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Sample records for galago otolemur garnetti

  1. Subcortical barrelette-like and barreloid-like structures in the prosimian galago (Otolemur garnetti)

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Eva Kille; Liao, Chia-Chi; Qi, Hui-Xin; Balaram, Pooja; Matrov, Denis; Kaas, Jon H.

    2015-01-01

    Galagos are prosimian primates that resemble ancestral primates more than most other extant primates. As in many other mammals, the facial vibrissae of galagos are distributed across the upper and lower jaws and above the eye. In rats and mice, the mystacial macrovibrissae are represented throughout the ascending trigeminal pathways as arrays of cytoarchitecturally distinct modules, with each module having a nearly one-to-one relationship with a specific facial whisker. The macrovibrissal representations are termed barrelettes in the trigeminal somatosensory brainstem, barreloids in the ventroposterior medial subnucleus of the thalamus, and barrels in primary somatosensory cortex. Despite the presence of facial whiskers in all nonhuman primates, barrel-like structures have not been reported in primates. By staining for cytochrome oxidase, Nissl, and vesicular glutamate transporter proteins, we show a distinct array of barrelette-like and barreloid-like modules in the principal sensory nucleus, the spinal trigeminal nucleus, and the ventroposterior medial subnucleus of the galago, Otolemur garnetti. Labeled terminals of primary sensory neurons in the brainstem and cell bodies of thalamocortically projecting neurons demonstrate that barrelette-like and barreloid-like modules are located in areas of these somatosensory nuclei that are topographically consistent with their role in facial touch. Serendipitously, the plane of section that best displays the barreloid-like modules reveals a remarkably distinct homunculus-like patterning which, we believe, is one of the clearest somatotopic maps of an entire body surface yet found. PMID:26038561

  2. Subcortical barrelette-like and barreloid-like structures in the prosimian galago (Otolemur garnetti).

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Eva Kille; Liao, Chia-Chi; Qi, Hui-Xin; Balaram, Pooja; Matrov, Denis; Kaas, Jon H

    2015-06-01

    Galagos are prosimian primates that resemble ancestral primates more than most other extant primates. As in many other mammals, the facial vibrissae of galagos are distributed across the upper and lower jaws and above the eye. In rats and mice, the mystacial macrovibrissae are represented throughout the ascending trigeminal pathways as arrays of cytoarchitecturally distinct modules, with each module having a nearly one-to-one relationship with a specific facial whisker. The macrovibrissal representations are termed barrelettes in the trigeminal somatosensory brainstem, barreloids in the ventroposterior medial subnucleus of the thalamus, and barrels in primary somatosensory cortex. Despite the presence of facial whiskers in all nonhuman primates, barrel-like structures have not been reported in primates. By staining for cytochrome oxidase, Nissl, and vesicular glutamate transporter proteins, we show a distinct array of barrelette-like and barreloid-like modules in the principal sensory nucleus, the spinal trigeminal nucleus, and the ventroposterior medial subnucleus of the galago, Otolemur garnetti. Labeled terminals of primary sensory neurons in the brainstem and cell bodies of thalamocortically projecting neurons demonstrate that barrelette-like and barreloid-like modules are located in areas of these somatosensory nuclei that are topographically consistent with their role in facial touch. Serendipitously, the plane of section that best displays the barreloid-like modules reveals a remarkably distinct homunculus-like patterning which, we believe, is one of the clearest somatotopic maps of an entire body surface yet found. PMID:26038561

  3. Reversible Deactivation of Motor Cortex Reveals Functional Connectivity with Posterior Parietal Cortex in the Prosimian Galago (Otolemur garnettii)

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Dylan F.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Miller, Daniel J.; Kaas, Jon H.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the functional macrocircuitry of frontoparietal networks in the neocortex of prosimian primates (Otolemur garnettii) using a microfluidic thermal regulator to reversibly deactivate selected regions of motor cortex (M1). During deactivation of either forelimb or mouth/face movement domains within M1, we used long-train intracortical microstimulation techniques to evoke movements from the rostral division of posterior parietal cortex (PPCr). We found that deactivation of M1 movement domains in most instances abolished movements evoked in PPCr. The most common effect of deactivating M1 was to abolish evoked movements in a homotopic domain in PPCr. For example, deactivating M1 forelimb lift domains resulted in loss of evoked movement in forelimb domains in PPCr. However, at some sites, we also observed heterotopic effects; deactivating a specific domain in M1 (e.g., forelimb lift) resulted in loss of evoked movement in a different movement domain in PPCr (e.g., hand-to-mouth or eye-blink). At most sites examined in PPCr, rewarming M1 resulted in a reestablishment of the baseline movement at the same amplitude as that observed before cooling. However, at some sites, reactivation did not result in a return to baseline movement or to the full amplitude of the baseline movement. We discuss our findings in the context of frontoparietal circuits and how they may subserve a repertoire of ecologically relevant behaviors. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of primates integrates sensory information used to guide movements. Different modules within PPC and motor cortex (M1) appear to control various motor behaviors (e.g., reaching, defense, and feeding). How these modules work together may vary across species and may explain differences in dexterity and even the capacity for tool use. We investigated the functional connectivity of these modules in galagos, a prosimian primate with relatively simple frontoparietal circuitry. By deactivating a

  4. Vocal activity of lesser galagos (Galago spp.) at zoos.

    PubMed

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan; Štefanská, Lucie; Bolfíková, Barbora Černá; Lhota, Stanislav; Brandl, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Almost nothing is known about the natural vocal behavior of lesser galagos living in zoos. This is perhaps because they are usually kept in nocturnal exhibits separated from the visitors by a transparent and acoustically insulating glass barrier. The aim of the present study was therefore to fill this gap in knowledge of the vocal behavior of lesser galagos from zoos. This knowledge might be beneficial because the vocalizations of these small primates can be used for species determination. We performed a 10-day-long acoustic monitoring of vocal activity in each of seven various groups of Galago senegalensis and G. moholi living at four zoos. We quantitatively evaluated the occurrence of four loud vocalization types present in both species, including the most species-specific advertisement call. We found that qualitative as well as quantitative differences exist in the vocal behavior of the studied groups. We confirmed that the observed vocalization types can be collected from lesser galagos living at zoos, and the success can be increased by selecting larger and more diverse groups. We found two distinct patterns of diel vocal activity in the most vocally active groups. G. senegalensis groups were most vocally active at the beginning and at the end of their activity period, whereas one G. moholi group showed an opposite pattern. The latter is surprising, as it is generally accepted that lesser galagos emit advertisement calls especially at dawn and dusk, i.e., at the beginning and at the end of their diel activity. PMID:26741794

  5. Growth and the development of sexual size dimorphism in lorises and galagos.

    PubMed

    O'Mara, M Teague; Gordon, Adam D; Catlett, Kierstin K; Terranova, Carl J; Schwartz, Gary T

    2012-01-01

    Three fundamental ontogenetic pathways lead to the development of size differences between males and females. Males and females may grow at the same rate for different durations (bimaturism), grow for the same duration at different rates, or grow at a mix of rate and duration differences. While patterns of growth and the development of adult body size are well established for many haplorhines, the extent to which rate and duration differences affect strepsirrhine growth trajectories remains unclear. Here, we present iterative piecewise regression models that describe the ontogeny of adult body mass for males and females of five lorisoid species (i.e., lorises and galagos) from the Duke Lemur Center. We test the hypotheses that, like most haplorhines, sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a result of bimaturism, and males and females of monomorphic species grow at the same rate for a similar duration. We confirm that the galagos in this sample (Galago moholi and Otolemur garnettii) show significant SSD that is achieved through bimaturism. Unlike monomorphic lemurids, the lorises in this sample show a diversity of ontogenetic patterns. Loris tardigradus does follow a lemur-like trajectory to monomorphism but Nycticebuscoucang and Nycticebus pygmaeus achieve larger adult female body sizes through a mixture of rate and duration differences. We show that contrary to previous assumptions, there are patterns of both similarity and difference in growth trajectories of comparably sized lorises and galagos. Furthermore, when ontogenetic profiles of lorisoid and lemurid growth are compared, it is evident that lorisoids grow faster for a shorter period of time. PMID:21989860

  6. Efficacy of auditory enrichment in a prosimian primate (Otolemur garnettii).

    PubMed

    Hanbury, David B; Fontenot, M Babette; Highfill, Lauren E; Bingham, Willie; Bunch, David; Watson, Sheree L

    2009-04-01

    Research suggests that auditory environmental enrichment might reduce abnormal behavior in certain primate species. The authors evaluated the behavioral effects of exposure to music in a prosimian primate (Garnett's bushbaby; Otolemur garnettii). They exposed bushbabies to a Mozart concerto for 15 min per day for 20 d (5 h exposure total), video-recorded them and subsequently analyzed the frequency of subjects' grooming and stereotypic behaviors. The authors compared the data with baseline behavioral data that had been recorded over a 20-d period before the experimental treatment. Neither stereotypy nor grooming behavior varied as a result of exposure to music. These results do not support the hypothesis that auditory enrichment in the form of exposure to music is an effective means of reducing stereotypic behavior in O. garnettii. PMID:19308062

  7. Structural characterization of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides in the milks of strepsirrhine primates: greater galago, aye-aye, Coquerel's sifaka and mongoose lemur.

