogeneity using ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The native enzyme is a monomeric polypeptide with a molecular mass of 66,547Da as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry containing approximately 7% carbohydrate and covalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide. The enzyme exhibited a broad sugar substrate tolerance, oxidizing different aldopyranoses to the corresponding C-2 or C-2,3 (di)dehydro sugars. Preferred electron donors with the highest k(cat)/K(m) values were major sugar constituents of cellulose and hemicellulose, namely d-glucose, D-galactose, l-arabinose, D-xylose and cellobiose. This indicates a possible physiological role of the enzyme in lignocellulose breakdown. PDH showed no detectable activity with oxygen, and its reactivity towards electron acceptors was limited to various substituted benzoquinones and complexed metal ions, with the ferricenium ion and the benzoquinone imine 2,6-dichloroindophenole displaying the highest k(cat)/K(m). The enzyme catalyzed in up to 95% yields the regiospecific conversion of D-galactose to 2-dehydro-D-galactose, an intermediate in a possible biotechnologically interesting process for redox isomerization of D-galactose to the prebiotic sugar D-tagatose. PMID:18083263

  15. Hepatocyte-targeting gene delivery using a lipoplex composed of galactose-modified aromatic lipid synthesized with click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sakashita, Mizuha; Mochizuki, Shinichi; Sakurai, Kazuo

    2014-10-01

    Highly efficient drug carriers targeting hepatocyte is needed for treatment for liver diseases such as liver cirrhosis and virus infections. Galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine is known to be recognized and incorporated into the cells through asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) that is exclusively expressed on hepatocyte and hepatoma. In this study, we synthesized a galactose-modified lipid with aromatic ring with click chemistry. To make a complex with DNA, termed 'lipoplex', we prepared a binary micelle composed of cationic lipid; dioleoyltrimethylammoniumpropane (DOTAP) and galactose-modified lipid (D/Gal). We prepared lipoplex from plasmid DNA (pDNA) and D/Gal and examined the cell specificity and transfection efficiency. The lipoplex was able to interact with ASGPR immobilized on gold substrate in the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor cell. The lipoplex induced high gene expression to HepG2 cells, a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, but not to A549 cells, a human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line. The treatment with asialofetuin, which is a ligand for ASGPR and would work as a competitive inhibitor, before addition of the lipoplexes decreased the expression to HepG2 cells. These results indicate that D/Gal lipoplex was incorporated into HepG2 cells preferentially through ASGPR and the uptake was caused by galactose specific receptor. This delivery system to hepatocytes may overcome the problems for gene therapy and be used for treatment of hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis. PMID:25155912

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of the mouse CGT gene encoding UDP-galactose ceramide-galactosyltransferase (cerebroside synthetase)

    SciTech Connect

    Bosio, A.; Binczek, E.; Stoffel, W.

    1996-07-01

    UDP-galactose ceramide galactosyltransferase, CGT, EC 2.4.1.45, is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cerebrosides and sulfatides, which are the most abundant glycosphingolipids in the myelin of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

  17. Combining De Ley-Doudoroff and methylerythritol phosphate pathways for enhanced isoprene biosynthesis from D-galactose.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Kristine Rose M; Valdehuesa, Kris Niño G; Liu, Huaiwei; Nisola, Grace M; Lee, Won-Keun; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2014-12-01

    An engineered Escherichia coli strain was developed for enhanced isoprene production using D-galactose as substrate. Isoprene is a valuable compound that can be biosynthetically produced from pyruvate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) through the methylerythritol phosphate pathway (MEP). The Leloir and De Ley-Doudoroff (DD) pathways are known existing routes in E. coli that can supply the MEP precursors from D-galactose. The DD pathway was selected as it is capable of supplying equimolar amounts of pyruvate and G3P simultaneously. To exclusively direct D-galactose toward the DD pathway, an E. coli ΔgalK strain with blocked Leloir pathway was used as the host. To obtain a fully functional DD pathway, a dehydrogenase encoding gene (gld) was recruited from Pseudomonas syringae to catalyze D-galactose conversion to D-galactonate. Overexpressions of endogenous genes known as MEP bottlenecks, and a heterologous gene, were conducted to enhance and enable isoprene production, respectively. Growth test confirmed a functional DD pathway concomitant with equimolar generation of pyruvate and G3P, in contrast to the wild-type strain where G3P was limiting. Finally, the engineered strain with combined DD-MEP pathway exhibited the highest isoprene production. This suggests that the equimolar pyruvate and G3P pools resulted in a more efficient carbon flux toward isoprene production. This strategy provides a new platform for developing improved isoprenoid producing strains through the combined DD-MEP pathway. PMID:24928200

  18. The Rapid and Sensitive Quantitative Determination of Galactose by Combined Enzymatic and Colorimetric Method: Application in Neonatal Screening.

    PubMed

    Kianmehr, Anvarsadat; Mahrooz, Abdolkarim; Ansari, Javad; Oladnabi, Morteza; Shahbazmohammadi, Hamid

    2016-05-01

    The quantitative measurement of galactose in blood is essential for the early diagnosis, treatment, and dietary monitoring of galactosemia patients. In this communication, we aimed to develop a rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective combined method for galactose determination in dry blood spots. This procedure was based on the combination of enzymatic reactions of galactose dehydrogenase (GalDH), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), and alkaline phosphates with a colorimetric system. The incubation time and the concentration of enzymes used in new method were also optimized. The analytical performance was studied by the precision, recovery, linearity, and sensitivity parameters. Statistical analysis was applied to method comparison experiment. The regression equation and correlation coefficient (R (2)) were Y = 0.0085x + 0.032 and R (2) = 0.998, respectively. This assay exhibited a recovery in the range of 91.7-114.3 % and had the limit detection of 0.5 mg/dl for galactose. The between-run coefficient of variation (CV) was between 2.6 and 11.1 %. The within-run CV was between 4.9 and 9.2 %. Our results indicated that the new and reference methods were in agreement because no significant biases exist between them. Briefly, a quick and reliable combined enzymatic and colorimetric assay was presented for application in newborn mass screening and monitoring of galactosemia patients. PMID:26821257

  19. Arginine Functionally Improves Clinically Relevant Human Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase (GALT) Variants Expressed in a Prokaryotic Model.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Ana I; Trabuco, Matilde; Silva, Maria João; de Almeida, Isabel Tavares; Leandro, Paula; Rivera, Isabel; Vicente, João B

    2015-01-01

    Classic galactosemia is a rare genetic disease of the galactose metabolism, resulting from deficient activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT). The current standard of care is lifelong dietary restriction of galactose, which however fails to prevent the development of long-term complications. Structural-functional studies demonstrated that the most prevalent GALT mutations give rise to proteins with increased propensity to aggregate in solution. Arginine is a known stabilizer of aggregation-prone proteins, having already shown a beneficial effect in other inherited metabolic disorders.Herein we developed a prokaryotic model of galactose sensitivity that allows evaluating in a cellular context the mutations' impact on GALT function, as well as the potential effect of arginine in functionally rescuing clinically relevant variants.This study revealed that some hGALT variants, previously described to exhibit no detectable activity in vitro, actually present residual activity when determined in vivo. Furthermore, it revealed that arginine presents a mutation-specific beneficial effect, particularly on the prevalent p.Q188R and p.K285N variants, which led us to hypothesize that it might constitute a promising therapeutic agent in classic galactosemia. PMID:25814382

  20. Directed evolution of lectins with sugar-binding specificity for 6-sulfo-galactose.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dan; Tateno, Hiroaki; Kuno, Atsushi; Yabe, Rikio; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2012-06-01

    6-sulfo-galactose (6S-Gal) is a prevalent motif observed in highly sulfated keratan sulfate, which is closely associated with the glioblastoma malignancy while acting as a critical determinant for endogenous lectins. However, facile detection of this unique glycoepitope is greatly hampered because of a lack of appropriate probes. We have previously reported tailoring an α2-6-linked sialic acid-binding lectin from a ricin-B chain-like galactose-binding protein, EW29Ch, by a reinforced ribosome display system following an error-prone PCR. In this study, we challenged the creation of novel lectins to recognize 6S-Gal-terminated glycans by incorporating a high-throughput screening system with a glycoconjugate microarray. After two rounds of selection procedures, 20 mutants were obtained and 12 were then successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, 8 of which showed a significant affinity for 6'-Sulfo-LN (6-O-sulfo-Galβ1-4GlcNAc), which the parental EW29Ch lacked. Analysis of two representative mutants by frontal affinity chromatography revealed a substantial affinity (K(d) ∼3 μm) for a 6S-Gal-terminated glycan. On the basis of the observation that all eight mutants have a common mutation at Glu-20 to Lys, site-directed mutagenesis experiments were performed focusing on this aspect. The results clearly indicated that the E20K mutation is necessary and sufficient to acquire the specificity for 6S-Gal. We also confirmed a difference in binding between E20K and EW29Ch to CHO cells, in which enzymes to catalyze the synthesis of 6S-Gal were overexpressed. The results clearly demonstrate that these mutants have potential to distinguish between cells containing different amounts of 6S-Gal-terminated glycans. This new technology will be used to provide novel tools essential for sulfoglycomics. PMID:22493425

  1. Bitterness of glucose/galactose: novel mutations in the SLC5A1 gene.

    PubMed

    Pode-Shakked, Ben; Reish, Orit; Aktuglu-Zeybek, Cigdem; Kesselman, Dafna; Dekel, Benjamin; Bujanover, Yoram; Anikster, Yair

    2014-01-01

    Glucose galactose malabsorption (GGM) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by life-threatening osmotic diarrhea at infancy. When the intake of the offending sugars (namely, glucose, galactose and lactose) is ceased, the diarrhea promptly stops. Mutations in the SLC5A1 gene, encoding the sodium-glucose co-transporter located in the brush border of enterocytes, have been shown to cause the disease. More than 300 subjects of diverse origin have been reported worldwide, most of whom are a result of a consanguineous union. We examined 6 patients from 4 families presenting with complaints consistent with GGM and responsive to the appropriate fructose-based diet. Genomic DNA of the patients was polymerase chain reaction amplified for each of the 15 exons of the SLC5A1 gene and analyzed by nucleotide sequencing. The analysis lead to the identification of 2 novel mutations: a 1915 del C mutation, a frameshift mutation leading to a premature stop at codon 645; and a substitution missense mutation of T to C on nucleotide 947 (exon 9) causing a L316P substitution. In addition, G426R and C255W mutations previously described were identified; in both cases, the patients were shown to be homozygous and their parents heterozygous for the mutation. Of note, additional patients who underwent a similar evaluation at our center for suspected GGM did not show mutations in the SLC5A1 gene. Because the latter did not previously undergo a diagnostic algorithm in full, for instance, one that may consist of a glucose breath hydrogen test and an empiric attempt of a dietary switch to galactomin, we suggest that molecular genotyping of such patients should only follow such appropriate clinical evaluation. PMID:24048166

  2. Expression, purification, and characterization of galactose oxidase of Fusarium sambucinum in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Paukner, Regina; Staudigl, Petra; Choosri, Withu; Haltrich, Dietmar; Leitner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A gene encoding a galactose oxidase (GalOx) was isolated from Fusarium sambucinum cultures and overexpressed in Escherichia coli yielding 4.4 mg enzyme per L of growth culture with a specific activity of 159 U mg−1. By adding a C-terminal His-tag the enzyme could be easily purified with a single affinity chromatography step with high recovery rate (90%). The enzyme showed a single band on SDS–PAGE with an apparent molecular mass of 68.5 kDa. The pH optimum for the oxidation of galactose was in the range of pH 6–7.5. Optimum temperature for the enzyme activity was 35 °C, with a half-life of 11.2 min, 5.3 min, and 2.7 min for incubation at 40 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C, respectively. From all tested substrates, the highest relative activity was found for 1-methyl-β-galactopyranoside (226 U mg−1) and the highest catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) for melibiose (2700 mM−1 s−1). The enzyme was highly specific for molecular oxygen as an electron acceptor, and showed no appreciable activity with a range of alternative acceptors investigated. Different chemicals were tested for their effect on GalOx activity. The activity was significantly reduced by EDTA, NaN3, and KCN. PMID:25543085

  3. Lactose metabolism in Streptococcus lactis: phosphorylation of galactose and glucose moieties in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J

    1979-01-01

    Starved cells of Streptococcus lactis ML3 grown previously on lactose, galactose, or maltose were devoid of adenosine 5'-triphosphate contained only three glycolytic intermediates: 3-phosphoglycerate, 2-phosphoglycerate, and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). The three metabolites (total concentration, ca 40 mM) served as the intracellular PEP potential for sugar transport via PEP-dependent phosphotransferase systems. When accumulation of [14C]lactose by iodoacetate-inhibited starved cells was abolished within 1 s of commencement of transport, a phosphorylated disaccharide was identified by autoradiography. The compound was isolated by ion-exchange (borate) chromatography, and enzymatic analysis showed that the derivative was 6-phosphoryl-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1 leads to 4')-alpha-D-glucopyranose (lactose 6-phosphate). After maximum lactose uptake (ca. 15 mM in 15 s) the cells were collected by membrane filtration and extracted with trichloroacetic acid. Neither free nor phosphorylated lactose was detected in cell extracts, but enzymatic analysis revealed high levels of galactose 6-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate. The starved organisms rapidly accumulated glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, methyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside, and o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside in phosphorylated form to intracellular concentrations of 32, 32, 42, and 38.5 mM, respectively. In contrast, maximum accumulation of lactose (ca. 15 mM) was only 40 to 50% that of the monosaccharides. From the stoichiometry of PEP-dependent lactose transport and the results of enzymatic analysis, it was concluded that (i) ca. 60% of the PEP potential was utilized via the lactose phosphotransferase system for phosphorylation of the galactosyl moiety of the disaccharide, and (ii) the residual potential (ca. 40%) was consumed during phosphorylation of the glucose moiety. Images PMID:118155

  4. Galactose-Depleted Xyloglucan Is Dysfunctional and Leads to Dwarfism in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yingzhen; Peña, Maria J.; Renna, Luciana; Avci, Utku; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Tuomivaara, Sami T.; Li, Xuemei; Reiter, Wolf-Dieter; Brandizzi, Federica; Hahn, Michael G.; Darvill, Alan G.; York, William S.; O’Neill, Malcolm A.

    2015-01-01

    Xyloglucan is a polysaccharide that has important roles in the formation and function of the walls that surround growing land plant cells. Many of these plants synthesize xyloglucan that contains galactose in two different side chains (L and F), which exist in distinct molecular environments. However, little is known about the contribution of these side chains to xyloglucan function. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants devoid of the F side chain galactosyltransferase MURUS3 (MUR3) form xyloglucan that lacks F side chains and contains much less galactosylated xylose than its wild-type counterpart. The galactose-depleted xyloglucan is dysfunctional, as it leads to mutants that are dwarfed with curled rosette leaves, short petioles, and short inflorescence stems. Moreover, cell wall matrix polysaccharides, including xyloglucan and pectin, are not properly secreted and instead accumulate within intracellular aggregates. Near-normal growth is restored by generating mur3 mutants that produce no detectable amounts of xyloglucan. Thus, cellular processes are affected more by the presence of the dysfunctional xyloglucan than by eliminating xyloglucan altogether. To identify structural features responsible for xyloglucan dysfunction, xyloglucan structure was modified in situ by generating mur3 mutants that lack specific xyloglucan xylosyltransferases (XXTs) or that overexpress the XYLOGLUCAN L-SIDE CHAIN GALACTOSYLTRANSFERASE2 (XLT2) gene. Normal growth was restored in the mur3-3 mutant overexpressing XLT2 and in mur3-3 xxt double mutants when the dysfunctional xyloglucan was modified by doubling the amounts of galactosylated side chains. Our study assigns a role for galactosylation in normal xyloglucan function and demonstrates that altering xyloglucan side chain structure disturbs diverse cellular and physiological processes. PMID:25673778

  5. Evaluation of Galactose Adapted Yeasts for Bioethanol Fermentation from Kappaphycus alvarezii Hydrolyzates.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trung Hau; Ra, Chae Hun; Sunwoo, In Yung; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2016-07-28

    Bioethanol was produced from Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed biomass using separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). Pretreatment was evaluated for 60 min at 121°C using 12% (w/v) biomass slurry with 364 mM H2SO4. Enzymatic saccharification was then carried out at 45°C for 48 h using Celluclast 1.5 L. Ethanol fermentation with 12% (w/v) K. alvarezii hydrolyzate was performed using the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCTC1126, Kluyveromyces marxianus KCTC7150, and Candida lusitaniae ATCC42720 with or without prior adaptation to high concentrations of galactose. When non-adapted S. cerevisiae, K. marxianus, and C. lusitaniae were used, 11.5 g/l, 6.7 g/l, and 6.0 g/l of ethanol were produced, respectively. When adapted S. cerevisiae, K. marxianus, and C. lusitaniae were used, 15.8 g/l, 11.6 g/l, and 13.4 g/l of ethanol were obtained, respectively. The highest ethanol concentration was 15.8 g/l, with YEtOH = 0.43 and YT% = 84.3%, which was obtained using adapted S. cerevisiae. PMID:27056472

  6. Antiaging Effect of Inula britannica on Aging Mouse Model Induced by D-Galactose.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Long, Yuanyuan; Guo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The antiaging effect of Inula britannica flower total flavonoids (IBFTF) on aging mice induced by D-galactose and its mechanism was examined in this study. From the results, the biochemical indexes and histological analysis of skin tissues showed that IBFTF could effectively improve the antioxidant enzyme activity of the aging mice, enhance the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of skin tissue, and decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Besides, IBFTF could maintain the skin collagen, hydroxyproline (Hyp), dermal thickness, and moisture content. Meanwhile, IBFTF could significantly reduce the number of cells arrested in G0/G1 phase, and from the point of view of protein and mRNA expression level in skin tissue, IBFTF could significantly increase the expression of Sirt1 and CyclinD1 but decrease the expression of p16 and p21, and its effect was not less than that of the well-known vitamin E (VE). Overall, these results seem to be implying that IBFTF is a potential natural anti-skin aging agent with great antioxidant ability. PMID:27066100

  7. Antiaging Effect of Inula britannica on Aging Mouse Model Induced by D-Galactose

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Long, Yuanyuan; Guo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The antiaging effect of Inula britannica flower total flavonoids (IBFTF) on aging mice induced by D-galactose and its mechanism was examined in this study. From the results, the biochemical indexes and histological analysis of skin tissues showed that IBFTF could effectively improve the antioxidant enzyme activity of the aging mice, enhance the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of skin tissue, and decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Besides, IBFTF could maintain the skin collagen, hydroxyproline (Hyp), dermal thickness, and moisture content. Meanwhile, IBFTF could significantly reduce the number of cells arrested in G0/G1 phase, and from the point of view of protein and mRNA expression level in skin tissue, IBFTF could significantly increase the expression of Sirt1 and CyclinD1 but decrease the expression of p16 and p21, and its effect was not less than that of the well-known vitamin E (VE). Overall, these results seem to be implying that IBFTF is a potential natural anti-skin aging agent with great antioxidant ability. PMID:27066100

  8. Carbohydrate affinity for the glucose-galactose binding protein is regulated by allosteric domain motions.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Gabriel; Castaño, David; Diercks, Tammo; Millet, Oscar

    2012-12-01

    Protein function, structure, and dynamics are intricately correlated, but studies on structure-activity relationships are still only rarely complemented by a detailed analysis of dynamics related to function (functional dynamics). Here, we have applied NMR to investigate the functional dynamics in two homologous periplasmic sugar binding proteins with bidomain composition: Escherichia coli glucose/galactose (GGBP) and ribose (RBP) binding proteins. In contrast to their structural and functional similarity, we observe a remarkable difference in functional dynamics: For RBP, the absence of segmental motions allows only for isolated structural adaptations upon carbohydrate binding in line with an induced fit mechanism; on the other hand, GGBP shows extensive segmental mobility in both apo and holo states, enabling selection of the most favorable conformation upon carbohydrate binding in line with a population shift mechanism. Collective segmental motions are controlled by the hinge composition: by swapping two identified key residues between RBP and GGBP we also interchange their segmental hinge mobility, and the doubly mutated GGBP* no longer experiences changes in conformational entropy upon ligand binding while the complementary RBP* shows the segmental dynamics observed in wild-type GGBP. Most importantly, the segmental interdomain dynamics always increase the apparent substrate affinity and thus, are functional, underscoring the allosteric control that the hinge region exerts on ligand binding. PMID:23148479

  9. Enzymatic generation of galactose-rich oligosaccharides/oligomers from potato rhamnogalacturonan I pectic polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Khodaei, Nastaran; Karboune, Salwa

    2016-04-15

    Potato pulp by-product rich in galactan-rich rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I) was investigated as a new source of oligosaccharides with potential prebiotic properties. The efficiency of selected monocomponent enzymes and multi-enzymatic preparations to generate oligosaccharides/oligomers from potato RG I was evaluated. These overall results of yield were dependent on the activity profile of the multi-enzymatic preparations. Highest oligo-RG I yield of 93.9% was achieved using multi-enzymatic preparation (Depol 670L) with higher hydrolytic activity toward side chains of RG I as compared to its backbone. Main oligo-RG I products were oligosaccharides with DP of 2-12 (79.8-100%), while the oligomers with DP of 13-70 comprised smaller proportion (0.0-20.2%). Galactose (58.9-91.2%, w/w) was the main monosaccharide of oligo-RG I, while arabinose represented 0.0-12.1%. An understanding of the relationship between the activity profile of multi-enzymatic preparations and the yield/DP of oligo-RG I was achieved. This is expected to provide the capability to generate galacto- and galacto(arabino) oligosaccharides and their corresponding oligomers from an abundant by-product. PMID:26616968

  10. Blueberry treatment decreased D-galactose-induced oxidative stress and brain damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Çoban, Jale; Doğan-Ekici, Işın; Aydın, A Fatih; Betül-Kalaz, Esra; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Uysal, Müjdat

    2015-06-01

    D-galactose (GAL) causes aging-related changes and oxidative stress in the organism. We investigated the effect of whole fresh blueberry (BB) (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) treatment on oxidative stress in age-related brain damage model. Rats received GAL (300 mg/kg; s.c.; 5 days per week) alone or together with 5 % (BB1) and 10 % (BB2) BB containing chow for two months. Malondialdehyde (MDA),protein carbonyl (PC) and glutathione (GSH) levels, and Cu Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities as well as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were determined. Expressions of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bax and caspase-3 were also evaluated in the brain by immunohistochemistry. MDA and PC levels and AChE activity increased, but GSH levels, SOD and GSH-Px activities decreased together with histopathological structural damage in the brain of GAL-treated rats. BB treatments, especially BB2 reduced MDA and PC levels and AChE activity and elevated GSH levels and GSH-Px activity. BB1 and BB2 treatments diminished apoptosis and ameliorated histopathological findings in the brain of GAL-treated rats. These results indicate that BB partially prevented the shift towards an imbalanced prooxidative status and apoptosis together with histopathological amelioration by acting as an antioxidant (radical scavenger) itself in GAL-treated rats. PMID:25511550

  11. Effect of galactose on acid induced molten globule state of Soybean Agglutinin: Biophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Parvez; Naseem, Farha; Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2015-11-01

    In the present study the formation of molten globule-like unfolding intermediate Soybean Agglutinin (SBA) in acidic pH range has been established with the help of acrylamide quenching, intrinsic fluorescence, ANS fluorescence measurement, far UV CD and dynamic light scattering measurement. A marked increase in ANS fluorescence was observed at pH 2.2. Ksv of acrylamide quenching was found to be higher at pH 2.2 than that of native SBA at pH 7. Far UV CD spectra of pH induced state suggest that SBA shows significant retention of secondary structure closure to native. Hydrodynamic radius of SBA at pH 2.2 was found be more as compared to native state and also in other pH induced states. Further we checked the effect of galactose on the molten globule state of SBA. This study suggests that SBA exist as molten globule at pH 2.2 and this study will help in acid induced molten globule state of other proteins.

