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Sample records for galapagoensis host genetic

  1. Disease ecology in the Galápagos Hawk (Buteo galapagoensis): host genetic diversity, parasite load and natural antibodies.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Noah Kerness; Matson, Kevin D; Bollmer, Jennifer L; Parker, Patricia G

    2006-04-01

    An increased susceptibility to disease is one hypothesis explaining how inbreeding hastens extinction in island endemics and threatened species. Experimental studies show that disease resistance declines as inbreeding increases, but data from in situ wildlife systems are scarce. Genetic diversity increases with island size across the entire range of an extremely inbred Galápagos endemic bird, providing the context for a natural experiment examining the effects of inbreeding on disease susceptibility. Extremely inbred populations of Galápagos hawks had higher parasite abundances than relatively outbred populations. We found a significant island effect on constitutively produced natural antibody (NAb) levels and inbred populations generally harboured lower average and less variable NAb levels than relatively outbred populations. Furthermore, NAb levels explained abundance of amblyceran lice, which encounter the host immune system. This is the first study linking inbreeding, innate immunity and parasite load in an endemic, in situ wildlife population and provides a clear framework for assessment of disease risk in a Galápagos endemic. PMID:16618672

  2. Disease ecology in the Galápagos Hawk (Buteo galapagoensis): host genetic diversity, parasite load and natural antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Whiteman, Noah Kerness; Matson, Kevin D; Bollmer, Jennifer L; Parker, Patricia G

    2005-01-01

    An increased susceptibility to disease is one hypothesis explaining how inbreeding hastens extinction in island endemics and threatened species. Experimental studies show that disease resistance declines as inbreeding increases, but data from in situ wildlife systems are scarce. Genetic diversity increases with island size across the entire range of an extremely inbred Galápagos endemic bird, providing the context for a natural experiment examining the effects of inbreeding on disease susceptibility. Extremely inbred populations of Galápagos hawks had higher parasite abundances than relatively outbred populations. We found a significant island effect on constitutively produced natural antibody (NAb) levels and inbred populations generally harboured lower average and less variable NAb levels than relatively outbred populations. Furthermore, NAb levels explained abundance of amblyceran lice, which encounter the host immune system. This is the first study linking inbreeding, innate immunity and parasite load in an endemic, in situ wildlife population and provides a clear framework for assessment of disease risk in a Galápagos endemic. PMID:16618672

  3. Host genetic susceptibility to severe dengue infection

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Hirayama, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that host genetic factors are relevant and predispose DHF/DSS development. Here, we review the host genetic studies concerning human leucocyte antigens, antibody receptors, immune/inflammatory mediators, attachment molecules, cytokines and other factors exerting an immunoregulatory effect as well as the current genome-wide association studies. We also discuss some viewpoints on future challenges related to the design of safe and effective prevention and treatment options. PMID:22500139

  4. GENETICS OF HOST RANGE IN LEPIDOPTERA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic basis of complex, ecologically relevant traits is not well known for any organism. The question is particularly compelling where closely-related species have diverged radically in their adaptation to the environment. Differences in host plant use among moths and butterflies often provi...

  5. Host genetic determinants of influenza pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tsai-Yu; Brass, Abraham L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite effective vaccines, influenza remains a major global health threat due to the morbidity and mortality caused by seasonal epidemics, as well as the 2009 pandemic. Also of profound concern are the rare but potentially catastrophic transmissions of avian influenza to humans, highlighted by a recent H7N9 influenza outbreak. Murine and human studies reveal that the clinical course of influenza is the result of a combination of both host and viral genetic determinants. While viral pathogenicity has long been the subject of intensive efforts, research to elucidate host genetic determinants, particularly human, is now in the ascendant, and the goal of this review is to highlight these recent insights. PMID:23933004

  6. Phylogeography of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis): a recent arrival to the Galápagos Islands.

    PubMed

    Bollmer, Jennifer L; Kimball, Rebecca T; Whiteman, Noah Kerness; Sarasola, José Hernán; Parker, Patricia G

    2006-04-01

    Galápagos hawks (Buteo galapagoensis) are one of the most inbred bird species in the world, living in small, isolated island populations. We used mitochondrial sequence and nuclear minisatellite data to describe relationships among Galápagos hawk populations and their colonization history. We sampled 10 populations (encompassing the entire current species range of nine islands and one extirpated population), as well as the Galápagos hawk's closest mainland relative, the Swainson's hawk (B. swainsoni). There was little sequence divergence between Galápagos and Swainson's hawks (only 0.42% over almost 3kb of data), indicating that the hawks colonized Galápagos very recently, likely less than 300,000 years ago, making them the most recent arrivals of the studied taxa. There were only seven, closely related Galápagos hawk haplotypes, with most populations being monomorphic. The mitochondrial and minisatellite data together indicated a general pattern of rapid population expansion followed by genetic isolation of hawk breeding populations. The recent arrival, genetic isolation, and phenotypic differentiation among populations suggest that the Galápagos hawk, a rather new species itself, is in the earliest stages of further divergence. PMID:16376110

  7. Giardia duodenalis genetic assemblages and hosts

    PubMed Central

    Heyworth, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    Techniques for sub-classifying morphologically identical Giardia duodenalis trophozoites have included comparisons of the electrophoretic mobility of enzymes and of chromosomes, and sequencing of genes encoding β-giardin, triose phosphate isomerase, the small subunit of ribosomal RNA and glutamate dehydrogenase. To date, G. duodenalis organisms have been sub-classified into eight genetic assemblages (designated A–H). Genotyping of G. duodenalis organisms isolated from various hosts has shown that assemblages A and B infect the largest range of host species, and appear to be the main (or possibly only) G. duodenalis assemblages that undeniably infect human subjects. In at least some cases of assemblage A or B infection in wild mammals, there is suggestive evidence that the infection had resulted from environmental contamination by G. duodenalis cysts of human origin. PMID:26984116

  8. Correlations of Host Genetics and Gut Microbiome Composition.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, Krystyna; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    The human gut microbiome has a considerable impact on host health. The long list of microbiome-related health disorders raises the question of what in fact determines microbiome composition. In this review we sought to understand how the host itself impacts the structure of the gut microbiota population, specifically by correlations of host genetics and gut microbiome composition. Host genetic profile has been linked to differences in microbiome composition, thus suggesting that host genetics can shape the gut microbiome of the host. However, cause-consequence mechanisms behind these links are still unclear. A survey of the possible mechanisms allowing host genetics to shape microbiota composition in the gut demonstrated the major role of metabolic functions and the immune system. A considerable impact of other factors, such as diet, may outweigh the effects of host genetic background. More studies are necessary for good understanding of the relations between the host genetic profile, gut microbiome composition, and host health. According to the idea of personalized medicine, patient-tailored management of microbiota content remains a fascinating area for further inquiry. PMID:27625642

  9. Correlations of Host Genetics and Gut Microbiome Composition

    PubMed Central

    Dąbrowska, Krystyna; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    The human gut microbiome has a considerable impact on host health. The long list of microbiome-related health disorders raises the question of what in fact determines microbiome composition. In this review we sought to understand how the host itself impacts the structure of the gut microbiota population, specifically by correlations of host genetics and gut microbiome composition. Host genetic profile has been linked to differences in microbiome composition, thus suggesting that host genetics can shape the gut microbiome of the host. However, cause-consequence mechanisms behind these links are still unclear. A survey of the possible mechanisms allowing host genetics to shape microbiota composition in the gut demonstrated the major role of metabolic functions and the immune system. A considerable impact of other factors, such as diet, may outweigh the effects of host genetic background. More studies are necessary for good understanding of the relations between the host genetic profile, gut microbiome composition, and host health. According to the idea of personalized medicine, patient-tailored management of microbiota content remains a fascinating area for further inquiry. PMID:27625642

  10. Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome (Prrs) Host Genetics Consortium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A PRRS Host Genetics Consortium has been formed in the US; its objectives are to use genotyping and phenotyping tools to determine if there are host genes controlling resistance/susceptibility to PRRSV infection. The general plan is to use the nursery pig model of primary response to infection, i.e....

  11. Genetics of host response in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Milton Ozório; Cardoso, Cynthia Chester; Vanderborght, Patrícia Rosa; Pacheco, Antônio Guilherme

    2006-09-01

    In this review, we discuss recently accumulated data, analysing genetic influence on leprosy outcome. Most leprosy-related epidemiological studies are based on the comparison of frequencies of genetic markers in case-control designs using candidate genes, mainly on immunological pathways. Genomic scans using family-based designs also identified some chromosome regions to be tested for association with leprosy. The results have suggested that different genes are implicated in resistance/susceptibility to leprosy, such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin (IL)-10, vitamin D receptor (VDR), and parkin, although some of the results obtained in different populations are controversial. In spite of the recent advances in genomics and genetic epidemiology we have experienced, the results must be confirmed using better designed epidemiological studies to directly pinpoint the genes responsible for leprosy outcome. Furthermore, there is a clear requirement of functional/biological data in order to validate epidemiological findings. In this way, these genetic markers could be used to screen high-risk populations introducing gene testing as diagnostic and prognostic tools to interrupt the chain of transmission and prevent neurological damage. PMID:17171999

  12. Genetic differentiation among host-associated Alebra leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Aguin-Pombo, D

    2002-06-01

    The limited importance ascribed to sympatric speciation processes via host race formation is partially due to the few cases of host races that have been reported among host populations. This work sheds light on the taxonomy of Alebra leafhoppers and examines the possible existence of host races among host-associated populations. The species of this genus show varying degrees of host association with deciduous trees and shrubs and, frequently, host populations of uncertain taxonomic status coexist and occasionally become pests. Allozyme electrophoresis of 21 Greek populations including sympatric, local and geographically distant samples collected on 13 different plant species, show that they represent at least five species: A. albostriella Fallén, A. viridis (Rey) (sensu Gillham), A. wahlbergi Boheman and two new species. Of these, one is associated to Quercus frainetto and other is specific to Crataegus spp. Significant genetic differences among sympatric and local host populations were found only in A. albostriella, between populations on Turkey oak, beech and common alder. It is suggested that the last two of these host populations may represent different host races. The results show that both the host plant and geographical distance affect the patterns of differentiation in the genus. The formation of some species seems to have been the result of allopatric speciation events while, for others, their origin can be equally explained either by sympatric or allopatric speciation. PMID:12180082

  13. Does genetic diversity limit disease spread in natural host populations?

    PubMed Central

    King, K C; Lively, C M

    2012-01-01

    It is a commonly held view that genetically homogenous host populations are more vulnerable to infection than genetically diverse populations. The underlying idea, known as the ‘monoculture effect,' is well documented in agricultural studies. Low genetic diversity in the wild can result from bottlenecks (that is, founder effects), biparental inbreeding or self-fertilization, any of which might increase the risk of epidemics. Host genetic diversity could buffer populations against epidemics in nature, but it is not clear how much diversity is required to prevent disease spread. Recent theoretical and empirical studies, particularly in Daphnia populations, have helped to establish that genetic diversity can reduce parasite transmission. Here, we review the present theoretical work and empirical evidence, and we suggest a new focus on finding ‘diversity thresholds.' PMID:22713998

  14. Host genetic and environmental effects on mouse intestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, James H; Foster, Carmen M; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana; Campbell, Alisha G; Yang, Zamin K; Wymore, Ann; Palumbo, Anthony V; Chesler, Elissa J; Podar, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian gut harbors complex and variable microbial communities, across both host phylogenetic space and conspecific individuals. A synergy of host genetic and environmental factors shape these communities and account for their variability, but their individual contributions and the selective pressures involved are still not well understood. We employed barcoded pyrosequencing of V1-2 and V4 regions of bacterial small subunit ribosomal RNA genes to characterize the effects of host genetics and environment on cecum assemblages in 10 genetically distinct, inbred mouse strains. Eight of these strains are the foundation of the Collaborative Cross (CC), a panel of mice derived from a genetically diverse set of inbred founder strains, designed specifically for complex trait analysis. Diversity of gut microbiota was characterized by complementing phylogenetic and distance-based, sequence-clustering approaches. Significant correlations were found between the mouse strains and their gut microbiota, reflected by distinct bacterial communities. Cohabitation and litter had a reduced, although detectable effect, and the microbiota response to these factors varied by strain. We identified bacterial phylotypes that appear to be discriminative and strain-specific to each mouse line used. Cohabitation of different strains of mice revealed an interaction of host genetic and environmental factors in shaping gut bacterial consortia, in which bacterial communities became more similar but retained strain specificity. This study provides a baseline analysis of intestinal bacterial communities in the eight CC progenitor strains and will be linked to integrated host genotype, phenotype and microbiota research on the resulting CC panel. PMID:22695862

  15. Host Genetic and Environmental Effects on Mouse Cecum Microbiota

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, James H; Foster, Carmen M; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Campbell, Alisha G; Yang, Zamin Koo; Wymore, Ann; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Podar, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian gut harbors complex and variable microbial communities, across both host phylogenetic space and conspecific individuals. A synergy of host genetic and environmental factors shape these communities and account for their variability, but their individual contributions and the selective pressures involved are still not well understood. We employed barcoded pyrosequencing of V1-2 and V4 regions of bacterial small subunit ribosomal RNA genes to characterize the effects of host genetics and environment on cecum assemblages in 10 genetically distinct, inbred mouse strains. Eight of these strains are the foundation of the Collaborative Cross (CC), a panel of mice derived from a genetically diverse set of inbred founder strains, designed specifically for complex trait analysis. Diversity of gut microbiota was characterized by complementing phylogenetic and distance-based, sequence-clustering approaches. Significant correlations were found between the mouse strains and their gut microbiota, reflected by distinct bacterial communities. Cohabitation and litter had a reduced, although detectable effect, and the microbiota response to these factors varied by strain. We identified bacterial phylotypes that appear to be discriminative and strain-specific to each mouse line used. Cohabitation of different strains of mice revealed an interaction of host genetic and environmental factors in shaping gut bacterial consortia, in which bacterial communities became more similar but retained strain specificity. This study provides a baseline analysis of intestinal bacterial communities in the eight CC progenitor strains and will be linked to integrated host genotype, phenotype and microbiota research on the resulting CC panel.