    PubMed

    Taufik, Epi; Fukuda, Kenji; Senda, Akitsugu; Saito, Tadao; Williams, Cathy; Tilden, Chris; Eisert, Regina; Oftedal, Olav; Urashima, Tadasu

    2012-04-01

    The structures of milk oligosaccharides were characterized for four strepsirrhine primates to examine the extent to which they resemble milk oligosaccharides in other primates. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from milk of the greater galago (Galagidae: Otolemur crassicaudatus), aye-aye (Daubentoniidae: Daubentonia madagascariensis), Coquerel's sifaka (Indriidae: Propithecus coquereli) and mongoose lemur (Lemuridae: Eulemur mongoz), and their chemical structures were characterized by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The oligosaccharide patterns observed among strepsirrhines did not appear to correlate to phylogeny, sociality or pattern of infant care. Both type I and type II neutral oligosaccharides were found in the milk of the aye-aye, but type II predominate over type I. Only type II oligosaccharides were identified in other strepsirrhine milks. α3'-GL (isoglobotriose, Gal(α1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was found in the milks of Coquerel's sifaka and mongoose lemur, which is the first report of this oligosaccharide in the milk of any primate species. 2'-FL (Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was found in the milk of an aye-aye with an ill infant. Oligosaccharides containing the Lewis x epitope were found in aye-aye and mongoose lemur milk. Among acidic oligosaccharides, 3'-N-acetylneuraminyllactose (3'-SL-NAc, Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was found in all studied species, whereas 6'-N-acetylneuraminyllactose (6'-SL-NAc, Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was found in all species except greater galago. Greater galago milk also contained 3'-N-glycolylneuraminyllactose (3'-SL-NGc, Neu5Gc(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc). The finding of a variety of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides in the milks of strepsirrhines, as previously reported for haplorhines, suggests that such constituents are ancient rather than derived features, and are as characteristic of primate lactation is the classic disaccharide, lactose. PMID:22311613

  8. Nonshivering thermogenesis in the African lesser bushbaby, Galago moholi.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Julia; Dausmann, Kathrin H; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi

    2013-10-15

    The capacity for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) plays an important role during arousal from torpid states. Recent data on heterotherms inhabiting warmer regions, however, suggest that passive rewarming reduces the need of metabolic heat production during arousal significantly, leading to the question: to what extent do subtropical or tropical heterotherms depend on NST? The African lesser bushbaby, Galago moholi, enters torpid states as an emergency response only, but otherwise stays normothermic throughout the cold and dry winter season. In addition, this species shows unusual rewarming difficulties during arousal from torpor on cold days. We therefore examined the seasonal adjustments of the capacity for NST of naturally acclimatized G. moholi by stimulation with noradrenaline (NA) injection. Dissection of two adult female bushbabies revealed that G. moholi possesses brown adipose tissue, and NA treatment (0.5 mg kg(-1), s.c.) induced a significant elevation in oxygen consumption compared with control (saline) injection. However, the increase in oxygen consumption following injection of NA was not significantly different between winter and summer. Our results show that the ability to produce heat via NST seems to be available throughout the year and that G. moholi is able to change NST capacity within a very short time frame in response to cold spells. Together with results from studies on other (Afro-)tropical heterotherms, which also indicate low or even absent seasonal difference in NST capacity, this raises the question of whether the definition of NST needs to be refined for (Afro-)tropical mammals. PMID:24068349

  9. Limb growth in captive Galago senegalensis: getting in shape to be an adult.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Melissa S; Nash, Leanne T

    2007-01-01

    Since primate infants are not simply miniature adults, adult shape results from differential growth patterns of individual body segments. Initially an infant relies on its mother for transportation, and later begins independent locomotion. Skeletal growth patterns must meet the functional demands of independent locomotion. In this study we sought to determine whether Galago senegalensis braccatus follow the general primate pattern of decreasing intermembral index (IMI) throughout ontogeny. We also asked whether ontogenetic attainment of adult limb proportions coincides with attainment of independent locomotion, i.e., do infants reach adult limb proportions near the time they begin independent locomotion (approximately 7 weeks of age)? Mixed-longitudinal data were taken from a sample of 10 captive-born Galago senegalensis. Linear lengths of the trunk, arm, forearm, thigh, and leg were measured in the animals from birth until they were approximately 500 days old. The IMI and the ratio of each limb segment to both trunk length and the cube root of body mass were calculated. The results of a Mann-Whitney Wilcoxon rank-sum test for unmatched samples indicate that G. senegalensis do exhibit the primate pattern of decreasing IMI throughout ontogeny, and that the IMIs of infants at the time of initial locomotor independence are significantly higher than those of adult IMIs. Some (but not all) measures of relative limb lengths differed between neonates or 7-week-old infants and adults. Therefore, the hypothesis that infants acquire adult limb proportions by the time they begin independent locomotion is not supported by this study. The current results indicate that ontogenetic shape changes in galagos are a complex process and apparently cannot be explained by simple initial locomotor competency. PMID:17171675

  10. Cortical Connections of the Caudal Portion of Posterior Parietal Cortex in Prosimian Galagos.

    PubMed

    Stepniewska, Iwona; Cerkevich, Christina M; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-06-01

    Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of prosimian galagos includes a rostral portion (PPCr) where electrical stimulation evokes different classes of complex movements from different subregions, and a caudal portion (PPCc) where such stimulation fails to evoke movements in anesthetized preparations ( Stepniewska, Fang et al. 2009). We placed tracer injections into PPCc to reveal patterns of its cortical connections. There were widespread connections within PPCc as well as connections with PPCr and extrastriate visual areas, including V2 and V3. Weaker connections were with dorsal premotor cortex, and the frontal eye field. The connections of different parts of PPCc with visual areas were roughly retinotopic such that injections to dorsal PPCc labeled more neurons in the dorsal portions of visual areas, representing lower visual quadrant, and injections to ventral PPCc labeled more neurons in ventral portions of these visual areas, representing the upper visual quadrant. We conclude that much of the PPCc contains a crude representation of the contralateral visual hemifield, with inputs largely, but not exclusively, from higher-order visual areas that are considered part of the dorsal visuomotor processing stream. As in galagos, the caudal half of PPC was likely visual in early primates, with the rostral PPC half mediating sensorimotor functions. PMID:26088972

  11. A morphological and morphometric study of the prosimian lung: the lesser bushbaby Galago senegalensis.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J N

    1990-01-01

    The lung of the lesser bushbaby (Galago senegalensis) has been investigated morphologically and morphometrically using the transmission and scanning electron microscopes. Grossly and microscopically, the bushbaby lung was found to be essentially similar to that of the other primates and the mammals in general. Subtle morphometric differences were, however, observed, with the bushbaby lung being generally structurally less sophisticated than that of the other primates on which comparable data are available, except for man. The weight-specific surface area of the blood-gas (tissue) barrier in G. senegalensis was 25 cm2 g-1. The thickness of the blood-gas barrier was 0.355 micron and the weight specific total anatomical pulmonary diffusing capacity 0.045 mlO2 sec-1 mbar1 kg-1. The morphological similarity of the galago lung to that of man gives sufficient grounds to justify its possible use in human pulmonary studies but caution has been called for in the general utilisation of primate tissues without first establishing their morphological characteristics, just because the primates are taken to be evolutionally close to man. The dearth of morphological studies on the various organ systems of the prosimians is pointed out. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2272898

  12. Female reproductive activity and its endocrine correlates in the African lesser bushbaby, Galago moholi.

    PubMed

    Scheun, Juan; Nowack, Julia; Bennett, Nigel C; Ganswindt, Andre

    2016-02-01

    Steroid hormones play an important role in female reproductive physiology and behaviour and are often used to monitor important female reproductive events. However, such studies are often attempted on captive populations alone, delivering limited data. One such example is the African lesser bushbaby, Galago moholi, for which contradicting observational data exist between captive and free-ranging populations, while hormonal analyses have only been obtained from a single captive population. To extend and rectify the limited information, we monitored faecal progestagen and oestrogen metabolite levels across various important life history stages of both captive and free-ranging G. moholi. We additionally recorded changes in vaginal state as well as the occurrence of reproductive and aggressive behaviour throughout the study. Data from our captive population revealed an ovarian cycle length of 33.44 ± 0.59 days (mean ± SD), with follicular and luteal phases of 14.2 ± 1.0 and 19.1 ± 1.5 days, respectively, and an average pregnancy length of 128 ± 3.3 days. The initiation of female reproductive activity was closely linked to an oestrus-related increase in faecal oestrogen metabolite levels. Four of the seven captive females monitored in our study conceived during the May mating period, with one additional female fertilised in September, supporting the idea that the September mating period functions as a back-up for female G. moholi. Identified benchmark faecal progestagen metabolite levels (non-pregnant: >1 µg/g dry weight (DW), pregnant: >9 µg/g DW) should help researchers to determine pregnancy status of randomly wild-caught females in even a cross-sectional study setup. PMID:26649553

  13. Analyses of feeding lateralization in the small-eared bushbaby (Otolemur garnettii): a comparison with the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Milliken, G W; Stafford, D K; Dodson, D L; Pinger, C D; Ward, J P

    1991-09-01

    Feeding related lateralization was examined in a population of 23 small-eared bushbabies (Otolemur garnettii). The three measures used to determine lateralization were food reaching, holding, and manipulation. Sex and age differences were found, with adult females showing a strong right bias and adult males a left bias. Juvenile males were weakly lateralized and less consistent across measures than adult animals. The use of standard scores to assess lateralization allowed species comparisons to be made. The results of this study were compared with results from a previous study on lateralization in the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). Species comparisons found sex differences to be a stronger factor in lateralization than species differences. PMID:1935006

  14. Cortical Connections to Single Digit Representations in Area 3b of Somatosensory Cortex in Squirrel Monkeys and Prosimian Galagos

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chia-Chi; Gharbawie, Omar A.; Qi, Huixin; Kaas, Jon H.