  12. Spot 42 RNA mediates discoordinate expression of the E. coli galactose operon

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Thorleif; Franch, Thomas; Udesen, Christina; Gerdes, Kenn; Valentin-Hansen, Poul

    2002-01-01

    The physiological role of Escherichia coli Spot 42 RNA has remained obscure, even though the 109-nucleotide RNA was discovered almost three decades ago. Structural features of Spot 42 RNA and previous work suggested to us that the RNA might be a regulator of discoordinate gene expression of the galactose operon, a control that is only understood at the phenomenological level. The effects of controlled expression of Spot 42 RNA or deleting the gene (spf) encoding the RNA supported this hypothesis. Down-regulation of galK expression, the third gene in the gal operon, was only observed in the presence of Spot 42 RNA and required growth conditions that caused derepression of the spf gene. Subsequent biochemical studies showed that Spot 42 RNA specifically bound at the galK Shine-Dalgarno region of the galETKM mRNA, thereby blocking ribosome binding. We conclude that Spot 42 RNA is an antisense RNA that acts to differentially regulate genes that are expressed from the same transcription unit. Our results reveal an interesting mechanism by which the expression of a promoter distal gene in an operon can be modulated and underline the importance of antisense control in bacterial gene regulation. PMID:12101127

  13. Protective effect of tetrahydropalmatine against d-galactose induced memory impairment in rat.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhuo; Zhang, Jingze; Yang, Honggai; Huo, Liqin; Gao, Jing; Chen, Hong; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-02-01

    Aging is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), cardiovascular disease and cancer. Oxidative stress is considered as a major factor that accelerates the aging process. d-galactose (d-gal), a reducing sugar, induces oxidative stress resulting in alteration in mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis of neurons. To understand the ability of tetrahydropalmatine (THP) to ameliorate memory impairment caused by aging, we investigated the effect of THP on d-gal induced memory impairment in rats. Subcutaneous injection of d-gal (100mg/kg/d) for 8weeks caused memory loss as detected by the Morris water maze and morphologic abnormalities of neurons in the hippocampus regions and cortex of rat brain. THP treatment ameliorated d-gal induced memory impairment associated with the decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents, as well as the increase of glutathione (GSH) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. THP treatment was also found to reverse the abnormality of acetylcholine (ACh) levels and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities. In addition, treatment with THP could decrease the expression of nuclear factor κ (NF-κB) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) which prevented the neuroinflammation and memory impairment in the d-gal treated rats. Taken together, these results clearly demonstrated that subcutaneous injection of d-gal produced memory deficits, meanwhile THP could protect neuron from d-gal insults and improve cognition. This study provided an experimental basis for clinical application of THP in AD therapy. PMID:26592138

  14. Structures and energies of D-galactose and galabiose conformers as calculated by ab initio and semiempirical methods.

    PubMed

    Rahal-Sekkal, Majda; Sekkal, Nezha; Kleb, Dirk C; Bleckmann, Paul

    2003-05-01

    Optimized geometries and total energies of some conformers of alpha- and beta-D-galactose have been calculated using the RHF/6-31G* ab initio method. Vibrational frequencies were computed at the 6-31G* level for the conformers that favor internal hydrogen bonding, in order to evaluate their enthalpies, entropies, Gibbs free energies, and then their structural stabilities. The semiempirical AM1, PM3, MNDO methods have also been performed on the conformers GG, GT, and TG of alpha- and beta-D-galactose. In order to test the reliability of each semiempirical method, the obtained structures and energies from the AM1, PM3, and MNDO methods have been compared to those achieved using the RHF/6-31G* ab initio method. The MNDO method has not been investigated further, because of the large deviation in the structural parameters compared with those obtained by the ab initio method for the galactose. The semiempirical method that has yielded the best results is AM1, and it has been chosen to perform structural and energy calculations on the galabiose molecule (the disaccharides constituted by two galactose units alpha 1,4 linked). The goal of such calculations is to draw the energy surface maps for this disaccharide. To realize each map, 144 different possible conformations resulting from the rotations of the two torsional angles psi and phi of the glycosidic linkage are considered. In each calculation, at each increment of psi and phi, using a step of 30 degrees from 0 to 330 degrees, the energy optimization is employed. In this article, we report also calculations concerning the galabiose molecule using different ab initio levels such as RHF/6-31G*, RHF/6-31G**, and B3Lyp/6-31G*. PMID:12692790

  15. Expression and response surface optimization of the recovery and purification of recombinant D-galactose dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Azar, Shadi Rokhsartalab; Naiebi, Raika; Homami, Ameneh; Akbari, Zahra; Kianmehr, Anvarsadat; Mahdizadehdehosta, Rahman; Najafzadeh, Faezeh

    2015-02-01

    The enzyme D-galactose dehydrogenase (GalDH) has been used in diagnostic kits to screen blood serum of neonates for galactosemia. It is also a significant tool for the measurement of β-D-galactose, α-D-galactose and lactose as well. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to identify the suitable conditions for recovery of recombinant GalDH from Pseudomonas fluorescens in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS). The identified GalDH gene was amplified by PCR and confirmed by further cloning and sequencing. E. coli BL-21 (DE3) containing the GalDH gene on a plasmid (pET28aGDH) was used to express and purify the recombinant enzyme. The polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ammonium sulfate concentrations and pH value were selected as variables to analyze purification of GalDH. To build mathematical models, RSM with a central composite design was applied based on the conditions for the highest separation. The recombinant GalDH enzyme was expressed after induction with IPTG. It showed NAD'-dependent dehydrogenase activity towards D-Galactose. According to the RSM modeling, an optimal ATPS was composed of PEG-2000 14.0% (w/w) and ammonium sulfate 12.0% (w/w) at pH 7.5. Under these conditions, GalDH preferentially concentrated in the top PEG-rich phase. The enzyme activity, purification factor (PF) and recovery (R) were 1400 U/ml, 60.0% and 270.0%, respectively. The PEG and salt concentrations were found to have significant effect on the recovery of enzyme. Briefly, our data showed that RSM could be an appropriate tool to define the best ATPS for recombinant P. fluorescens GalDH recovery. PMID:26040113

  16. Bioproduction of D-Tagatose from D-Galactose Using Phosphoglucose Isomerase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manisha J; Patel, Arti T; Akhani, Rekha; Dedania, Samir; Patel, Darshan H

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 phosphoglucose isomerase was purified as an active soluble form by a single-step purification using Ni-NTA chromatography that showed homogeneity on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass ∼62 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the maximum isomerization activity with D-galactose were 60 °C and 7.0, respectively. Generally, sugar phosphate isomerases show metal-independent activity but PA-PGI exhibited metal-dependent isomerization activity with aldosugars and optimally catalyzed the D-galactose isomerization in the presence of 1.0 mM MnCl2. The apparent Km and Vmax for D-galactose under standardized conditions were calculated to be 1029 mM (±31.30 with S.E.) and 5.95 U/mg (±0.9 with S.E.), respectively. Equilibrium reached after 180 min with production of 567.51 μM D-tagatose from 1000 mM of D-galactose. Though, the bioconversion ratio is low but it can be increased by immobilization and enzyme engineering. Although various L-arabinose isomerases have been characterized for bioproduction of D-tagatose, P. aeruginosa glucose phosphate isomerase is distinguished from the other L-arabinose isomerases by its optimal temperature (60 °C) for D-tagatose production being mesophilic bacteria, making it an alternate choice for bulk production. PMID:26922727

  17. Esculetin, a Coumarin Derivative, Inhibits Aldose Reductase Activity in vitro and Cataractogenesis in Galactose-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan-Sik; Kim, Junghyun; Lee, Yun Mi; Sohn, Eunjin; Kim, Jin Sook

    2016-03-01

    Naturally occurring coumarin compounds have received substantial attention due to their pharmaceutical effects. Esculetin is a coumarin derivative and a polyphenol compound that is used in a variety of therapeutic and pharmacological strategies. However, its effect on aldose reductase activity remains poorly understood. In this study, the potential beneficialeffects of esculetin on lenticular aldose reductase were investigated in galactose-fed (GAL) rats, an animal model of sugar cataracts. Cataracts were induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats via a 50% galactose diet for 2 weeks, and groups of GAL rats were orally treated with esculetin (10 or 50 mg/kg body weight). In vehicle-treated GAL rats, lens opacificationwas observed, and swelling and membrane rupture of the lens fibercells were increased. Additionally, aldose reductase was highly expressed in the lens epithelium and superficialcortical fibersduring cataract development in the GAL rats. Esculetin reduced rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) activity in vitro, and esculetin treatment significanty inhibited lens opacity, as well as morphological alterations, such as swelling, vacuolation and liquefaction of lens fibers,via the inhibition of aldose reductase in the GAL rats. These results indicate that esculetin is a useful treatment for galactose-induced cataracts. PMID:26902086

  18. HRT dependent performance and bacterial community population of granular hydrogen-producing mixed cultures fed with galactose.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Jong-Hun; Park, Hee-Deung; Yoon, Jeong-Jun; Kim, Sang-Hyoun

    2016-04-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention times (HRTs-6, 3 and 2 h) on H2 production, operational stability and bacterial population response in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) were evaluated using galactose. A peak hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 25.9 L H2/L-d was obtained at a 3 h HRT with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 120 g/L-d, while the maximum hydrogen yield (HY) of 2.21 mol H2/mol galactose was obtained at a 6 h HRT (60 g galactose/L-d). Butyrate was dominant and the lactate concentration increased as HRT decreased, which significantly affected the HY. Biomass concentration (VSS) decreased from 16 to 3g/L at a 2 h HRT, leading to failure. A 3 h HRT supported the favorable growth of Clostridium species, as indicated by an increase in their populations from 25.4% to 27%, while significantly reducing Bacilli populations from 61.6% to 54.2%, indicating that this was the optimal condition. PMID:26859326

  19. A galactose-binding lectin isolated from Aplysia kurodai (sea hare) eggs inhibits streptolysin-induced hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Imtiaj; Watanabe, Miharu; Ishizaki, Naoto; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kawakami, Yasushi; Suzuki, Jun; Dogasaki, Chikaku; Rajia, Sultana; Kawsar, Sarkar M A; Koide, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A; Sugawara, Shigeki; Hosono, Masahiro; Ogawa, Yukiko; Fujii, Yuki; Iriko, Hideyuki; Hamako, Jiharu; Matsui, Taei; Ozeki, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    A specific galactose-binding lectin was shown to inhibit the hemolytic effect of streptolysin O (SLO), an exotoxin produced by Streptococcus pyogenes. Commercially available lectins that recognize N-acetyllactosamine (ECA), T-antigen (PNA), and Tn-antigen (ABA) agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes, but had no effect on SLO-induced hemolysis. In contrast, SLO-induced hemolysis was inhibited by AKL, a lectin purified from sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) eggs that recognizes α-galactoside oligosaccharides. This inhibitory effect was blocked by the co-presence of d-galactose, which binds to AKL. A possible explanation for these findings is that cholesterol-enriched microdomains containing glycosphingolipids in the erythrocyte membrane become occupied by tightly stacked lectin molecules, blocking the interaction between cholesterol and SLO that would otherwise result in penetration of the membrane. Growth of S. pyogenes was inhibited by lectins from a marine invertebrate (AKL) and a mushroom (ABA), but was promoted by a plant lectin (ECA). Both these inhibitory and promoting effects were blocked by co-presence of galactose in the culture medium. Our findings demonstrate the importance of glycans and lectins in regulating mechanisms of toxicity, creation of pores in the target cell membrane, and bacterial growth. PMID:25197935

  20. Endocytosis via galactose receptors in vivo. Ligand size directs uptake by hepatocytes and/or liver macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Schlepper-Schaefer, J.; Huelsmann, D.; Djovkar, A.; Meyer, H.E.; Herbertz, L.; Kolb, H.; Kolb-Bachofen, V.

    1986-01-01

    The intrahepatic binding and uptake of variously sized ligands with terminal galactosyl residues is rat liver was followed. The ligands were administered to prefixed livers in binding studies and in vivo and in situ (serum-free perfused livers) in uptake studies. Gold sols with different particle diameters were prepared: 5 nm (Au/sub 5/), 17 nm (Au/sub 17/), 50 nm (Au/sub 50/) and coated with galactose exposing glycoproteins (asialofetuin (ASF) or lactosylated BSA (LacBSA)). Electron microscopy of mildly prefixed livers perfused with LacBSA-Au/sub 5/ in serum-free medium showed ligand binding to liver macrophages, hepatocytes and endothelial cells. Ligands bound to prefixed cell surfaces reflect the initial distribution of receptor activity: pre-aggregated clusters of ligands are found on liver macrophages, single particles statistically distributed on hepatocytes and pre-aggregated clusters of particles restricted to coated pits on endothelial cells. Ligand binding is prevented in the presence of 80 mM N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), while N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is without effect. Electron microscopy of livers after ligand injection into the tail vein shows that in vivo uptake of electron-dense galactose particles by liver cells is size-dependent. In vivo uptake by liver macrophages is mediated by galactose-specific recognition as shown by inhibition with GalNAc.

  1. Esculetin, a Coumarin Derivative, Inhibits Aldose Reductase Activity in vitro and Cataractogenesis in Galactose-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chan-Sik; Kim, Junghyun; Lee, Yun Mi; Sohn, Eunjin; Kim, Jin Sook

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring coumarin compounds have received substantial attention due to their pharmaceutical effects. Esculetin is a coumarin derivative and a polyphenol compound that is used in a variety of therapeutic and pharmacological strategies. However, its effect on aldose reductase activity remains poorly understood. In this study, the potential beneficial effects of esculetin on lenticular aldose reductase were investigated in galactose-fed (GAL) rats, an animal model of sugar cataracts. Cataracts were induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats via a 50% galactose diet for 2 weeks, and groups of GAL rats were orally treated with esculetin (10 or 50 mg/kg body weight). In vehicle-treated GAL rats, lens opacification was observed, and swelling and membrane rupture of the lens fiber cells were increased. Additionally, aldose reductase was highly expressed in the lens epithelium and superficial cortical fibers during cataract development in the GAL rats. Esculetin reduced rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) activity in vitro, and esculetin treatment significantly inhibited lens opacity, as well as morphological alterations, such as swelling, vacuolation and liquefaction of lens fibers, via the inhibition of aldose reductase in the GAL rats. These results indicate that esculetin is a useful treatment for galactose-induced cataracts. PMID:26902086

  2. The D-galactose-binding lectin of the octocoral Sinularia lochmodes: characterization and possible relationship to the symbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Jimbo, M; Yanohara, T; Koike, K; Koike, K; Sakai, R; Muramoto, K; Kamiya, H

    2000-02-01

    A D-galactose binding lectin (SLL-2) was isolated from Sinularia lochmodes, an octocoral, by a combination of affinity chromatography on acid-treated agarose and FPLC on Superdex 200. SLL-2 agglutinated rabbit and horse erythrocytes while SLL-1, a minor component, reacted only with rabbit erythrocytes. SLL-2 is a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 122 kDa and is composed of eight identical subunits (15 kDa). The sequence of the amino terminal region of SLL-2 did not show any apparent homology to the sequences of other animal and plant lectins. D-Galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, lactose, and melibiose were moderate inhibitors to the agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes. In contrast, horse erythrocytes were much more susceptible to agglutination by SLL-2, which was inhibited by sugars and glycoproteins such as D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, lactose, melibiose, and porcine stomach mucin. SLL-2 showed considerable tolerance to heating and kept its activity after heating at 80 degrees C for 60 min. In immuno-histochemical studies using an anti-SLL-2 antiserum and protein A gold conjugate, SLL-2 was found to be present in high amounts in the nematocysts. SLL-2 was also detected on the surface of symbiotic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium sp. cells irrespective whether they were surrounded with or without host cells. These observations suggest the presence of lectin-mediated interaction between symbiotic dinoflagellates and S. lochmodes. PMID:10817910

  3. Osmanthus fragrans Flower Extract and Acteoside Protect Against d-Galactose-Induced Aging in an ICR Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lina; Mao, Shuqin; Lu, Baiyi; Yang, Jiajia; Zhou, Fei; Hu, Yinzhou; Jiang, Yirong; Shen, Canxi; Zhao, Yajing

    2016-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans flower extract (OFE) is an organic extract from O. fragrans flower, which exhibits neuroprotective, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant effects. Therefore, the protective effect of OFE and acteoside against aging was studied. An aging ICR mouse model was established by chronically administering d-galactose (250 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. d-galactose induced spatial learning and memory impairments that were successfully inhibited by OFE and acteoside, which could shorten escape latency, improve platform crossing times, and increase zone time. The antioxidant potential of OFE and acteoside in vivo was evaluated by estimating the following: activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase and aging-related enzyme, particularly monoamine oxidase; contents of lipid peroxidation methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, advanced glycation end products, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (a DNA damage product); and levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2. OFE and acteoside also inhibited d-galactose-induced neurological aging by suppressing the increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurotrophin-3. Considering the dose-dependent protective effects of OFE and acteoside, we concluded that OFE, rich in acteoside, was a good source of natural antiaging compounds. PMID:26181905

  4. Galactose recognition by a tetrameric C-type lectin, CEL-IV, containing the EPN carbohydrate recognition motif.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Kamiya, Takuro; Kusunoki, Masami; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Hirabayashi, Jun; Goda, Shuichiro; Unno, Hideaki

    2011-03-25

    CEL-IV is a C-type lectin isolated from a sea cucumber, Cucumaria echinata. This lectin is composed of four identical C-type carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). X-ray crystallographic analysis of CEL-IV revealed that its tetrameric structure was stabilized by multiple interchain disulfide bonds among the subunits. Although CEL-IV has the EPN motif in its carbohydrate-binding sites, which is known to be characteristic of mannose binding C-type CRDs, it showed preferential binding of galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine. Structural analyses of CEL-IV-melibiose and CEL-IV-raffinose complexes revealed that their galactose residues were recognized in an inverted orientation compared with mannose binding C-type CRDs containing the EPN motif, by the aid of a stacking interaction with the side chain of Trp-79. Changes in the environment of Trp-79 induced by binding to galactose were detected by changes in the intrinsic fluorescence and UV absorption spectra of WT CEL-IV and its site-directed mutants. The binding specificity of CEL-IV toward complex oligosaccharides was analyzed by frontal affinity chromatography using various pyridylamino sugars, and the results indicate preferential binding to oligosaccharides containing Galβ1-3/4(Fucα1-3/4)GlcNAc structures. These findings suggest that the specificity for oligosaccharides may be largely affected by interactions with amino acid residues in the binding site other than those determining the monosaccharide specificity. PMID:21247895

  5. UDP-galactose transporter gene hUGT1 expression in tobacco plants leads to hyper-galactosylated cell wall components.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Tayebeh; Khalil, Mohamed Farouk Mohamed; Asai, Toshihiko; Ishihara, Nami; Kitamura, Kenji; Ishida, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Nobukazu

    2016-05-01

    We reported previously that tobacco plants transformed with the human UDP-galactose transporter 1 gene (hUGT1-transgenic plants) displayed morphological, architectural, and physiological alterations, such as enhanced growth, increased accumulation of chlorophyll and lignin, and a gibberellin-responsive phenotype. In the present study, we demonstrated that hUGT1 expression altered the monosaccharide composition of cell wall matrix polysaccharides, such as pectic and hemicellulosic polysaccharides, which are biosynthesized in the Golgi lumen. An analysis of the monosaccharide composition of the cell wall matrix polysaccharides revealed that the ratio of galactose to total monosaccharides was significantly elevated in the hemicellulose II and pectin fractions of hUGT1-transgenic plants compared with that of control plants. A hyper-galactosylated xyloglucan structure was detected in hemicellulose II using oligosaccharide mass profiling. These results indicated that, because of the enhanced UDP-galactose transport from the cytosol to the Golgi apparatus by hUGT1, galactose incorporation in the cell wall matrix polysaccharides increased. This increased galactose incorporation may have contributed to increased galactose tolerance in hUGT1-transgenic plants. PMID:26507776

  6. Genes Involved in Control of Galactose Uptake in Lactobacillus brevis and Reconstitution of the Regulatory System in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Djordjevic, Gordana M.; Tchieu, Jason H.; Saier, Milton H.