  16. Host genetics and population structure effects on parasitic disease

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Criscione, Charles D.; VandeBerg, John L.; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Williams, Kimberly D.; Subedi, Janardan; Kent, Jack W.; Williams, Jeff; Kumar, Satish; Blangero, John

    2012-01-01

    Host genetic factors exert significant influences on differential susceptibility to many infectious diseases. In addition, population structure of both host and parasite may influence disease distribution patterns. In this study, we assess the effects of population structure on infectious disease in two populations in which host genetic factors influencing susceptibility to parasitic disease have been extensively studied. The first population is the Jirel population of eastern Nepal that has been the subject of research on the determinants of differential susceptibility to soil-transmitted helminth infections. The second group is a Brazilian population residing in an area endemic for Trypanosoma cruzi infection that has been assessed for genetic influences on differential disease progression in Chagas disease. For measures of Ascaris worm burden, within-population host genetic effects are generally more important than host population structure factors in determining patterns of infectious disease. No significant influences of population structure on measures associated with progression of cardiac disease in individuals who were seropositive for T. cruzi infection were found. PMID:22312056

  17. Host-dependent genetic structure of parasite populations: differential dispersal of seabird tick host races.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Karen D; Boulinier, Thierry; Tirard, Claire; Michalakis, Yannis

    2003-02-01

    Despite the fact that parasite dispersal is likely to be one of the most important processes influencing the dynamics and coevolution of host-parasite interactions, little information is available on the factors that affect it. In most cases, opportunities for parasite dispersal should be closely linked to host biology. Here we use microsatellite genetic markers to compare the population structure and dispersal of two host races of the seabird tick Ixodes uriae at the scale of the North Atlantic. Interestingly, tick populations showed high within-population genetic variation and relatively low population differentiation. However, gene flow at different spatial scales seemed to depend on the host species exploited. The black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) had structured tick populations showing patterns of isolation by distance, whereas tick populations of the Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica) were only weakly structured at the largest scale considered. Host-dependent rates of tick dispersal between colonies will alter infestation probabilities and local dynamics and may thus modify the adaptation potential of ticks to local hosts. Moreover, as I. uriae is a vector of the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in both hemispheres, the large-scale movements of birds and the subsequent dispersal of ticks will have important consequences for the dynamics and coevolutionary interactions of this microparasite with its different vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. PMID:12683525

  18. Health evaluation of Galapagos Hawks (Buteo galapagoensis) on Santiago Island, Galapagos.

    PubMed

    Deem, Sharon L; Rivera-Parra, Jose Luis; Parker, Patricia G

    2012-01-01

    Galapagos Hawks (Buteo galapagoensis), the only endemic, diurnal raptor species in Galapagos, are currently distributed on eight Galapagos Islands having been extirpated from three of the human-inhabited islands. In January 2009, we performed health assessments of 89 Galapagos Hawks on Santiago Island, Galapagos. Four of the 89 Galapagos Hawks (4%) evaluated had physical abnormalities. Blood parameters did not differ between males and females, except for aspartate transaminase values, which were significantly higher in females than males. No Galapagos Hawks tested positive for antibodies to avian encephalitis virus, Marek virus, and paramyxovirus-1 or to haemosporidian antigen. Chlamydophila psittaci antigen was detected in 2 of 86 Galapagos Hawks (2%), with 24 of 43 Galapagos Hawks (56%) antibody-positive for avian adenovirus-1 and 1 of 48 Galapagos Hawks (2%) antibody positive for Toxoplasma gondii. There were no significant differences in infectious disease results based on sex. This study contributes to the understanding of the health status of the Galapagos Hawk and to the establishment of baseline information for the species. PMID:22247372

  19. Virus-Host Interactions: From Unbiased Genetic Screens to Function.

    PubMed

    Ramage, Holly; Cherry, Sara

    2015-11-01

    Deciphering the many interactions that occur between a virus and host cell over the course of infection is paramount to understanding mechanisms of pathogenesis and to the future development of antiviral therapies. Over the past decade, researchers have started to understand these complicated relationships through the development of methodologies, including advances in RNA interference, proteomics, and the development of genetic tools such as haploid cell lines, allowing high-throughput screening to identify critical contact points between virus and host. These advances have produced a wealth of data regarding host factors hijacked by viruses to promote infection, as well as antiviral factors responsible for subverting viral infection. This review highlights findings from virus-host screens and discusses our thoughts on the direction of screening strategies moving forward. PMID:26958926

  20. Host genetic variation is a contributable factor for imperfectly-immunizing vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccine protective efficacy is determined by multiple factors including host genetics, vaccine type, vaccine dosage, challenge virus virulence, challenge virus dose, and interval between vaccination and exposure to challenge viruses. About two decades ago, studies conducted to evaluate host genetic ...

  1. Host Genetic Variants in the Pathogenesis of Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Monika; Baur, Katharina; Geier, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) are currently replacing antiviral therapy for Hepatitis C infection. Treatment related side effects are even worse and the emergence of resistant viruses must be avoided because of the direct-antiviral action. Altogether it remains a challenge to take treatment decisions in a clinical setting with cost restrictions. Genetic host factors are hereby essential to implement an individualized treatment concept. In recent years results on different genetic variants have been published with a strong association with therapy response, fibrosis and treatment-related side effects. Polymorphisms of the IL28B gene were identified as accurate predictors for therapy response and spontaneous clearance of HCV infection and are already used for diagnostic decisions. For RBV-induced side effects, such as hemolytic anemia, associations to genetic variants of inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) were described and different SLC28 transporters for RBV-uptake have been successfully analyzed. Fibrosis progression has been associated with variants of Vitamin D receptor (VDR) and ABCB11 (bile salt export pump). Cirrhotic patients especially have a high treatment risk and low therapy response, so that personalized antiviral treatment is mandatory. This review focuses on different host genetic variants in the pathogenesis of Hepatitis C at the beginning of a new area of treatment. PMID:23342360

  2. A spatial and genetic analysis of Cowbird host selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D.C.; Sedgwick, J.A.; Painter, I.S.; Casna, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    Our study of brood parasitism patterns in forest communities revealed the egg-laying frequency and host selection patterns of female cowbirds. By integrating molecular genetics and spatial data, we have the first published estimate on cowbird laying rates in field studies. The 29 females in the study laid only 1-5 eggs each, much lower than previous estimates from captive cowbirds and extrapolations from ovarian development in capture/recapture studies that had suggested that as many as 40 eggs could be laid per individual cowbird. Cowbird females also were shown for the first time to lay significantly more eggs within the home range areas they established rather than outside the home range. No patterns were uncovered for individual females preferentially parasitizing particular host species

  3. Cryptic host specificity of an avian skin mite (Epidermoptidae) vectored by louseflies (Hippoboscidae) associated with two endemic Galapagos bird species.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Noah Kerness; Sánchez, Pablo; Merkel, Jane; Klompen, Hans; Parker, Patricia G

    2006-12-01

    Host specificity of vectors is an important but understudied force shaping parasite evolution and the relationship between hosts and parasites. Low vector specificity may allow a vectored parasite to invade new host species, whereas high specificity of vectors may reduce the host range of the parasite and favor specialization. The 'generalist' and widely distributed avian skin mite Myialges caulotoon Speiser (Acari: Epidermoptidae) is unusual because females require an insect vector to complete their life cycle. Myialges caulotoon was previously reported from 2 lousefly (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) species, Olfersia sordida and Icosta nigra, parasitizing flightless cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi) and Galápagos hawks (Buteo galapagoensis), respectively, within the Galápagos Islands. This is a surprising distribution, given that the 2 lousefly species involved are relatively host-specific. Mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed 2 reciprocally monophyletic Myialges clades that sorted out perfectly with respect to their vector species, regardless of whether they were in allopatry or sympatry. One clade was restricted to flies of hawks and the other to flies of cormorants. Females of the 2 Myialges groups were also separated consistently by the shape of the sternal surface sclerotization. Mites of hawk flies were more abundant than those of cormorant flies. Within the Myialges clade associated with hawks, genetic differentiation between 2 island populations mirrored its host's patterns of differentiation. PMID:17304798

  4. Gut microbiome phenotypes driven by host genetics affect arsenic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kun; Mahbub, Ridwan; Cable, Peter Hans; Ru, Hongyu; Parry, Nicola M A; Bodnar, Wanda M; Wishnok, John S; Styblo, Miroslav; Swenberg, James A; Fox, James G; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2014-02-17

    Large individual differences in susceptibility to arsenic-induced diseases are well-documented and frequently associated with different patterns of arsenic metabolism. In this context, the role of the gut microbiome in directly metabolizing arsenic and triggering systemic responses in diverse organs raises the possibility that gut microbiome phenotypes affect the spectrum of metabolized arsenic species. However, it remains unclear how host genetics and the gut microbiome interact to affect the biotransformation of arsenic. Using an integrated approach combining 16S rRNA gene sequencing and HPLC-ICP-MS arsenic speciation, we demonstrate that IL-10 gene knockout leads to a significant taxonomic change of the gut microbiome, which in turn substantially affects arsenic metabolism. PMID:24490651

  5. Genetic and environmental control of host-gut microbiota interactions.

    PubMed

    Org, Elin; Parks, Brian W; Joo, Jong Wha J; Emert, Benjamin; Schwartzman, William; Kang, Eun Yong; Mehrabian, Margarete; Pan, Calvin; Knight, Rob; Gunsalus, Robert; Drake, Thomas A; Eskin, Eleazar; Lusis, Aldons J

    2015-10-01

    Genetics provides a potentially powerful approach to dissect host-gut microbiota interactions. Toward this end, we profiled gut microbiota using 16s rRNA gene sequencing in a panel of 110 diverse inbred strains of mice. This panel has previously been studied for a wide range of metabolic traits and can be used for high-resolution association mapping. Using a SNP-based approach with a linear mixed model, we estimated the heritability of microbiota composition. We conclude that, in a controlled environment, the genetic background accounts for a substantial fraction of abundance of most common microbiota. The mice were previously studied for response to a high-fat, high-sucrose diet, and we hypothesized that the dietary response was determined in part by gut microbiota composition. We tested this using a cross-fostering strategy in which a strain showing a modest response, SWR, was seeded with microbiota from a strain showing a strong response, A×B19. Consistent with a role of microbiota in dietary response, the cross-fostered SWR pups exhibited a significantly increased response in weight gain. To examine specific microbiota contributing to the response, we identified various genera whose abundance correlated with dietary response. Among these, we chose Akkermansia muciniphila, a common anaerobe previously associated with metabolic effects. When administered to strain A×B19 by gavage, the dietary response was significantly blunted for obesity, plasma lipids, and insulin resistance. In an effort to further understand host-microbiota interactions, we mapped loci controlling microbiota composition and prioritized candidate genes. Our publicly available data provide a resource for future studies. PMID:26260972

  6. Genetic and environmental control of host-gut microbiota interactions

    PubMed Central

    Org, Elin; Parks, Brian W.; Joo, Jong Wha J.; Emert, Benjamin; Schwartzman, William; Kang, Eun Yong; Mehrabian, Margarete; Pan, Calvin; Knight, Rob; Gunsalus, Robert; Drake, Thomas A.; Eskin, Eleazar; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetics provides a potentially powerful approach to dissect host-gut microbiota interactions. Toward this end, we profiled gut microbiota using 16s rRNA gene sequencing in a panel of 110 diverse inbred strains of mice. This panel has previously been studied for a wide range of metabolic traits and can be used for high-resolution association mapping. Using a SNP-based approach with a linear mixed model, we estimated the heritability of microbiota composition. We conclude that, in a controlled environment, the genetic background accounts for a substantial fraction of abundance of most common microbiota. The mice were previously studied for response to a high-fat, high-sucrose diet, and we hypothesized that the dietary response was determined in part by gut microbiota composition. We tested this using a cross-fostering strategy in which a strain showing a modest response, SWR, was seeded with microbiota from a strain showing a strong response, A×B19. Consistent with a role of microbiota in dietary response, the cross-fostered SWR pups exhibited a significantly increased response in weight gain. To examine specific microbiota contributing to the response, we identified various genera whose abundance correlated with dietary response. Among these, we chose Akkermansia muciniphila, a common anaerobe previously associated with metabolic effects. When administered to strain A×B19 by gavage, the dietary response was significantly blunted for obesity, plasma lipids, and insulin resistance. In an effort to further understand host-microbiota interactions, we mapped loci controlling microbiota composition and prioritized candidate genes. Our publicly available data provide a resource for future studies. PMID:26260972

  7. Probing Genetic Control of Swine Responses to PRRSV Infection: Current Progress of the PRRS Host Genetics Consortium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Understanding the role of host genetics in resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, and the effects of PRRS on pig health and related growth, are goals of the PRRS Host Genetics Consortium (PHGC). Methods: The project uses a nursery pig model ...

  8. Probing genetic control of swine responses to PRRSV infection: Current Progress of the PRRS Host Genetics Consortium.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the role of host genetics in resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, and the effects of PRRS on pig health and related growth, are goals of the PRRS Host Genetics Consortium (PHGC). The project uses a nursery pig model to assess pig resistan...