    2014-01-01

    The ventral posterior nucleus of thalamus sends highly segregated inputs into each digit representation in area 3b of primary somatosensory cortex. However, the spatial organization of the connections that link digit representations of areas 3b with other somatosensory areas is less understood. Here we examined the cortical inputs to individual digit representations of area 3b in four squirrel monkeys and one prosimian galago. Retrograde tracers were injected into neurophysiologically defined representations of individual digits of area 3b. Cortical tissues were cut parallel to the surface in some cases and showed that feedback projections to individual digits overlapped extensively in the hand representations of areas 3b, 1, and parietal ventral (PV) and second somatosensory (S2) areas. Other regions with overlapping populations of labeled cells included area 3a and primary motor cortex (M1). The results were confirmed in other cases in which the cortical tissues were cut in the coronal plane. The same cases also showed that cells were primarily labeled in the infragranular and supragranular layers. Thus, feedback projections to individual digit representations in area 3b mainly originate from multiple digits and other portions of hand representations of areas 3b, 1, PV, and S2. This organization is in stark contrast to the segregated thalamocortical inputs, which originate in single digit representations and terminate in the matching digit representation in the cortex. The organization of feedback connections could provide a substrate for the integration of information across the representations of adjacent digits in area 3b. PMID:23749740

  15. Dynamical Field Model of Hand Preference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschetti, Donald R.; Cantalupo, Claudio

    2000-11-01

    Dynamical field models of information processing in the nervous system are being developed by a number of groups of psychologists and physicists working together to explain The details of behaviors exhibited by a number of animal species. Here we adapt such a model to the expression of hand preference in a small primate, the bushbaby (Otolemur garnetti) . The model provides a theoretical foundation for the interpretation of an experiment currently underway in which a several of these animals are forced to extend either right or left hand to retrieve a food item from a rotating turntable.

  16. Density of muscle spindles in prosimian shoulder muscles reflects locomotor adaptation.

    PubMed

    Higurashi, Yasuo; Taniguchi, Yuki; Kumakura, Hiroo

    2006-01-01

    We examined the correlation between the density of muscle spindles in shoulder muscles and the locomotor mode in three species of prosimian primates: the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang), Garnett's galago (Otolemur garnettii), and the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). The shoulder muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres major, teres minor, and subscapularis) were embedded in celloidin and cut into transverse serial thin sections (40 microm); then, every tenth section was stained using the Azan staining technique. The relative muscle weights and the density of the muscle spindles were determined. The slow loris muscles were heavier and had sparser muscle spindles, as compared to Garnett's galago. These features suggest that the shoulder muscles of the slow loris are more adapted to generating propulsive force and stabilizing the shoulder joint during locomotion and play a less controlling role in forelimb movements. In contrast, Garnett's galago possessed smaller shoulder muscles with denser spindles that are suitable for the control of more rapid locomotor movements. The mean relative weight and the mean spindle density in the shoulder muscles of the ring-tailed lemur were between those of the other primates, suggesting that the spindle density is not simply a consequence of taxonomic status. PMID:17361082

  17. Patterns of sexual dimorphism in body weight among prosimian primates.

    PubMed

    Kappeler, P M

    1991-01-01

    Many primatologists believe that there is no sexual dimorphism in body size in prosimian primates. Because this belief is based upon data that came from only a few species and were largely flawed in some aspect of sample quality, I re-examined the extent of sexual dimorphism in body weight, using weights of 791 adult prosimians from 34 taxa recorded over the last 17 years at the Duke University Primate Center. There was no significant sex difference in body weight in 17 species, but males were significantly larger in Nycticebus pygmaeus, Tarsius syrichta, Galago moholi, Galagoides demidovii, Otolemur crassicaudatus and Otolemur garnettii. Moreover, females were significantly larger in Microcebus murinus. Thus, the general lack of sexual dimorphism could be confirmed, notably for lemurs, but prosimians as a group show more variability in sexual size dimorphism than was previously thought. After including previously published data obtained in the wild from 8 additional species, I found significant heterogeneity in the degree of sexual dimorphism at the family level, but only the Indridae and Galagidae were significantly different from each other. Among the prosimian infraorders, the Lorisiformes were significantly more dimorphic than the Lemuriformes. Differences in dimorphism between higher taxonomic groups are discussed in the context of prosimian evolution, concluding that phylogenetic inertia cannot provide a causal explanation for the evolution of sexual dimorphism. The relative monomorphism of most prosimians may be related to allometric constraints and, especially in the Lemuriformes, to selective forces affecting male and female behavioral strategies. PMID:1794769

  18. Niche partitioning and environmental factors affecting abundance of strepsirrhines in Angola.

    PubMed

    Bersacola, Elena; Svensson, Magdalena S; Bearder, Simon K

    2015-11-01

    The African nocturnal primates (galagos, pottos, and angwantibos: suborder Strepsirrhini) are the result of the first major primate radiation event in Africa, and are found in different primate communities spread across the entire sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, they represent an interesting group of taxa to investigate community strategies to avoid interspecific competition. Here, we present the result of the first study on nocturnal primate communities in western Angola. We aimed to identify habitat factors influencing strepsirrhine abundance, collect evidence of spatial niche segregation, and discuss possible indications of competitive exclusion in this region. We conducted nocturnal surveys at four study sites: Kumbira, Bimbe, Northern Scarp, and Calandula. At each encounter we recorded species, group size, height of animals above ground, and GPS location. We sampled vegetation using the point-centered quarter method and collected data on canopy cover, disturbance, and undergrowth density. We observed a total of five strepsirrhine species with varying community structures. We did not encounter Galagoides thomasi but we recorded a new species Galagoides sp. nov. 4. Levels of disturbance, canopy cover and undergrowth density were the habitat factors that most influenced variation in abundance of Galagoides demidovii and Perodicticus edwardsi, the latter also preferring the habitat with higher tree density. Vertical separation between sympatric strepsirrhines was strongest in Northern Scarp, where overall relative abundance was also highest. Competitive exclusion between G. thomasi and G. sp. nov. 4 may explain why the former was not present within the Angolan Escarpment sites. We observed coexistence between mainly allopatric Otolemur crassicaudatus and P. edwardsi in Kumbira, and of Galago moholi and G. demidovii in Calandula. Both unusual combinations showed some levels of spatial segregation. Habitat characteristics of the Escarpment region are likely to allow for

  19. Organization of cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic nuclei in three strepsirrhine primates: Galago demidoff, Perodicticus potto and Lemur catta.

    PubMed

    Calvey, Tanya; Patzke, Nina; Kaswera-Kyamakya, Consolate; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Bertelsen, Mads F; Pettigrew, John D; Manger, Paul R

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems in the brains of three species of strepsirrhine primates is presented. We aimed to investigate the nuclear complement of these neural systems in comparison to those of simian primates, megachiropterans and other mammalian species. The brains were coronally sectioned and immunohistochemically stained with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and orexin-A. The nuclei identified were identical among the strepsirrhine species investigated and identical to previous reports in simian primates. Moreover, a general similarity to other mammals was found, but specific differences in the nuclear complement highlighted potential phylogenetic interrelationships. The central feature of interest was the structure of the locus coeruleus complex in the primates, where a central compactly packed core (A6c) of tyrosine hydroxylase immunopositive neurons was surrounded by a shell of less densely packed (A6d) tyrosine hydroxylase immunopositive neurons. This combination of compact and diffuse divisions of the locus coeruleus complex is only found in primates and megachiropterans of all the mammalian species studied to date. This neural character, along with variances in a range of other neural characters, supports the phylogenetic grouping of primates with megachiropterans as a sister group. PMID:26562782

  20. Primate disease and breeding rates.

    PubMed

    Chamove, A; Cameron, G; Nash, V

    1979-10-01

    33 species were compared for 12 disease categories over 3 years of laboratory housing. There were low correlations between popularity, birth, death, and illness rates. Highest rates were: birth, Macaca nemestrina; illness, Pongo pygmaeus; death, Cercopithecus aethiops. Lowest rates were: birth, Lemur catta; illness, Sanguinus mystax; death, Galago crassicaudatus. Galago crassicaudatus and Macaca fasicularus had low disease and high birth rates. PMID:119108

  1. A regional reconnaissance on yellow fever in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R. M.; Haseeb, M. A.; Work, T. H.