    2001-01-01

    The heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus brevis transports galactose and the nonmetabolizable galactose analogue thiomethyl-β-galactoside (TMG) by a permease-catalyzed sugar:H+ symport mechanism. Addition of glucose to L. brevis cells loaded with [14C]TMG promotes efflux and prevents accumulation of the galactoside, probably by converting the proton symporter into a uniporter. Such a process manifests itself physiologically in phenomena termed inducer expulsion and exclusion. Previous evidence suggested a direct allosteric mechanism whereby the phosphocarrier protein, HPr, phosphorylated at serine-46 [HPr(Ser-P)], binds to the galactose:H+ symporter to uncouple sugar transport from proton symport. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of inducer control in L. brevis, we have cloned the genes encoding the HPr(Ser) kinase, HPr, enzyme I, and the galactose:H+ symporter. The sequences of these genes were determined, and the relevant phylogenetic trees are presented. Mutant HPr derivatives in which the regulatory serine was changed to either alanine or aspartate were constructed. The cloned galP gene was integrated into the chromosome of Bacillus subtilis, and synthesis of the mutant HPr proteins in this organism was shown to promote regulation of GalP, as expected for a direct allosteric mechanism. We have thus reconstituted inducer control in an organism that does not otherwise exhibit this phenomenon. These results are consistent with the conclusion that inducer exclusion and expulsion in L. brevis operates via a multicomponent signal transduction mechanism wherein the presence of glycolytic intermediates such as fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (the intracellular effector), derived from exogenous glucose (the extracellular effector), activates HPr(Ser) kinase (the sensor) to phosphorylate HPr on Ser-46 (the messenger), which binds to the galactose:H+ symporter (the target), resulting in uncoupling of sugar transport from proton symport (the response

  7. Molecular interfaces of the galactose-binding protein Tectonin domains in host-pathogen interaction.

    PubMed

    Low, Diana Hooi Ping; Frecer, Vladimir; Le Saux, Agnès; Srinivasan, Ganesh Anand; Ho, Bow; Chen, Jianzhu; Ding, Jeak Ling

    2010-03-26

    Beta-propeller proteins function in catalysis, protein-protein interaction, cell cycle regulation, and innate immunity. The galactose-binding protein (GBP) from the plasma of the horseshoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda, is a beta-propeller protein that functions in antimicrobial defense. Studies have shown that upon binding to Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), GBP interacts with C-reactive protein (CRP) to form a pathogen-recognition complex, which helps to eliminate invading microbes. However, the molecular basis of interactions between GBP and LPS and how it interplays with CRP remain largely unknown. By homology modeling, we showed that GBP contains six beta-propeller/Tectonin domains. Ligand docking indicated that Tectonin domains 6 to 1 likely contain the LPS binding sites. Protein-protein interaction studies demonstrated that Tectonin domain 4 interacts most strongly with CRP. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry mapped distinct sites of GBP that interact with LPS and with CRP, consistent with in silico predictions. Furthermore, infection condition (lowered Ca(2+) level) increases GBP-CRP affinity by 1000-fold. Resupplementing the system with a physiological level of Ca(2+) did not reverse the protein-protein affinity to the basal state, suggesting that the infection-induced complex had undergone irreversible conformational change. We propose that GBP serves as a bridging molecule, participating in molecular interactions, GBP-LPS and GBP-CRP, to form a stable pathogen-recognition complex. The interaction interfaces in these two partners suggest that Tectonin domains can differentiate self/nonself, crucial to frontline defense against infection. In addition, GBP shares architectural and functional homologies to a human protein, hTectonin, suggesting its evolutionarily conservation for approximately 500 million years, from horseshoe crab to human. PMID:20118243

  8. Oral administration of d-galactose induces cognitive impairments and oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Budni, Josiane; Pacheco, Robson; da Silva, Sabrina; Garcez, Michelle Lima; Mina, Francielle; Bellettini-Santos, Tatiani; de Medeiros, Jesiel; Voss, Bruna Constantino; Steckert, Amanda Valnier; Valvassori, Samira da Silva; Quevedo, João

    2016-04-01

    d-Galactose (d-gal) is a reducing sugar that can be used to mimic the characteristics of aging in rodents; however, the effects of d-gal administration by oral route are not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate if the oral administration of d-gal induces cognitive impairments, neuronal loss, and oxidative damage, mimicking an animal model of aging. Male adult Wistar rats (4 months old) received d-gal (100mg/kg) via the oral route for a period of 1, 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks. The results showed cognitive impairments in the open-field test in the 4th and 6th weeks after d-gal administration, as well as an impairment in spatial memory in the radial maze test after the 6th week of d-gal administration. The results indicated increase of levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species-TBARS-and carbonyl group content in the prefrontal cortex from the 4th week, and in all weeks of d-gal administration, respectively. An increase in the levels of TBARS and carbonyl group content was observed in the hippocampus over the entire period of d-gal treatment. In the 8th week of d-gal administration, we also observed reductions in synaptophysin and TAU protein levels in the prefrontal cortex. Thus, d-gal given by oral route caused cognitive impairments which were accompanied by oxidative damage. Therefore, these results indicate that orally administered d-gal can induce the behavioral and neurochemical alterations that are observed in the natural aging process. However, oral d-gal effect in rats deserve further studies to be better described. PMID:26748256

  9. Isorhynchophylline improves learning and memory impairments induced by D-galactose in mice.

    PubMed

    Xian, Yan-Fang; Su, Zi-Ren; Chen, Jian-Nan; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Cheng, Christopher H K; Ip, Siu-Po; Lin, Zhi-Xiu

    2014-10-01

    Isorhynchophylline (IRN), an alkaloid isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla, has been reported to improve cognitive impairment induced by beta-amyloid in rats. However, whether IRN could also ameliorate the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced mouse memory deficits is still not clear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether IRN had potential protective effect against the D-gal-induced cognitive deficits in mice. Mice were given a subcutaneous injection of D-gal (100mg/kg) and orally administered IRN (20 or 40mg/kg) daily for 8weeks, followed by assessing spatial learning and memory function by the Morris water maze test. The results showed that IRN significantly improved spatial learning and memory function in the D-gal-treated mice. In the mechanistic studies, IRN significantly increased the level of glutathione (GSH) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), while decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain tissues of the D-gal-treated mice. Moreover, IRN (20 or 40mg/kg) significantly inhibited the production of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), and the mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the brain tissues of D-gal-treated mice. Our results amply demonstrated that IRN was able to ameliorate cognitive deficits induced by D-gal in mice, and the observed cognition-improving action may be mediated, at least in part, through enhancing the antioxidant status and anti-inflammatory effect of brain tissues via NFκB signaling. PMID:24984171

  10. Carnosine and taurine treatments diminished brain oxidative stress and apoptosis in D-galactose aging model.

    PubMed

    Aydın, A Fatih; Çoban, Jale; Doğan-Ekici, Işın; Betül-Kalaz, Esra; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Uysal, Müjdat

    2016-04-01

    D-galactose (GAL) has been used as an animal model for brain aging and antiaging studies. GAL stimulates oxidative stress in several tissues including brain. Carnosine (CAR; β-alanil-L-histidine) and taurine (TAU; 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) exhibit antioxidant properties. CAR and TAU have anti-aging and neuroprotective effects. We investigated the effect of CAR and TAU supplementations on oxidative stress and brain damage in GAL-treated rats. Rats received GAL (300 mg/kg; s.c.; 5 days per week) alone or together with CAR (250 mg/kg/daily; i.p.; 5 days per week) or TAU (2.5% w/w; in rat chow) for 2 months. Brain malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were determined. Expressions of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bax and caspase-3 were also evaluated in the brains by immunohistochemistry. GAL treatment increased brain MDA and PC levels and AChE activities. It decreased significantly brain GSH levels, SOD and GSH-Px but not GST activities. GAL treatment caused histopathological changes and increased apoptosis. CAR and TAU significantly reduced brain AChE activities, MDA and PC levels and elevated GSH levels in GAL-treated rats. CAR, but not TAU, significantly increased low activities of SOD and GSH-Px. Both CAR and TAU diminished apoptosis and ameliorated histopathological findings in the brain of GAL-treated rats. Our results indicate that CAR and TAU may be effective to prevent the development of oxidative stress, apoptosis and histopathological deterioration in the brain of GAL-treated rats. PMID:26518192

  11. Galactose-1-phosphate Uridyltransferase Dried Blood Spot Quality Control Materials for Newborn Screening Tests

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Barbara W.; Flores, Sharon R.; Hou, Yu; Allen, Todd W.; De Jesus, Victor R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to prepare dried-blood-spot (DBS) quality control (QC) materials for galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT), to evaluate their stability during storage and use, and to evaluate their performance in five DBS GALT test methods. Design and Methods We prepared and characterized GALT-normal and GALT-deficient DBS materials and compared GALT activities in DBSs after predetermined storage intervals at controlled temperatures and humidities. External evaluators documented the suitability of the DBS QC materials for use in five GALT test methods. Results GALT activity losses from DBSs stored in low (<30%) humidity for 14 days at 45°C, 35 days at 37°C, 91 days at room temperature, 182 days at 4°C, and 367 days at −20°C were 54%, 53%, 52% 23%, and 7% respectively. In paired DBSs stored in high humidity (>50%) for identical intervals, losses were: 45°C—68%; 37°C—79%; room temperature—72%, and 4°C—63%. GALT activities in DBSs stored at 4°C were stable throughout 19 excursions to room temperature. Twenty-five of 26 external evaluators, using five different GALT test methods, classified the GALT-deficient DBSs as “outside normal limits”. All evaluators classified the GALT-normal DBSs as “within normal limits”. Conclusions Most of the GALT activity loss from DBSs stored at elevated or room temperature was attributable to the effects of storage temperature. Most of the loss from DBSs stored at 4°C was attributable to the effects of elevated humidity. Loss from DBSs stored at −20°C was insignificant. The DBS materials were suitable for monitoring performance of all five GALT test methods. PMID:25528144

  12. Origins, distribution and expression of the Duarte-2 (D2) allele of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Amanda E.; Sanders, Rebecca D.; Garza, Kerry R.; McGaha, Lee Anne; Bean, Lora J. H.; Coffee, Bradford W.; Thomas, James W.; Cutler, David J.; Kurtkaya, Natalie L.; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L.

    2009-01-01

    Duarte galactosemia is a mild to asymptomatic condition that results from partial impairment of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT). Patients with Duarte galactosemia demonstrate reduced GALT activity and carry one profoundly impaired GALT allele (G) along with a second, partially impaired GALT allele (Duarte-2, D2). Molecular studies reveal at least five sequence changes on D2 alleles: a p.N314D missense substitution, three intronic base changes and a 4 bp deletion in the 5′ proximal sequence. The four non-coding sequence changes are unique to D2. The p.N314D substitution, however, is not; it is found together with a silent polymorphism, p.L218(TTA), on functionally normal Duarte-1 alleles (D1, also called Los Angeles or LA alleles). The HapMap database reveals that p.N314D is a common human variant, and cross-species comparisons implicate D314 as the ancestral allele. The p.N314D substitution is also functionally neutral in mammalian cell and yeast expression studies. In contrast, the 4 bp 5′ deletion characteristic of D2 alleles appears to be functionally impaired in reporter gene transfection studies. Here we present allele-specific qRT–PCR evidence that D2 alleles express less mRNA in vivo than their wild-type counterparts; the difference is small but statistically significant. Furthermore, we characterize the prevalence of the 4 bp deletion in GG, NN and DG populations; the deletion appears exclusive to D2 alleles. Combined, these data strongly implicate the 4 bp 5′ deletion as a causal mutation in Duarte galactosemia and suggest that direct tests for this deletion, as proposed here, could enhance or supplant current tests, which define D2 alleles on the basis of the presence and absence of linked coding sequence polymorphisms. PMID:19224951

  13. Adipose stem cells' antagonism in glycosylation of D-galactose-induced skin aging of nude mice and its skin recovery function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiying; Wei, Shuyue; Xue, Xinxin; You, Yuntian; Ma, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to discuss adipose stem cells' (ASCs) antagonism in glycosylation of D-galactose-induced skin aging of nude mice and its skin recovery function; the study also aims to explore a new mechanism of anti-aging to provide clinical anti-aging therapy with new thoughts and methods. We selected 40 healthy specific pathogen-free (SPF) nude mice and divided them randomly into four groups which were: blank control group; D-galactose + phosphate buffer saline (PBS) group; D-galactose + ASCs treatment group; and D-galactose + aminoguanidine (AG) group. Results showed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD) level of mice in the D-galactose-induced model group (87.15 ± 4.95 U/g) decreased significantly compared with that of control group (146.21 ± 4.76 U/g), while malonaldehyde (MDA) level of mice in D-galactose induced model group (11.12 ± 2.08 nmol/mg) increased significantly compared with that of control group (5.46 ± 2.05 nmol/mg) (P <0.05); thus D-galactose induced sub-acutely aging mice models were duplicated successfully. Results also indicated that transplantation of ASCs could reverse expression of aging-related biomarkers such as MDA, SOD, and advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs); hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining showed that thickness of the dermis layer as well as the collagen content of mice in the D-galactose-induced model group increased significantly after ASC transplantation compared with that of control group. In addition, immunohistochemical assay showed that expression quantity of CD31 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of mice in the D-galactose-induced model group increased significantly after ASC transplantation compared with that of control group. In conclusion, ASCs can trace cell distribution successfully through bioluminescence, and they survive for a short time in the skin after transplantation, which provides a basis for the application of ASC transplantation in clinical practices. Moreover, ASCs can control

  14. Identification of a Fusobacterium nucleatum PK1594 galactose-binding adhesin which mediates coaggregation with periopathogenic bacteria and hemagglutination.

    PubMed Central

    Shaniztki, B; Hurwitz, D; Smorodinsky, N; Ganeshkumar, N; Weiss, E I

    1997-01-01

    Attachment of Fusobacterium nucleatum to various oral surfaces is mediated by several adhesins anchored on its outer surface. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were prepared and used to identify the putative galactose-binding adhesin of F. nucleatum PK1594. Four unique MAbs, 8G7, 26B9, 28G11, and 29D4, were isolated on the basis of their ability to inhibit coaggregation of F. nucleatum PK1594 with Porphyromonas gingivalis PK1924. All four MAbs were also capable of inhibiting galactose-inhibitable interactions of F. nucleatum PK1594 with other oral gram-negative bacteria and with erythrocytes. Preincubation of F. nucleatum PK1594 with MAb 26B9 or its Fab fragments at concentrations lower than 1 microg/ml resulted in complete inhibition of coaggregation with P. gingivalis PK1924 or hemagglutination. F. nucleatum PK1594 surface components prepared by mild sonication or by extracting whole cells with detergents were subjected to Western blot analysis. None of the MAbs were able to recognize any polypeptide in these experiments. Therefore, detergent extracts of F. nucleatum PK1594 surface components were subjected to three experimental procedures: (i) separation by ion-exchange chromatography and testing of fractions for reaction with MAb 26B9 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), (ii) lactose-Sepharose affinity chromatography and testing of the lactose eluate in ELISA with MAb 26B9, and (iii) immunoseparation with either MAb 26B9 or 8G7. Collectively, the results suggest that the putative adhesin is a 30-kDa outer membrane polypeptide which mediates the coaggregation with P. gingivalis PK1924 as well as other galactose-sensitive interactions of F. nucleatum PK1594. PMID:9393820

  15. Influence of a family 29 carbohydrate binding module on the recombinant production of galactose oxidase in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Mollerup, Filip; Master, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the extracellular expression of carbohydrate active fusion enzymes in Pichia pastoris. Particularly, CBM29-1-2 from Piromyces equi was separately fused to the N- and C-terminus of galactose 6-oxidase (GaO, D-galactose: oxygen 6-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.13.9, CAZy family AA5) from Fusarium graminearum, generating CBM29-GaO and GaO-CBM29, respectively. P. pastoris was transformed with expression vectors encoding GaO, CBM29-GaO and GaO-CBM29, and the fusion proteins were expressed in both shake-flask and 2L bioreactor systems. Volumetric production yields and specific GaO activity increased when expression was performed in a bioreactor system compared to shake-flask cultivation. This was observed for both CBM29-GaO and GaO-CBM29, and is consistent with previous reports of GaO expression in P. pastoris (Spadiut et al., 2010; Anasontzis et al., 2014) [1], [2]. Fusion of CBM29 to the C-terminal of GaO (GaO-CBM29) resulted in a stable uniform protein at the expected calculated size (107 kDa) when analyzed with SDS-PAGE. By comparison, the expression of the N-terminal fusion protein (CBM29-GaO) was low, and two truncated versions of CBM29-GaO were coexpressed with the full-sized protein. Despite differences in protein yield, the specific GaO activity on galactose was not affected by CBM29 fusion to either the N- or C-terminus of the enzyme. A detailed description of the catalytic and physiochemical properties of CBM29-GaO and GaO-CBM29 is available in the parent publication (Mollerup et al., 2015) [3]. PMID:26858983

  16. Ultra Fast and Sensitive Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Based Assay for Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase and Galactokinase Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijun; Ptolemy, Adam S.; Harmonay, Lauren; Kellogg, Mark; Berry, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of transferase and galactokinase deficiency galactosemia usually involves the measurement of erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) and galactokinase (GALK) enzyme activity, respectively. The current gold standard assays for these enzymes are radioactive assays, which are laborious and/or incapable of measuring low enzyme activities. To further our knowledge of genotype-phenotype relationships, we had developed an assay for GALT activity alone using LC-MS/MS. In this study we generated a robust and sensitive LC-MS/MS based GALT and GALK assay using a novel normal phase chromatographic condition. We improved upon our earlier assay by drastically reducing the instrument run time and eliminating the use of an ion pairing reagent. Stable isotope labeled substrates were utilized in the GALT and GALK assays. The enzymatic products ([13C6]-uridine diphosphate galactose in GALT assay and [13C6]-galactose-1-phosphate in GALK assay) were quantified in a 3 min LC-MS/MS run. The assays were sensitive enough to allow for the quantification of enzyme activities as low as 0.2% and 0.3% of normal control values in the GALT and GALK assays, respectively. Thirty-three samples from non-galactosemic patients were assayed to have erythrocyte GALT activity of 23.4 ± 4.2 and GALK activity of 1.8 ± 0.47 (mean ± SD) µmol·(g Hgb) −1·hr−1. Erythrocyte GALT activities in a cohort of 16 patients with classic galactosemia were measured: 4 patients had GALT activity less than 1% of normal control values and the remaining 12 had no detectable GALT activity. No GALK activity was detected in a GALK deficient sample we analzyed. Lastly, we tested the feasibility of adapting this LC-MS/MS based GALT/GALK assay as a newborn screening (NBS) test. PMID:20863731

  17. Ultra fast and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry based assay for galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase and galactokinase deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijun; Ptolemy, Adam S; Harmonay, Lauren; Kellogg, Mark; Berry, Gerard T

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of transferase and galactokinase deficiency galactosemia usually involves the measurement of erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) and galactokinase (GALK) enzyme activity, respectively. The current gold standard assays for these enzymes are radioactive assays, which are laborious and/or incapable of measuring low enzyme activities. To further our knowledge of genotype-phenotype relationships, we had developed an assay for GALT activity alone using LC-MS/MS. In this study we generated a robust and sensitive LC-MS/MS based GALT and GALK assay using a novel normal phase chromatographic condition. We improved upon our earlier assay by drastically reducing the instrument run time and eliminating the use of an ion pairing reagent. Stable isotope labeled substrates were utilized in the GALT and GALK assays. The enzymatic products ([(13)C(6)]-uridine diphosphate galactose in GALT assay and [(13)C(6)]-galactose-1-phosphate in GALK assay) were quantified in a 3 min LC-MS/MS run. The assays were sensitive enough to allow for the quantification of enzyme activities as low as 0.2% and 0.3% of normal control values in the GALT and GALK assays, respectively. Thirty-three samples from non-galactosemic patients were assayed to have erythrocyte GALT activity of 23.4±4.2 and GALK activity of 1.8±0.47 (mean±SD) μmol⋅(g Hgb)(-1) h(-1). Erythrocyte GALT activities in a cohort of 16 patients with classic or severe galactosemia were measured: 4 patients had GALT activity less than 1% of normal control values and the remaining 12 had no detectable GALT activity. No GALK activity was detected in a GALK deficient sample we analyzed. Lastly, we tested the feasibility of adapting this LC-MS/MS based GALT/GALK assay as a newborn screening (NBS) test. PMID:20863731

  18. Optimizing a Male Reproductive Aging Mouse Model by d-Galactose Injection

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chun-Hou; Chen, Bing-Huei; Chiang, Han-Sun; Chen, Chiu-Wei; Chen, Mei-Feng; Ke, Chih-Chun; Wang, Ya-Yun; Lin, Wei-Ning; Wang, Chi-Chung; Lin, Ying-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The d-galactose (d-gal)-injected animal model, which is typically established by administering consecutive subcutaneous d-gal injections to animals for approximately six or eight weeks, has been frequently used for aging research. In addition, this animal model has been demonstrated to accelerate aging in the brain, kidneys, liver and blood cells. However, studies on aging in male reproductive organs that have used this animal model remain few. Therefore, the current study aimed to optimize a model of male reproductive aging by administering d-gal injections to male mice and to determine the possible mechanism expediting senescence processes during spermatogenesis. In this study, C57Bl/6 mice were randomized into five groups (each containing 8–10 mice according to the daily intraperitoneal injection of vehicle control or 100 or 200 mg/kg dosages of d-gal for a period of six or eight weeks). First, mice subjected to d-gal injections for six or eight weeks demonstrated considerably decreased superoxide dismutase activity in the serum and testis lysates compared to those in the control group. The lipid peroxidation in testis also increased in the d-gal-injected groups. Furthermore, the d-gal-injected groups exhibited a decreased ratio of testis weight/body weight and sperm count compared to the control group. The percentages of both immotile sperm and abnormal sperm increased considerably in the d-gal-injected groups compared to those of the control group. To determine the genes influenced by the d-gal injection during murine spermatogenesis, a c-DNA microarray was conducted to compare testicular RNA samples between the treated groups and the control group. The d-gal-injected groups exhibited RNA transcripts of nine spermatogenesis-related genes (Cycl2, Hk1, Pltp, Utp3, Cabyr, Zpbp2, Speer2, Csnka2ip and Katnb1) that were up- or down-regulated by at least two-fold compared to the control group. Several of these genes are critical for forming sperm-head morphologies

  19. Fluorescence Intensity- and Lifetime-Based Glucose Sensing Using Glucose/Galactose-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Pickup, John C.; Khan, Faaizah; Zhi, Zheng-Liang; Coulter, Jonathan; Birch, David J. S.