  9. Continuous Influx of Genetic Material from Host to Virus Populations

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Clément; Peccoud, Jean; Chateigner, Aurélien; Moumen, Bouziane

    2016-01-01

    Many genes of large double-stranded DNA viruses have a cellular origin, suggesting that host-to-virus horizontal transfer (HT) of DNA is recurrent. Yet, the frequency of these transfers has never been assessed in viral populations. Here we used ultra-deep DNA sequencing of 21 baculovirus populations extracted from two moth species to show that a large diversity of moth DNA sequences (n = 86) can integrate into viral genomes during the course of a viral infection. The majority of the 86 different moth DNA sequences are transposable elements (TEs, n = 69) belonging to 10 superfamilies of DNA transposons and three superfamilies of retrotransposons. The remaining 17 sequences are moth sequences of unknown nature. In addition to bona fide DNA transposition, we uncover microhomology-mediated recombination as a mechanism explaining integration of moth sequences into viral genomes. Many sequences integrated multiple times at multiple positions along the viral genome. We detected a total of 27,504 insertions of moth sequences in the 21 viral populations and we calculate that on average, 4.8% of viruses harbor at least one moth sequence in these populations. Despite this substantial proportion, no insertion of moth DNA was maintained in any viral population after 10 successive infection cycles. Hence, there is a constant turnover of host DNA inserted into viral genomes each time the virus infects a moth. Finally, we found that at least 21 of the moth TEs integrated into viral genomes underwent repeated horizontal transfers between various insect species, including some lepidopterans susceptible to baculoviruses. Our results identify host DNA influx as a potent source of genetic diversity in viral populations. They also support a role for baculoviruses as vectors of DNA HT between insects, and call for an evaluation of possible gene or TE spread when using viruses as biopesticides or gene delivery vectors. PMID:26829124

  10. Host range, prevalence, and genetic diversity of adenoviruses in bats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Ge, Xingyi; Zhang, Huajun; Zhou, Peng; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Yunzhi; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Lin-Fa; Shi, Zhengli

    2010-04-01

    Bats are the second largest group of mammals on earth and act as reservoirs of many emerging viruses. In this study, a novel bat adenovirus (AdV) (BtAdV-TJM) was isolated from bat fecal samples by using a bat primary kidney cell line. Infection studies indicated that most animal and human cell lines are susceptible to BtAdV-TJM, suggesting a possible wide host range. Genome analysis revealed 30 putative genes encoding proteins homologous to their counterparts in most known AdVs. Phylogenetic analysis placed BtAdV-TJM within the genus Mastadenovirus, most closely related to tree shrew and canine AdVs. PCR analysis of 350 bat fecal samples, collected from 19 species in five Chinese provinces during 2007 and 2008, indicated that 28 (or 8%) samples were positive for AdVs. The samples were from five bat species, Hipposideros armiger, Myotis horsfieldii, M. ricketti, Myotis spp., and Scotophilus kuhlii. The prevalence ranged from 6.25% (H. armiger in 2007) to 40% (M. ricketti in 2007). Comparison studies based on available partial sequences of the pol gene demonstrated a great genetic diversity among bat AdVs infecting different bat species as well as those infecting the same bat species. This is the first report of a genetically diverse group of DNA viruses in bats. Our results support the notion, derived from previous studies based on RNA viruses (especially coronaviruses and astroviruses), that bats seem to have the unusual ability to harbor a large number of genetically diverse viruses within a geographic location and/or within a taxonomic group. PMID:20089640

  11. Cryptosporidium within-host genetic diversity: systematic bibliographical search and narrative overview.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, Alex; Widmer, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of the within-host genetic diversity of a pathogen often has broad implications for disease management. Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites are among the most common causative agents of infectious diarrhoea. Current limitations of in vitro culture impose the use of uncultured isolates obtained directly from the hosts as operational units of Cryptosporidium genotyping. The validity of this practice is centred on the assumption of genetic homogeneity of the parasite within the host, and genetic studies often take little account of the within-host genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium. Yet, theory and experimental evidence contemplate genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium at the within-host scale, but this diversity is not easily identified by genotyping methods ill-suited for the resolution of DNA mixtures. We performed a systematic bibliographical search of the occurrence of within-host genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium parasites in epidemiological samples, between 2005 and 2015. Our results indicate that genetic diversity at the within-host scale, in the form of mixed species or intra-species diversity, has been identified in a large number (n=55) of epidemiological surveys of cryptosporidiosis in variable proportions, but has often been treated as a secondary finding and not analysed. As in malaria, there are indications that the scale of this diversity varies between geographical regions, perhaps depending on the prevailing transmission pathways. These results provide a significant knowledge base from which to draw alternative population genetic structure models, some of which are discussed in this paper. PMID:27021167

  12. The Evolution and Genetics of Virus Host Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Longdon, Ben; Brockhurst, Michael A.; Russell, Colin A.; Welch, John J.; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging viral diseases are often the product of a host shift, where a pathogen jumps from its original host into a novel species. Phylogenetic studies show that host shifts are a frequent event in the evolution of most pathogens, but why pathogens successfully jump between some host species but not others is only just becoming clear. The susceptibility of potential new hosts can vary enormously, with close relatives of the natural host typically being the most susceptible. Often, pathogens must adapt to successfully infect a novel host, for example by evolving to use different cell surface receptors, to escape the immune response, or to ensure they are transmitted by the new host. In viruses there are often limited molecular solutions to achieve this, and the same sequence changes are often seen each time a virus infects a particular host. These changes may come at a cost to other aspects of the pathogen's fitness, and this may sometimes prevent host shifts from occurring. Here we examine how these evolutionary factors affect patterns of host shifts and disease emergence. PMID:25375777

  13. Genetics, experience, and host-plant preference in Eurosta solidaginis: implications for host shifts and speciation.

    PubMed

    Craig, T P; Horner, J D; Itami, J K

    2001-04-01

    Host-associated mating is crucial in maintaining the partial reproductive isolation between the host races of Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae), a fly that forms galls on Solidago altissima and S. gigantea. (We refer to flies reared from S. gigantea as gigantea flies and those reared from S. altissima as altissima flies.) We measured the host preference of males and females of both host races, F1 hybrids between the host races, F2, and backcrosses to both host races. Male and female altissima flies and female gigantea flies had high host fidelity, whereas male gigantea flies had low host fidelity. This result suggests that there may be gene flow between the host races due to nonassortative mating that occurs when male gigantea mate with altissima females on S. altissima. This indicates assortative-mating mechanisms in addition to host-associated mating are required to produce the partial reproductive isolation between the host races that has been observed. Nongenetic factors had no influence on host preference. Larval conditioning did not influence host preference: reciprocal F1 hybrids reared in S. altissima and S. gigantea both preferred S. gigantea. Adult experience had no impact on host preference: females preferred their natal host plant regardless of which host they encountered first as an adult. The hypothesis that maternal effects influence preferences was rejected because male and female flies did not show a consistent preference for the host plant of their mother. We also found no evidence that preference was a sex-linked trait because F1 and backcrosses to the host races with different combinations of X chromosomes from the two host races preferred S. gigantea. Our results indicate that host preference is not determined by a large number of genes because preference of hybrids did not correspond to the proportion of the genome derived from each host race. The strength of the ovipuncture preference for S. gigantea by gigantea females, the females

  14. Genetic, ecological and geographic covariables explaining host range and specificity of a microsporidian parasite.

    PubMed

    Lange, Benjamin; Kaufmann, Andrea Patricia; Ebert, Dieter

    2015-11-01

    Parasites often have a smaller geographic distribution than their hosts. Common garden infection trials can untangle the role that historical contingencies, ecological conditions and the genetic constitution of local host populations play in limiting parasite geographic range; however, infection trials usually overestimate the range of hosts in which a parasite could naturally persist. This study overcomes that problem by using multigeneration, long-term persistence experiments. We study the microsporidian parasite Hamiltosporidium tvaerminnensis in monoclonal populations of Daphnia magna from 43 widely spread sites. The parasite persisted well in hosts collected from its natural geographic range, but demonstrated long-term persistence in only a few host genotypes outside this range. Genetic distance between hosts from the parasite's origin site and newly tested host populations correlated negatively with parasite persistence. Furthermore, the parasite persisted only in host populations from habitats with a high likelihood of drying up in summer, although we excluded environmental variation in our experiments. Together, our results suggest that host genetic factors play the dominant role in explaining the limited geographic range of parasites and that these genetic differences covary with geographic distance and the habitat type the host is adapted to. PMID:26147623

  15. Analysis of host genetic diversity and viral entry as sources of between-host variation in viral load

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Kell, Alison M.; Scott, Robert J.; Thorgaard, Gary H.; Kurath, Gael

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the factors that drive the high levels of between-host variation in pathogen burden that are frequently observed in viral infections. Here, two factors thought to impact viral load variability, host genetic diversity and stochastic processes linked with viral entry into the host, were examined. This work was conducted with the aquatic vertebrate virus, Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), in its natural host, rainbow trout. It was found that in controlled in vivo infections of IHNV, a suggestive trend of reduced between-fish viral load variation was observed in a clonal population of isogenic trout compared to a genetically diverse population of out-bred trout. However, this trend was not statistically significant for any of the four viral genotypes examined, and high levels of fish-to-fish variation persisted even in the isogenic trout population. A decrease in fish-to-fish viral load variation was also observed in virus injection challenges that bypassed the host entry step, compared to fish exposed to the virus through the natural water-borne immersion route of infection. This trend was significant for three of the four virus genotypes examined and suggests host entry may play a role in viral load variability. However, high levels of viral load variation also remained in the injection challenges. Together, these results indicate that although host genetic diversity and viral entry may play some role in between-fish viral load variation, they are not major factors. Other biological and non-biological parameters that may influence viral load variation are discussed.

  16. Genetic Drift, Purifying Selection and Vector Genotype Shape Dengue Virus Intra-host Genetic Diversity in Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Lequime, Sebastian; Fontaine, Albin; Ar Gouilh, Meriadeg; Moltini-Conclois, Isabelle; Lambrechts, Louis

    2016-06-01

    Due to their error-prone replication, RNA viruses typically exist as a diverse population of closely related genomes, which is considered critical for their fitness and adaptive potential. Intra-host demographic fluctuations that stochastically reduce the effective size of viral populations are a challenge to maintaining genetic diversity during systemic host infection. Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) traverse several anatomical barriers during infection of their arthropod vectors that are believed to impose population bottlenecks. These anatomical barriers have been associated with both maintenance of arboviral genetic diversity and alteration of the variant repertoire. Whether these patterns result from stochastic sampling (genetic drift) rather than natural selection, and/or from the influence of vector genetic heterogeneity has not been elucidated. Here, we used deep sequencing of full-length viral genomes to monitor the intra-host evolution of a wild-type dengue virus isolate during infection of several mosquito genetic backgrounds. We estimated a bottleneck size ranging from 5 to 42 founding viral genomes at initial midgut infection, irrespective of mosquito genotype, resulting in stochastic reshuffling of the variant repertoire. The observed level of genetic diversity increased following initial midgut infection but significantly differed between mosquito genetic backgrounds despite a similar initial bottleneck size. Natural selection was predominantly negative (purifying) during viral population expansion. Taken together, our results indicate that dengue virus intra-host genetic diversity in the mosquito vector is shaped by genetic drift and purifying selection, and point to a novel role for vector genetic factors in the genetic breadth of virus populations during infection. Identifying the evolutionary forces acting on arboviral populations within their arthropod vector provides novel insights into arbovirus evolution. PMID:27304978

  17. Genetic Drift, Purifying Selection and Vector Genotype Shape Dengue Virus Intra-host Genetic Diversity in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Albin; Ar Gouilh, Meriadeg; Moltini-Conclois, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Due to their error-prone replication, RNA viruses typically exist as a diverse population of closely related genomes, which is considered critical for their fitness and adaptive potential. Intra-host demographic fluctuations that stochastically reduce the effective size of viral populations are a challenge to maintaining genetic diversity during systemic host infection. Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) traverse several anatomical barriers during infection of their arthropod vectors that are believed to impose population bottlenecks. These anatomical barriers have been associated with both maintenance of arboviral genetic diversity and alteration of the variant repertoire. Whether these patterns result from stochastic sampling (genetic drift) rather than natural selection, and/or from the influence of vector genetic heterogeneity has not been elucidated. Here, we used deep sequencing of full-length viral genomes to monitor the intra-host evolution of a wild-type dengue virus isolate during infection of several mosquito genetic backgrounds. We estimated a bottleneck size ranging from 5 to 42 founding viral genomes at initial midgut infection, irrespective of mosquito genotype, resulting in stochastic reshuffling of the variant repertoire. The observed level of genetic diversity increased following initial midgut infection but significantly differed between mosquito genetic backgrounds despite a similar initial bottleneck size. Natural selection was predominantly negative (purifying) during viral population expansion. Taken together, our results indicate that dengue virus intra-host genetic diversity in the mosquito vector is shaped by genetic drift and purifying selection, and point to a novel role for vector genetic factors in the genetic breadth of virus populations during infection. Identifying the evolutionary forces acting on arboviral populations within their arthropod vector provides novel insights into arbovirus evolution. PMID:27304978

  18. Ecological and genetic aspects of grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) performance on rootstock hosts.