    1955-01-01

    Neutralization-tests with yellow fever virus performed on 666 human sera collected in the southern Sudan imply that yellow fever is still endemic south of the 10th parallel, in the south-west border of the Nuba Mountains, and in the plains west of the Nuba Mountains as far north as El Muglad. Similar tests on bloods from 110 primates revealed a high rate of immunity among both baboons (Papio sp.) (94%) and grivet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) (77%), and a very low rate (1 in 56) among galagos (Galago senegalensis). It would therefore appear that, in contrast to the baboon and the grivet monkey, the galago is not significantly involved in the cycle of the virus. The epidemiological implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:14379007

  2. The Highland Terrain Hopper: a new locomotion system for exploration of Mars and other low-gravity planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurgurewicz, Joanna; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Wisniewski, Lukasz; Mege, Daniel; Rickman, Hans

    Field geoscientists need to collect three-dimensional data in order characterise the lithologic succession and structure of terrains, reconstruct their evolution, and eventually reveal the history of a portion of the planet. This is achieved by walking up and down mountains and valleys, conducting and interpreting geological and geophysical traverses, and reading measures made at station located at key sites on mountain peaks or rocky promontories. These activities have been denied to conventional planetary exploration rovers because engineering constraints for landing are strong, especially in terms of allowed terrain roughness and slopes. There are few limitations in the type of scientific payload conventional exploration rovers can carry, from geology and geophysics to geochemistry and exobiology. They lack two skills, however: the ability of working on rugged or unstable terrain, like in canyons and mountains, and on solid bodies having gravity too low for the friction between the wheels and the ground to generate robot displacement. ASTRONIKA Ltd. and the Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences are designing Galago, the Highland Terrain Hopper, a small (Ø~50-100 cm), light (5-10 kg), and robust locomotion system, which addresses the challenge of accessing most areas on low-gravity planetary body for performing scientific observations and measurements, alone or as part of a commando. Galago is symmetric and can jump accurately to a height of 4.5 m on Mars, 9 m on the Moon, and much more on Phobos and other small bodies. For one Galago, a nominal horizontal travel distance of 5 km (1000 jumps) is currently planned with the considered energy source, a battery reloaded by solar panels. Galago may assist other types of robots, or humans, in accessing difficult terrain, or even replace them for specific measurements or campaigning. Its three independent legs make possible several types of motions: accurate jumping (to any place identified in advance

  3. The effects of age on glutathione synthesis enzymes in lenses of Old World simians and prosimians.

    PubMed

    Rathbun, W B; Holleschau, A M

    1992-07-01

    The activities of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase, the two enzymes required for glutathione synthesis, were determined as a function of age in lenses of three species of Old World higher primates: orangutan, pigtail monkey and olive baboon. These were compared to enzyme activities in lenses of two prosimians: mouse lemur and galago. gamma-Glutamylcysteine synthetase activity decreased as a function of age in all three Old World simians. The rate of decrease was greatest in the juvenile lenses. In contrast, the enzyme activity increased continuously with age in the galago lens. In the mouse lemur the enzyme activity increased per lens, but was constant when expressed as specific activity or as units per gram of lens. The loss of enzyme activity with age was limited to Old World higher primates apparently representing genetic change. Glutathione synthetase activity decreased logarithmically with age in the lenses of all five species. PMID:1355706

  4. The estimated mechanical advantage of the prosimian ankle joint musculature, and implications for locomotor adaptation.

    PubMed

    Goto, Ryosuke; Kumakura, Hiroo

    2013-05-01

    In this study we compared the power arm lengths and mechanical advantages attributed to 12 lower leg muscles across three prosimian species. The origins and insertions of the lower leg muscles in Garnett's galago, the ring-tailed lemur, and the slow loris were quantified and correlated with positional behaviour. The ankle joint of the galago has a speed-oriented mechanical system, in contrast to that of the slow loris, which exhibits more power-oriented mechanics. The lemur ankle joint exhibited intermediate power arm lengths and an intermediate mechanical advantage relative to the other primates. This result suggests that the mechanical differences in the ankle between the galago and the lemur, taxa that exhibit similar locomotory repertoires, reflect a difference in the kinematics and kinetics of leaping (i.e. generalised vs. specialised leapers). In contrast to leaping primates, lorises have developed a more power-oriented mechanical system as a foot adaptation for positional behaviours such as bridging or cantilevering in their arboreal habitat. PMID:23489408

  5. Hip Anatomy and Ontogeny of Lower Limb Musculature in Three Species of Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jeremy J.; Searight, Katherine J.; Stump, Madeliene Atzeva; Kehrer, Matthew B.; Shanafelt, Colleen; Graham, Eric; Smith, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    The hip region is examined to determine what aspects of musculoskeletal anatomy are precociously developed in primate species with highly specialized modes of locomotion. Muscles of the hind limb were removed and weighed in each specimen, and the hip joint of selected specimens was studied in stained serial sections. No perinatal differences among species are evident, but in adults, the hip joint of Galago moholi (a leaping specialist) appears to have proportionally thick articular cartilage (relative to the subchondral plate) compared to two species of cheirogaleids. Muscle mass distribution in the hind limbs confirms previous observations that the quadriceps femoris muscle is especially large in Galago (in percent mass of the entire hind limb), while the hip region is smaller compared to the more quadrupedal cheirogaleids. Across age groups, the species with the least specialized locomotion as adults, Cheirogaleus medius, shows little or no change in proximal to distal percentage distribution of muscle mass. Galago has a larger percentage mass gain in the thigh. We suggest that muscle mass gain to specific limb segments may be a critical milestone for primates with extremely specialized modes of locomotion. PMID:22567295

  6. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    McDeavitt, Sean M

    2011-04-29

    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500ºC to 600ºC) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion • Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment • Extrusion database on DU metal • Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys • Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys • Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys • Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment • Sintering database on DU metal • Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys • Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich

  7. PhyloMarker—A Tool for Mining Phylogenetic Markers Through Genome Comparison: Application of the Mouse Lemur (Genus Microcebus) Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Runhua; Rowley, Thaine W.; Zhu, Lifeng; Bailey, Carolyn A.; Engberg, Shannon E.; Wood, Mindy L.; Christman, Mary C.; Perry, George H.; Louis, Edward E.; Lu, Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny is a fundamental tool to understanding the evolution of all life forms. One common issue faced by molecular phylogeny is the lack of sufficient molecular markers. Here, we present PhyloMarker, a phylogenomic tool designed to find nuclear gene markers for the inference of phylogeny through multiple genome comparison. Around 800 candidate markers were identified by PhyloMarker through comparison of partial genomes of Microcebus and Otolemur. In experimental tests of 20 randomly selected markers, nine markers were successfully amplified by PCR and directly sequenced in all 17 nominal Microcebus species. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data obtained for 17 taxa and nine markers confirmed the distinct lineage inferred from previous mtDNA data. PhyloMarker has also been used by other projects including the herons (Ardeidae, Aves) phylogeny and the Wood mice (Muridae, Mammalia) phylogeny. All source code and sample data are made available at http://bioinfo-srv1.awh.unomaha.edu/phylomarker/.

  8. The phylogenetic history of New World monkey beta globin reveals a platyrrhine beta to delta gene conversion in the atelid ancestry.

    PubMed

    Prychitko, Tom; Johnson, Robert M; Wildman, Derek E; Gumucio, Deborah; Goodman, Morris

    2005-04-01

    Orthologues of the beta globin gene locus from 10 New World monkey species were sequenced and aligned against available beta and delta globin sequences from rabbit and other primates. Where needed, additional primate sequencing was performed. Phylogenetic analysis identified a beta to delta conversion in the stem of the Anthropoidea, stretching from the 3' part of the proximal promotor to the 5' start of intron 2, consistent with earlier findings. No further conversion appeared to have occurred in the descent of the catarrhines. Within the New World monkey lineage that led to spider monkey and other atelids, another shorter gene conversion was found, spanning adjacent parts of exon 1 and intron 1. The analysis also confirmed that galago beta had replaced galago delta, that an earlier loriform-specific gene conversion extended over intron 2, and that gene conversion throughout the main gene conversion region occurred in the tarsiiform lineage. Platyrrhine phylogenetic relationships were investigated with beta sequences restricted to those that were not involved in gene conversions. This phylogeny generally agreed with results from other nuclear genes. The one exception was that the beta sequences did not place the callitrichine clade within the Cebidae but weakly joined the callitrichine and atelid clades. PMID:15737593

  9. Antigenic properties of human and animal bloodstains studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using various antisera against specific plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, H; Htay, H H; Sato, K; Katsumata, Y

    1987-01-01

    Antigenic properties of bloodstains of human and non-human primates as well as other animal bloodstains were investigated by the inhibition ELISA using commercially available anti-human albumin (Alb), alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2-M), fibrinogen, transferrin, and immunoglobulin G. In general, chimpanzee bloodstains showed strong cross-reactions with these antisera, and the extent of the cross-reactions of other animal bloodstains decreased largely with the phylogenic order, i.e., agile gibbon (ape), Old World monkeys (Japanese monkey and hamadryas baboon), New World monkeys (night monkey and tufted capuchin monkey), prosimians (grand galago and ring-tailed lemur) and other animals (rat, cattle, swine, goat, dog, cat, and chicken). Among these antisera, anti-human alpha 2-M showed the weakest cross-reaction with chimpanzee bloodstains, and anti-human Alb showed next. PMID:2448970

  10. Sequence characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 gene in the Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana).