    2013-01-01

    We review progress in our laboratories toward developing in vivo glucose sensors for diabetes that are based on fluorescence labeling of glucose/galactose-binding protein. Measurement strategies have included both monitoring glucose-induced changes in fluorescence resonance energy transfer and labeling with the environmentally sensitive fluorophore, badan. Measuring fluorescence lifetime rather than intensity has particular potential advantages for in vivo sensing. A prototype fiber-optic-based glucose sensor using this technology is being tested.Fluorescence technique is one of the major solutions for achieving the continuous and noninvasive glucose sensor for diabetes. In this article, a highly sensitive nanostructured sensor is developed to detect extremely small amounts of aqueous glucose by applying fluorescence energy transfer (FRET). A one-pot method is applied to produce the dextran-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugating mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), which afterward interact with the tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC)-labeled concanavalin A (Con A) to form the FRET nanoparticles (FITC-dextran-Con A-TRITC@MSNs). The nanostructured glucose sensor is then formed via the self-assembly of the FRET nanoparticles on a transparent, flexible, and biocompatible substrate, e.g., poly(dimethylsiloxane). Our results indicate the diameter of the MSNs is 60 ± 5 nm. The difference in the images before and after adding 20 μl of glucose (0.10 mmol/liter) on the FRET sensor can be detected in less than 2 min by the laser confocal laser scanning microscope. The correlation between the ratio of fluorescence intensity, I(donor)/I(acceptor), of the FRET sensor and the concentration of aqueous glucose in the range of 0.04–4 mmol/liter has been investigated; a linear relationship is found. Furthermore, the durability of the nanostructured FRET sensor is evaluated for 5 days. In addition, the recorded images can be converted to digital images by

  20. Optimizing a Male Reproductive Aging Mouse Model by D-Galactose Injection.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chun-Hou; Chen, Bing-Huei; Chiang, Han-Sun; Chen, Chiu-Wei; Chen, Mei-Feng; Ke, Chih-Chun; Wang, Ya-Yun; Lin, Wei-Ning; Wang, Chi-Chung; Lin, Ying-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The d-galactose (d-gal)-injected animal model, which is typically established by administering consecutive subcutaneous d-gal injections to animals for approximately six or eight weeks, has been frequently used for aging research. In addition, this animal model has been demonstrated to accelerate aging in the brain, kidneys, liver and blood cells. However, studies on aging in male reproductive organs that have used this animal model remain few. Therefore, the current study aimed to optimize a model of male reproductive aging by administering d-gal injections to male mice and to determine the possible mechanism expediting senescence processes during spermatogenesis. In this study, C57Bl/6 mice were randomized into five groups (each containing 8-10 mice according to the daily intraperitoneal injection of vehicle control or 100 or 200 mg/kg dosages of d-gal for a period of six or eight weeks). First, mice subjected to d-gal injections for six or eight weeks demonstrated considerably decreased superoxide dismutase activity in the serum and testis lysates compared to those in the control group. The lipid peroxidation in testis also increased in the d-gal-injected groups. Furthermore, the d-gal-injected groups exhibited a decreased ratio of testis weight/body weight and sperm count compared to the control group. The percentages of both immotile sperm and abnormal sperm increased considerably in the d-gal-injected groups compared to those of the control group. To determine the genes influenced by the d-gal injection during murine spermatogenesis, a c-DNA microarray was conducted to compare testicular RNA samples between the treated groups and the control group. The d-gal-injected groups exhibited RNA transcripts of nine spermatogenesis-related genes (Cycl2, Hk1, Pltp, Utp3, Cabyr, Zpbp2, Speer2, Csnka2ip and Katnb1) that were up- or down-regulated by at least two-fold compared to the control group. Several of these genes are critical for forming sperm-head morphologies or

  1. Structures and binding specificity of galactose- and mannose-binding lectins from champedak: differences from jackfruit lectins

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielsen, Mads; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Othman, Shatrah; Hashim, Onn H.; Cogdell, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Galactose-binding and mannose-binding lectins from the champedak fruit, which is native to South-east Asia, exhibit useful potential clinical applications. The specificity of the two lectins for their respective ligands allows the detection of potential cancer biomarkers and monitoring of the glycosylated state of proteins in human serum and/or urine. To fully understand and expand the use of these natural proteins, their complete sequences and crystal structures are presented here, together with details of sugar binding. PMID:24915077

  2. Structures and binding specificity of galactose- and mannose-binding lectins from champedak: differences from jackfruit lectins.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsen, Mads; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Othman, Shatrah; Hashim, Onn H; Cogdell, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    Galactose-binding and mannose-binding lectins from the champedak fruit, which is native to South-east Asia, exhibit useful potential clinical applications. The specificity of the two lectins for their respective ligands allows the detection of potential cancer biomarkers and monitoring of the glycosylated state of proteins in human serum and/or urine. To fully understand and expand the use of these natural proteins, their complete sequences and crystal structures are presented here, together with details of sugar binding. PMID:24915077

  3. Production of Normal Mammalian Organ Culture Using a Medium Containing Mem-Alpha, Leibovitz L 15, Glucose Galactose Fructose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural and blood tissue. The cells are grown in vitro under micro- gravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cells aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel. The medium used for culturing the cells, especially a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal cells contains a mixture of Mem-alpha and Leibovits L15 supplemented with glucose, galactose and fructose.

  4. Galactose-PEG dual conjugation of beta-(1-->3)-D-glucan schizophyllan for antisense oligonucleotides delivery to enhance the cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Karinaga, Ryouji; Anada, Takahisa; Minari, Jusaku; Mizu, Masami; Koumoto, Kazuya; Fukuda, Junji; Nakazawa, Kohji; Hasegawa, Teruaki; Numata, Munenori; Shinkai, Seiji; Sakurai, Kazuo

    2006-03-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides (AS ODNs) are applied to silence a particular gene, and this approach is one of the potential gene therapies. However, naked oligonucleotides are easy to be degraded or absorbed in biological condition. Therefore, we need a carrier to deliver AS ODNs. This paper presents galactose moieties that were conjugated to the side chain of SPG to enhance cellular ingestion through endocytosis mediated by asialoglycoprotein receptor specifically located on parenchymal liver cells. We introduced galactose with two types of chemical bonds; amide and amine, and the amine connection showed lower ingestion and more toxicity than the amide one. Since PEG was known to induce endocytosis escape, we combined PEG and galactose aiming to provide both cellular up-take and subsequent endocytosis escape. We designed lactose or galactose moieties to attach to the end of the PEG chain that connects to the SPG side chain. When the PEG had the molecular weight of 5000-6000, the antisense effect reached the maximum. We believe that this new type of galactose and PEG dual conjugation broaden the horizon in antisense delivery. PMID:16174528

  5. Inhibitory Effect of Trigonella Foenum-Graecum on Galactose Induced Cataracts in a Rat Model; in vitro and in vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Gupta, Suresh; Kalaiselvan, Vivekananthan; Srivastava, Sushma; Saxena, Rohit; Sunder Agrawal, Shyam

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-cataract potential of Trigonella foenumgraecum (TF) on galactose induced cataracts in an animal model. Methods In the in vitro group,enucleated rat lenses were maintained in organ culture containing Dulbecco’s Modified Eagles Medium alone (normal group),or with the addition of 30 mM galactose (control group). The medium in the test group was supplemented with both galactose and TF. All lenses were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours and then processed for determination of levels of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde. In the in vivo group, cataracts were induced in rats by a 30% galactose diet alone (control) or with the addition of TF (treated group). Results Reduction (26%) in glutathione level and elevation (31%) in malondialdehyde content were observed in controls as compared to normal lenses. TF significantly (P<0.01) restored glutathione and reduced malondialdehyde levels as compared to controls. A significant delay in the onset and progression of cataract was observed with 2.5% TF diet; after 30 days none of the treated eyes developed mature cataracts as compared to 100% of control eyes. Conclusion TF can delay the onset and progression of cataracts in an experimental rat model of galactose induced cataracts both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23198077

  6. Saponins from Aralia taibaiensis attenuate D-galactose-induced aging in rats by activating FOXO3a and Nrf2 pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Na; Guo, Yu; Xi, Miao-Miao; Yang, Pei; Zhou, Xue-Ying; Yin, Shuang; Hai, Chun-Xu; Li, Jin-Gang; Qin, Xu-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are closely related to the aging process. In our previous studies, we found that the saponins from Aralia taibaiensis have potent antioxidant activity, suggesting the potential protective activity on the aging. However, the protective effect of the saponins and the possible underlying molecular mechanism remain unknown. In the present study, we employed a D-galactose-induced aging rat model to investigate the protective effect of the saponins. We found that D-galactose treatment induced obvious aging-related changes such as the decreased thymus and spleen coefficients, the increased advanced glycation end products (AGEs) level, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SAβ-gal) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Further results showed that Forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a), nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and their targeted antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) were all inhibited in the aging rats induced by D-galactose treatment. Saponins supplementation showed effective protection on these changes. These results demonstrate that saponins from Aralia taibaiensis attenuate the D-galactose-induced rat aging. By activating FOXO3a and Nrf2 pathways, saponins increase their downstream multiple antioxidants expression and function, at least in part contributing to the protection on the D-galactose-induced aging in rats. PMID:24669284

  7. Deletion of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase reveals a UDP-glucose independent UDP-galactose salvage pathway in Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Lamerz, Anne-Christin; Damerow, Sebastian; Kleczka, Barbara; Wiese, Martin; van Zandbergen, Ger; Lamerz, Jens; Wenzel, Alexander; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Turk, John; Beverley, Stephen M.; Routier, Françoise H.

    2010-01-01

    The nucleotide sugar UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal) is essential for the biosynthesis of several abundant glycoconjugates forming the surface glycocalyx of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. Current data suggest that UDP-Gal could arise de novo by epimerization of UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) or by a salvage pathway involving phosphorylation of Gal and the action of UDP-glucose:α-d-galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase as described by Leloir. Since both pathways require UDP-Glc, inactivation of the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP) catalyzing activation of glucose-1 phosphate to UDP-Glc was expected to deprive parasites of UDP-Gal required for Leishmania glycocalyx formation. Targeted deletion of the gene encoding UGP, however, only partially affected the synthesis of the Gal-rich phosphoglycans. Moreover, no alteration in the abundant Gal-containing glycoinositolphospholipids was found in the deletion mutant. Consistent with these findings, the virulence of the UGP-deficient mutant was only modestly affected. These data suggest that Leishmania elaborates a UDP-Glc independent salvage pathway for UDP-Gal biosynthesis. PMID:20335578

  8. Effects of Dimethylaminoethanol and Compound Amino Acid on D-Galactose Induced Skin Aging Model of Rat

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Su; Chen, Zhenyu; Cai, Xia; Sun, Ying; Zhao, Cailing

    2014-01-01

    A lasting dream of human beings is to reverse or postpone aging. In this study, dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) and compound amino acid (AA) in Mesotherapy were investigated for their potential antiaging effects on D-galactose induced aging skin. At 18 days after D-gal induction, each rat was treated with intradermal microinjection of saline, AA, 0.1% DMAE, 0.2% DMAE, 0.1% DMAE + AA, or 0.2% DMAE + AA, respectively. At 42 days after treatment, the skin wound was harvested and assayed. Measurement of epidermal and dermal thickness in 0.1% DMAE + AA and 0.2% DMAE + AA groups appeared significantly thicker than aging control rats. No differences were found in tissue water content among groups. Hydroxyproline in 0.1% DMAE + AA, 0.2% DMAE + AA, and sham control groups was much higher than all other groups. Collagen type I, type III, and MMP-1 expression was highly upregulated in both 0.1% DMAE + AA and 0.2% DMAE + AA groups compared with aging control. In contrast, TIMP-1 expression levels of various aging groups were significantly reduced when compared to sham control. Coinjection of DMAE and AA into target tissue has marked antiaging effects on D-galactose induced skin aging model of rat. PMID:25133239

  9. Effects of dimethylaminoethanol and compound amino acid on D-galactose induced skin aging model of rat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Chen, Zhenyu; Cai, Xia; Sun, Ying; Zhao, Cailing; Liu, Fangjun; Liu, Dalie

    2014-01-01

    A lasting dream of human beings is to reverse or postpone aging. In this study, dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) and compound amino acid (AA) in Mesotherapy were investigated for their potential antiaging effects on D-galactose induced aging skin. At 18 days after D-gal induction, each rat was treated with intradermal microinjection of saline, AA, 0.1% DMAE, 0.2% DMAE, 0.1% DMAE + AA, or 0.2% DMAE + AA, respectively. At 42 days after treatment, the skin wound was harvested and assayed. Measurement of epidermal and dermal thickness in 0.1% DMAE + AA and 0.2% DMAE + AA groups appeared significantly thicker than aging control rats. No differences were found in tissue water content among groups. Hydroxyproline in 0.1% DMAE + AA, 0.2% DMAE + AA, and sham control groups was much higher than all other groups. Collagen type I, type III, and MMP-1 expression was highly upregulated in both 0.1% DMAE + AA and 0.2% DMAE + AA groups compared with aging control. In contrast, TIMP-1 expression levels of various aging groups were significantly reduced when compared to sham control. Coinjection of DMAE and AA into target tissue has marked antiaging effects on D-galactose induced skin aging model of rat. PMID:25133239

  10. Effects of temperature and glycerol and methanol-feeding profiles on the production of recombinant galactose oxidase in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Anasontzis, George E; Salazar Penã, Margarita; Spadiut, Oliver; Brumer, Harry; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of protein production from methanol-induced Pichia pastoris cultures is necessary to ensure high productivity rates and high yields of recombinant proteins. We investigated the effects of temperature and different linear or exponential methanol-feeding rates on the production of recombinant Fusarium graminearum galactose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.9) in a P. pastoris Mut+ strain, under regulation of the AOX1 promoter. We found that low exponential methanol feeding led to 1.5-fold higher volumetric productivity compared to high exponential feeding rates. The duration of glycerol feeding did not affect the subsequent product yield, but longer glycerol feeding led to higher initial biomass concentration, which would reduce the oxygen demand and generate less heat during induction. A linear and a low exponential feeding profile led to productivities in the same range, but the latter was characterized by intense fluctuations in the titers of galactose oxidase and total protein. An exponential feeding profile that has been adapted to the apparent biomass concentration results in more stable cultures, but the concentration of recombinant protein is in the same range as when constant methanol feeding is employed. © 2014 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:728–735, 2014 PMID:24493559

  11. Depletion of UDP-Glucose and UDP-Galactose Using a Degron System Leads to Growth Cessation of Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Bandini, Giulia; Zarnovican, Patricia; Buettner, Falk R.; Lüder, Carsten G. K.; Ferguson, Michael A. J.; Routier, Françoise H.

    2015-01-01

    Interconversion of UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) and UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal) by the UDP-Glc 4´-epimerase intimately connects the biosynthesis of these two nucleotide sugars. Their de novo biosynthesis involves transformation of glucose-6-phosphate into glucose-1-phosphate by the phosphoglucomutase and subsequent activation into UDP-Glc by the specific UDP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (UGP). Besides UGP, Leishmania parasites express an uncommon UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USP) able to activate both galactose-1-phosphate and glucose-1-phosphate in vitro. Targeted gene deletion of UGP alone was previously shown to principally affect expression of lipophosphoglycan, resulting in a reduced virulence. Since our attempts to delete both UGP and USP failed, deletion of UGP was combined with conditional destabilisation of USP to control the biosynthesis of UDP-Glc and UDP-Gal. Stabilisation of the enzyme produced by a single USP allele was sufficient to maintain the steady-state pools of these two nucleotide sugars and preserve almost normal glycoinositolphospholipids galactosylation, but at the apparent expense of lipophosphoglycan biosynthesis. However, under destabilising conditions, the absence of both UGP and USP resulted in depletion of UDP-Glc and UDP-Gal and led to growth cessation and cell death, suggesting that either or both of these metabolites is/are essential. PMID:26529232

  12. Structural and functional mimic of galactose oxidase by a copper complex of a sterically demanding [N2O2] ligand.

    PubMed

    John, Alex; Shaikh, Mobin M; Ghosh, Prasenjit

    2008-06-01

    A structural and functional mimic of the galactose oxidase (GOase) enzyme active-site by a copper complex supported over a sterically demanding ligand having [N2O2] donor sites is reported. Specifically, the binding of the histidine (496 and 581) and tyrosine (272 and 495) residues to the copper center in a square-pyramidal fashion in the active-site of galactose oxidase (GOase) enzyme has been modeled in a copper complex, ([(3-tert-butyl-5-methyl-2-hydoxybenzyl)(3'-tert-butyl-5'-methyl-2'-oxobenzyl)(2-pyridylmethyl)]amine)Cu(OAc)) (1b), stabilized over a sterically demanding ligand in which the two phenolate-O atoms mimicked the tyrosine binding while an amine-N and pyridyl-N atoms emulated the histidine binding to the metal center, similar to that in the enzyme active-site. Furthermore, the copper complex 1b is found to be an effective functional model of the enzyme as it efficiently catalyzed the chemoselective oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes in high turnover numbers under ambient conditions. An insight into the nature of the active-species was obtained by EPR and CV studies, which in conjunction with the DFT studies, revealed that the active-species is an anti-ferromagnetically coupled diamagnetic radical cation, (1)1b+, obtained by one electron oxidation at the equatorial phenolate-O atom of the ligand in the 1b complex. PMID:18478142

  13. Galactose-Functionalized PolyHIPE Scaffolds for Use in Routine Three Dimensional Culture of Mammalian Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture is regarded as a more physiologically relevant method of growing cells in the laboratory compared to traditional monolayer cultures. Recently, the application of polystyrene-based scaffolds produced using polyHIPE technology (porous polymers derived from high internal phase emulsions) for routine 3D cell culture applications has generated very promising results in terms of improved replication of native cellular function in the laboratory. These materials, which are now available as commercial scaffolds, are superior to many other 3D cell substrates due to their high porosity, controllable morphology, and suitable mechanical strength. However, until now there have been no reports describing the surface-modification of these materials for enhanced cell adhesion and function. This study, therefore, describes the surface functionalization of these materials with galactose, a carbohydrate known to specifically bind to hepatocytes via the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), to further improve hepatocyte adhesion and function when growing on the scaffold. We first modify a typical polystyrene-based polyHIPE to produce a cell culture scaffold carrying pendent activated-ester functionality. This was achieved via the incorporation of pentafluorophenyl acrylate (PFPA) into the initial styrene (STY) emulsion, which upon polymerization formed a polyHIPE with a porosity of 92% and an average void diameter of 33 μm. Histological analysis showed that this polyHIPE was a suitable 3D scaffold for hepatocyte cell culture. Galactose-functionalized scaffolds were then prepared by attaching 2′-aminoethyl-β-d-galactopyranoside to this PFPA functionalized polyHIPE via displacement of the labile pentafluorophenyl group, to yield scaffolds with approximately ca. 7–9% surface carbohydrate. Experiments with primary rat hepatocytes showed that cellular albumin synthesis was greatly enhanced during the initial adhesion/settlement period of cells on