    PubMed

    Forneck, A; Walker, M A; Blaich, R

    2001-12-01

    Performance and genetic variability of clonal lineages derived from one Californian and one German population of grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch were studied on their natal grape rootstock host and on three novel hosts over four generations in an aseptic dual culture system. The ability of D. vitifoliae to adapt to new hosts was measured by changes in fitness (rm) over four generations. The performance of a given clonal lineage changed over successive generations, depending upon the host plant and the phylloxera group. Analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (AFLP-PCR) banding patterns from 40 individual parthenogenetic D. vitifoliae revealed equal levels of genetic variation both among the four clonal lineages analysed and within the different generations of one lineage. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed no significant differences between the D. vitifoliae lineages reared on different host plants, nor was a correlation between host performance and genotype found. PMID:11818039

  19. Host Genetic Control of the Microbiota Mediates the Drosophila Nutritional Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Chaston, John M; Dobson, Adam J; Newell, Peter D; Douglas, Angela E

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies has demonstrated that resident microorganisms (microbiota) influence the pattern of nutrient allocation to animal protein and energy stores, but it is unclear how the effects of the microbiota interact with other determinants of animal nutrition, including animal genetic factors and diet. Here, we demonstrate that members of the gut microbiota in Drosophila melanogaster mediate the effect of certain animal genetic determinants on an important nutritional trait, triglyceride (lipid) content. Parallel analysis of the taxonomic composition of the associated bacterial community and host nutritional indices (glucose, glycogen, triglyceride, and protein contents) in multiple Drosophila genotypes revealed significant associations between the abundance of certain microbial taxa, especially Acetobacteraceae and Xanthamonadaceae, and host nutritional phenotype. By a genome-wide association study of Drosophila lines colonized with a defined microbiota, multiple host genes were statistically associated with the abundance of one bacterium, Acetobacter tropicalis. Experiments using mutant Drosophila validated the genetic association evidence and reveal that host genetic control of microbiota abundance affects the nutritional status of the flies. These data indicate that the abundance of the resident microbiota is influenced by host genotype, with consequent effects on nutrient allocation patterns, demonstrating that host genetic control of the microbiome contributes to the genotype-phenotype relationship of the animal host. PMID:26567306

  20. Host Genetic Control of the Microbiota Mediates the Drosophila Nutritional Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Chaston, John M.; Dobson, Adam J.; Newell, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of studies has demonstrated that resident microorganisms (microbiota) influence the pattern of nutrient allocation to animal protein and energy stores, but it is unclear how the effects of the microbiota interact with other determinants of animal nutrition, including animal genetic factors and diet. Here, we demonstrate that members of the gut microbiota in Drosophila melanogaster mediate the effect of certain animal genetic determinants on an important nutritional trait, triglyceride (lipid) content. Parallel analysis of the taxonomic composition of the associated bacterial community and host nutritional indices (glucose, glycogen, triglyceride, and protein contents) in multiple Drosophila genotypes revealed significant associations between the abundance of certain microbial taxa, especially Acetobacteraceae and Xanthamonadaceae, and host nutritional phenotype. By a genome-wide association study of Drosophila lines colonized with a defined microbiota, multiple host genes were statistically associated with the abundance of one bacterium, Acetobacter tropicalis. Experiments using mutant Drosophila validated the genetic association evidence and reveal that host genetic control of microbiota abundance affects the nutritional status of the flies. These data indicate that the abundance of the resident microbiota is influenced by host genotype, with consequent effects on nutrient allocation patterns, demonstrating that host genetic control of the microbiome contributes to the genotype-phenotype relationship of the animal host. PMID:26567306

  1. SURVIVAL OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROBES IN THE ENVIRONMENT: EFFECT OF HOST/VECTOR RELATIONSHIP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate and survival of genetically engineered microbes is dependent on the survival, establishment, and growth of the microbial host, as well as on the maintenance, replication, and segregation of the recombinant plasmids within the bacterial host population. The interactions o...

  2. The role of host genetic factors and host immunity in necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung T; Lillehoj, Hyun S

    2016-06-01

    The increasing number of legislative restrictions and the voluntary withdrawal of antibiotic growth promoters worldwide will continue to impact poultry health and production. The rising incidence of Clostridium infections and development of necrotic enteritis (NE) in commercial chickens has been associated with the withdrawal of antibiotics. High-throughput genomic analysis of intestinal tissues from NE-afflicted chickens showed alterations in the local immunity and gut microbiota. Therefore, a better understanding of host- and environmentally related factors on Clostridium perfringens infections will be necessary for the development of effective sustainable strategies aimed to reduce the negative consequences of NE. In this short review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of host genomics and immunity in NE. The limited progress in understanding the complexity of host-pathogen interactions in NE underscores the urgent need for more fundamental research in host immunity against Clostridium pathogens in order to develop effective control strategies against NE. PMID:26957203

  3. Host genetics is associated with the gut microbial community membership rather than the structure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peihua; Irwin, David M; Dong, Dong

    2016-04-26

    The issue of what factors shape the gut microbiota has been studied for years. However, questions on the contribution of host genetics to the colonizing process of the gut microbiota and to the extent that host genetics affect the gut microbiota have not yet been clearly answered. Most recently published reports have concluded that host genetics make a smaller contribution than other factors, such as diet, in determining the gut microbiota. Here we have exploited the increasing amount of fecal 16S rRNA gene sequencing data that are becoming available to conduct an analysis to assess the influence of host genetics on the diversity of the gut microbiota. By re-analyzing data obtained from over 5000 stool samples, representing individuals living on five continents and ranging in age from 3 days to 87 years, we found that the strength of the various factors affecting the membership or structure of the gut microbiota are quite different, which leads us to a hypothesis that the presence or absence of taxa is largely controlled by host genetics, whereas non-genetic factors regulate the abundance of each taxon. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that the genome similarity positively correlates with the similarity of community membership. Finally, we showed that only severe perturbations are able to alter the gut microbial community membership. In summary, our work provides new insights into understanding the complexities of the gut microbial community and how it responds to changes imposed on it. PMID:27033168

  4. Relocation, high-latitude warming and host genetic identity shape the foliar fungal microbiome of poplars.

    PubMed

    Bálint, Miklós; Bartha, László; O'Hara, Robert B; Olson, Matthew S; Otte, Jürgen; Pfenninger, Markus; Robertson, Amanda L; Tiffin, Peter; Schmitt, Imke

    2015-01-01

    Micro-organisms associated with plants and animals affect host fitness, shape community structure and influence ecosystem properties. Climate change is expected to influence microbial communities, but their reactions are not well understood. Host-associated micro-organisms are influenced by the climate reactions of their hosts, which may undergo range shifts due to climatic niche tracking, or may be actively relocated to mitigate the effects of climate change. We used a common-garden experiment and rDNA metabarcoding to examine the effect of host relocation and high-latitude warming on the complex fungal endophytic microbiome associated with leaves of an ecologically dominant boreal forest tree (Populus balsamifera L.). We also considered the potential effects of poplar genetic identity in defining the reactions of the microbiome to the treatments. The relocation of hosts to the north increased the diversity of the microbiome and influenced its structure, with results indicating enemy release from plausible pathogens. High-latitude warming decreased microbiome diversity in comparison with natural northern conditions. The warming also caused structural changes, which made the fungal communities distinct in comparison with both low-latitude and high-latitude natural communities, and increased the abundance of plausible pathogens. The reactions of the microbiome to relocation and warming were strongly dependent on host genetic identity. This suggests that climate change effects on host-microbiome systems may be mediated by the interaction of environmental factors and the population genetic processes of the hosts. PMID:25443313

  5. Host association drives genetic divergence in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Booth, Warren; Balvín, Ondřej; Vargo, Edward L; Vilímová, Jitka; Schal, Coby

    2015-03-01

    Genetic differentiation may exist among sympatric populations of a species due to long-term associations with alternative hosts (i.e. host-associated differentiation). While host-associated differentiation has been documented in several phytophagus insects, there are far fewer cases known in animal parasites. The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, a wingless insect, represents a potential model organism for elucidating the processes involved in host-associated differentiation in animal parasites with relatively limited mobility. In conjunction with the expansion of modern humans from Africa into Eurasia, it has been speculated that bed bugs extended their host range from bats to humans in their shared cave domiciles throughout Eurasia. C. lectularius that associate with humans have a cosmopolitan distribution, whereas those associated with bats occur across Europe, often in human-built structures. We assessed genetic structure and gene flow within and among populations collected in association with each host using mtDNA, microsatellite loci and knock-down resistance gene variants. Both nuclear and mitochondrial data support a lack of significant contemporary gene flow between host-specific populations. Within locations human-associated bed bug populations exhibit limited genetic diversity and elevated levels of inbreeding, likely due to human-mediated movement, infrequent additional introduction events per infestation, and pest control. In contrast, populations within bat roosts exhibit higher genetic diversity and lower levels of relatedness, suggesting populations are stable with temporal fluctuations due to host dispersal and bug mortality. In concert with previously published evidence of morphological and behavioural differentiation, the genetic data presented here suggest C. lectularius is currently undergoing lineage divergence through host association. PMID:25611460

  6. Tracking Dengue Virus Intra-host Genetic Diversity during Human-to-Mosquito Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Shuzhen; Aw, Pauline P. K.; Wilm, Andreas; Teoh, Garrett; Hue, Kien Duong Thi; Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Simmons, Cameron P.; Hibberd, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection of an individual human or mosquito host produces a dynamic population of closely-related sequences. This intra-host genetic diversity is thought to offer an advantage for arboviruses to adapt as they cycle between two very different host species, but it remains poorly characterized. To track changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity during horizontal transmission, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by allowing them to feed on DENV2-infected patients. We then performed whole-genome deep-sequencing of human- and matched mosquito-derived DENV samples on the Illumina platform and used a sensitive variant-caller to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) within each sample. >90% of SNVs were lost upon transition from human to mosquito, as well as from mosquito abdomen to salivary glands. Levels of viral diversity were maintained, however, by the regeneration of new SNVs at each stage of transmission. We further show that SNVs maintained across transmission stages were transmitted as a unit of two at maximum, suggesting the presence of numerous variant genomes carrying only one or two SNVs each. We also present evidence for differences in selection pressures between human and mosquito hosts, particularly on the structural and NS1 genes. This analysis provides insights into how population drops during transmission shape RNA virus genetic diversity, has direct implications for virus evolution, and illustrates the value of high-coverage, whole-genome next-generation sequencing for understanding viral intra-host genetic diversity. PMID:26325059

  7. Patterns of genetic variation in native grape phylloxera on two sympatric host species.

    PubMed

    Downie, D A

    2000-05-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to examine population genetic structure in populations of native grape phylloxera. This research asked: (i) do RAPD markers distinguish two groups corresponding to the two host plant species; and (ii) do RAPD markers distinguish groups according to spatial location, independent of host plant association? Forty-nine phylloxera clones were collected from five pairs of adjacent individuals of two sympatric grape species in five sites along a 145 km transect in Missouri, USA. A high level of polymorphism was observed, with some evidence for structuring between host plant species and no evidence for spatial structuring. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) found that 6.52% of the variance in RAPD banding patterns was attributable to host species and 7.96% of the variance was attributable to spatial location. A cluster analysis did not result in two groups corresponding to the two hosts, or to five groups corresponding to the geographical sites sampled. A Mantel test showed a low correlation between genetic similarity and spatial location. Two of the 93 RAPD markers were nonrandomly associated between the hosts. It is suggested that there may be a small host-mediated effect on genetic variation but stochastic dispersal and a highly heterogeneous environment may be the primary influences on the observed polymorphism. PMID:10792695

  8. Effects of host sociality on ectoparasite population biology.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Noah Kerness; Parker, Patricia G

    2004-10-01

    Theory predicts a positive relationship between parasite infection intensity and host density. However, this generalization is complicated in natural systems by differences in life history among parasite taxa, e.g., transmissibility. Accordingly, predictions relating host density to parasite load should be specific to each parasite taxon. To illustrate this, we studied parasites that differed greatly in life history in the context of the Galapagos hawk's (Buteo galapagoensis) variably cooperative mating system. Two louse (Phthiraptera) species were collected: Colpocephalum turbinatum (Amblycera), with 53 host species, and Degeeriella regalis (Ischnocera), with 10 host species, although B. galapagoensis was the only known Galapagos host. Sixty territorial adult male hawks from 26 groups of 1-6 males were quantitatively sampled for lice. Average abundance and intensity of C. turbinatum but not D. regalis were significantly larger in large groups of hawks than small groups. Males from the same polyandrous group harbored significantly correlated abundances of C. turbinatum but not D. regalis. Prevalence, average abundance, and intensity of C. turbinatum were significantly higher than D. regalis. These are the first results to demonstrate significant differences in a suite of population responses between these louse suborders in the context of host sociality. PMID:15562590

  9. A continuum of genetic divergence from sympatric host races to species in the pea aphid complex

    PubMed Central

    Peccoud, Jean; Ollivier, Anthony; Plantegenest, Manuel; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Sympatric populations of insects adapted to different host plants, i.e., host races, are good models to investigate how natural selection can promote speciation in the face of ongoing gene flow. However, host races are documented in very few model systems and their gradual evolution into good species, as assumed under a Darwinian view of species formation, lacks strong empirical support. We aim at resolving this uncertainty by investigating host specialization and gene flow among populations of the pea aphid complex, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Genetic markers and tests of host plant specificity indicate the existence of at least 11 well-distinguished sympatric populations associated with different host plants in Western Europe. Population assignment tests show variable migration and hybridization rates among sympatric populations, delineating 8 host races and 3 possible species. Notably, hybridization correlates negatively with genetic differentiation, forming a continuum of population divergence toward virtually complete speciation. The pea aphid complex thus illustrates how ecological divergence can be sustained among many hybridizing populations and how insect host races blend into species by gradual reduction of gene flow. PMID:19380742