    PubMed

    Dai, Q X; Yao, Y F; Qi, Z C; Huang, Y; Ni, Q Y; Zhang, M W; Xu, H L

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete coding region sequence of an innate immune-related TLR4 gene was obtained from the Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) genome via PCR and direct sequencing. The sequence had a total length of 2481 bp, contained 3 complete exons, and encoded 826 amino acids (AAs); its isoelectric point was 5.703, and the molecular weight was 94.72 kDa. The high structure prediction showed that the protein was comprised of one extracellular region, one transmembrane region, and one intracellular region. There were 48 potential functional sites in the protein, including glycosylation, phosphorylation, and acetylation sites. A homology analysis among 9 primate species, including the Tibetan macaque, human, chimpanzee, gibbon, rhesus macaque, cynomolgus monkey, pig-tailed monkey, squirrel monkey, and small-eared galago, showed that the homology of the nucleotide and AA sequences ranged from 60.9-99.5% and 51.4- 99.0%, respectively. Higher variability was identified in the extracellular region of the TLR4 protein, and its variable sites accounted for 88.79% (AA) of the total variable sites. Additionally, the number of AAs at the 3' end of the intracellular region was notably different among the primate lineages. The phylogenetic tree based on TLR4 gene exons of 9 primate species showed that the Tibetan macaque clustered with the rhesus macaque, cynomolgus monkey, and pig-tailed monkey; it was most distant from the small-eared galago. This study will provide an important basis for further study on the expression, regulation, and polymorphism of the TLR4 gene and the relationship between polymorphisms and host disease susceptibility. PMID:25867333

  11. Evidence that the recently discovered theta 1-globin gene is functional in higher primates.

    PubMed

    Shaw, J P; Marks, J; Shen, C K

    A new subfamily of the alpha-globin-like family has recently been identified in higher primates, rabbit, galago and possibly the horse. One member of this subfamily, theta 1, is downstream from the adult alpha 1-globin gene. In orang-utan, but not in rabbit or galago, the theta 1-gene appears to be structurally intact, suggesting that it may be functional in this species. The orang-utan theta 1-gene possesses initiation and termination codons, and the predicted polypeptide differs from the orang-utan alpha 1-globin by 55 amino acids. The upstream promoter boxes CCAAT and ATA are present, although approximately 150 base pairs (bp) farther upstream than in the alpha 1-gene. This structural difference in the promoter between the orang-utan theta 1- and alpha 1-genes has led Proudfoot to speculate that the theta 1-gene may be inactive. We have now cloned the theta 1- and alpha 1-globin genes from the olive baboon, and have compared their sequences with those of orang-utan. The unique promoter structure of the orang-utan theta 1-gene is highly conserved in baboon, although the orang-utan and baboon diverged nearly 30 million years ago. The coding sequences of the two theta 1-genes differ by only 6.3% with 22 out of 27 nucleotide substitutions being codon third position silent changes. These data support the view that the theta 1-gene has been functional in the baboon, orang-utan, and by implication, in man. We also estimate that the duplication event generating the theta 1- and alpha-globin-like subfamilies may have occurred as much as 260 million years ago. PMID:3561513

  12. Distinct patterns of corticogeniculate feedback to different layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Ichida, Jennifer M; Mavity-Hudson, Julia A; Casagrande, Vivien A

    2015-01-01

    In primates, feedforward visual pathways from retina to lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) are segregated to different layers. These layers also receive strong reciprocal feedback pathways from cortex. The degree to which feedforward streams in primates are segregated from feedback streams remains unclear. Here, we asked whether corticogeniculate cells that innervate the magnocellular (M), parvocellular (P), and koniocellular (K) layers of the LGN in the prosimian primate bush baby (Otolemur garnettii) can be distinguished based on either the laminar distribution or morphological characteristics of their axons and synaptic contacts in LGN, or on their cell body position, size, and dendritic distribution in cortex. Corticogeniculate axons and synapses were labeled anterogradely with biotinylated dextran injections in layer 6 of cortex. Corticogeniculate cell bodies were first labeled with fluorescent dextran injections limited to individual M, P, or K LGN layers and then filled with biotinylated Lucifer yellow. Results showed that feedback to the M or P LGN layers arises from cells with dendrites primarily confined to cortical layer 6 and axons restricted to either M or P LGN layers, but not both. Feedback to K LGN layers arises from cells: 1) whose dendrites distribute rather evenly across cortical layers 5 and 6; 2) whose dendrites always extend into layer 4; and 3) whose axons are never confined to K layers but always overlap with either P or M layers. Corticogeniculate axons also showed distributions that were retinotopically precise based on known receptive field sizes of layer 6 cells, and these axons mainly made synapses with glutamatergic projection neurons in the LGN in all layers. Taken together with prior physiological results, we argue that the morphological differences between the three corticogeniculate pathways show that the M and P feedback pathways could rapidly and specifically enhance local LGN activity, while we speculate that the K feedback

  13. A Preliminary Analysis of the Relationship between Jaw-Muscle Architecture and Jaw-Muscle Electromyography during Chewing Across Primates

    PubMed Central

    Vinyard, Christopher J.; Taylor, Andrea B.

    2011-01-01

    The architectural arrangement of the fibers within a muscle has a significant impact on how a muscle functions. Recent work on primate jaw-muscle architecture demonstrates significant associations with dietary variation and feeding behaviors. In this study, the relationship between masseter and temporalis muscle architecture and jaw-muscle activity patterns is explored using Belanger's treeshrews and 11 primate species, including three genera of strepsirrhines (Lemur, Otolemur) and five genera of anthropoids (Aotus, Callithrix, Cebus, Macaca, Papio). Jaw-muscle weights, fiber lengths and physiologic cross-sectional areas (PCSA) were quantified for this preliminary analysis or collected from the literature and compared to published electromyographic (EMG) recordings from these muscles. Results indicate that masseter architecture is unrelated to the superficial masseter working-side/balancing-side (W/B) ratio across primate species. Alternatively, relative temporalis architecture is correlated with temporalis W/B ratios across primates. Specifically, relative temporalis PCSA is inversely related to the W/B ratio for the anterior temporalis indicating that as animals recruit a larger relative percentage of their balancing-side temporalis, they possess the ability to generate relatively larger amounts of force from these muscles. These findings support three broader conclusions. First, masseter muscle architecture may have experienced divergent evolution across different primate clades related to novel functional roles in different groups. Second, the temporalis may be functionally constrained (relative to the masseter) across primates in its functional role of creating vertical occlusal forces during chewing. Finally, the contrasting results for the masseter and temporalis suggest that the fiber architecture of these muscles has evolved as distinct functional units in primates. PMID:20235313

  14. Evolution of posterior parietal cortex and parietal-frontal networks for specific actions in primates.

    PubMed

    Kaas, Jon H; Stepniewska, Iwona

    2016-02-15

    Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is an extensive region of the human brain that develops relatively late and is proportionally large compared with that of monkeys and prosimian primates. Our ongoing comparative studies have led to several conclusions about the evolution of this posterior parietal region. In early placental mammals, PPC likely was a small multisensory region much like PPC of extant rodents and tree shrews. In early primates, PPC likely resembled that of prosimian galagos, in which caudal PPC (PPCc) is visual and rostral PPC (PPCr) has eight or more multisensory domains where electrical stimulation evokes different complex motor behaviors, including reaching, hand-to-mouth, looking, protecting the face or body, and grasping. These evoked behaviors depend on connections with functionally matched domains in premotor cortex (PMC) and motor cortex (M1). Domains in each region compete with each other, and a serial arrangement of domains allows different factors to influence motor outcomes successively. Similar arrangements of domains have been retained in New and Old World monkeys, and humans appear to have at least some of these domains. The great expansion and prolonged development of PPC in humans suggest the addition of functionally distinct territories. We propose that, across primates, PMC and M1 domains are second and third levels in a number of parallel, interacting networks for mediating and selecting one type of action over others. PMID:26101180

  15. The hustle and bustle of city life: monitoring the effects of urbanisation in the African lesser bushbaby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheun, Juan; Bennett, Nigel C.; Ganswindt, Andre; Nowack, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Urbanisation has become a severe threat to pristine natural areas, causing habitat loss and affecting indigenous animals. Species occurring within an urban fragmented landscape must cope with changes in vegetation type as well as high degrees of anthropogenic disturbance, both of which are possible key mechanisms contributing to behavioural changes and perceived stressors. We attempted to elucidate the effects of urbanisation on the African lesser bushbaby, Galago moholi, by (1) recording activity budgets and body condition (body mass index, BMI) of individuals of urban and rural populations and (2) further determining adrenocortical activity in both populations as a measure of stress via faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, following successful validation of an appropriate enzyme immunoassay test system (adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge test). We found that both sexes of the urban population had significantly higher BMIs than their rural counterparts, while urban females had significantly higher fGCM concentrations than rural females. While individuals in the urban population fed mainly on provisioned anthropogenic food sources and spent comparatively more time resting and engaging in aggressive interactions, rural individuals fed almost exclusively on tree exudates and spent more time moving between food sources. Although interactions with humans are likely to be lower in nocturnal than in diurnal species, our findings show that the impact of urbanisation on nocturnal species is still considerable, affecting a range of ecological and physiological aspects.