  14. Galactose-functionalized polyHIPE scaffolds for use in routine three dimensional culture of mammalian hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Adam S; Eissa, Ahmed M; Maltman, Daniel J; Sano, Naoko; Przyborski, Stefan A; Cameron, Neil R

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture is regarded as a more physiologically relevant method of growing cells in the laboratory compared to traditional monolayer cultures. Recently, the application of polystyrene-based scaffolds produced using polyHIPE technology (porous polymers derived from high internal phase emulsions) for routine 3D cell culture applications has generated very promising results in terms of improved replication of native cellular function in the laboratory. These materials, which are now available as commercial scaffolds, are superior to many other 3D cell substrates due to their high porosity, controllable morphology, and suitable mechanical strength. However, until now there have been no reports describing the surface-modification of these materials for enhanced cell adhesion and function. This study, therefore, describes the surface functionalization of these materials with galactose, a carbohydrate known to specifically bind to hepatocytes via the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), to further improve hepatocyte adhesion and function when growing on the scaffold. We first modify a typical polystyrene-based polyHIPE to produce a cell culture scaffold carrying pendent activated-ester functionality. This was achieved via the incorporation of pentafluorophenyl acrylate (PFPA) into the initial styrene (STY) emulsion, which upon polymerization formed a polyHIPE with a porosity of 92% and an average void diameter of 33 μm. Histological analysis showed that this polyHIPE was a suitable 3D scaffold for hepatocyte cell culture. Galactose-functionalized scaffolds were then prepared by attaching 2'-aminoethyl-β-D-galactopyranoside to this PFPA functionalized polyHIPE via displacement of the labile pentafluorophenyl group, to yield scaffolds with approximately ca. 7-9% surface carbohydrate. Experiments with primary rat hepatocytes showed that cellular albumin synthesis was greatly enhanced during the initial adhesion/settlement period of cells on the

  15. A systems approach to designing next generation vaccines: combining α-galactose modified antigens with nanoparticle platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanse, Yashdeep; Carrillo-Conde, Brenda R.; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E.; Broderick, Scott; Kong, Chang Sun; Rajan, Krishna; Flick, Ramon; Mandell, Robert B.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Wannemuehler, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Innovative vaccine platforms are needed to develop effective countermeasures against emerging and re-emerging diseases. These platforms should direct antigen internalization by antigen presenting cells and promote immunogenic responses. This work describes an innovative systems approach combining two novel platforms, αGalactose (αGal)-modification of antigens and amphiphilic polyanhydride nanoparticles as vaccine delivery vehicles, to rationally design vaccine formulations. Regimens comprising soluble αGal-modified antigen and nanoparticle-encapsulated unmodified antigen induced a high titer, high avidity antibody response with broader epitope recognition of antigenic peptides than other regimen. Proliferation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells was also enhanced compared to a traditional adjuvant. Combining the technology platforms and augmenting immune response studies with peptide arrays and informatics analysis provides a new paradigm for rational, systems-based design of next generation vaccine platforms against emerging and re-emerging pathogens.

  16. A systems approach to designing next generation vaccines: combining α-galactose modified antigens with nanoparticle platforms

    PubMed Central

    Phanse, Yashdeep; Carrillo-Conde, Brenda R.; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E.; Broderick, Scott; Kong, Chang Sun; Rajan, Krishna; Flick, Ramon; Mandell, Robert B.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Wannemuehler, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Innovative vaccine platforms are needed to develop effective countermeasures against emerging and re-emerging diseases. These platforms should direct antigen internalization by antigen presenting cells and promote immunogenic responses. This work describes an innovative systems approach combining two novel platforms, αGalactose (αGal)-modification of antigens and amphiphilic polyanhydride nanoparticles as vaccine delivery vehicles, to rationally design vaccine formulations. Regimens comprising soluble αGal-modified antigen and nanoparticle-encapsulated unmodified antigen induced a high titer, high avidity antibody response with broader epitope recognition of antigenic peptides than other regimen. Proliferation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells was also enhanced compared to a traditional adjuvant. Combining the technology platforms and augmenting immune response studies with peptide arrays and informatics analysis provides a new paradigm for rational, systems-based design of next generation vaccine platforms against emerging and re-emerging pathogens. PMID:24441019

  17. Modest phenotypic improvements in ASA-deficient mice with only one UDP-galactose:ceramide-galactosyltransferase gene

    PubMed Central

    Franken, S; Wittke, D; Mansson, JE; D'Hooge, R; De Deyn, PP; Lüllmann-Rauch, R; Matzner, U; Gieselmann, V

    2006-01-01

    Background Arylsulfatase A (ASA)-deficient mice are a model for the lysosomal storage disorder metachromatic leukodystrophy. This lipidosis is characterised by the lysosomal accumulation of the sphingolipid sulfatide. Storage of this lipid is associated with progressive demyelination. We have mated ASA-deficient mice with mice heterozygous for a non-functional allele of UDP-galactose:ceramide-galactosyltransferase (CGT). This deficiency is known to lead to a decreased synthesis of galactosylceramide and sulfatide, which should reduce sulfatide storage and improve pathology in ASA-deficient mice. Results ASA-/- CGT+/- mice, however, showed no detectable decrease in sulfatide storage. Neuronal degeneration of cells in the spiral ganglion of the inner ear, however, was decreased. Behavioural tests showed small but clear improvements of the phenotype in ASA-/- CGT+/- mice. Conclusion Thus the reduction of galactosylceramide and sulfatide biosynthesis by genetic means overall causes modest improvements of pathology. PMID:16893448

  18. Selenoprotein R Protects Human Lens Epithelial Cells against d-Galactose-Induced Apoptosis by Regulating Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Hongmei; Zhou, Jun; Huang, Kaixun

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans. Much of selenium’s beneficial influence on health is attributed to its presence within 25 selenoproteins. Selenoprotein R (SelR), known as methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (MsrB1), is a selenium-dependent enzyme that, like other Msrs, is required for lens cell viability. In order to investigate the roles of SelR in protecting human lens epithelial (hLE) cells against damage, the influences of SelR gene knockdown on d-galactose-induced apoptosis in hLE cells were studied. The results showed that both d-galactose and SelR gene knockdown by siRNA independently induced oxidative stress. When SelR-gene-silenced hLE cells were exposed to d-galactose, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) protein level was further increased, mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly decreased and accompanied by a release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. At the same time, the apoptosis cells percentage and the caspase-3 activity were visibly elevated in hLE cells. These results suggested that SelR might protect hLE cell mitochondria and mitigating apoptosis in hLE cells against oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by d-galactose, implying that selenium as a micronutrient may play important roles in hLE cells. PMID:26875981

  19. Heterologous expression of lactose- and galactose-utilizing pathways from lactic acid bacteria in Corynebacterium glutamicum for production of lysine in whey.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Eoin; Stanton, Catherine; Zelder, Oskar; Fitzgerald, Gerald; Ross, R Paul

    2004-05-01

    The genetic determinants for lactose utilization from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 and galactose utilization from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG 1363 were heterologously expressed in the lysine-overproducing strain Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21253. The C. glutamicum strains expressing the lactose permease and beta-galactosidase genes of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus exhibited beta-galactosidase activity in excess of 1000 Miller units/ml of cells and were able to grow in medium in which lactose was the sole carbon source. Similarly, C. glutamicum strains containing the lactococcal aldose-1-epimerase, galactokinase, UDP-glucose-1-P-uridylyltransferase, and UDP-galactose-4-epimerase genes in association with the lactose permease and beta-galactosidase genes exhibited beta-galactosidase levels in excess of 730 Miller units/ml of cells and were able to grow in medium in which galactose was the sole carbon source. When grown in whey-based medium, the engineered C. glutamicum strain produced lysine at concentrations of up to 2 mg/ml, which represented a 10-fold increase over the results obtained with the lactose- and galactose-negative control, C. glutamicum 21253. Despite their increased catabolic flexibility, however, the modified corynebacteria exhibited slower growth rates and plasmid instability. PMID:15128544

  20. Binding of fluorescently labeled cholera toxin subunit B to glycolipids in the human submandibular gland and inhibition of binding by periodate oxidation and by galactose.

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, S

    2016-01-01

    FITC-labeled cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) stained the surfaces of cells of mucous acini in the submandibular gland. CTB, also called choleragenoid, binds to the GM1 glycolipid in the cell membrane. The binding in most acini was inhibited by periodic acid oxidation of the sections, while some acini remained unaffected even after increased oxidation. Staining with the subunit was also reduced significantly by adding galactose to the incubation medium. Binding of CTB to cell surfaces apparently requires intact sialic groups on most, but not all, cell surfaces. Oxidation of the sialic acid residues may influence the structure of the sialylated GM1 molecules on the cell surface in different ways. It is possible that both the sialic acid residue and the terminal galactose are oxidized. Alternatively, the sialic acid may be resistant to acid hydrolysis in gangliosides in which the sialic acid is attached to the internal galactose residue linked to GalNAc, as in the GM1 glycolipid. Inhibition of the GM1 receptor binding to cholera toxin has potential for protection of humans against cholera. Galactose and agents that modify sialic acid inhibit the accessibility of the toxin to the GM1 carbohydrate receptor. Human milk contains high levels of sialic acid glycoconjugates that may provide defense mechanisms. PMID:26472148

  1. Structural basis of UDP-galactose binding by alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase (alpha3GT): role of negative charge on aspartic acid 316 in structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Tumbale, Percy; Jamaluddin, Haryati; Thiyagarajan, Nethaji; Brew, Keith; Acharya, K Ravi

    2008-08-19

    alpha-1,3-Galactosyltransferase (alpha3GT) catalyzes the transfer of galactose from UDP-galactose to form an alpha 1-3 link with beta-linked galactosides; it is part of a family of homologous retaining glycosyltransferases that includes the histo-blood group A and B glycosyltransferases, Forssman glycolipid synthase, iGb3 synthase, and some uncharacterized prokaryotic glycosyltransferases. In mammals, the presence or absence of active forms of these enzymes results in antigenic differences between individuals and species that modulate the interplay between the immune system and pathogens. The catalytic mechanism of alpha3GT is controversial, but the structure of an enzyme complex with the donor substrate could illuminate both this and the basis of donor substrate specificity. We report here the structure of the complex of a low-activity mutant alpha3GT with UDP-galactose (UDP-gal) exhibiting a bent configuration stabilized by interactions of the galactose with multiple residues in the enzyme including those in a highly conserved region (His315 to Ser318). Analysis of the properties of mutants containing substitutions for these residues shows that catalytic activity is strongly affected by His315 and Asp316. The negative charge of Asp316 is crucial for catalytic activity, and structural studies of two mutants show that its interaction with Arg202 is needed for an active site structure that facilitates the binding of UDP-gal in a catalytically competent conformation. PMID:18651752

  2. Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides Act As Galactose Stores in Seeds and Are Required for Rapid Germination of Arabidopsis in the Dark

    PubMed Central

    Gangl, Roman; Tenhaken, Raimund

    2016-01-01

    Raffinose synthase 5 (AtRS5, At5g40390) was characterized from Arabidopsis as a recombinant enzyme. It has a far higher affinity for the substrates galactinol and sucrose than any other raffinose synthase previously reported. In addition raffinose synthase 5 is also working as a galactosylhydrolase, degrading galactinol, and raffinose under certain conditions. Together with raffinose synthase 4, which is predominantly a stachyose synthase, both enzymes contribute to the raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO) accumulation in seeds. A double knockout in raffinose synthase 4 and raffinose synthase 5 (ΔAtRS4,5) was generated, which is devoid of RFOs in seeds. Unstressed leaves of 4 week old ΔAtRS4,5 plants showed drastically 23.8-fold increased concentrations of galactinol. Unexpectedly, raffinose appeared again in drought stressed ΔAtRS4,5 plants, but not under other abiotic stress conditions. Drought stress leads to novel transcripts of raffinose synthase 6 suggesting that this isoform is a further stress inducible raffinose synthase in Arabidopsis. ΔAtRS4,5 seeds showed a 5 days delayed germination phenotype in darkness and an elevated expression of the transcription factor phytochrome interacting factor 1 (AtPIF1) target gene AtPIF6, being a repressor of germination. This prolonged dormancy is not seen during germination in the light. Exogenous galactose partially promotes germination of ΔAtRS4,5 seeds in the dark suggesting that RFOs act as a galactose store and repress AtPIF6 transcripts. PMID:27507985

  3. Near-infrared fluorescence glucose sensing based on glucose/galactose-binding protein coupled to 651-Blue Oxazine

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Faaizah; Pickup, John C.

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •We showed that the NIR fluorophore, 651-Blue Oxazine, is solvatochromic (polarity sensitive). •Blue Oxazine was covalently attached to mutants of glucose/galactose-binding protein (GBP). •Fluorescence intensity of GBP-Blue Oxazine increased with addition of glucose. •Fluorescence from bead-immobilised GBP-Blue Oxazine was detectable through skin in vitro. •This shows proof-of-concept for non-invasive glucose sensing using GBP-Blue Oxazine. -- Abstract: Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dyes that are environmentally sensitive or solvatochromic are useful tools for protein labelling in in vivo biosensor applications such as glucose monitoring in diabetes since their spectral properties are mostly independent of tissue autofluorescence and light scattering, and they offer potential for non-invasive analyte sensing. We showed that the fluorophore 651-Blue Oxazine is polarity-sensitive, with a marked reduction in NIR fluorescence on increasing solvent polarity. Mutants of glucose/galactose-binding protein (GBP) used as the glucose receptor were site-specifically and covalently labelled with Blue Oxazine using click chemistry. Mutants H152C/A213R and H152C/A213R/L238S showed fluorescence increases of 15% and 21% on addition of saturating glucose concentrations and binding constants of 6 and 25 mM respectively. Fluorescence responses to glucose were preserved when GBP-Blue Oxazine was immobilised to agarose beads, and the beads were excited by NIR light through a mouse skin preparation studied in vitro. We conclude GBP-Blue Oxazine shows proof-of-concept as a non-invasive continuous glucose sensing system.

  4. Mouse Macrophage Galactose-type Lectin (mMGL) is Critical for Host Resistance against Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Alicia; de Dios Ruiz-Rosado, Juan; Terrazas, Luis I.; Juárez, Imelda; Gomez-Garcia, Lorena; Calleja, Elsa; Camacho, Griselda; Chávez, Ana; Romero, Miriam; Rodriguez, Tonathiu; Espinoza, Bertha; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The C-type lectin receptor mMGL is expressed exclusively by myeloid antigen presenting cells (APC) such as dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (Mφ), and it mediates binding to glycoproteins carrying terminal galactose and α- or β-N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal/GalNAc) residues. Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) expresses large amounts of mucin (TcMUC)-like glycoproteins. Here, we show by lectin-blot that galactose moieties are also expressed on the surface of T. cruzi. Male mMGL knockout (-/-) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice were infected intraperitoneally with 104 T. cruzi trypomastigotes (Queretaro strain). Following T. cruzi infection, mMGL-/- mice developed higher parasitemia and higher mortality rates compared with WT mice. Although hearts from T. cruzi-infected WT mice presented few amastigote nests, mMGL-/- mice displayed higher numbers of amastigote nests. Compared with WT, Mφ from mMGL-/- mice had low production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in response to soluble T. cruzi antigens (TcAg). Interestingly, upon in vitro T. cruzi infection, mMGL-/- Mφ expressed lower levels of MHC-II and TLR-4 and harbored higher numbers of parasites, even when mMGL-/- Mφ were previously primed with IFN-γ or LPS/IFN-γ. These data suggest that mMGL plays an important role during T. cruzi infection, is required for optimal Mφ activation, and may synergize with TLR-4-induced pathways to produce TNF-α, IL-1β and NO during the early phase of infection. PMID:25170304

  5. Galactose targeted pH-responsive copolymer conjugated with near infrared fluorescence probe for imaging of intelligent drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Fu, Liyi; Sun, Chunyang; Yan, Lifeng

    2015-01-28

    Theranostic polymeric nanomaterials are of special important in cancer treatment. Here, novel galactose targeted pH-responsive amphiphilic multiblock copolymer conjugated with both drug and near-infrared fluorescence (NIR) probe has been designed and prepared by a four-steps process: (1) ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of N-carboxy anhydride (NCA) monomers using propargylamine as initiator; (2) reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (OEGMA) and gal monomer by an azido modified RAFT agent; (3) combing the obtained two polymeric segments by click reaction; (4) NIR copolymer prodrug was synthesized by chemical linkage of both cyanine dye and anticancer drug doxorubicin to the block copolymer via amide bond and hydrazone, respectively. The obtained NIRF copolymers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and its was measured by means of micelles dynamic light scattering (DLS), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM), and UV-vis and fluorescence spectrophotometry. The prodrug has strong fluorescence in the near-infrared region, and a pH sensitive drug release was confirmed at pH of 5.4 via an in vitro drug release experiment. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry experiments of the prodrug on both HepG2 and NIH3T3 cells reveal that the galactose targeted polymeric prodrug shows a fast and enhanced endocytosis due to the specific interaction for HepG2 cells, indicating the as-prepared polymer is a candidate for theranosis of liver cancer. PMID:25569169

  6. Chlorogenic acid protects d-galactose-induced liver and kidney injury via antioxidation and anti-inflammation effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Yu, Ying-Hua; Wang, Shu-Ting; Ren, Jing; Camer, Danielle; Hua, Yu-Zhou; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Jie; Xue, Dan-Lu; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Liu, Yi

    2016-06-01

    Context Oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in the aging process and its related hepatic and renal function decline. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in the human diet. Recently, CGA has shown in vivo and in vitro antioxidant properties. Objective The current study investigates the effects of protective effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on d-galactose-induced liver and kidney injury. Materials and methods Hepatic and renal injuries were induced in a mouse model by subcutaneously injection of d-galactose (d-gal; 100 mg/kg) once a day for 8 consecutive weeks and orally administered simultaneously with CGA included in the food (200 mg/kg of diet). The liver and renal functions were examined. Histological analyses of liver and kidney were done by haematoxylin and eosin staining. The oxidative stress markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the liver and the kidney were measured. Results CGA significantly reduced the serum aminotransferase, serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in d-gal mice (p <0.05). CGA also restored superoxide dismutase, catalase, and malondialdehyde levels and decreased glutathione content in the liver and kidney in d-gal mice (p <0.05). Improvements in liver and kidney were also noted in histopathological studies. CGA reduced tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) protein levels in the liver and kidney in d-gal mice (p <0.05). Discussion and conclusion These findings suggest that CGA attenuates d-gal-induced chronic liver and kidney injury and that this protection may be due to its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26810301

  7. Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides Act As Galactose Stores in Seeds and Are Required for Rapid Germination of Arabidopsis in the Dark.