  10. Disturbance induced decoupling between host genetics and composition of the associated microbiome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of oyster microbiomes have revealed that a limited number of microbes, including pathogens, can dominate microbial communities in host tissues such as gills and gut. Much of the bacterial diversity however remains underexplored and unexplained, although environmental conditions and host genetics have been implicated. We used 454 next generation 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of individually tagged PCR reactions to explore the diversity of bacterial communities in gill tissue of the invasive Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas stemming from genetically differentiated beds under ambient outdoor conditions and after a multifaceted disturbance treatment imposing stress on the host. Results While the gill associated microbial communities in oysters were dominated by few abundant taxa (i.e. Sphingomonas, Mycoplasma) the distribution of rare bacterial groups correlated to relatedness between the hosts under ambient conditions. Exposing the host to disturbance broke apart this relationship by removing rare phylotypes thereby reducing overall microbial diversity. Shifts in the microbiome composition in response to stress did not result in a net increase in genera known to contain potentially pathogenic strains. Conclusion The decrease in microbial diversity and the disassociation between population genetic structure of the hosts and their associated microbiome suggest that disturbance (i.e. stress) may play a significant role for the assembly of the natural microbiome. Such community shifts may in turn also feed back on the course of disease and the occurrence of mass mortality events in oyster populations. PMID:24206899

  11. Enhanced biofilm formation and multi-host transmission evolve from divergent genetic backgrounds in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Ben; Méric, Guillaume; Murray, Susan; Yahara, Koji; Mageiros, Leonardos; Bowen, Ryan; Jones, Nathan H; Jeeves, Rose E; Lappin-Scott, Hilary M; Asakura, Hiroshi; Sheppard, Samuel K

    2015-11-01

    Multicellular biofilms are an ancient bacterial adaptation that offers a protective environment for survival in hostile habitats. In microaerophilic organisms such as Campylobacter, biofilms play a key role in transmission to humans as the bacteria are exposed to atmospheric oxygen concentrations when leaving the reservoir host gut. Genetic determinants of biofilm formation differ between species, but little is known about how strains of the same species achieve the biofilm phenotype with different genetic backgrounds. Our approach combines genome-wide association studies with traditional microbiology techniques to investigate the genetic basis of biofilm formation in 102 Campylobacter jejuni isolates. We quantified biofilm formation among the isolates and identified hotspots of genetic variation in homologous sequences that correspond to variation in biofilm phenotypes. Thirteen genes demonstrated a statistically robust association including those involved in adhesion, motility, glycosylation, capsule production and oxidative stress. The genes associated with biofilm formation were different in the host generalist ST-21 and ST-45 clonal complexes, which are frequently isolated from multiple host species and clinical samples. This suggests the evolution of enhanced biofilm from different genetic backgrounds and a possible role in colonization of multiple hosts and transmission to humans. PMID:26373338

  12. Genetic Analysis of Phytophthora nicotianae Populations from Different Hosts Using Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Biasi, Antonio; Martin, Frank N; Cacciola, Santa O; di San Lio, Gaetano Magnano; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Schena, Leonardo

    2016-09-01

    In all, 231 isolates of Phytophthora nicotianae representing 14 populations from different host genera, including agricultural crops (Citrus, Nicotiana, and Lycopersicon), potted ornamental species in nurseries (Lavandula, Convolvulus, Myrtus, Correa, and Ruta), and other plant genera were characterized using simple-sequence repeat markers. In total, 99 multilocus genotypes (MLG) were identified, revealing a strong association between genetic grouping and host of recovery, with most MLG being associated with a single host genus. Significant differences in the structure of populations were revealed but clonality prevailed in all populations. Isolates from Citrus were found to be genetically related regardless of their geographic origin and were characterized by high genetic uniformity and high inbreeding coefficients. Higher variability was observed for other populations and a significant geographical structuring was determined for isolates from Nicotiana. Detected differences were related to the propagation and cultivation systems of different crops. Isolates obtained from Citrus spp. are more likely to be distributed worldwide with infected plant material whereas Nicotiana and Lycopersicon spp. are propagated by seed, which would not contribute to the spread of the pathogen and result in a greater chance for geographic isolation of lineages. With regard to ornamental species in nurseries, the high genetic variation is likely the result of the admixture of diverse pathogen genotypes through the trade of infected plant material from various geographic origins, the presence of several hosts in the same nursery, and genetic recombination through sexual reproduction of this heterothallic species. PMID:27111805

  13. Genetic bottlenecks during systemic movement of Cucumber mosaic virus vary in different host plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Akhtar; Roossinck, Marilyn J.

    2010-09-01

    Genetic bottlenecks are stochastic events that narrow variation in a population. We compared bottlenecks during the systemic infection of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in four host plants. We mechanically inoculated an artificial population of twelve CMV mutants to young leaves of tomato, pepper, Nicotiana benthamiana, and squash. The inoculated leaves and primary and secondary systemically infected leaves were sampled at 2, 10, and 15 days post-inoculation. All twelve mutants were detected in all of the inoculated leaves. The number of mutants recovered from the systemically infected leaves of all host species was reduced significantly, indicating bottlenecks in systemic movement. The recovery frequencies of a few of the mutants were significantly different in each host probably due to host-specific selective forces. These results have implications for the differences in virus population variation that is seen in different host plants.

  14. The genetic basis of interspecies host preference differences in the model parasitoid Nasonia

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, Christopher A; Perfectti, Francisco; Bartos, Jeremy D; Enders, Laramy S; Werren, John H

    2009-01-01

    The genetic basis of host preference has been investigated in only a few species. It is relevant to important questions in evolutionary biology, including sympatric speciation, generalist versus specialist adaptation, and parasite-host co-evolution. Here we show that a major locus strongly influences host preference in Nasonia. Nasonia are parasitic wasps that utilize fly pupae; N. vitripennis is a generalist that parasitizes a diverse set of hosts whereas N. giraulti specializes on Protocalliphora (bird blowflies). In laboratory choice experiments using Protocalliphora and Sarcophaga (flesh flies), N. vitripennis shows a preference for Sarcophaga while N. giraulti shows a preference for Protocalliphora. Through a series of interspecies crosses we have introgressed a major locus affecting host preference from N. giraulti into N. vitripennis. The N. giraulti allele is dominant and greatly increases preference for Protocalliphora pupae in the introgression line relative to the recessive N. vitripennis allele. Through the utilization of a Nasonia genotyping microarray, we have identified the introgressed region as 16 megabases of chromosome 4, although a more complete analysis is necessary to determine the exact genetic architecture of host preference in the genus. To our knowledge, this is the first introgression of the host preference of one parasitoid species into another, as well as one of the few cases of introgression of a behavioral gene between species. PMID:20087393

  15. Malagasy bats shelter a considerable genetic diversity of pathogenic Leptospira suggesting notable host-specificity patterns.

    PubMed

    Gomard, Yann; Dietrich, Muriel; Wieseke, Nicolas; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Lagadec, Erwan; Goodman, Steven M; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira are the causative agents of leptospirosis, a disease of global concern with major impact in tropical regions. Despite the importance of this zoonosis for human health, the evolutionary and ecological drivers shaping bacterial communities in host reservoirs remain poorly investigated. Here, we describe Leptospira communities hosted by Malagasy bats, composed of mostly endemic species, in order to characterize host-pathogen associations and investigate their evolutionary histories. We screened 947 individual bats (representing 31 species, 18 genera and seven families) for Leptospira infection and subsequently genotyped positive samples using three different bacterial loci. Molecular identification showed that these Leptospira are notably diverse and include several distinct lineages mostly belonging to Leptospira borgpetersenii and L. kirschneri. The exploration of the most probable host-pathogen evolutionary scenarios suggests that bacterial genetic diversity results from a combination of events related to the ecology and the evolutionary history of their hosts. Importantly, based on the data set presented herein, the notable host-specificity we have uncovered, together with a lack of geographical structuration of bacterial genetic diversity, indicates that the Leptospira community at a given site depends on the co-occurring bat species assemblage. The implications of such tight host-specificity on the epidemiology of leptospirosis are discussed. PMID:26902801

  16. An updated systematic review of the role of host genetics in susceptibility to influenza.

    PubMed

    Horby, Peter; Nguyen, Nhu Y; Dunstan, Sarah J; Baillie, John Kenneth

    2013-09-01

    The World Health Organization has identified studies of the role of host genetics on susceptibility to severe influenza as a priority. A systematic review was conducted in June 2011 to summarise the evidence on the role of host genetics in susceptibility to influenza, and this report updates that previously published review. Animal studies suggest that genetic control of susceptibility to severe influenza in mice is complex and not controlled by a single locus, but there is encouraging evidence that some of the host genetic determinants of susceptibility to severe disease may be common across influenza subtypes. Although a number of studies on genetic susceptibility to influenza in humans have been published recently, all are underpowered and unreplicated, so do not provide robust statistical evidence of an association between the identified genetic loci and susceptibility. One study does however present convincing functional evidence for an important role for IFITM3 in susceptibility to severe influenza in mice, and some evidence that this may also be important in human A/H1N1/pdm2009 infection. PMID:24034482

  17. Co-phylogeography and comparative population genetics of the threatened Galápagos hawk and three ectoparasite species: ecology shapes population histories within parasite communities.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Noah K; Kimball, Rebecca T; Parker, Patricia G

    2007-11-01

    Comparative microevolutionary studies of multiple parasites occurring on a single host species can help shed light on the processes underlying parasite diversification. We compared the phylogeographical histories, population genetic structures and population divergence times of three co-distributed and phylogenetically independent ectoparasitic insect species, including an amblyceran and an ischnoceran louse (Insecta: Phthiraptera), a hippoboscid fly (Insecta: Diptera) and their endemic avian host in the Galápagos Islands. The Galápagos hawk (Aves: Falconiformes: Buteo galapagoensis) is a recently arrived endemic lineage in the Galápagos Islands and its island populations are diverging evolutionarily. Each parasite species differed in relative dispersal ability and distribution within the host populations, which allowed us to make predictions about their degree of population genetic structure and whether they tracked host gene flow and colonization history among islands. To control for DNA region in comparisons across these phylogenetically distant taxa, we sequenced ~1 kb of homologous mitochondrial DNA from samples collected from all island populations of the host. Remarkably, the host was invariant across mitochondrial regions that were comparatively variable in each of the parasite species, to degrees consistent with differences in their natural histories. Differences in these natural history traits were predictably correlated with the evolutionary trajectories of each parasite species, including rates of interisland gene flow and tracking of hosts by parasites. Congruence between the population structures of the ischnoceran louse and the host suggests that the ischnoceran may yield insight into the cryptic evolutionary history of its endangered host, potentially aiding in its conservation management. PMID:18028178

  18. Temporal isolation explains host-related genetic differentiation in a group of widespread mycoparasitic fungi.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Levente; Pintye, Alexandra; Kovács, Gábor M; Jankovics, Tünde; Fontaine, Michael C; Harvey, Nick; Xu, Xiangming; Nicot, Philippe C; Bardin, Marc; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Giraud, Tatiana

    2011-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms responsible for divergence and specialization of pathogens on different hosts is of fundamental importance, especially in the context of the emergence of new diseases via host shifts. Temporal isolation has been reported in a few plants and parasites, but is probably one of the least studied speciation processes. We studied whether temporal isolation could be responsible for the maintenance of genetic differentiation among sympatric populations of Ampelomyces, widespread intracellular mycoparasites of powdery mildew fungi, themselves plant pathogens. The timing of transmission of Ampelomyces depends on the life cycles of the powdery mildew species they parasitize. Internal transcribed spacer sequences and microsatellite markers showed that Ampelomyces populations found in apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) were genetically highly differentiated from other Ampelomyces populations sampled from several other powdery mildew species across Europe, infecting plant hosts other than apple. While P. leucotricha starts its life cycle early in spring, and the main apple powdery mildew epidemics occur before summer, the fungal hosts of the other Ampelomyces cause epidemics mainly in summer and autumn. When two powdery mildew species were experimentally exposed to Ampelomyces strains naturally occurring in P. leucotricha in spring, and to strains naturally present in other mycohost species in autumn, cross-infections always occurred. Thus, the host-related genetic differentiation in Ampelomyces cannot be explained by narrow physiological specialization, because Ampelomyces were able to infect powdery mildew species they were unlikely to have encountered in nature, but instead appears to result from temporal isolation. PMID:21261766

  19. Genetic Characterization of Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Host Strains in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere. Previous studies of populations in the southern United States, Brazil, and the Caribbean demonstrated the existence of two morphologically identical but genetically distinct host strains that can only be distinguished using ge...