  16. The hustle and bustle of city life: monitoring the effects of urbanisation in the African lesser bushbaby.

    PubMed

    Scheun, Juan; Bennett, Nigel C; Ganswindt, Andre; Nowack, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Urbanisation has become a severe threat to pristine natural areas, causing habitat loss and affecting indigenous animals. Species occurring within an urban fragmented landscape must cope with changes in vegetation type as well as high degrees of anthropogenic disturbance, both of which are possible key mechanisms contributing to behavioural changes and perceived stressors. We attempted to elucidate the effects of urbanisation on the African lesser bushbaby, Galago moholi, by (1) recording activity budgets and body condition (body mass index, BMI) of individuals of urban and rural populations and (2) further determining adrenocortical activity in both populations as a measure of stress via faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, following successful validation of an appropriate enzyme immunoassay test system (adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge test). We found that both sexes of the urban population had significantly higher BMIs than their rural counterparts, while urban females had significantly higher fGCM concentrations than rural females. While individuals in the urban population fed mainly on provisioned anthropogenic food sources and spent comparatively more time resting and engaging in aggressive interactions, rural individuals fed almost exclusively on tree exudates and spent more time moving between food sources. Although interactions with humans are likely to be lower in nocturnal than in diurnal species, our findings show that the impact of urbanisation on nocturnal species is still considerable, affecting a range of ecological and physiological aspects. PMID:26336811

  17. Globin gene switching in primates.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert M; Gumucio, Deborah; Goodman, Morris

    2002-11-01

    Evolutionary approaches to the identification of DNA sequences required for transcription of the genes of the beta-globin cluster are reviewed. Sequence alignments of non-coding regions from widely divergent species revealed many conserved motifs (phylogenetic footprints) that were putative transcription factor binding sites and candidate binding proteins were identified. The differential timing of the prosimian and simian gamma-globin genes was analyzed by identifying base changes in the vicinity of the phylogenetic footprints. These differential phylogenetic footprints were shown to bind different nuclear factors, and the behavior of constructs with human or galago gamma-promoters in transgenic mice indicated that DNA motifs near the gamma-globin genes are sufficient to determine the developmental stage of expression. Locus control region alignments have identified many conserved sequence differences outside of the hypersensitive sites. Globin protein and mRNA expression profiles during embryological development in a series of catarrhine (Old World monkeys and apes) and platyrrhine (New World monkeys) primates have been determined. While all catarrhines examined to date have globin expression patterns that are highly similar to the well-established human switching behavior, platyrrhines have inactivated their gamma 1 genes by a variety of mechanisms, and have an earlier gamma-beta switch. PMID:12443943

  18. Structural Analysis of a Repetitive Protein Sequence Motif in Strepsirrhine Primate Amelogenin

    PubMed Central

    Bromley, Keith M.; Hacia, Joseph G.; Bromage, Timothy G.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Paine, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Strepsirrhines are members of a primate suborder that has a distinctive set of features associated with the development of the dentition. Amelogenin (AMEL), the better known of the enamel matrix proteins, forms 90% of the secreted organic matrix during amelogenesis. Although AMEL has been sequenced in numerous mammalian lineages, the only reported strepsirrhine AMEL sequences are those of the ring-tailed lemur and galago, which contain a set of additional proline-rich tandem repeats absent in all other primates species analyzed to date, but present in some non-primate mammals. Here, we first determined that these repeats are present in AMEL from three additional lemur species and thus are likely to be widespread throughout this group. To evaluate the functional relevance of these repeats in strepsirrhines, we engineered a mutated murine amelogenin sequence containing a similar proline-rich sequence to that of Lemur catta. In the monomeric form, the MQP insertions had no influence on the secondary structure or refolding properties, whereas in the assembled form, the insertions increased the hydrodynamic radii. We speculate that increased AMEL nanosphere size may influence enamel formation in strepsirrhine primates. PMID:21437261

  19. Life history profiles for 27 strepsirrhine primate taxa generated using captive data from the Duke Lemur Center

    PubMed Central

    Zehr, Sarah M; Roach, Richard G; Haring, David; Taylor, Julie; Cameron, Freda H; Yoder, Anne D

    2014-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1966, the Duke Lemur Center (DLC) has accumulated detailed records for nearly 4,200 individuals from over 40 strepsirrhine primate taxa—the lemurs, lorises, and galagos. Here we present verified data for 3,627 individuals of 27 taxa in the form of a life history table containing summarized species values for variables relating to ancestry, reproduction, longevity, and body mass, as well as the two raw data files containing direct and calculated variables from which this summary table is built. Large sample sizes, longitudinal data that in many cases span an animal’s entire life, exact dates of events, and large numbers of individuals from closely related yet biologically diverse primate taxa make these datasets unique. This single source for verified raw data and systematically compiled species values, particularly in combination with the availability of associated biological samples and the current live colony for research, will support future studies from an enormous spectrum of disciplines. PMID:25977776

  20. Structural analysis of a repetitive protein sequence motif in strepsirrhine primate amelogenin.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Bromley, Keith M; Hacia, Joseph G; Bromage, Timothy G; Snead, Malcolm L; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Paine, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Strepsirrhines are members of a primate suborder that has a distinctive set of features associated with the development of the dentition. Amelogenin (AMEL), the better known of the enamel matrix proteins, forms 90% of the secreted organic matrix during amelogenesis. Although AMEL has been sequenced in numerous mammalian lineages, the only reported strepsirrhine AMEL sequences are those of the ring-tailed lemur and galago, which contain a set of additional proline-rich tandem repeats absent in all other primates species analyzed to date, but present in some non-primate mammals. Here, we first determined that these repeats are present in AMEL from three additional lemur species and thus are likely to be widespread throughout this group. To evaluate the functional relevance of these repeats in strepsirrhines, we engineered a mutated murine amelogenin sequence containing a similar proline-rich sequence to that of Lemur catta. In the monomeric form, the MQP insertions had no influence on the secondary structure or refolding properties, whereas in the assembled form, the insertions increased the hydrodynamic radii. We speculate that increased AMEL nanosphere size may influence enamel formation in strepsirrhine primates. PMID:21437261

  1. Duplication of the gamma-globin gene mediated by L1 long interspersed repetitive elements in an early ancestor of simian primates.

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, D H; Bailey, W J; Tagle, D A; Goodman, M; Sieu, L; Slightom, J L

    1991-01-01

    Regions surrounding the single gamma-globin gene of galago and the duplicated gamma 1- and gamma 2-globin genes of gibbon, rhesus monkey, and spider monkey were sequenced and aligned with those from humans. Contrary to previous studies, spider monkey was found to have not one but two gamma-globin genes, only one of which (gamma 2) is functional. The reconstructed evolutionary history of the gamma-globin genes and their flanking sequences traces their origin to a tandem duplication of a DNA segment approximately 5.5 kilobases long that occurred before catarrhine primates (humans, apes, and Old World monkeys) diverged from platyrrhines (New World monkeys), much earlier than previously thought. This reconstructed molecular history also reveals that the duplication resulted from an unequal homologous crossover between two related L1 long interspersed repetitive elements, one upstream and one downstream of the single ancestral gamma-globin gene. Perhaps facilitated by the redundancy resulting from the duplication, the gamma-globin genes escaped the selective constraints of embryonically functioning genes and evolved into fetally functioning genes. This view is supported by the finding that a burst of nonsynonymous substitutions occurred in the gamma-globin genes while they became restructured for fetal expression in the common ancestor of platyrrhines and catarrhines. PMID:1908094

  2. The Development of Small Primate Models for Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Kathleen E.; Austad, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primate (NHP) aging research has traditionally relied mainly on the rhesus macaque. But the long lifespan, low reproductive rate, and relatively large body size of macaques and related Old World monkeys make them less than ideal models for aging research. Manifold advantages would attend the use of smaller, more rapidly developing, shorter-lived NHP species in aging studies, not the least of which are lower cost and the ability to do shorter research projects. Arbitrarily defining “small” primates as those weighing less than 500 g, we assess small, relatively short-lived species among the prosimians and callitrichids for suitability as models for human aging research. Using the criteria of availability, knowledge about (and ease of) maintenance, the possibility of genetic manipulation (a hallmark of 21st century biology), and similarities to humans in the physiology of age-related changes, we suggest three species—two prosimians (Microcebus murinus and Galago senegalensis) and one New World monkey (Callithrix jacchus)—that deserve scrutiny for development as major NHP models for aging studies. We discuss one other New World monkey group, Cebus spp., that might also be an effective NHP model of aging as these species are longer-lived for their body size than any primate except humans. PMID:21411860