    PubMed

    Gangl, Roman; Tenhaken, Raimund

    2016-01-01

    Raffinose synthase 5 (AtRS5, At5g40390) was characterized from Arabidopsis as a recombinant enzyme. It has a far higher affinity for the substrates galactinol and sucrose than any other raffinose synthase previously reported. In addition raffinose synthase 5 is also working as a galactosylhydrolase, degrading galactinol, and raffinose under certain conditions. Together with raffinose synthase 4, which is predominantly a stachyose synthase, both enzymes contribute to the raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO) accumulation in seeds. A double knockout in raffinose synthase 4 and raffinose synthase 5 (ΔAtRS4,5) was generated, which is devoid of RFOs in seeds. Unstressed leaves of 4 week old ΔAtRS4,5 plants showed drastically 23.8-fold increased concentrations of galactinol. Unexpectedly, raffinose appeared again in drought stressed ΔAtRS4,5 plants, but not under other abiotic stress conditions. Drought stress leads to novel transcripts of raffinose synthase 6 suggesting that this isoform is a further stress inducible raffinose synthase in Arabidopsis. ΔAtRS4,5 seeds showed a 5 days delayed germination phenotype in darkness and an elevated expression of the transcription factor phytochrome interacting factor 1 (AtPIF1) target gene AtPIF6, being a repressor of germination. This prolonged dormancy is not seen during germination in the light. Exogenous galactose partially promotes germination of ΔAtRS4,5 seeds in the dark suggesting that RFOs act as a galactose store and repress AtPIF6 transcripts. PMID:27507985

  8. Galactose-α-1,3-Galactose–Specific IgE Is Associated with Anaphylaxis but Not Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Commins, Scott P.; Kelly, Libby A.; Rönmark, Eva; James, Hayley R.; Pochan, Shawna L.; Peters, Edward J.; Lundbäck, Bo; Nganga, Lucy W.; Cooper, Philip J.; Hoskins, Janelle M.; Eapen, Saju S.; Matos, Luis A.; McBride, Dane C.; Heymann, Peter W.; Woodfolk, Judith A.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: IgE antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) are common in the southeastern United States. These antibodies, which are induced by ectoparasitic ticks, can give rise to positive skin tests or serum assays with cat extract. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma, and compare this with the relationship between asthma and IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 and other protein allergens. Methods: Patients being investigated for recurrent anaphylaxis, angioedema, or acute urticaria underwent spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, questionnaires, and serum IgE antibody assays. The results were compared with control subjects and cohorts from the emergency department in Virginia (n = 130), northern Sweden (n = 963), and rural Kenya (n = 131). Measurements and Main Results: Patients in Virginia with high-titer IgE antibodies to α-gal had normal lung function, low levels of exhaled nitric oxide, and low prevalence of asthma symptoms. Among patients in the emergency department and children in Kenya, there was no association between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma (odds ratios, 1.04 and 0.75, respectively). In Sweden, IgE antibodies to cat were closely correlated with IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 (r = 0.83) and to asthma (P < 0.001). Conclusions: These results provide a model of an ectoparasite-induced specific IgE response that can increase total serum IgE without creating a risk for asthma, and further evidence that the main allergens that are causally related to asthma are those that are inhaled. PMID:22281828

  9. Characterization of a mutation and an alternative splicing of UDP-galactose transporter in MDCK-RCAr cell line.

    PubMed

    Olczak, Mariusz; Guillen, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal) transporter present in the Golgi apparatus is a member of a transporter family comprising hydrophobic proteins with multiple transmembrane domains. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that the full-length UDP-Gal transporter protein forms oligomeric structures in the MDCK cell. A ricin-resistant mutant of the MDCK cell line (MDCK-RCA(r)) is deficient in galactose linked to macromolecules because of a lower UDP-Gal transport rate into the Golgi apparatus. We cloned this mutated protein and found that it contains a stop codon close to the 5' terminus of its open reading frame. We also detected a shorter splicing variant of the UDP-Gal transporter which contains a 183-nt in-frame deletion in both the wild-type and the mutant mRNA. We showed that the protein, when overexpressed, is localized in the Golgi apparatus and could partially correct the phenotype of the MDCK-RCA(r) and CHO-Lec8 mutant cell lines. The level of mRNA of the UDP-Gal transporter is much lower (25-30 copies per cell) than those of the CMP-sialic acid transporter (100 copies per cell), UDP-N-acetylglucosamine transporter (80 copies per cell), and GDP-fucose transporter (65 copies per cell). The transcript level of the shorter splicing variant of the UDP-Gal transporter is extremely rare in wild-type MDCK cells (a few copies per cell), but it is significantly increased in the mutant, RCA-resistant cells. PMID:16434112

  10. Translocation and the alternative D-galacturonate pathway contribute to increasing the ascorbate level in ripening tomato fruits together with the D-mannose/L-galactose pathway.

    PubMed

    Badejo, Adebanjo Ayobamidele; Wada, Keiko; Gao, Yongshun; Maruta, Takanori; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The D-mannose/L-galactose pathway for the biosynthesis of vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid; AsA) has greatly improved the understanding of this indispensable compound in plants, where it plays multifunctional roles. However, it is yet to be proven whether the same pathway holds for all the different organs of plants, especially the fruit-bearing plants, at different stages of development. Micro-Tom was used here to elucidate the mechanisms of AsA accumulation and regulation in tomato fruits. The mRNA expression of the genes in the D-mannose/L-galactose pathway were inversely correlated with increasing AsA content of Micro-Tom fruits during ripening. Feeding L-[6-(14)C]AsA to Micro-Tom plants revealed that the bulk of the label from AsA accumulated in the source leaf was transported to the immature green fruits, and the rate of translocation decreased as ripening progressed. L-Galactose feeding, but neither D-galacturonate nor L-gulono-1,4-lactone, enhanced the content of AsA in immature green fruit. On the other hand, L-galactose and D-galacturonate, but not L-gulono-1,4-lactone, resulted in an increase in the AsA content of red ripened fruits. Crude extract prepared from insoluble fractions of green and red fruits showed D-galacturonate reductase- and aldonolactonase-specific activities, the antepenultimate and penultimate enzymes, respectively, in the D-galacturonate pathway, in both fruits. Taken together, the present findings demonstrated that tomato fruits could switch between different sources for AsA supply depending on their ripening stages. The translocation from source leaves and biosynthesis via the D-mannose/L-galactose pathway are dominant sources in immature fruits, while the alternative D-galacturonate pathway contributes to AsA accumulation in ripened Micro-Tom fruits. PMID:21984649

  11. Translocation and the alternative D-galacturonate pathway contribute to increasing the ascorbate level in ripening tomato fruits together with the D-mannose/L-galactose pathway

    PubMed Central

    Badejo, Adebanjo Ayobamidele; Wada, Keiko; Gao, Yongshun; Maruta, Takanori; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The D-mannose/L-galactose pathway for the biosynthesis of vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid; AsA) has greatly improved the understanding of this indispensable compound in plants, where it plays multifunctional roles. However, it is yet to be proven whether the same pathway holds for all the different organs of plants, especially the fruit-bearing plants, at different stages of development. Micro-Tom was used here to elucidate the mechanisms of AsA accumulation and regulation in tomato fruits. The mRNA expression of the genes in the D-mannose/L-galactose pathway were inversely correlated with increasing AsA content of Micro-Tom fruits during ripening. Feeding L-[6-14C]AsA to Micro-Tom plants revealed that the bulk of the label from AsA accumulated in the source leaf was transported to the immature green fruits, and the rate of translocation decreased as ripening progressed. L-Galactose feeding, but neither D-galacturonate nor L-gulono-1,4-lactone, enhanced the content of AsA in immature green fruit. On the other hand, L-galactose and D-galacturonate, but not L-gulono-1,4-lactone, resulted in an increase in the AsA content of red ripened fruits. Crude extract prepared from insoluble fractions of green and red fruits showed D-galacturonate reductase- and aldonolactonase-specific activities, the antepenultimate and penultimate enzymes, respectively, in the D-galacturonate pathway, in both fruits. Taken together, the present findings demonstrated that tomato fruits could switch between different sources for AsA supply depending on their ripening stages. The translocation from source leaves and biosynthesis via the D-mannose/L-galactose pathway are dominant sources in immature fruits, while the alternative D-galacturonate pathway contributes to AsA accumulation in ripened Micro-Tom fruits. PMID:21984649

  12. Purification, some properties of a D-galactose-binding leaf lectin from Erythrina indica and further characterization of seed lectin.

    PubMed

    Konozy, Emadeldin H E; Mulay, Ranjana; Faca, Vitor; Ward, Richard John; Greene, Lewis Joel; Roque-Barriera, Maria Cristina; Sabharwal, Sushma; Bhide, Shobhana V

    2002-10-01

    Lectin from a leaf of Erythrina indica was isolated by affinity chromatography on Lactamyl-Seralose 4B. Lectin gave a single band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). In SDS-gel electrophoresis under reducing and non-reducing conditions Erythrina indica leaf lectin (EiLL) split into two bands with subunit molecular weights of 30 and 33 kDa, whereas 58 kDa was obtained for the intact lectin by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. EiLL agglutinated all human RBC types, with a slight preference for the O blood group. Lectin was found to be a glycoprotein with a neutral sugar content of 9.5%. The carbohydrate specificity of lectin was directed towards D-galactose and its derivatives with pronounced preference for lactose. EiLL had pH optima at pH 7.0; above and below this pH lectin lost sugar-binding capability rapidly. Lectin showed broad temperature optima from 25 to 50 degrees C; however, at 55 degrees C EiLL lost more than 90% of its activity and at 60 degrees C it was totally inactivated. The pI of EiLL was found to be 7.6. The amino acid analysis of EiLL indicated that the lectin was rich in acidic as well as hydrophobic amino acids and totally lacked cysteine and methionine. The N-terminal amino acids were Val-Glu-Thr-IIe-Ser-Phe-Ser-Phe-Ser-Glu-Phe-Glu-Ala-Gly-Asn-Asp-X-Leu-Thr-Gln-Glu-Gly-Ala-Ala-Leu-. Chemical modification studies of both EiLL and Erythrina indica seed lectin (EiSL) with phenylglyoxal, DEP and DTNB revealed an absence of arginine, histidine and cysteine, respectively, in or near the ligand-binding site of both lectins. Modification of tyrosine with NAI led to partial inactivation of EiLL and EiSL; however, total inactivation was observed upon NBS-modification of two tryptophan residues in EiSL. Despite the apparent importance of these tryptophan residues for lectin activity they did not seem to have a direct role in binding haptenic sugar as D-galactose did not protect lectin from inactivation by NBS. PMID:12504284

  13. A reinvestigation of the secondary structure of functionally active vSGLT, the vibrio sodium/galactose cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Turk, Eric; Gasymov, Oktay K; Lanza, Seren; Horwitz, Joseph; Wright, Ernest M

    2006-02-01

    The bacterial Na(+)/galactose cotransporter vSGLT of Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a member of the sodium:solute symporter family (SSS). Previous studies using electron microscopy have shown that vSGLT is a monomeric protein. Computational and experimental topological analyses have consistently indicated that this protein possesses 14 transmembrane alpha-helices. Our previous study using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to quantitate secondary structure content had indicated, in contrast, an alpha-helical content of only 35%, too little to be consistent with the 14-span model [le Coutre, J., et al. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 8082-6]. ATR-FTIR had also indicated that upon binding of Na(+) and d-galactose, the alpha-helical content increased to 53%. Here we revisit the vSGLT secondary structural distribution using an alternative approach, ultraviolet circular dichroism spectropolarimetry (CD), which is highly accurate in determining the alpha-helical content of a protein in solution. CD spectra were obtained from actively functional, soluble vSGLT and, as an internal check, from a fusion protein of vSGLT and the beta-barrel green fluorescent protein (GFP). Far-UV CD of vSGLT indicates a predominating 85% alpha-helical content, and an absence of beta-strands. Far-UV CD of the vSGLT-GFP fusion corroborates this profile, indicating an equivalent alpha-helical content, and a beta-strand content consistent with the GFP contribution. No detectable substrate-induced macroscopic changes in secondary structure are apparent in the far UV. In the near UV, increases in positive CD intensity occur in a stepwise manner with added substrates, implying changing environments of aromatic amino acid residues. CD thus confirms the current 14-transmembrane span model of vSGLT and reveals distinct substrate-induced conformational changes. The high percentage of alpha-helical structure found requires, when considered in the context of membrane

  14. Computer-Aided Identification of Trypanosoma brucei Uridine Diphosphate Galactose 4′-Epimerase Inhibitors: Toward the Development of Novel Therapies for African Sleeping Sickness

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis, affects tens of thousands of sub-Saharan Africans. As current therapeutics are inadequate due to toxic side effects, drug resistance, and limited effectiveness, novel therapies are urgently needed. UDP-galactose 4′-epimerase (TbGalE), an enzyme of the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism, is one promising T. brucei drug target. We here use the relaxed complex scheme, an advanced computer-docking methodology that accounts for full protein flexibility, to identify inhibitors of TbGalE. An initial hit rate of 62% was obtained at 100 μM, ultimately leading to the identification of 14 low-micromolar inhibitors. Thirteen of these inhibitors belong to a distinct series with a conserved binding motif that may prove useful in future drug design and optimization. PMID:20527952

  15. Identification of concanavalin A receptors and galactose-binding proteins in purified plasma membranes of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    West, C M; McMahon, D

    1977-07-01

    Two techniques have been modified to provide simple means for the identification of molecules which bind concanavalin A (Con A). Crossed immunoelectrophoresis was altered by replacing antibody with Con A, and receptors were identified by the precipitin arcs which they produced. Con A, tagged with fluorescein isothiocyanate, was also diffused into prefixed sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gels, and additional receptors identified by fluorescence. More than 35 molecules in the plasma membranes of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum which bind Con A were identified with these techniques. At least 12 of these diminish and 12 increase in importance as receptors during differentiation of the cells from the vegetative to the preculmination stage of development. In the course of these experiments, it was possible to confirm the presence of the galactose-binding protein discoidin, in the plasma membrane, by electrophoresing membrane proteins into an agarose gel. This lectin regains its sugar-binding activity after denaturation and electrophoresis in SDS. PMID:559679

  16. Antioxidant effects of the orientin and vitexin in Trollius chinensis Bunge in D-galactose-aged mice★

    PubMed Central

    An, Fang; Yang, Guodong; Tian, Jiaming; Wang, Shuhua

    2012-01-01

    Total flavonoids are the main pharmaceutical components of Trollius chinensis Bunge, and orientin and vitexin are the monomer components of total flavonoids in Trollius chinensis Bunge. In this study, an aged mouse model was established through intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose for 8 weeks, followed by treatment with 40, 20, or 10 mg/kg orientin, vitexin, or a positive control (vitamin E) via intragastric administration for an additional 8 weeks. Orientin, vitexin, and vitamin E improved the general medical status of the aging mice and significantly increased their brain weights. They also produced an obvious rise in total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels in the serum, and the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, Na+-K+-ATP enzyme, and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATP enzyme in the liver, brain and kidneys. In addition, they significantly reduced malondialdehyde levels in the liver, brain and kidney and lipofuscin levels in the brain. They also significantly improved the neuronal ultrastructure. The 40 mg/kg dose of orientin and vitexin had the same antioxidant capacity as vitamin E. These experimental findings indicate that orientin and vitexin engender anti-aging effects through their antioxidant capacities. PMID:25368632

  17. A beta-galactose-specific lectin isolated from the marine worm Chaetopterus variopedatus possesses anti-HIV-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Hua; Kong, Jing; Li, Wei; Molchanova, Valentina; Chikalovets, Irina; Belogortseva, Natalia; Luk'yanov, Pavel; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2006-01-01

    A 30 kDa beta-galactose-specific lectin named CVL was isolated from the polychaete marine worm Chaetopterus variopedatus (Annelida) and its anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro was determined. Results showed that CVL inhibited cytopathic effect induced by HIV-1 and the production of viral p24 antigen. The EC(50) values were 0.0043 and 0.057 microM, respectively. Time-of-addition analysis of anti-HIV-1 activity indicated its action was at the early stage of virus replication. CVL could blocked the cell-to-cell fusion process of HIV infected and uninfected cells with an EC(50) of 0.073 microM. The inhibition of HIV-1 entry into host cells was demonstrated by using fluorescence-based real-time quantify PCR. At CVL concentration of 0.33 microM and 0.07 microM, 86% and 21% virus attachment were blocked, respectively. The anti-HIV-1 action of CVL might relate to blockade of HIV-1 entry into cells. PMID:16316787

  18. The Macrophage Galactose-Type Lectin Can Function as an Attachment and Entry Receptor for Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wy Ching; Liong, Stella; Tate, Michelle D.; Irimura, Tatsuro; Denda-Nagai, Kaori; Brooks, Andrew G.; Londrigan, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    Specific protein receptors that mediate internalization and entry of influenza A virus (IAV) have not been identified for any cell type. Sialic acid (SIA), the primary attachment factor for IAV hemagglutinin, is expressed by numerous cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids, confounding efforts to identify specific receptors involved in virus infection. Lec1 Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) epithelial cells express cell surface SIA and bind IAV yet are largely resistant to infection. Here, we demonstrate that expression of the murine macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (MGL1) by Lec1 cells enhanced Ca2+-dependent IAV binding and restored permissivity to infection. Lec1 cells expressing MGL1 were infected in the presence or absence of cell surface SIA, indicating that MGL1 can act as a primary receptor or as a coreceptor with SIA. Lec1 cells expressing endocytosis-deficient MGL1 mediated Ca2+-dependent IAV binding but were less sensitive to IAV infection, indicating that direct internalization via MGL1 can result in cellular infection. Together, these studies identify MGL1 as a cell surface glycoprotein that can act as an authentic receptor for both attachment and infectious entry of IAV. PMID:24257596

  19. An ectonucleotide ATP-diphosphohydrolase activity in Trichomonas vaginalis stimulated by galactose and its possible role in virulence.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, José Batista; de Sá Pinheiro, Ana Acacia; Lopes, Angela H C S; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2002-01-01

    This work describes the ability of living Trichomonas vaginalis to hydrolyze extracellular ATP (164.0 +/- 13.9 nmol Pi/h x 10(7) cells). This ecto-enzyme was stimulated by ZnCl2, CaCl2 and MgCl2, was insensitive to several ATPase and phosphatase inhibitors and was able to hydrolyze several nucleotides besides ATP. The activity was linear with cell density and with time for at least 60 min. The optimum pH for the T. vaginalis ecto-ATPase lies in the alkaline range. D-galactose, known to be involved in adhesion of T. vaginalis to host cells, stimulated this enzyme by more than 90%. A comparison between two strains of T. vaginalis showed that the ecto-ATPase activity of a fresh isolate was twice as much as that of a strain axenically maintained in culture, through daily passages, for several years. The results suggest a possible role for this ecto-ATPase in adhesion of T. vaginalis to host cells and in its pathogenicity. PMID:12440729

  20. Cerebralcare Granule(®), a Chinese Herb Compound Preparation, Attenuates D-Galactose Induced Memory Impairment in Mice.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhuo; Yang, Honggai; Zhang, Jingze; Huo, Liqin; Chen, Hong; Li, Yuming; Liu, Changxiao; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-09-01

    Cerebralcare granule(®) (CG) is a preparation of Traditional Chinese Medicine that widely used in China. It was approved by the China State Food and Drug Administration for treatment of headache and dizziness associated with cerebrovascular diseases. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether CG had protective effect against D-galactose (gal)-induced memory impairment and to explore the mechanism of its action. D-gal was administered (100 mg/kg, subcutaneously) once daily for 8 weeks to induced memory deficit and neurotoxicity in the brain of aging mouse and CG (7.5, 15, and 30 g/kg) were simultaneously administered orally. The present study demonstrates that CG can alleviate aging in the mouse brain induced by D-gal through improving behavioral performance and reducing brain cell damage in the hippocampus. CG prevents aging mainly via suppression of oxidative stress response, such as decreasing NO and MDA levels, renewing activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx, as well as decreasing AChE activity in the brain of D-gal-treated mice. In addition, CG prevents aging through inhibiting NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response and caspase-3-medicated neurodegeneration in the brain of D-gal treated mice. Taken together, these data clearly demonstrates that subcutaneous injection of D-gal produced memory deficit, meanwhile CG can protect neuron from D-gal insults and improve memory ability. PMID:27161371

  1. sup 19 F NMR studies of the D-galactose chemosensory receptor. (1) Sugar binding yields a global structural change

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, L.A.; Falke, J.J. )

    1991-04-30

    The Escherichia coli D-galactose and D-glucose receptor is an aqueous sugar-binding protein and the first component in the distinct chemosensory and transport pathways for these sugars. Activation of the receptor occurs when the sugar binds and induces a conformational change, which in turn enable docking to specific membrane proteins. Only the structure of the activated receptor containing bound D-glucose is known. To investigate the sugar-induced structural change, the authors have used {sup 19}F NMR to probe 12 sites widely distributed in the receptor molecule. Five sites are tryptophan positions probed by incorporation of 5-fluorotryptophan; the resulting {sup 19}F NMR resonances were assigned by site-directed mutagenesis. The other seven sites are phenylalanine positions probed by incorporation of 3-fluorophenylaline. Sugar binding to the substrate binding cleft was observed to trigger a global structural change detected via {sup 19}F NMR frequency shifts at 10 of the 12 labeled sites. The results are consistent with a model in which multiple secondary structural elements, known to extend between the substrate cleft and the protein surface, undergo shifts in their average positions upon sugar binding to the cleft. Such structural coupling provides a mechanism by which sugar binding to the substrate cleft can cause structural changes at one or more docking sites on the receptor surface.

  2. Antioxidant effects of the orientin and vitexin in Trollius chinensis Bunge in D-galactose-aged mice.

    PubMed

    An, Fang; Yang, Guodong; Tian, Jiaming; Wang, Shuhua

    2012-11-25

    Total flavonoids are the main pharmaceutical components of Trollius chinensis Bunge, and orientin and vitexin are the monomer components of total flavonoids in Trollius chinensis Bunge. In this study, an aged mouse model was established through intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose for 8 weeks, followed by treatment with 40, 20, or 10 mg/kg orientin, vitexin, or a positive control (vitamin E) via intragastric administration for an additional 8 weeks. Orientin, vitexin, and vitamin E improved the general medical status of the aging mice and significantly increased their brain weights. They also produced an obvious rise in total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels in the serum, and the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, Na(+)-K(+)-ATP enzyme, and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATP enzyme in the liver, brain and kidneys. In addition, they significantly reduced malondialdehyde levels in the liver, brain and kidney and lipofuscin levels in the brain. They also significantly improved the neuronal ultrastructure. The 40 mg/kg dose of orientin and vitexin had the same antioxidant capacity as vitamin E. These experimental findings indicate that orientin and vitexin engender anti-aging effects through their antioxidant capacities. PMID:25368632

  3. Unraveling the Conformational Landscape of Ligand Binding to Glucose/Galactose-Binding Protein by Paramagnetic NMR and MD Simulations.