  20. Analysis of the association between host genetics, smoking, and sputum microbiota in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Mi Young; Yoon, Hyo Shin; Rho, Mina; Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi; Lee, Kayoung; Ko, GwangPyo

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies showing clear differences in the airway microbiota between healthy and diseased individuals shed light on the importance of the airway microbiota in health. Here, we report the associations of host genetics and lifestyles such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity with the composition of the sputum microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequence data generated from 257 sputum samples of Korean twin-family cohort. By estimating the heritability of each microbial taxon, we found that several taxa, including Providencia and Bacteroides, were significantly influenced by host genetic factors. Smoking had the strongest effect on the overall microbial community structure among the tested lifestyle factors. The abundances of Veillonella and Megasphaera were higher in current-smokers, and increased with the pack-year value and the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score. In contrast, Haemophilus decreased with the pack-year of smoking and the FTND score. Co-occurrence network analysis showed that the taxa were clustered according to the direction of associations with smoking, and that the taxa influenced by host genetics were found together. These results demonstrate that the relationships among sputum microbial taxa are closely associated with not only smoking but also host genetics. PMID:27030383

  1. Mutualism effectiveness and vertical transmission of symbiotic fungal endophytes in response to host genetic background

    PubMed Central

    Gundel, Pedro E; Martínez-Ghersa, María A; Omacini, Marina; Cuyeu, Romina; Pagano, Elba; Ríos, Raúl; Ghersa, Claudio M

    2012-01-01

    Certain species of the Pooideae subfamily develop stress tolerance and herbivory resistance through symbiosis with vertically transmitted, asexual fungi. This symbiosis is specific, and genetic factors modulate the compatibility between partners. Although gene flow is clearly a fitness trait in allogamous grasses, because it injects hybrid vigor and raw material for evolution, it could reduce compatibility and thus mutualism effectiveness. To explore the importance of host genetic background in modulating the performance of symbiosis, Lolium multiflorum plants, infected and noninfected with Neotyphodium occultans, were crossed with genetically distant plants of isolines (susceptible and resistant to diclofop-methyl herbicide) bred from two cultivars and exposed to stress. The endophyte improved seedling survival in genotypes susceptible to herbicide, while it had a negative effect on one of the genetically resistant crosses. Mutualism provided resistance to herbivory independently of the host genotype, but this effect vanished under stress. While no endophyte effect was observed on host reproductive success, it was increased by interpopulation plant crosses. Neither gene flow nor herbicide had an important impact on endophyte transmission. Host fitness improvements attributable to gene flow do not appear to result in direct conflict with mutualism while this seems to be an important mechanism for the ecological and contemporary evolution of the symbiotum. PMID:23346228

  2. Tuberculin skin test reactivity is dependent on host genetic background in Colombian tuberculosis household contacts.

    PubMed

    Cobat, Aurélie; Barrera, Luis F; Henao, Hanna; Arbeláez, Patricia; Abel, Laurent; García, Luis F; Schurr, Erwin; Alcaïs, Alexandre

    2012-04-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) measures the intensity of antimycobacterial acquired immunity and is used to diagnose latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We report evidence for a codominant gene explaining ∼65% of the TST variability. Disregarding the host genetic background may lead to misclassifications of TST-based diagnosis of latent M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:22291100

  3. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Mycobacterium marinum: New Insights into Host and Environmental Specificities

    PubMed Central

    Broutin, Vincent; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Aubry, Alexandra; Keck, Nicolas; Choisy, Marc; Bernardet, Jean-François; Michel, Christian; Raymond, Jean-Christophe; Libert, Cédric; Barnaud, Antoine; Stragier, Pieter; Portaels, Françoise; Terru, Dominique; Belon, Claudine; Dereure, Olivier; Gutierrez, Cristina; Boschiroli, Maria-Laura; Van De Perre, Philippe; Cambau, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium marinum causes a systemic tuberculosis-like disease in fish and skin infections in humans that can spread to deeper structures, resulting in tenosynovitis, arthritis, and osteomyelitis. However, little information is available concerning (i) the intraspecific genetic diversity of M. marinum isolated from humans and animals; (ii) M. marinum genotype circulation in the different ecosystems, and (iii) the link between M. marinum genetic diversity and hosts (humans and fish). Here, we conducted a genetic study on 89 M. marinum isolates from humans (n = 68) and fish (n = 21) by using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. The results show that the M. marinum population is genetically structured not only according to the host but also according to the ecosystem as well as to tissue tropism in humans. This suggests the existence of different genetic pools in the function of the biological and ecological compartments. Moreover, the presence of only certain M. marinum genotypes in humans suggests a different zoonotic potential of the M. marinum genotypes. Considering that the infection is linked to aquarium activity, a significant genetic difference was also detected when the human tissue tropism of M. marinum was taken into consideration, with a higher genetic polymorphism in strains isolated from patients with cutaneous forms than from individuals with deeper-structure infection. It appears that only few genotypes can produce deeper infections in humans, suggesting that the immune system might play a filtering role. PMID:22952269

  4. Genetic evidence for female host-specific races of the common cuckoo.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, H L; Sorenson, M D; Marchetti, K; Brooke, M D; Davies, N B; Nakamura, H

    2000-09-14

    The common cuckoo Cuculus canorus is divided into host-specific races (gentes). Females of each race lay a distinctive egg type that tends to match the host's eggs, for instance, brown and spotted for meadow pipit hosts or plain blue for redstart hosts. The puzzle is how these gentes remain distinct. Here, we provide genetic evidence that gentes are restricted to female lineages, with cross mating by males maintaining the common cuckoo genetically as one species. We show that there is differentiation between gentes in maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA, but not in microsatellite loci of nuclear DNA. This supports recent behavioural evidence that female, but not male, common cuckoos specialize on a particular host, and is consistent with the possibility that genes affecting cuckoo egg type are located on the female-specific W sex chromosome. Our results also support the ideas that common cuckoos often switched hosts during evolution, and that some gentes may have multiple, independent origins, due to colonization by separate ancestral lineages. PMID:11001055

  5. Health trajectories reveal the dynamic contributions of host genetic resistance and tolerance to infection outcome

    PubMed Central

    Lough, Graham; Kyriazakis, Ilias; Bergmann, Silke; Lengeling, Andreas; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea B.

    2015-01-01

    Resistance and tolerance are two alternative strategies hosts can adopt to survive infections. Both strategies may be genetically controlled. To date, the relative contribution of resistance and tolerance to infection outcome is poorly understood. Here, we use a bioluminescent Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) infection challenge model to study the genetic determination and dynamic contributions of host resistance and tolerance to listeriosis in four genetically diverse mouse strains. Using conventional statistical analyses, we detect significant genetic variation in both resistance and tolerance, but cannot capture the time-dependent relative importance of either host strategy. We overcome these limitations through the development of novel statistical tools to analyse individual infection trajectories portraying simultaneous changes in infection severity and health. Based on these tools, early expression of resistance followed by expression of tolerance emerge as important hallmarks for surviving Lm infections. Our trajectory analysis further reveals that survivors and non-survivors follow distinct infection paths (which are also genetically determined) and provides new survival thresholds as objective endpoints in infection experiments. Future studies may use trajectories as novel traits for mapping and identifying genes that control infection dynamics and outcome. A Matlab script for user-friendly trajectory analysis is provided. PMID:26582028

  6. Host-plant dependent population genetics of the invading weevil Hypera postica.

    PubMed

    Iwase, S-I; Nakahira, K; Tuda, M; Kagoshima, K; Takagi, M

    2015-02-01

    Population genetics of invading pests can be informative for understanding their ecology. In this study, we investigated population genetics of the invasive alfalfa weevil Hypera postica in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. We analyzed mitochondrial tRNALeu-COII, nuclear EF-1α gene fragments, and Wolbachia infection in relation to three leguminous host plants: Vicia angustifolia, Vicia villosa, and a new host Astragalus sinicus cultivated as a honey source and green manure crop. A parsimony network generated from mitochondrial gene sequences uncovered two major haplotypic groups, Western and Egyptian. In contrast to reported Wolbachia infection of the Western strain in the United States, none of our analyzed individuals were infected. The absence of Wolbachia may contribute to the stable coexistence of mitochondrial strains through inter-strain reproductive compatibility. Hypera postica genetic variants for the mitochondrial and nuclear genes were associated neither with host plant species nor with two geographic regions (Hisayama and Kama) within Fukuoka. Mitochondrial haplogroups were incongruent with nuclear genetic variants. Genetic diversity at the nuclear locus was the highest for the populations feeding on V. angustifolia. The nuclear data for A. sinicus-feeding populations indicated past sudden population growth and extended Bayesian skyline plot analysis based on the mitochondrial and nuclear data showed that the growth of A. sinicus-feeding population took place within the past 1000 years. These results suggest a shorter history of A. sinicus as a host plant compared with V. angustifolia and a recent rapid growth of H. postica population using the new host A. sinicus. PMID:25336385

  7. Transplantation of ventral mesencephalic anlagen to hosts with genetic nigrostriatal dopamine deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Triarhou, L C; Low, W C; Ghetti, B

    1986-01-01

    Attempts to reconstruct the damaged nigrostriatal pathway in experimental models of Parkinson disease have thus far been carried out in animals with neurotoxically induced dopamine deficiency. The present study establishes the weaver (wv/wv) mutant mouse as a genetic model of chronic striatal dopamine denervation by demonstrating a marked decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Moreover, grafts of embryonic ventral mesencephalon taken from genetically normal mice and transplanted into the lateral ventricle of adult weaver mutants can survive and grow in the mutant host environment, express tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, and reinnervate the target regions of the recipient. These results provide evidence of integration of graft and host tissue and suggest that transplantation of dopamine neurons may be effectively applied to overcome nigrostriatal degeneration of genetic etiology. Images PMID:2877463

  8. Modeling Host Genetic Regulation of Influenza Pathogenesis in the Collaborative Cross

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Martin T.; Aylor, David L.; Bottomly, Daniel; Whitmore, Alan C.; Aicher, Lauri D.; Bell, Timothy A.; Bradel-Tretheway, Birgit; Bryan, Janine T.; Buus, Ryan J.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Haagmans, Bart L.; McMillan, Leonard; Miller, Darla R.; Rosenzweig, Elizabeth; Valdar, William; Wang, Jeremy; Churchill, Gary A.; Threadgill, David W.; McWeeney, Shannon K.; Katze, Michael G.; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Baric, Ralph S.; Heise, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation contributes to host responses and outcomes following infection by influenza A virus or other viral infections. Yet narrow windows of disease symptoms and confounding environmental factors have made it difficult to identify polymorphic genes that contribute to differential disease outcomes in human populations. Therefore, to control for these confounding environmental variables in a system that models the levels of genetic diversity found in outbred populations such as humans, we used incipient lines of the highly genetically diverse Collaborative Cross (CC) recombinant inbred (RI) panel (the pre-CC population) to study how genetic variation impacts influenza associated disease across a genetically diverse population. A wide range of variation in influenza disease related phenotypes including virus replication, virus-induced inflammation, and weight loss was observed. Many of the disease associated phenotypes were correlated, with viral replication and virus-induced inflammation being predictors of virus-induced weight loss. Despite these correlations, pre-CC mice with unique and novel disease phenotype combinations were observed. We also identified sets of transcripts (modules) that were correlated with aspects of disease. In order to identify how host genetic polymorphisms contribute to the observed variation in disease, we conducted quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. We identified several QTL contributing to specific aspects of the host response including virus-induced weight loss, titer, pulmonary edema, neutrophil recruitment to the airways, and transcriptional expression. Existing whole-genome sequence data was applied to identify high priority candidate genes within QTL regions. A key host response QTL was located at the site of the known anti-influenza Mx1 gene. We sequenced the coding regions of Mx1 in the eight CC founder strains, and identified a novel Mx1 allele that showed reduced ability to inhibit viral replication, while

  9. Ecological Genetics and Host Range Expansion by Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Assefa, Y; Conlong, D E; Van Den Berg, J; Martin, L A

    2015-08-01

    The host plant range of pests can have important consequences for its evolution, and plays a critical role in the emergence and spread of a new pest outbreak. This study addresses the ecological genetics of the indigenous African maize stem borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in an attempt to investigate the evolutionary forces that may be involved in the recent host range expansion and establishment of this species in Ethiopian and southern African sugarcane. We used populations from Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa to examine whether the host range expansion patterns shared by the Ethiopian and the southern African populations of B. fusca have evolved independently. Base-pair differences in the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene were used to characterize haplotype diversity and phylogenetic relationships. There were seven haplotypes among the 30 sequenced individuals collected on four host plant species from 17 localities in the four countries. Of the seven COI haplotypes identified, the two major ones occurred in both sugarcane and maize. Genetic analyses revealed no detectable genetic differentiation between southern African B. fusca populations from maize and sugarcane (FST = 0.019; P = 0.24). However, there was strong evidence of variation in genetic composition between populations of the pest from different geographic regions (FST = 0.948; P < 0.001). The main implication of these findings is that the B. fusca populations in maize in southern Africa are more likely to shift to sugarcane, suggesting that ecological opportunity is an important factor in host plant range expansion by a pest. PMID:26314073

  10. Comparative genetic diversity of Lyme disease bacteria in Northern Californian ticks and their vertebrate hosts.

    PubMed

    Swei, Andrea; Bowie, Verna C; Bowie, Rauri C K

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne pathogens are transmitted between vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors, two immensely different environments for the pathogen. There is further differentiation among vertebrate hosts that often have complex, species-specific immunological responses to the pathogen. All this presents a heterogeneous environmental and immunological landscape with possible consequences on the population genetic structure of the pathogen. We evaluated the differential genetic diversity of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi, in its vector, the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus), and in its mammal host community using the 5S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. We found differences in haplotype distribution of B. burgdorferi in tick populations from two counties in California as well as between a sympatric tick and vertebrate host community. In addition, we found that three closely related haplotypes consistently occurred in high frequency in all sample types. Lastly, our study found lower species diversity of the B. burgdorferi species complex, known as B. burgdorferi sensu lato, in small mammal hosts versus the tick populations in a sympatric study area. PMID:25843810

  11. Pseudomonas viridiflava, a Multi Host Plant Pathogen with Significant Genetic Variation at the Molecular Level

    PubMed Central

    Mpalantinaki, Evaggelia; Ververidis, Filippos; Goumas, Dimitrios E.