  3. Hands of early primates.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  4. A multilocus phylogeny reveals deep lineages within African galagids (Primates: Galagidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bushbabies (Galagidae) are among the most morphologically cryptic of all primates and their diversity and relationships are some of the most longstanding problems in primatology. Our knowledge of galagid evolutionary history has been limited by a lack of appropriate molecular data and a paucity of fossils. Most phylogenetic studies have produced conflicting results for many clades, and even the relationships among genera remain uncertain. To clarify galagid evolutionary history, we assembled the largest molecular dataset for galagos to date by sequencing 27 independent loci. We inferred phylogenetic relationships using concatenated maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analyses, and also coalescent-based species tree methods to account for gene tree heterogeneity due to incomplete lineage sorting. Results The genus Euoticus was identified as sister taxon to the rest of the galagids and the genus Galagoides was not recovered as monophyletic, suggesting that a new generic name for the Zanzibar complex is required. Despite the amount of genetic data collected in this study, the monophyly of the family Lorisidae remained poorly supported, probably due to the short internode between the Lorisidae/Galagidae split and the origin of the African and Asian lorisid clades. One major result was the relatively old origin for the most recent common ancestor of all living galagids soon after the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. Conclusions Using a multilocus approach, our results suggest an early origin for the crown Galagidae, soon after the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, making Euoticus one of the oldest lineages within extant Primates. This result also implies that one – or possibly more – stem radiations diverged in the Late Eocene and persisted for several million years alongside members of the crown group. PMID:24694188

  5. Environmental enrichment for a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit.

    PubMed

    Clark, Fay E; Melfi, Vicky A

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an integral aspect of modern zoo animal management but, empirical evaluation of it is biased toward species housed in single-species groups. Nocturnal houses, where several nocturnal species are housed together, are particularly overlooked. This study investigated whether three species (nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus; Senegal bush babies, Galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, Choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, UK could be enriched using food-based and sensory EE. Subjects were an adult male and female of each species. EE was deemed effective if it promoted target species-typical behaviors, behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones. Results from generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that food-based EE elicited the most positive behavioral effects across species. One set of food-based EEs (Kong®, termite mound and hanging food) presented together was associated with a significant increase in species-typical behaviors, increased behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones in armadillos and bush babies. Although one type of sensory EE (scented pine cones) increased overall exhibit use in all species, the other (rainforest sounds) was linked to a significant decrease in species-typical behavior in bush babies and sloths. There were no intra or interspecies conflicts over EE, and commensalism occurred between armadillos and bush babies. Our data demonstrate that simple food-based and sensory EE can promote positive behavioral changes in a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit. We suggest that both food and sensory EE presented concurrently will maximize opportunities for naturalistic activity in all species. PMID:21387395

  6. Comparative functional morphology of the primate peroneal process.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Rachel L; Boyer, Doug M; Patel, Biren A

    2009-12-01

    The first metatarsal of living Primates is characterized by a well-developed peroneal process, which appears proportionally larger in prosimians than in anthropoids. A large peroneal process has been hypothesized to: 1) reflect powerful hallucal grasping, 2) act as a buttress to reduce strain from loads acting on the entocuneiform-first metatarsal joint during landing and grasping after a leap, and/or 3) correlate with differences in physiological abduction of the hallux. In this study, we address the latter two hypotheses by comparing the morphology of the peroneal process in 143 specimens representing 37 species of extant prosimians, platyrrhine anthropoids, and tupaiids (tree shrews) that engage in different locomotor behaviors. In particular, we compare taxa that vary in leaping frequency and hallucal abduction. Linear and angular measurements on the first metatarsal were obtained to evaluate differences in relative peroneal process thickness and length, first metatarsal abduction angle, and overall first metatarsal shape. Leaping frequency was significantly correlated only with relative peroneal process thickness within extant lorisoids. Relative process length was positively correlated with the angle of hallucal abduction within prosimians; this angle is significantly greater in prosimians than anthropoids. Multivariate analyses of metatarsal shape effectively separate species along phylogenetic lines, but not by locomotor behaviors. The hypothesis that the peroneal process on the first metatarsal reduces the loads on the entocuneiform-first metatarsal joint during landing after a leap is in part supported by data from extant lorisoids (i.e., slow quadrupedal lorises vs. leaping galagos). A peroneal process of greater length within prosimians may serve to increase the lever arm for the peroneus longus muscle in order to prevent hyper-abduction, followed by inversion in locomotor situations where the animal's weight is born on a highly divergent

  7. Djebelemur, a Tiny Pre-Tooth-Combed Primate from the Eocene of Tunisia: A Glimpse into the Origin of Crown Strepsirhines

    PubMed Central

    Marivaux, Laurent; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Essid, El Mabrouk; Marzougui, Wissem; Ammar, Hayet Khayati; Lebrun, Renaud; Marandat, Bernard; Merzeraud, Gilles; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Vianey-Liaud, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Background Molecular clock estimates of crown strepsirhine origins generally advocate an ancient antiquity for Malagasy lemuriforms and Afro-Asian lorisiforms, near the onset of the Tertiary but most often extending back to the Late Cretaceous. Despite their inferred early origin, the subsequent evolutionary histories of both groups (except for the Malagasy aye-aye lineage) exhibit a vacuum of lineage diversification during most part of the Eocene, followed by a relative acceleration in diversification from the late Middle Eocene. This early evolutionary stasis was tentatively explained by the possibility of unrecorded lineage extinctions during the early Tertiary. However, this prevailing molecular view regarding the ancient origin and early diversification of crown strepsirhines must be viewed with skepticism due to the new but still scarce paleontological evidence gathered in recent years. Methodological/Principal Findings Here, we describe new fossils attributable to Djebelemur martinezi, a≈50 Ma primate from Tunisia (Djebel Chambi). This taxon was originally interpreted as a cercamoniine adapiform based on limited information from its lower dentition. The new fossils provide anatomical evidence demonstrating that Djebelemur was not an adapiform but clearly a distant relative of lemurs, lorises and galagos. Cranial, dental and postcranial remains indicate that this diminutive primate was likely nocturnal, predatory (primarily insectivorous), and engaged in a form of generalized arboreal quadrupedalism with frequent horizontal leaping. Djebelemur did not have an anterior lower dentition as specialized as that characterizing most crown strepsirhines (i.e., tooth-comb), but it clearly exhibited a transformed antemolar pattern representing an early stage of a crown strepsirhine-like adaptation (“pre-tooth-comb”). Conclusions/Significance These new fossil data suggest that the differentiation of the tooth-comb must postdate the djebelemurid divergence, a view

  8. Evolutionary conservation in genes underlying human psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Lisa M; Vallender, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Many psychiatric diseases observed in humans have tenuous or absent analogs in other species. Most notable among these are schizophrenia and autism. One hypothesis has posited that these diseases have arisen as a consequence of human brain evolution, for example, that the same processes that led to advances in cognition, language, and executive function also resulted in novel diseases in humans when dysfunctional. Here, the molecular evolution of the protein-coding regions of genes associated with these and other psychiatric disorders are compared among species. Genes associated with psychiatric disorders are drawn from the literature and orthologous sequences are collected from eleven primate species (human, chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, macaque, baboon, marmoset, squirrel monkey, and galago) and 34 non-primate mammalian species. Evolutionary parameters, including dN/dS, are calculated for each gene and compared between disease classes and among species, focusing on humans and primates compared to other mammals, and on large-brained taxa (cetaceans, rhinoceros, walrus, bear, and elephant) compared to their small-brained sister species. Evidence of differential selection in humans to the exclusion of non-human primates was absent, however elevated dN/dS was detected in catarrhines as a whole, as well as in cetaceans, possibly as part of a more general trend. Although this may suggest that protein changes associated with schizophrenia and autism are not a cost of the higher brain function found in humans, it may also point to insufficiencies in the study of these diseases including incomplete or inaccurate gene association lists and/or a greater role of regulatory changes or copy number variation. Through this work a better understanding of the molecular evolution of the human brain, the pathophysiology of disease, and the genetic basis of human psychiatric disease is gained. PMID:24834046

  9. Cranial vault thickness in primates: Homo erectus does not have uniquely thick vault bones.

    PubMed

    Copes, Lynn E; Kimbel, William H

    2016-01-01

    Extremely thick cranial vaults have been noted as a diagnostic characteristic of Homo erectus since the first fossil of the species was identified, but relatively little work has been done on elucidating its etiology or variation across fossils, living humans, or extant non-human primates. Cranial vault thickness (CVT) is not a monolithic trait, and the responsiveness of its layers to environmental stimuli is unknown. We obtained measurements of cranial vault thickness in fossil hominins from the literature and supplemented those data with additional measurements taken on African fossil specimens. Total CVT and the thickness of the cortical and diploë layers individually were compared to measures of CVT in extant species measured from more than 500 CT scans of human and non-human primates. Frontal and parietal CVT in fossil primates was compared to a regression of CVT on cranial capacity calculated for extant species. Even after controlling for cranial capacity, African and Asian H. erectus do not have uniquely high frontal or parietal thickness residuals, either among hominins or extant primates. Extant primates with residual CVT thickness similar to or exceeding H. erectus (depending on the sex and bone analyzed) include Nycticebus coucang, Perodicticus potto, Alouatta caraya, Lophocebus albigena, Galago alleni, Mandrillus sphinx, and Propithecus diadema. However, the especially thick vaults of extant non-human primates that overlap with H. erectus values are composed primarily of cortical bone, while H. erectus and other hominins have diploë-dominated vault bones. Thus, the combination of thick vaults comprised of a thickened diploë layer may be a reliable autapomorphy for members of the genus Homo. PMID:26767964

  10. Bonobo habituation in a forest-savanna mosaic habitat: influence of ape species, habitat type, and sociocultural context.