    PubMed

    Unione, Luca; Ortega, Gabriel; Mallagaray, Alvaro; Corzana, Francisco; Pérez-Castells, Javier; Canales, Angeles; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Millet, Oscar

    2016-08-19

    Protein dynamics related to function can nowadays be structurally well characterized (i.e., instances obtained by high resolution structures), but they are still ill-defined energetically, and the energy landscapes are only accessible computationally. This is the case for glucose-galactose binding protein (GGBP), where the crystal structures of the apo and holo states provide structural information for the domain rearrangement upon ligand binding, while the time scale and the energetic determinants for such concerted dynamics have been so far elusive. Here, we use GGBP as a paradigm to define a functional conformational landscape, both structurally and energetically, by using an innovative combination of paramagnetic NMR experiments and MD simulations. Anisotropic NMR parameters induced by self-alignment of paramagnetic metal ions was used to characterize the ensemble of conformations adopted by the protein in solution while the rate of interconversion between conformations was elucidated by long molecular dynamics simulation on two states of GGBP, the closed-liganded (holo_cl) and open-unloaded (apo_op) states. Our results demonstrate that, in its apo state, the protein coexists between open-like (68%) and closed-like (32%) conformations, with an exchange rate around 25 ns. Despite such conformational heterogeneity, the presence of the ligand is the ultimate driving force to unbalance the equilibrium toward the holo_cl form, in a mechanism largely governed by a conformational selection mechanism. PMID:27219646

  4. A Laterally Acquired Galactose Oxidase-Like Gene Is Required for Aerial Development during Osmotic Stress in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Liman, Recep; Facey, Paul D.; van Keulen, Geertje; Dyson, Paul J.; Del Sol, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that most Actinobacterial orthologs of S. coelicolor SCO2837, encoding a metal-dependent galactose oxidase-like protein, are found within Streptomyces and were probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer from fungi. Disruption of SCO2837 (glxA) caused a conditional bld phenotype that could not be reversed by extracellular complementation. Studies aimed at characterising the regulation of expression of glxA showed that it is not a target for other bld genes. We provide evidence that glxA is required for osmotic adaptation, although independently from the known osmotic stress response element SigB. glxA has been predicted to be part of an operon with the transcription unit comprising the upstream cslA gene and glxA. However, both phenotypic and expression studies indicate that it is also expressed from an independent promoter region internal to cslA. GlxA displays an in situ localisation pattern similar to that one observed for CslA at hyphal tips, but localisation of the former is independent of the latter. The functional role of GlxA in relation to CslA is discussed. PMID:23326581

  5. Lignans from Schisandra chinensis ameliorate cognition deficits and attenuate brain oxidative damage induced by D-galactose in rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingxu; Shang, Lei; Wang, Mengshi; Zhang, Chenning; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the neuroprotective effects of active compounds from Schisandra chinensis (Trucz.) Baill. (Magnoliaceae) against the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced neurotoxicity in rat. The Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with D-gal (150 mg/(kg day)) for six weeks and orally administered with water extract or 95 % ethanol extract (partitioned with petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EA) and n-Butanol (NB), respectively) of the fruits of Schisandra chinensis simultaneously. The alteration of cognitive functions was assessed by using Morris water maze and Step-down type passive avoidance test. The results demonstrated that PE fraction was the most effective fraction to ameliorate cognitive deficits. Further biochemical examination indicated that PE could attenuate the activities decreasing of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), the total antioxidant (T-AOC) induced by D-gal, and maintain the normal levels of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the serum, prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of the brain of related rat, selectively. Meanwhile, the compounds of PE fraction were also identified as mainly lignans, thus, these results suggest that lignans from the PE fraction of Schisandra chinensis represented a potential source of medicine for the treatment of the aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26847610

  6. New mutations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that partially relieve both glucose and galactose repression activate the protein kinase Snf1.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Cristina; Sanz, Pascual; Gancedo, Carlos

    2003-03-01

    We isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae two mutants, esc1-1 and ESC3-1, in which genes FBP1, ICL1 or GDH2 were partially derepressed during growth in glucose or galactose. The isolation was done starting with a triple mutant pyc1 pyc2 mth1 unable to grow in glucose-ammonium medium and selecting for mutants able to grow in the non-permissive medium. HXT1 and HXT2 which encode glucose transporters were expressed at high glucose concentrations in both esc1-1 and ESC3-1 mutants, while derepression of invertase at low glucose concentrations was impaired. REG1, cloned as a suppressor of ESC3-1, was not allelic to ESC3-1. Two-hybrid analysis showed an increased interaction of the protein kinase Snf1 with Snf4 in the ESC3-1 mutant; this was not due to mutations in SNF1 or SNF4. ESC3-1 did not bypass the requirement of Snf1 for derepression. We hypothesize that ESC3-1 either facilitates activation of Snf1 or interferes with its glucose-dependent inactivation. PMID:12702249

  7. Allergy to Red Meat: A Diagnosis Made by the Patient and Confirmed by an Assay for IgE Antibodies Specific for Alpha-1,3-Galactose.

    PubMed

    Kaloga, Mamadou; Kourouma, Sarah; Kouassi, Yao Isidore; Ecra, Elidje Joseph; Gbery, Ildevert Patrice; Allou, Ange S; Diabate, Almamy; Djeha, Djokouehi; Sangaré, Abdoulaye; Yoboue, Yao Pauline

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of allergy to red meat observed in Ivory Coast. A 49-year-old male presented with pruritus. The diagnosis of allergy to red meat was confirmed by an assay for IgE antibodies specific for alpha-1,3 galactose. Interestingly, the disease was considered a spell to the patient who was suspected of being a sorcerer by the community. PMID:26933408

  8. Genome Sequence of Vibrio sp. Strain EJY3, an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium Metabolizing 3,6-Anhydro-l-Galactose as a Sole Carbon Source

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Hanseong; Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Saeyoung; Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Kim, Sujin; Kim, Byung-Yong; Song, Heesang; Lim, Kwang-il

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic fate of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose (l-AHG) is unknown in the global marine carbon cycle. Vibrio sp. strain EJY3 is an agarolytic marine bacterium that can utilize l-AHG as a sole carbon source. To elucidate the metabolic pathways of l-AHG, we have sequenced the complete genome of Vibrio sp. strain EJY3. PMID:22535948

  9. Histochemical localization of galactose-containing glycoconjugates in sensory neurons and their processes in the central and peripheral nervous system of the rat.

    PubMed

    Streit, W J; Schulte, B A; Balentine, D J; Spicer, S S

    1985-10-01

    We studied the distribution of sugar residues in the oligosaccharide chains of complex carbohydrates in tissue sections of rat spinal cord, brainstem, and sensory ganglia using twelve lectin-horseradish peroxidase conjugates. Glycoconjugates containing terminal galactose residues were localized apparently in the Golgi apparatus in a population of predominantly small B-type neurons in spinal and trigeminal ganglia. Large A-type neurons rarely showed reactivity with galactose-binding lectins. A cells stained for glycoconjugates with N-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides and glycogen. The central and peripheral processes of the small neurons, mostly unmyelinated C fibers in sensory roots and spinal nerves, contained an abundance of glycoconjugates with terminal alpha-galactose residues. The central projections and terminals of small to medium-sized primary sensory neurons in the spinal and trigeminal ganglia were visualized in Lissauer's tract and the substantia gelatinosa in the spinal cord, and in the spinal trigeminal tract and the nucleus trigeminus in the lower medulla with lectins specific for terminal alpha-galactose residues. In addition, fibers of the solitary system and the area postrema were reactive with these lectins. The peripheral and central nervous system elements with affinity for galactopyranosyl-specific lectins correspond in distribution with neuroanatomical regions thought to be involved in the transmission and relay of somatic and visceral afferent inputs such as pain and temperature. Such specific localization of a glycosubstance to a distinct subpopulation of neurons and their peripheral and central processes suggests that the particular glycoconjugate may be of physiological significance. PMID:4045182

  10. L-arabinose/D-galactose 1-dehydrogenase of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii characterised and applied for bioconversion of L-arabinose to L-arabonate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Aro-Kärkkäinen, Niina; Toivari, Mervi; Maaheimo, Hannu; Ylilauri, Mikko; Pentikäinen, Olli T; Andberg, Martina; Oja, Merja; Penttilä, Merja; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Ruohonen, Laura; Koivula, Anu

    2014-12-01

    Four potential dehydrogenases identified through literature and bioinformatic searches were tested for L-arabonate production from L-arabinose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The most efficient enzyme, annotated as a D-galactose 1-dehydrogenase from the pea root nodule bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, was purified from S. cerevisiae as a homodimeric protein and characterised. We named the enzyme as a L-arabinose/D-galactose 1-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.-), Rl AraDH. It belongs to the Gfo/Idh/MocA protein family, prefers NADP(+) but uses also NAD(+) as a cofactor, and showed highest catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) towards L-arabinose, D-galactose and D-fucose. Based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and modelling studies, the enzyme prefers the α-pyranose form of L-arabinose, and the stable oxidation product detected is L-arabino-1,4-lactone which can, however, open slowly at neutral pH to a linear L-arabonate form. The pH optimum for the enzyme was pH 9, but use of a yeast-in-vivo-like buffer at pH 6.8 indicated that good catalytic efficiency could still be expected in vivo. Expression of the Rl AraDH dehydrogenase in S. cerevisiae, together with the galactose permease Gal2 for L-arabinose uptake, resulted in production of 18 g of L-arabonate per litre, at a rate of 248 mg of L-arabonate per litre per hour, with 86 % of the provided L-arabinose converted to L-arabonate. Expression of a lactonase-encoding gene from Caulobacter crescentus was not necessary for L-arabonate production in yeast. PMID:25236800

  11. Protective Effects of Selenium, Vitamin E, and Purple Carrot Anthocyanins on D-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Damage in Blood, Liver, Heart and Kidney Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Zhang, Yunlong; Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Yong; Qin, Yan; Deng, Zeyuan; Li, Hongyan

    2016-10-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the protective effects of selenium (Se), vitamin E (Vit E) and anthocyanins from purple carrots and their combination against the oxidative stress induced by D-galactose in rats. A total of 80 male rats were equally divided into 11 groups, one of which acted as control (I) just receiving intraperitoneal injections of physiological saline. The remaining ten groups (II-XI) were intraperitoneally injected with D-galactose at a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW) per day for 42 consecutive days. Rats in groups III-XI were treated with antioxidants via gavage per day as follows: group III: Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSC), IV: Se as sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), V: Se-enriched yeast (SeY), VI: Vit E as α-tocopherol acetate, VII: anthocyanin from purple carrots (APC), VIII: APC + Vit E, IX: SeMSC + APC+ Vit E, X: Na2SeO3 + APC + Vit E, XI: SeY + Ant + Vit E. The results showed that the rats treated with antioxidants (III-XI) showed significant decreases in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl protein (PCO) compared with the D-galactose-treated group (II) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood. Moreover, there were significant increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH) concentration, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood of antioxidant-treated animals (III-XI) than those in control group (I). In addition, the combined treatments of two or three antioxidants showed greater antioxidant activities than those of individual treatments, suggesting the synergistic antioxidant effects of Se, Vit E, and APC. In conclusion, all the antioxidants exhibited protective effects against D-galactose-induced oxidative damage in rats, and these antioxidants showed a synergistic effect. PMID:27025718

  12. Correlation of Activities of the Enzymes α-Phosphoglucomutase, UDP-Galactose 4-Epimerase, and UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase with Exopolysaccharide Biosynthesis by Streptococcus thermophilus LY03

    PubMed Central

    Degeest, Bart; De Vuyst, Luc

    2000-01-01

    The effects of different carbohydrates or mixtures of carbohydrates as substrates on bacterial growth and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production were studied for the yoghurt starter culture Streptococcus thermophilus LY03. This strain produces two heteropolysaccharides with the same monomeric composition (galactose and glucose in the ratio 4:1) but with different molecular masses. Lactose and glucose were fermented by S. thermophilus LY03 only when they were used as sole energy and carbohydrate sources. Fructose was also fermented when it was applied in combination with lactose or glucose. Both the amount of EPS produced and the carbohydrate source consumption rates were clearly influenced by the type of energy and carbohydrate source used, while the EPS monomeric composition remained constant (galactose-glucose, 4:1) under all circumstances. A combination of lactose and glucose resulted in the largest amounts of EPS. Measurements of the activities of enzymes involved in EPS biosynthesis, and of those involved in sugar nucleotide biosynthesis and the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, demonstrated that the levels of activity of α-phosphoglucomutase, UDP-galactose 4-epimerase, and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase are highly correlated with the amount of EPS produced. Furthermore, a weaker relationship or no relationship between the amounts of EPS and the enzymes involved in either the rhamnose nucleotide synthetic branch of the EPS biosynthesis or the pathway leading to glycolysis was observed for S. thermophilus LY03. PMID:10919816

  13. Galactose supplementation enhance sialylation of recombinant Fc-fusion protein in CHO cell: an insight into the role of galactosylation in sialylation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jintao; Wang, Jie; Fan, Li; Chen, Xinning; Hu, Dongdong; Deng, Xiancun; Poon, H Fai; Wang, Haibin; Liu, Xuping; Tan, Wen-Song

    2015-07-01

    Sialic acid levels of therapeutic glycoprotein play an important role in plasma half-life. An undesirable decrease of sialic acid content was observed when we increased Fc-fusion protein productivity fourfold in a GS-CHO cell line by bioprocess optimization. We investigated the potential mechanism for the sialic acid content reduction. We found that limited nucleotide sugar precursor and the extracellular sialidase were not responsible for the reduction of the sialic acid content after titer improvement. Oligosaccharide analysis revealed that the lack of protein galactosylation was the potential cause for the reduction of sialic acid content. Thus we validated this notion by evaluated galactose supplementation in 2 L bioreactors. Cell culture performance was not impacted by addition of up to 40 mM galactose except for the glucose consumption rate. Addition of 20 mM galactose to the bioreactor resulted in the increase of 44 % for total sialic acid content and 20.3 % for sialylated glycans. These data were further validated when the process was run on 200 L scaled bioreactor. These data together show that the galactosylation plays an apparent role in sialylation in our current system. PMID:25931375

  14. Ginkgo Biloba Extract EGB761 Protects against Aging-Associated Diastolic Dysfunction in Cardiomyocytes of D-Galactose-Induced Aging Rat

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Junhong; Chen, Xiangjian; Guo, Changqing; Guo, Yan; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to make use of the artificially induced aging model cardiomyocytes to further investigate potential anti-aging-associated cellular diastolic dysfunction effects of EGB761 and explore underlying molecular mechanisms. Cultured rat primary cardiomyocytes were treated with either D-galactose or D-galactose combined with EGB761 for 48 h. After treatment, the percentage of cells positive for SA-β-gal, AGEs production, cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA) activity, the myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake, and relative protein levels were measured. Our results demonstrated that in vitro stimulation with D-galactose induced AGEs production. The addition of EGB761 significantly decreased the number of cells positive for SA-β-gal. Furthermore, decreased diastolic [Ca2+]i, curtailment of the time from the maximum concentration of Ca2+ to the baseline level and increased reuptake of Ca2+ stores in the SR were also observed. In addition, the level of p-Ser16-PLN protein as well as SERCA was markedly increased. The study indicated that EGb761 alleviates formation of AGEs products on SERCA2a in order to mitigate myocardial stiffness on one hand; on other hand, improve SERCA2a function through increase the amount of Ser16 sites PLN phosphorylation, which two hands finally led to ameliorate diastolic dysfunction of aging cardiomyocytes. PMID:22693651

  15. A galactose-functionalized dendritic siRNA-nanovector to potentiate hepatitis C inhibition in liver cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Abirami; Reddy, B. Uma; Raghav, Nallani; Ravi, Vijay Kumar; Kumar, Anuj; Maiti, Prabal K.; Sood, A. K.; Jayaraman, N.; Das, Saumitra

    2015-10-01

    A RNAi based antiviral strategy holds the promise to impede hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection overcoming the problem of emergence of drug resistant variants, usually encountered in the interferon free direct-acting antiviral therapy. Targeted delivery of siRNA helps minimize adverse `off-target' effects and maximize the efficacy of therapeutic response. Herein, we report the delivery of siRNA against the conserved 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of HCV RNA using a liver-targeted dendritic nano-vector functionalized with a galactopyranoside ligand (DG). Physico-chemical characterization revealed finer details of complexation of DG with siRNA, whereas molecular dynamic simulations demonstrated sugar moieties projecting ``out'' in the complex. Preferential delivery of siRNA to the liver was achieved through a highly specific ligand-receptor interaction between dendritic galactose and the asialoglycoprotein receptor. The siRNA-DG complex exhibited perinuclear localization in liver cells and co-localization with viral proteins. The histopathological studies showed the systemic tolerance and biocompatibility of DG. Further, whole body imaging and immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the preferential delivery of the nucleic acid to mice liver. Significant decrease in HCV RNA levels (up to 75%) was achieved in HCV subgenomic replicon and full length HCV-JFH1 infectious cell culture systems. The multidisciplinary approach provides the `proof of concept' for restricted delivery of therapeutic siRNAs using a target oriented dendritic nano-vector.A RNAi based antiviral strategy holds the promise to impede hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection overcoming the problem of emergence of drug resistant variants, usually encountered in the interferon free direct-acting antiviral therapy. Targeted delivery of siRNA helps minimize adverse `off-target' effects and maximize the efficacy of therapeutic response. Herein, we report the delivery of siRNA against the conserved 5'-untranslated

  16. Bisecting Galactose as a Feature of N-Glycans of Wild-type and Mutant Caenorhabditis elegans*

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shi; Brecker, Lothar; Jin, Chunsheng; Titz, Alexander; Dragosits, Martin; Karlsson, Niclas G.; Jantsch, Verena; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Paschinger, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    The N-glycosylation of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be highly variable and rather complex; it is an example to contradict the existing impression that “simple” organisms possess also a rather simple glycomic capacity. In previous studies in a number of laboratories, N-glycans with up to four fucose residues have been detected. However, although the linkage of three fucose residues to the N,N′-diacetylchitobiosyl core has been proven by structural and enzymatic analyses, the nature of the fourth fucose has remained uncertain. By constructing a triple mutant with deletions in the three genes responsible for core fucosylation (fut-1, fut-6 and fut-8), we have produced a nematode strain lacking products of these enzymes, but still retaining maximally one fucose residue on its N-glycans. Using mass spectrometry and HPLC in conjunction with chemical and enzymatic treatments as well as NMR, we examined a set of α-mannosidase-resistant N-glycans. Within this glycomic subpool, we can reveal that the core β-mannose can be trisubstituted and so carries not only the ubiquitous α1,3- and α1,6-mannose residues, but also a “bisecting” β-galactose, which is substoichiometrically modified with fucose or methylfucose. In addition, the α1,3-mannose can also be α-galactosylated. Our data, showing the presence of novel N-glycan modifications, will enable more targeted studies to understand the biological functions and interactions of nematode glycans. PMID:26002521

  17. Silybum marianum oil attenuates oxidative stress and ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction in mice treated with D-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu Yun; Dong, Ying; Tu, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Zhou, Xing Hua; Xu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Silybum marianum has been used as herbal medicine for the treatment of liver disease, liver cirrhosis, and to prevent liver cancer in Europe and Asia since ancient times. Silybum marianum oil (SMO), a by-product of silymarin production, is rich in essential fatty acids, phospholipids, sterols, and vitamin E. However, it has not been very good development and use. Objective: In the present study, we used olive oil as a control to investigate the antioxidant and anti-aging effect of SMO in D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging mice. Materials and Methods: D-gal was injected intraperitoneally (500 mg/kg body weight daily) for 7 weeks while SMO was simultaneously administered orally. The triglycerides (TRIG) and cholesterol (CHOL) levels were estimated in the serum. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), monoamine oxidase (MAO), malondialdehyde (MDA), caspase-3, and Bcl-2 were determined in the liver and brain. The activities of Na+-K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase, membrane potential (ΔΨm), and membrane fluidity of the liver mitochondrial were estimated. Results: SMO decreased levels of TRIG and CHOL in aging mice. SMO administration elevated the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC, which are suppressed by aging. The levels of MAO and MDA in the liver and brain were reduced by SMO administration in aging mice. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed that SMO significantly decreased the concentration of caspase-3 and improved the activity of Bcl-2 in the liver and brain of aging mice. Furthermore, SMO significantly attenuated the D-gal induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction by improving the activities of Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase, membrane potential (ΔΨm), and membrane fluidity. Conclusion: These results indicate that SMO effectively attenuated oxidative damage and improved apoptosis related factors as well as liver mitochondrial dysfunction in aging mice. PMID:24914315

  18. Serological activity against galactosyl-alpha(1-3)galactose in sera from patients with several kinetoplastida infections.