    2012-01-01

    The pectinolytic species Pseudomonas viridiflava has a wide host range among plants, causing foliar and stem necrotic lesions and basal stem and root rots. However, little is known about the molecular evolution of this species. In this study we investigated the intraspecies genetic variation of P. viridiflava amongst local (Cretan), as well as international isolates of the pathogen. The genetic and phenotypic variability were investigated by molecular fingerprinting (rep-PCR) and partial sequencing of three housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoD and rpoB), and by biochemical and pathogenicity profiling. The biochemical tests and pathogenicity profiling did not reveal any variability among the isolates studied. However, the molecular fingerprinting patterns and housekeeping gene sequences clearly differentiated them. In a broader phylogenetic comparison of housekeeping gene sequences deposited in GenBank, significant genetic variability at the molecular level was found between isolates of P. viridiflava originated from different host species as well as among isolates from the same host. Our results provide a basis for more comprehensive understanding of the biology, sources and shifts in genetic diversity and evolution of P. viridiflava populations and should support the development of molecular identification tools and epidemiological studies in diseases caused by this species. PMID:22558343

  12. Host genetics determine susceptibility to avian influenza infection and transmission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Hernandez, Raul; Mwangi, William; Peroval, Marylene; Sadeyen, Jean-Remy; Ascough, Stephanie; Balkissoon, Devanand; Staines, Karen; Boyd, Amy; McCauley, John; Smith, Adrian; Butter, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Host-genetic control of influenza virus infection has been the object of little attention. In this study we determined that two inbred lines of chicken differing in their genetic background , Lines 0 and C-B12, were respectively relatively resistant and susceptible to infection with the low pathogenicity influenza virus A/Turkey/England/647/77 as defined by substantial differences in viral shedding trajectories. Resistant birds, although infected, were unable to transmit virus to contact birds, as ultimately only the presence of a sustained cloacal shedding (and not oropharyngeal shedding) was critical for transmission. Restriction of within-bird transmission of virus occurred in the resistant line, with intra-nares or cloacal infection resulting in only local shedding and failing to transmit fully through the gastro-intestinal-pulmonary tract. Resistance to infection was independent of adaptive immune responses, including the expansion of specific IFNγ secreting cells or production of influenza-specific antibody. Genetic resistance to a novel H9N2 virus was less robust, though significant differences between host genotypes were still clearly evident. The existence of host-genetic determination of the outcome of influenza infection offers tools for the further dissection of this regulation and also for understanding the mechanisms of influenza transmission within and between birds. PMID:27279280

  13. Host genetics determine susceptibility to avian influenza infection and transmission dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Hernandez, Raul; Mwangi, William; Peroval, Marylene; Sadeyen, Jean-Remy; Ascough, Stephanie; Balkissoon, Devanand; Staines, Karen; Boyd, Amy; McCauley, John; Smith, Adrian; Butter, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Host-genetic control of influenza virus infection has been the object of little attention. In this study we determined that two inbred lines of chicken differing in their genetic background , Lines 0 and C-B12, were respectively relatively resistant and susceptible to infection with the low pathogenicity influenza virus A/Turkey/England/647/77 as defined by substantial differences in viral shedding trajectories. Resistant birds, although infected, were unable to transmit virus to contact birds, as ultimately only the presence of a sustained cloacal shedding (and not oropharyngeal shedding) was critical for transmission. Restriction of within-bird transmission of virus occurred in the resistant line, with intra-nares or cloacal infection resulting in only local shedding and failing to transmit fully through the gastro-intestinal-pulmonary tract. Resistance to infection was independent of adaptive immune responses, including the expansion of specific IFNγ secreting cells or production of influenza-specific antibody. Genetic resistance to a novel H9N2 virus was less robust, though significant differences between host genotypes were still clearly evident. The existence of host-genetic determination of the outcome of influenza infection offers tools for the further dissection of this regulation and also for understanding the mechanisms of influenza transmission within and between birds. PMID:27279280

  14. Antagonistic coevolution with parasites maintains host genetic diversity: an experimental test

    PubMed Central

    Bérénos, Camillo; Wegner, K. Mathias; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variation in natural populations is a prime prerequisite allowing populations to respond to selection, but is under constant threat from forces that tend to reduce it, such as genetic drift and many types of selection. Haldane emphasized the potential importance of parasites as a driving force of genetic diversity. His theory has been taken for granted ever since, but despite numerous studies showing correlations between genetic diversity and parasitism, Haldane's hypothesis has rarely been tested experimentally for unambiguous support. We experimentally staged antagonistic coevolution between the host Tribolium castaneum and its natural microsporidian parasite, Nosema whitei, to test for the relative importance of two separate evolutionary forces (drift and parasite-induced selection) on the maintenance of genetic variation. Our results demonstrate that coevolution with parasites indeed counteracts drift as coevolving populations had significantly higher levels of heterozygosity and allelic diversity. Genetic drift remained a strong force, strongly reducing genetic variation and increasing genetic differentiation in small populations. To our surprise, differentiation between the evolving populations was smaller when they coevolved with parasites, suggesting parallel balancing selection. Hence, our results experimentally vindicate Haldane's original hypothesis 60 years after its conception. PMID:20685701

  15. Genetic Structure of Natural Populations of Escherichia coli in Wild Hosts on Different Continents

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Valeria; Rocha, Martha; Valera, Aldo; Eguiarte, Luis E.

    1999-01-01

    Current knowledge of genotypic and phenotypic diversity in the species Escherichia coli is based almost entirely on strains recovered from humans or zoo animals. In this study, we analyzed a collection of 202 strains obtained from 81 mammalian species representing 39 families and 14 orders in Australia and the Americas, as well as several reference strains; we also included a strain from a reptile and 10 from different families of birds collected in Mexico. The strains were characterized genotypically by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and phenotypically by patterns of sugar utilization, antibiotic resistance, and plasmid profile. MLEE analysis yielded an estimated genetic diversity (H) of 0.682 for 11 loci. The observed genetic diversity in this sample is the greatest yet reported for E. coli. However, this genetic diversity is not randomly distributed; geographic effects and host taxonomic group accounted for most of the genetic differentiation. The genetic relationship among the strains showed that they are more associated by origin and host order than is expected by chance. In a dendrogram, the ancestral cluster includes primarily strains from Australia and ECOR strains from groups B and C. The most differentiated E. coli in our analysis are strains from Mexican carnivores and strains from humans, including those in the ECOR group A. The kinds and numbers of sugars utilized by the strains varied by host taxonomic group and country of origin. Strains isolated from bats were found to exploit the greatest range of sugars, while those from primates utilized the fewest. Toxins are more frequent in strains from rodents from both continents than in any other taxonomic group. Strains from Mexican wild mammals were, on average, as resistant to antibiotics as strains from humans in cities. On average, the Australian strains presented a lower antibiotic resistance than the Mexican strains. However, strains recovered from hosts in cities carried significantly more

  16. Survival relative to new and ancestral host plants, phytoplasma infection, and genetic constitution in host races of a polyphagous insect disease vector.

    PubMed

    Maixner, Michael; Albert, Andreas; Johannesen, Jes

    2014-08-01

    Dissemination of vectorborne diseases depends strongly on the vector's host range and the pathogen's reservoir range. Because vectors interact with pathogens, the direction and strength of a vector's host shift is vital for understanding epidemiology and is embedded in the framework of ecological specialization. This study investigates survival in host-race evolution of a polyphagous insect disease vector, Hyalesthes obsoletus, whether survival is related to the direction of the host shift (from field bindweed to stinging nettle), the interaction with plant-specific strains of obligate vectored pathogens/symbionts (stolbur phytoplasma), and whether survival is related to genetic differentiation between the host races. We used a twice repeated, identical nested experimental design to study survival of the vector on alternative hosts and relative to infection status. Survival was tested with Kaplan-Meier analyses, while genetic differentiation between vector populations was quantified with microsatellite allele frequencies. We found significant direct effects of host plant (reduced survival on wrong hosts) and sex (males survive longer than females) in both host races and relative effects of host (nettle animals more affected than bindweed animals) and sex (males more affected than females). Survival of bindweed animals was significantly higher on symptomatic than nonsymptomatic field bindweed, but in the second experiment only. Infection potentially had a positive effect on survival in nettle animals but due to low infection rates the results remain suggestive. Genetic differentiation was not related to survival. Greater negative plant-transfer effect but no negative effect of stolbur in the derived host race suggests preadaptation to the new pathogen/symbiont strain before strong diversifying selection during the specialization process. Physiological maladaptation or failure to accept the ancestral plant will have similar consequences, namely positive assortative

  17. Survival relative to new and ancestral host plants, phytoplasma infection, and genetic constitution in host races of a polyphagous insect disease vector

    PubMed Central

    Maixner, Michael; Albert, Andreas; Johannesen, Jes

    2014-01-01

    Dissemination of vectorborne diseases depends strongly on the vector's host range and the pathogen's reservoir range. Because vectors interact with pathogens, the direction and strength of a vector's host shift is vital for understanding epidemiology and is embedded in the framework of ecological specialization. This study investigates survival in host-race evolution of a polyphagous insect disease vector, Hyalesthes obsoletus, whether survival is related to the direction of the host shift (from field bindweed to stinging nettle), the interaction with plant-specific strains of obligate vectored pathogens/symbionts (stolbur phytoplasma), and whether survival is related to genetic differentiation between the host races. We used a twice repeated, identical nested experimental design to study survival of the vector on alternative hosts and relative to infection status. Survival was tested with Kaplan–Meier analyses, while genetic differentiation between vector populations was quantified with microsatellite allele frequencies. We found significant direct effects of host plant (reduced survival on wrong hosts) and sex (males survive longer than females) in both host races and relative effects of host (nettle animals more affected than bindweed animals) and sex (males more affected than females). Survival of bindweed animals was significantly higher on symptomatic than nonsymptomatic field bindweed, but in the second experiment only. Infection potentially had a positive effect on survival in nettle animals but due to low infection rates the results remain suggestive. Genetic differentiation was not related to survival. Greater negative plant-transfer effect but no negative effect of stolbur in the derived host race suggests preadaptation to the new pathogen/symbiont strain before strong diversifying selection during the specialization process. Physiological maladaptation or failure to accept the ancestral plant will have similar consequences, namely positive assortative

  18. Host-plant-associated genetic differentiation in Northern French populations of the European corn borer.

    PubMed

    Martel, C; Réjasse, A; Rousset, F; Bethenod, M-T; Bourguet, D

    2003-02-01

    The phytophagous insects that damage crops are often polyphagous, feeding on several types of crop and on weeds. The refuges constituted by noncrop host plants may be useful in managing the evolution in pest species of resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis toxins produced by transgenic crops. However, the benefits of these refuges may be limited because host-plant diversity may drive genetic divergence and possibly even host-plant-mediated sympatric speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the main pest of maize in Europe and North America, where it was introduced early in the 20th century. It has a wide host range but feeds principally on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). O. nubilalis is found on mugwort only in the northern part of France, whereas it is found on maize throughout France. The extent of genetic variation at allozyme markers was investigated in populations collected from the two host plants over the entire geographical distribution of the European corn borer on mugwort in France. Allelic differentiation between pairs of populations and hierarchical analyses of pools of samples from each host plant indicate that the group of populations feeding on maize differed from the group of populations feeding on mugwort. Our results suggest (1) host-plant-related divergent selection at the genomic region surrounding the Mpi locus and (2) limited gene flow between the populations feeding on mugwort and those infesting maize fields. These data indicate that adults emerging from mugwort would not be useful for managing the evolution of resistance to the B. thuringiensis toxins in European corn borer populations. PMID:12634820

  19. Alteration of Genetic Make-up in Karnal Bunt Pathogen (Tilletia indica) of Wheat in Presence of Host Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Atul K.; Seneviratne, J. M.; Bala, Ritu; Jaiswal, J. P.; Kumar, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Alteration of genetic make-up of the isolates and monosporidial strains of Tilletia indica causing Karnal bunt (KB) disease in wheat was analyzed using DNA markers and SDS-PAGE. The generation of new variation with different growth characteristics is not a generalized feature and is not only dependant on the original genetic make up of the base isolate/monosporidial strains but also on interaction with host. Host determinant(s) plays a significant role in the generation of variability and the effect is much pronounced in monosporidial strains with narrow genetic base as compared to broad genetic base. The most plausible explanation of genetic variation in presence of host determinant(s) are the recombination of genetic material from two different mycelial/sporidia through sexual mating as well as through para-sexual means. The morphological and development dependent variability further suggests that the variation in T. indica strains predominantly derived through the genetic rearrangements. PMID:26060428

  20. Genetic Markers of the Host in Persons Living with HTLV-1, HIV and HCV Infections

    PubMed Central

    Assone, Tatiane; Paiva, Arthur; Fonseca, Luiz Augusto M.; Casseb, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are prevalent worldwide, and share similar means of transmission. These infections may influence each other in evolution and outcome, including cancer or immunodeficiency. Many studies have reported the influence of genetic markers on the host immune response against different persistent viral infections, such as HTLV-1 infection, pointing to the importance of the individual genetic background on their outcomes. However, despite recent advances on the knowledge of the pathogenesis of HTLV-1 infection, gaps in the understanding of the role of the individual genetic background on the progress to disease clinically manifested still remain. In this scenario, much less is known regarding the influence of genetic factors in the context of dual or triple infections or their influence on the underlying mechanisms that lead to outcomes that differ from those observed in monoinfection. This review describes the main factors involved in the virus–host balance, especially for some particular human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes, and other important genetic markers in the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and other persistent viruses, such as HIV and HCV. PMID:26848682

  1. Chondroitinase AC: A host-associated genetic feature of Helicobacter bizzozeronii.

    PubMed

    Namburi, Ramesh Babu; Berteau, Olivier; Spillmann, Dorothe; Rossi, Mirko

    2016-04-15

    Investigating mechanisms involved in host adaptation is crucial to understand pathogen evolution. Helicobacter species appear to have a host species-specific tropism, coevolving with their natural hosts, and to develop several strategies allowing the colonization of the stomach throughout lifetime of their hosts. However, little is known about genetic features associated with the adaptation to a specific animal host. In this study we discovered a polysaccharide lyase that is expressed by the canine-associated species H. bizzozeronii and acts as chondroitinase AC-type lyase of broad specificity. Except for its low pH-optimum between pH 4.0 and pH 5.5, the properties of the H. bizzozeronii chondroitin lyase AC resemble the ones from Arthrobacter aurescens. However, homologues of this gene have been detected only in Helicobacter species colonizing the canine and feline gastric mucosa. Since a unique feature of the canine stomach is the secretion of chondroitin-4-sulphate in the gastric juice of the fundus mucosa by chief cells, the expression of chondroitinase AC by H. bizzozeronii is likely the consequence of adaptation of this bacterium to its host and a potential link to gastric disorders in dogs. PMID:27016753

  2. The interplay of host genetic factors and Epstein-Barr virus in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lung, Maria Li; Cheung, Arthur Kwok Leung; Ko, Josephine Mun Yee; Lung, Hong Lok; Cheng, Yue; Dai, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between host cell genetics and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection contributes to the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Understanding the host genetic and epigenetic alterations and the influence of EBV on cell signaling and host gene regulation will aid in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of NPC and provide useful biomarkers and targets for diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we provide an update of the oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes associated with NPC, as well as genes associated with NPC risk including those involved in carcinogen detoxification and DNA repair. We also describe the importance of host genetics that govern the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex and immune responses, and we describe the impact of EBV infection on host cell signaling changes and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. High-power genomic sequencing approaches are needed to elucidate the genetic basis for inherited susceptibility to NPC and to identify the genes and pathways driving its molecular pathogenesis. PMID:25367335

  3. Identification of Host Genes Involved in Geminivirus Infection Using a Reverse Genetics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Ana P.; Bejarano, Eduardo R.