    PubMed

    Narat, Victor; Pennec, Flora; Simmen, Bruno; Ngawolo, Jean Christophe Bokika; Krief, Sabrina

    2015-10-01

    Habituation is the term used to describe acceptance by wild animals of a human observer as a neutral element in their environment. Among primates, the process takes from a few days for Galago spp. to several years for African apes. There are also intraspecies differences reflecting differences in habitat, home range, and ape-human relationship history. Here, we present the first study of the process of bonobo habituation in a fragmented habitat, a forest-savanna mosaic in the community-based conservation area led by the Congolese nongovernmental organization Mbou-Mon-Tour, Democratic Republic of the Congo. In this area, local people use the forest almost every day for traditional activities but avoid bonobos because of a traditional taboo. Because very few flight reactions were observed during habituation, we focused on quantitative parameters to assess the development of ape tolerance and of the tracking efficiency of observer teams. During the 18-month study period (May 2012-October 2013), 4043 h (319 days) were spent in the forest and bonobos were observed for a total of 405 h (196 contacts on 134 days). The average contact duration was stable over time (124 min), but the minimal distance during a contact decreased with habituation effort. Moreover, bonobo location and tracking efficiency, daily ratio of contact time to habituation effort, and the number of observations at ground level were positively correlated with habituation effort. Our observations suggest that bonobos become habituated relatively rapidly. These results are discussed in relation to the habitat type, ape species, and the local sociocultural context of villagers. The habituation process involves changes in ape behavior toward observers and also more complex interactions concerning the ecosystem, including the building of an efficient local team. Before starting a habituation process, knowledge of the human sociocultural context is essential to assess the balance between risks and benefits

  11. Identification of a stage selector element in the human gamma-globin gene promoter that fosters preferential interaction with the 5' HS2 enhancer when in competition with the beta-promoter.

    PubMed

    Jane, S M; Ney, P A; Vanin, E F; Gumucio, D L; Nienhuis, A W

    1992-08-01

    The erythroid-specific enhancer within hypersensitivity site 2 (HS2) of the human beta-globin locus control region is required for high level globin gene expression. We investigated interaction between HS2 and the gamma- and beta-promoters using reporter constructs in transient assays in human erythroleukemia (K562) cells. The beta-promoter, usually silent in K562 cells, was activated by HS2. This activity was abolished when a gamma-promoter was linked in cis. Analysis of truncation mutants suggested that sequences conveying the competitive advantage of the gamma-promoter for HS2 included those between positions -53 and -35 relative to the transcriptional start site. This sequence, when used to replace the corresponding region of the beta-promoter, increased beta-promoter activity 10-fold when linked to HS2. The modified beta-promoter was also capable of competing with a gamma-promoter modified internally in the -53 to -35 region, when the two promoters were linked to HS2 in a single plasmid. The corresponding sequences from the Galago gamma-promoter, a species which lacks fetal gamma-gene expression, were inactive in analogous assays. We have identified and partially purified a nuclear protein found in human (fetal stage) erythroleukemia cells, but present in much lower concentration in murine (adult stage) erythroleukemia cells, that binds the -53 to -35 sequence of the gamma-promoter. We speculate that this region of the gamma-promoter functions as a stage selector element in the regulation of hemoglobin switching in humans. PMID:1639067

  12. Evolutionary conservation in genes underlying human psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Lisa M.; Vallender, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Many psychiatric diseases observed in humans have tenuous or absent analogs in other species. Most notable among these are schizophrenia and autism. One hypothesis has posited that these diseases have arisen as a consequence of human brain evolution, for example, that the same processes that led to advances in cognition, language, and executive function also resulted in novel diseases in humans when dysfunctional. Here, the molecular evolution of the protein-coding regions of genes associated with these and other psychiatric disorders are compared among species. Genes associated with psychiatric disorders are drawn from the literature and orthologous sequences are collected from eleven primate species (human, chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, macaque, baboon, marmoset, squirrel monkey, and galago) and 34 non-primate mammalian species. Evolutionary parameters, including dN/dS, are calculated for each gene and compared between disease classes and among species, focusing on humans and primates compared to other mammals, and on large-brained taxa (cetaceans, rhinoceros, walrus, bear, and elephant) compared to their small-brained sister species. Evidence of differential selection in humans to the exclusion of non-human primates was absent, however elevated dN/dS was detected in catarrhines as a whole, as well as in cetaceans, possibly as part of a more general trend. Although this may suggest that protein changes associated with schizophrenia and autism are not a cost of the higher brain function found in humans, it may also point to insufficiencies in the study of these diseases including incomplete or inaccurate gene association lists and/or a greater role of regulatory changes or copy number variation. Through this work a better understanding of the molecular evolution of the human brain, the pathophysiology of disease, and the genetic basis of human psychiatric disease is gained. PMID:24834046

  13. Classification of Pasteurella species B as Pasteurella oralis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Henrik; Bertelsen, Mads F; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bisgaard, Magne

    2012-06-01

    Pasteurella species B has so far only been reported from the oral cavity of dogs, cats and a ferret. In the present study, information from 15 recent isolates from different sources, including African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), banded mongoose (Mungos mungo), Moholi bushbabies (Galago moholi) and pneumonia of a cat, were compared to five strains investigated previously from bite wounds in humans inflicted by a cat and dog and from gingiva of a cat. rpoB gene sequence comparison showed that 17 isolates, including the reference strain (CCUG 19794(T)), had identical sequences, whereas two were closely related and demonstrated 97.9 and 99.6 % similarity to strain CCUG 19794(T), respectively; the type strain of Pasteurella stomatis was the most closely related strain, with 92.3 % similarity. This is within the mean range (76-100 %) of rpoB gene sequence similarity between species of the same genus within the family Pasteurellaceae. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of four strains selected based on rpoB sequence comparison showed at least 99.7 % similarity between strains of Pasteurella species B, with 96.2 % similarity to the type strain of the closest related species (Pasteurella canis), indicating that Pasteurella species B should have separate species status. Separate species status was also documented when recN sequence comparisons were converted to a genome similarity of 93.7 % within Pasteurella species B and 59.0 % to the type strain of the closest related species (P. canis). Based on analysis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic data, and since most isolates originate from the oral cavities of a diverse group of animals, it is suggested that these bacteria be classified as Pasteurella oralis sp. nov.; the type strain is P683(T) ( = CCUG 19794(T) = CCM 7950(T) = strain 23193(T) = MCCM 00102(T)), obtained from a cat. Previous reports of the type strain have shown ubiquinone-8, demethylmenaquinone-8 and menaquinone-8 as the major quinones. Polyamines in the type

  14. Pervasive and ongoing positive selection in the vomeronasal-1 receptor (V1R) repertoire of mouse lemurs.

    PubMed

    Hohenbrink, Philipp; Radespiel, Ute; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2012-12-01

    Chemosensory genes are frequently the target of positive selection and are often present in large gene families, but little is known about heterogeneity of selection in these cases and its relation to function. Here, we use the vomeronasal-1 receptor (V1R) repertoire of mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) as a model system to study patterns of selection of chemosensory genes at several different levels. Mouse lemurs are small nocturnal strepsirrhine primates and have a large (~200 loci) repertoire of V1R loci that are likely important for intraspecific pheromonal communication and interspecific interactions, for example, recognition of predator cues. We investigated signals and patterns of positive selection among the 105 identified full length V1R loci in the gray mouse lemur and within 7 V1R loci amplified across multiple mouse lemur species. Phylogenetic reconstructions of published sequences revealed at least nine monophyletic clusters of V1Rs in gray mouse lemurs that have diversified since the split between lemurs and lorisoid primates. A large majority of clusters evolved under significant positive selection. Similar results were found in V1Rs of closely related greater galagos. Comparison with function of related V1R clusters in mice suggested a potential relationship between receptor function and strength of selection. Interestingly, most codons identified as being under positive selection are located in the extracellular domains of the receptors and hence likely indicate the position of residues involved in ligand binding. Positive selection was also detected within five V1R loci (=71% of analyzed loci) sequenced from 6 to 10 mouse lemur species, indicating ongoing selection within the genus, which may be related to sexual selection and, potentially, speciation processes. Variation in strength of positive selection on V1Rs showed no simple relationship to cluster size. The diversity of V1R loci in mouse lemurs reflects their adaptive evolution and is most