    PubMed Central

    Avila, J L; Rojas, M; Towbin, H

    1988-01-01

    Using rabbit erythrocyte-derived neutral glycosphingolipids enriched for a defined ceramide pentasaccharide as antigens, we have detected elevated anti-galactosyl-alpha(1-3)galactose (anti-G alpha G) antibody values in patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), chronic Chagas' disease, and Trypanosoma rangeli infections compared with normal subjects or with patients suffering from any of 15 other infectious diseases. The specificity of the G alpha G antibodies was determined by inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, which revealed that several alpha-galactosyl- but not beta-galactosyl-bearing sugars blocked absorption of G alpha G antibodies to the specific antigen used. G alpha G antibodies were mainly distributed between immunoglobulin classes G and M in three Kinetoplastida infections studied, with a lower increase in reactivity detected in immunoglobulin A. Absorption of highly reactive G alpha G antibodies with purified murine laminin and nidogen, two basement membrane proteins, almost abolished G alpha G reactivity, suggesting the identity of anti-G alpha G with laminin and nidogen antibodies previously reported as elevated in Kinetoplastida infections. In ACL, G alpha G antibodies were detected in 71% of patients having skin lesions with a clinical evolution time of 0.5 month. This percentage increased with the time of evolution of skin lesions, reaching 93% in lesions older than 3 months, and tended to decrease inversely to the induration diameter in the skin leishmanin test. It is proposed that similar epitopes may exist on kinetoplast protozoa and that the determination of G alpha G antibodies may be a highly sensitive assay for the detection of humoral responses to Kinetoplastida infections. PMID:2449451

  19. Macrophage Galactose-Type Lectin-1 Deficiency Is Associated with Increased Neutrophilia and Hyperinflammation in Gram-Negative Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Jondle, Christopher N; Sharma, Atul; Simonson, Tanner J; Larson, Benjamin; Mishra, Bibhuti B; Sharma, Jyotika

    2016-04-01

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), the carbohydrate-recognizing molecules, orchestrate host immune response in homeostasis and in inflammation. In the present study we examined the function of macrophage galactose-type lectin-1 (MGL1), a mammalian CLR, in pneumonic sepsis, a deadly immune disorder frequently associated with a nonresolving hyperinflammation. In a murine model of pneumonic sepsis using pulmonary infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae, the expression of MGL1 was upregulated in the lungs of K. pneumoniae-infected mice, and the deficiency of this CLR in MGL1(-/-) mice resulted in significantly increased mortality to infection than in the MGL1-sufficient wild-type mice, despite a similar bacterial burden. The phagocytic cells from MGL1(-/-) mice did not exhibit any defects in bacterial uptake and intracellular killing and were fully competent in neutrophil extracellular trap formation, a recently identified extracellular killing modality of neutrophils. Instead, the increased susceptibility of MGL1(-/-) mice seemed to correlate with severe lung pathology, indicating that MGL1 is required for resolution of pulmonary inflammation. Indeed, the MGL1(-/-) mice exhibited a hyperinflammatory response, massive pulmonary neutrophilia, and an increase in neutrophil-associated immune mediators. Concomitantly, MGL1-deficient neutrophils exhibited an increased influx in pneumonic lungs of K. pneumoniae-infected mice. Taken together, these results show a previously undetermined role of MGL1 in controlling neutrophilia during pneumonic infection, thus playing an important role in resolution of inflammation. To our knowledge, this is the first study depicting a protective function of MGL1 in an acute pneumonic bacterial infection. PMID:26912318

  20. Transplanted Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Ameliorate Testicular Dysfunction In A D-Galactose-Induced Aging Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Du, Yi-Kuan; Wang, Jun; Luan, Ping; Yang, Qin-Lao; Huang, Wen-Hua; Yuan, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Glycation product accumulation during aging of slowly renewing tissues may be an important mechanism underlying aging of the testis. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have shown promise in a novel tissue regenerative technique and may have utility in treating sexual dysfunction. ADSCs have also been found to be effective in antiaging therapy, although the mechanism underlying their effects remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate the anti-aging effect of ADSCs in a D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging animal model and to clarify the underlying mechanism. Randomly selected 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were subcutaneously injected with D-gal daily for 8 weeks. Two weeks after completion of treatment, D-gal-induced aging rats were randomized to receive caudal vein injections of 3 × 10(6) 5-bromo 2'deoxy-uridine-labeled ADSCs or an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline. Serum testosterone level, steroidogenic enzymes (3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased significantly in aging rats compared with the control group; serum lipid peroxidation, spermatogenic cell apoptosis, and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) expression increased significantly. ADSCs increased the SOD level and reduced the MDA level in the aging animal model and restored levels of serum testosterone, steroidogenic enzymes, and spermatogenic cell apoptosis. These results demonstrate that ADSCs can contribute to testicular regeneration during aging. ADSCs also provide functional benefits through glycation suppression and antioxidant effects in a rat model of aging. Although some ADSCs differentiated into Leydig cells, the paracrine pathway seems to play a main role in this process, resulting in the reduction of apoptosis. PMID:25728126

  1. KSGal6ST Is Essential for the 6-Sulfation of Galactose within Keratan Sulfate in Early Postnatal Brain

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Hitomi; Foyez, Tahmina; Ohtake-Niimi, Shiori; Takeda-Uchimura, Yoshiko; Michikawa, Makoto; Kadomatsu, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Keratan sulfate (KS) comprises repeating disaccharides of galactose (Gal) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). Residues of Gal and GlcNAc in KS are potentially modified with sulfate at their C-6 positions. The 5D4 monoclonal antibody recognizes KS structures containing Gal and GlcNAc, both 6-sulfated, and has been used most extensively to evaluate KS expression in mammalian brains. We previously showed that GlcNAc6ST1 is an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the 5D4 epitope in developing brain and in the adult brain, where it is induced after injury. It has been unclear which sulfotransferase is responsible for Gal-6-sulfation within the 5D4 KS epitope in developing brains. We produced mice deficient in KSGal6ST, a Gal-6-sulfotransferase. Western blotting and immunoprecipitation revealed that all 5D4-immunoreactivity to proteins, including phosphacan, were abolished in KSGal6ST-deficient postnatal brains. Likewise, the 5D4 epitope, expressed primarily in the cortical marginal zone and subplate and dorsal thalamus, was eliminated in KSGal6ST-deficient mice. Disaccharide analysis showed the loss of Gal-6-sulfate in KS of the KSGal6ST-deficient brains. Transfection studies revealed that GlcNAc6ST1 and KSGal6ST cooperated in the expression of the 5D4 KS epitope in HeLa cells. These results indicate that KSGal6ST is essential for C-6 sulfation of Gal within KS in early postnatal brains. PMID:24152993

  2. Manipulation of the rice L-galactose pathway: evaluation of the effects of transgene overexpression on ascorbate accumulation and abiotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-Yun; Liu, Ru-Ru; Zhang, Chang-Quan; Tang, Ke-Xuan; Sun, Ming-Fa; Yan, Guo-Hong; Liu, Qiao-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) is the most abundant water-soluble antioxidant in plants, and it plays a crucial role in plant growth, development and abiotic stress tolerance. In the present study, six key Arabidopsis or rapeseed genes involved in AsA biosynthesis were constitutively overexpressed in an elite Japonica rice cultivar. These genes encoded the GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-mannose-3',5'-epimerase (GME), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP), L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), L-galactose dehydrogenase (GDH), and L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH). The effects of transgene expression on rice leaf AsA accumulation were carefully evaluated. In homozygous transgenic seedlings, AtGGP transgenic lines had the highest AsA contents (2.55-fold greater than the empty vector transgenic control), followed by the AtGME and AtGDH transgenic lines. Moreover, with the exception of the AtGPP lines, the increased AsA content also provoked an increase in the redox state (AsA/DHA ratio). To evaluate salt tolerance, AtGGP and AtGME transgenic seedlings were exposed to salt stress for one week. The relative plant height, root length and fresh weight growth rates were significantly higher for the transgenic lines compared with the control plants. Altogether, our results suggest that GGP may be a key rate-limiting step in rice AsA biosynthesis, and the plants with elevated AsA contents demonstrated enhanced tolerance for salt stress. PMID:25938231

  3. Antisense down-regulation of the strawberry β-galactosidase gene FaβGal4 increases cell wall galactose levels and reduces fruit softening

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, Candelas; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Barceló-Muñoz, Marta; García-Gago, Juan A.; Waldron, Keith W.; Quesada, Miguel A.; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Mercado, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry softening is characterized by an increase in the solubilization and depolymerization of pectins from cell walls. Galactose release from pectin side chains by β-galactosidase enzymes has been proposed as one reason for the increase in soluble pectins. A putative β-galactosidase gene, FaβGal4, has been identified using a custom-made oligonucleotide-based strawberry microarray platform. FaβGal4 was expressed mainly in the receptacle during fruit ripening, and was positively regulated by abscisic acid and negatively regulated by auxins. To ascertain the role of FaβGal4 in strawberry softening, transgenic plants containing an antisense sequence of this gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter were generated. Phenotypic analyses were carried out in transgenic plants during three consecutive growing seasons, using non-transformed plants as control. Two out of nine independent transgenic lines yielded fruits that were 30% firmer than control at the ripe stage. FaβGal4 mRNA levels were reduced by 70% in ripe fruits from these selected transgenic lines, but they also showed significant silencing of FaβGal1, although the genes did not share significant similarity. These two transgenic lines also showed an increase in pectin covalently bound to the cell wall, extracted using Na2CO3. The amount of galactose in cell walls from transgenic fruits was 30% higher than in control; notably, the galactose increase was larger in the 1 M KOH fraction, which is enriched in hemicellulose. These results suggest that FaβGal4 participates in the solubilization of covalently bound pectins during ripening, reducing strawberry fruit firmness. PMID:26585222

  4. Galactose 6-O-sulfotransferases are not required for the generation of Siglec-F ligands in leukocytes or lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Patnode, Michael L; Cheng, Chu-Wen; Chou, Chi-Chi; Singer, Mark S; Elin, Matilda S; Uchimura, Kenji; Crocker, Paul R; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Rosen, Steven D

    2013-09-13

    Eosinophil accumulation is a characteristic feature of the immune response to parasitic worms and allergens. The cell surface carbohydrate-binding receptor Siglec-F is highly expressed on eosinophils and negatively regulates their accumulation during inflammation. Although endogenous ligands for Siglec-F have yet to be biochemically defined, binding studies using glycan arrays have implicated galactose 6-O-sulfate (Gal6S) as a partial recognition determinant for this receptor. Only two sulfotransferases are known to generate Gal6S, namely keratan sulfate galactose 6-O-sulfotransferase (KSGal6ST) and chondroitin 6-O-sulfotransferase 1 (C6ST-1). Here we use mice deficient in both KSGal6ST and C6ST-1 to determine whether these sulfotransferases are required for the generation of endogenous Siglec-F ligands. First, we characterize ligand expression on leukocyte populations and find that ligands are predominantly expressed on cell types also expressing Siglec-F, namely eosinophils, neutrophils, and alveolar macrophages. We also detect Siglec-F ligand activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid fractions containing polymeric secreted mucins, including MUC5B. Consistent with these observations, ligands in the lung increase dramatically during infection with the parasitic nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, which is known to induce eosinophil accumulation and mucus production. Surprisingly, Gal6S is undetectable in sialylated glycans from eosinophils and BAL fluid analyzed by mass spectrometry. Furthermore, none of the ligands we describe are diminished in mice lacking KSGal6ST and C6ST-1, indicating that neither of the known galactose 6-O-sulfotransferases is required for ligand synthesis. These results establish that ligands for Siglec-F are present on several cell types that are relevant during allergic lung inflammation and argue against the widely held view that Gal6S is critical for glycan recognition by this receptor. PMID:23880769

  5. Anti-Apoptotic and Pro-Survival Effect of Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF) in a d-Galactose-Induced Aging Heart

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yung-Ming; Chang, Hen-Hong; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lin, Hung-Jen; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Padma Viswanadha, Vijaya; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Chen, Ray-Jade; Chang, Hsin-Nung; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Aging, a natural biological/physiological phenomenon, is accelerated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and identified by a progressive decrease in physiological function. Several studies have shown a positive relationship between aging and chronic heart failure (HF). Cardiac apoptosis was found in age-related diseases. We used a traditional Chinese medicine, Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF), to evaluate its effect on cardiac anti-apoptosis and pro-survival. Male eight-week-old Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were segregated into five groups: normal control group (NC), d-Galactose-Induced aging group (Aging), and AOF of 50 (AL (AOF low)), 100 (AM (AOF medium)), 150 (AH (AOF high)) mg/kg/day. After eight weeks, hearts were measured by an Hematoxylin–Eosin (H&E) stain, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-assays and Western blotting. The experimental results show that the cardiomyocyte apoptotic pathway protein expression increased in the d-Galactose-Induced aging groups, with dose-dependent inhibition in the AOF treatment group (AL, AM, and AH). Moreover, the expression of the pro-survival p-Akt (protein kinase B (Akt)), Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-xL) protein decreased significantly in the d-Galactose-induced aging group, with increased performance in the AOF treatment group with levels of p-IGFIR and p-PI3K (Phosphatidylinositol-3′ kinase (PI3K)) to increase by dosage and compensatory performance. On the other hand, the protein of the Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) pathway expression decreased in the aging groups and showed improvement in the AOF treatment group. Our results suggest that AOF strongly works against ROS-induced aging heart problems. PMID:27043531

  6. Sugar composition of the pectic polysaccharides of charophytes, the closest algal relatives of land-plants: presence of 3-O-methyl-d-galactose residues

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Christina; Gregson, Timothy; Murray, Lorna; Sadler, Ian H.; Fry, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims During evolution, plants have acquired and/or lost diverse sugar residues as cell-wall constituents. Of particular interest are primordial cell-wall features that existed, and in some cases abruptly changed, during the momentous step whereby land-plants arose from charophytic algal ancestors. Methods Polysaccharides were extracted from four charophyte orders [Chlorokybales (Chlorokybus atmophyticus), Klebsormidiales (Klebsormidium fluitans, K. subtile), Charales (Chara vulgaris, Nitella flexilis), Coleochaetales (Coleochaete scutata)] and an early-diverging land-plant (Anthoceros agrestis). ‘Pectins’ and ‘hemicelluloses’, operationally defined as extractable in oxalate (100 °C) and 6 m NaOH (37 °C), respectively, were acid- or Driselase-hydrolysed, and the monosaccharides analysed chromatographically. One unusual monosaccharide, ‘U’, was characterized by 1H/13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and also enzymically. Key Results ‘U’ was identified as 3-O-methyl-d-galactose (3-MeGal). All pectins, except in Klebsormidium, contained acid- and Driselase-releasable galacturonate, suggesting homogalacturonan. All pectins, without exception, released rhamnose and galactose on acid hydrolysis; however, only in ‘higher’ charophytes (Charales, Coleochaetales) and Anthoceros were these sugars also efficiently released by Driselase, suggesting rhamnogalacturonan-I. Pectins of ‘higher’ charophytes, especially Chara, contained little arabinose, instead possessing 3-MeGal. Anthoceros hemicelluloses were rich in glucose, xylose, galactose and arabinose (suggesting xyloglucan and arabinoxylan), none of which was consistently present in charophyte hemicelluloses. Conclusions Homogalacturonan is an ancient streptophyte feature, albeit secondarily lost in Klebsormidium. When conquering the land, the first embryophytes already possessed rhamnogalacturonan-I. In contrast, charophyte and land-plant hemicelluloses differ

  7. Anti-Apoptotic and Pro-Survival Effect of Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF) in a d-Galactose-Induced Aging Heart.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung-Ming; Chang, Hen-Hong; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lin, Hung-Jen; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Padma Viswanadha, Vijaya; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Chen, Ray-Jade; Chang, Hsin-Nung; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Aging, a natural biological/physiological phenomenon, is accelerated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and identified by a progressive decrease in physiological function. Several studies have shown a positive relationship between aging and chronic heart failure (HF). Cardiac apoptosis was found in age-related diseases. We used a traditional Chinese medicine, Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF), to evaluate its effect on cardiac anti-apoptosis and pro-survival. Male eight-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were segregated into five groups: normal control group (NC), d-Galactose-Induced aging group (Aging), and AOF of 50 (AL (AOF low)), 100 (AM (AOF medium)), 150 (AH (AOF high)) mg/kg/day. After eight weeks, hearts were measured by an Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) stain, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-assays and Western blotting. The experimental results show that the cardiomyocyte apoptotic pathway protein expression increased in the d-Galactose-Induced aging groups, with dose-dependent inhibition in the AOF treatment group (AL, AM, and AH). Moreover, the expression of the pro-survival p-Akt (protein kinase B (Akt)), Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-xL) protein decreased significantly in the d-Galactose-induced aging group, with increased performance in the AOF treatment group with levels of p-IGFIR and p-PI3K (Phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase (PI3K)) to increase by dosage and compensatory performance. On the other hand, the protein of the Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) pathway expression decreased in the aging groups and showed improvement in the AOF treatment group. Our results suggest that AOF strongly works against ROS-induced aging heart problems. PMID:27043531

  8. Antisense down-regulation of the strawberry β-galactosidase gene FaβGal4 increases cell wall galactose levels and reduces fruit softening.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, Candelas; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Barceló-Muñoz, Marta; García-Gago, Juan A; Waldron, Keith W; Quesada, Miguel A; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Mercado, José A

    2016-02-01

    Strawberry softening is characterized by an increase in the solubilization and depolymerization of pectins from cell walls. Galactose release from pectin side chains by β-galactosidase enzymes has been proposed as one reason for the increase in soluble pectins. A putative β-galactosidase gene, FaβGal4, has been identified using a custom-made oligonucleotide-based strawberry microarray platform. FaβGal4 was expressed mainly in the receptacle during fruit ripening, and was positively regulated by abscisic acid and negatively regulated by auxins. To ascertain the role of FaβGal4 in strawberry softening, transgenic plants containing an antisense sequence of this gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter were generated. Phenotypic analyses were carried out in transgenic plants during three consecutive growing seasons, using non-transformed plants as control. Two out of nine independent transgenic lines yielded fruits that were 30% firmer than control at the ripe stage. FaβGal4 mRNA levels were reduced by 70% in ripe fruits from these selected transgenic lines, but they also showed significant silencing of FaβGal1, although the genes did not share significant similarity. These two transgenic lines also showed an increase in pectin covalently bound to the cell wall, extracted using Na2CO3. The amount of galactose in cell walls from transgenic fruits was 30% higher than in control; notably, the galactose increase was larger in the 1 M KOH fraction, which is enriched in hemicellulose. These results suggest that FaβGal4 participates in the solubilization of covalently bound pectins during ripening, reducing strawberry fruit firmness. PMID:26585222

  9. A Peptide Mimetic of 5-Acetylneuraminic Acid-Galactose Binds with High Avidity to Siglecs and NKG2D

    PubMed Central

    Eggink, Laura L.; Spyroulias, Georgios A.; Jones, Norman G.; Hanson, Carl V.; Hoober, J. Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified several peptide sequences that mimicked the terminal sugars of complex glycans. Using plant lectins as analogs of lectin-type cell-surface receptors, a tetravalent form of a peptide with the sequence NPSHPLSG, designated svH1C, bound with high avidity to lectins specific for glycans with terminal 5-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac)-galactose (Gal)/N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) sequences. In this report, we show by circular dichroism and NMR spectra that svH1C lacks an ordered structure and thus interacts with binding sites from a flexible conformation. The peptide binds with high avidity to several recombinant human siglec receptors that bind preferentially to Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal, Neu5Ac(α2,6)GalNAc or Neu5Ac(α2,8)Neu5Ac ligands. In addition, the peptide bound the receptor NKG2D, which contains a lectin-like domain that binds Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal. The peptide bound to these receptors with a KD in the range of 0.6 to 1 μM. Binding to these receptors was inhibited by the glycoprotein fetuin, which contains multiple glycans that terminate in Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal or Neu5Ac(α2,6)Gal, and by sialyllactose. Binding of svH1C was not detected with CLEC9a, CLEC10a or DC-SIGN, which are lectin-type receptors specific for other sugars. Incubation of neuraminidase-treated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with svH1C resulted in binding of the peptide to a subset of the CD14+ monocyte population. Tyrosine phosphorylation of siglecs decreased dramatically when peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with 100 nM svH1C. Subcutaneous, alternate-day injections of svH1C into mice induced several-fold increases in populations of several types of immune cells in the peritoneal cavity. These results support the conclusion that svH1C mimics Neu5Ac-containing sequences and interacts with cell-surface receptors with avidities sufficient to induce biological responses at low concentrations. The attenuation of inhibitory receptors suggests that svH1C has

  10. Novel lectin-independent approach to detect galactose-deficient IgA1 in IgA nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yasutake, Junichi; Suzuki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Hiura, Naoko; Yanagawa, Hiroyuki; Makita, Yuko; Kaneko, Etsuji; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background Galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) is a critical effector molecule in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Although many researchers have measured serum levels of Gd-IgA1 using snail helix aspersa agglutinin (HAA) lectin-based assay, the lectin-dependent assay has some serious problems in robustness. In this study, we aimed to establish a more robust and stable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method that uses a specific monoclonal antibody to recognize a hinge region in human Gd-IgA1 (Gd-IgA1 ELISA). Methods Rats were immunized with human Gd-IgA1 hinge region peptide to obtain Gd-IgA1-specific monoclonal antibody KM55. Gd-IgA1 ELISA for specifically detecting serum Gd-IgA1 was consequently constructed. Serum Gd-IgA1 concentrations in human subjects were measured using KM55 ELISA assay. To further confirm specificity of the Gd-IgA1-specific antibody, KM55 was also applied for immunofluorescence staining of glomerular Gd-IgA1 in paraffin-embedded sections of renal biopsy specimens. Results Measurement of serum levels of Gd-IgA1 in human subjects by Gd-IgA1 ELISA revealed increased serum Gd-IgA1 level in patients with IgAN compared with patients with other renal diseases or non-renal diseases. Importantly, the results obtained from Gd-IgA1 ELISA positively correlated with those from the HAA lectin-based assay (R = 0.75). Immunofluorescence staining of renal biopsy specimens with KM55 detected glomerular co-localization of Gd-IgA1 and IgA. Conclusion This novel lectin-independent method with KM55 for measuring serum levels of Gd-IgA1 can pave the way for more convincing diagnosis and activity assessment of IgAN, and can expedite clinical research to better understand this difficult disease. PMID:26109484