    2011-01-01

    Geminiviruses, like all viruses, rely on the host cell machinery to establish a successful infection, but the identity and function of these required host proteins remain largely unknown. Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a monopartite geminivirus, is one of the causal agents of the devastating Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). The transgenic 2IRGFP N. benthamiana plants, used in combination with Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS), entail an important potential as a tool in reverse genetics studies to identify host factors involved in TYLCSV infection. Using these transgenic plants, we have made an accurate description of the evolution of TYLCSV replication in the host in both space and time. Moreover, we have determined that TYLCSV and Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) do not dramatically influence each other when co-infected in N. benthamiana, what makes the use of TRV-induced gene silencing in combination with TYLCSV for reverse genetic studies feasible. Finally, we have tested the effect of silencing candidate host genes on TYLCSV infection, identifying eighteen genes potentially involved in this process, fifteen of which had never been implicated in geminiviral infections before. Seven of the analyzed genes have a potential anti-viral effect, whereas the expression of the other eleven is required for a full infection. Interestingly, almost half of the genes altering TYLCSV infection play a role in postranslational modifications. Therefore, our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying geminivirus infections, and at the same time reveal the 2IRGFP/VIGS system as a powerful tool for functional reverse genetics studies. PMID:21818318

  4. Canine echinococcosis: genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from definitive hosts.

    PubMed

    Boufana, B; Lett, W; Lahmar, S; Griffiths, A; Jenkins, D J; Buishi, I; Engliez, S A; Alrefadi, M A; Eljaki, A A; Elmestiri, F M; Reyes, M M; Pointing, S; Al-Hindi, A; Torgerson, P R; Okamoto, M; Craig, P S

    2015-11-01

    Canids, particularly dogs, constitute the major source of cystic echinococcosis (CE) infection to humans, with the majority of cases being caused by Echinococcus granulosus (G1 genotype). Canine echinococcosis is an asymptomatic disease caused by adult tapeworms of E. granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). Information on the population structure and genetic variation of adult E. granulosus is limited. Using sequenced data of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) we examined the genetic diversity and population structure of adult tapeworms of E. granulosus (G1 genotype) from canid definitive hosts originating from various geographical regions and compared it to that reported for the larval metacestode stage from sheep and human hosts. Echinococcus granulosus (s.s) was identified from adult tapeworm isolates from Kenya, Libya, Tunisia, Australia, China, Kazakhstan, United Kingdom and Peru, including the first known molecular confirmation from Gaza and the Falkland Islands. Haplotype analysis showed a star-shaped network with a centrally positioned common haplotype previously described for the metacestode stage from sheep and humans, and the neutrality indices indicated population expansion. Low Fst values suggested that populations of adult E. granulosus were not genetically differentiated. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities for E. granulosus isolates from sheep and human origin were twice as high as those reported from canid hosts. This may be related to self-fertilization of E. granulosus and/or to the longevity of the parasite in the respective intermediate and definitive hosts. Improved nuclear single loci are required to investigate the discrepancies in genetic variation seen in this study. PMID:26442707

  5. Interactions Within Susceptible Hosts Drive Establishment of Genetically Distinct Variants of an Insect-Borne Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, G K; Zhang, S; Bratburd, J R; Daane, K M; Cooper, M L; Almeida, R P P

    2015-08-01

    Coinfections are common, leading to pathogen interactions during transmission and establishment in a host. However, few studies have tested the relative strengths of pathogen interactions in vectors and hosts that determine the outcome of infection. We tested interactions between two genetically distinct variants of the mealybug-transmitted Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. The transmission efficiency of each variant in single variant inoculations by two vector species was determined. The effects of vector species, a coinfected source, and simultaneous inoculation from multiple hosts to one host on variant establishment were examined. Within-vector interactions could have a role in transmission from hosts containing mixed infections, but not when vectors were moved from separate singly infected source plants to a single recipient plant. The invasive Planococcus ficus (Signoret) was a more efficient vector than Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret). Transmission efficiency of the two variants did not differ in single variant inoculations. Overall infections were the same whether from singly or coinfected source plants. In mixed inoculations, establishment of one variant was reduced. Mixed inoculations from two singly infected source plants resulted in fewer mixed infections than expected by chance. Therefore, the observed outcome was determined subsequent to host inoculation rather than in the vector. The outcome may be due to resource competition between pathogens. Alternatively apparent competition may be responsible; the pathogens' differential ability to overcome host defenses and colonize the host may determine the final outcome of new infections. Detailed knowledge of interactions between pathogens during transmission and establishment could improve understanding and management of disease spread. PMID:26470292

  6. Rapid turnover of intra-host genetic diversity in Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Heather E.; Holmes, Edward C.; Stephenson, Andrew G.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic diversity in RNA viruses is shaped by a variety of evolutionary processes, including the bottlenecks that may occur at inter-host transmission. However, how these processes structure genetic variation at the scale of individual hosts is only partly understood. We obtained intra-host sequence data for the coat protein (CP) gene of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) from two horizontally transmitted populations – one via aphid, the other without – and with multiple samples from individual plants. We show that although mutations are generated relatively frequently within infected plants, attaining similar levels of genetic diversity to that seen in some animal RNA viruses (mean intra-sample diversity of 0.02%), most mutations are likely to be transient, deleterious, and purged rapidly. We also observed more population structure in the aphid transmitted viral population, including the same mutations in multiple clones, the presence of a sub-lineage, and evidence for the short-term complementation of defective genomes. PMID:21138748

  7. Identification of genetic loci that control mammary tumor susceptibility through the host microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengju; Lo, Alvin; Huang, Yurong; Huang, Ge; Liang, Guozhou; Mott, Joni; Karpen, Gary H.; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Snijders, Antoine M.; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2015-03-09

    The interplay between host genetics, tumor microenvironment and environmental exposure in cancer susceptibility remains poorly understood. Here we assessed the genetic control of stromal mediation of mammary tumor susceptibility to low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) using backcrossed F1 into BALB/c (F1Bx) between cancer susceptible (BALB/c) and resistant (SPRET/EiJ) mouse strains. Tumor formation was evaluated after transplantation of non-irradiated Trp53-/- BALB/c mammary gland fragments into cleared fat pads of F1Bx hosts. Genome-wide linkage analysis revealed 2 genetic loci that constitute the baseline susceptibility via host microenvironment. However, once challenged with LDIR, we discovered 13 additional loci that were enriched for genes involved in cytokines, including TGFβ1 signaling. Surprisingly, LDIR-treated F1Bx cohort significantly reduced incidence of mammary tumors from Trp53-/- fragments as well as prolonged tumor latency, compared to sham-treated controls. We demonstrated further that plasma levels of specific cytokines were significantly correlated with tumor latency. Using an ex vivo 3-D assay, we confirmed TGFβ1 as a strong candidate for reduced mammary invasion in SPRET/EiJ, which could explain resistance of this strain to mammary cancer risk following LDIR. Our results open possible new avenues to understand mechanisms of genes operating via the stroma that affect cancer risk from external environmental exposures.

  8. Identification of genetic loci that control mammary tumor susceptibility through the host microenvironment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Pengju; Lo, Alvin; Huang, Yurong; Huang, Ge; Liang, Guozhou; Mott, Joni; Karpen, Gary H.; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; et al

    2015-03-09

    The interplay between host genetics, tumor microenvironment and environmental exposure in cancer susceptibility remains poorly understood. Here we assessed the genetic control of stromal mediation of mammary tumor susceptibility to low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) using backcrossed F1 into BALB/c (F1Bx) between cancer susceptible (BALB/c) and resistant (SPRET/EiJ) mouse strains. Tumor formation was evaluated after transplantation of non-irradiated Trp53-/- BALB/c mammary gland fragments into cleared fat pads of F1Bx hosts. Genome-wide linkage analysis revealed 2 genetic loci that constitute the baseline susceptibility via host microenvironment. However, once challenged with LDIR, we discovered 13 additional loci that were enriched for genesmore » involved in cytokines, including TGFβ1 signaling. Surprisingly, LDIR-treated F1Bx cohort significantly reduced incidence of mammary tumors from Trp53-/- fragments as well as prolonged tumor latency, compared to sham-treated controls. We demonstrated further that plasma levels of specific cytokines were significantly correlated with tumor latency. Using an ex vivo 3-D assay, we confirmed TGFβ1 as a strong candidate for reduced mammary invasion in SPRET/EiJ, which could explain resistance of this strain to mammary cancer risk following LDIR. Our results open possible new avenues to understand mechanisms of genes operating via the stroma that affect cancer risk from external environmental exposures.« less

  9. Comparative population genetic study of two oligophagous insects associated with the same hosts.

    PubMed

    Kerdelhué, C; Magnoux, E; Lieutier, F; Roques, A; Rousselet, J

    2006-07-01

    A parallel study of the genetic structure of two oligophagous species associated with the same hosts was conducted to determine the main factors shaping the distribution of genetic diversity. The bark beetle Tomicus piniperda and the pine processionary moth (PPM) Thaumetopoea pityocampa are both associated with the genus Pinus and belong to different guilds (xylophagous vs defoliating species). The PPM is an ectophagous species that feeds on the needles of living trees, whereas T. piniperda is endophagous and bores galleries in the inner bark of weakened trees. Both species were sampled in the main regions of France, and their genetic structure was assessed after genotyping with five microsatellite markers. Populations of the PPM were significantly structured. A pattern of isolation by distance was found when distances were calculated as bypassing the Massif Central, whereas no such pattern could be found with raw geographic distances. On the contrary, most populations of T. piniperda were not differentiated. No effect of host species could be detected in either of the two species. We conclude that the two taxa have contrasting effective dispersal rates per generation, and we hypothesize that this reflects the different selection pressures acting on individual fitness via different strategies of host use. PMID:16685280

  10. Host Genetic Background Strongly Influences the Response to Influenza A Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Barkha; Błażejewska, Paulina; Heßmann, Manuela; Bruder, Dunja; Geffers, Robert; Mauel, Susanne; Gruber, Achim D.; Schughart, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The genetic make-up of the host has a major influence on its response to combat pathogens. For influenza A virus, several single gene mutations have been described which contribute to survival, the immune response and clearance of the pathogen by the host organism. Here, we have studied the influence of the genetic background to influenza A H1N1 (PR8) and H7N7 (SC35M) viruses. The seven inbred laboratory strains of mice analyzed exhibited different weight loss kinetics and survival rates after infection with PR8. Two strains in particular, DBA/2J and A/J, showed very high susceptibility to viral infections compared to all other strains. The LD50 to the influenza virus PR8 in DBA/2J mice was more than 1000-fold lower than in C57BL/6J mice. High susceptibility in DBA/2J mice was also observed after infection with influenza strain SC35M. In addition, infected DBA/2J mice showed a higher viral load in their lungs, elevated expression of cytokines and chemokines, and a more severe and extended lung pathology compared to infected C57BL/6J mice. These findings indicate a major contribution of the genetic background of the host to influenza A virus infections. The overall response in highly susceptible DBA/2J mice resembled the pathology described for infections with the highly virulent influenza H1N1-1918 and newly emerged H5N1 viruses. PMID:19293935

  11. The impact of host metapopulation structure on the population genetics of colonizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Numminen, Elina; Gutmann, Michael; Shubin, Mikhail; Marttinen, Pekka; Méric, Guillaume; van Schaik, Willem; Coque, Teresa M; Baquero, Fernando; Willems, Rob J L; Sheppard, Samuel K; Feil, Edward J; Hanage, William P; Corander, Jukka

    2016-05-01

    Many key bacterial pathogens are frequently carried asymptomatically, and the emergence and spread of these opportunistic pathogens can be driven, or mitigated, via demographic changes within the host population. These inter-host transmission dynamics combine with basic evolutionary parameters such as rates of mutation and recombination, population size and selection, to shape the genetic diversity within bacterial populations. Whilst many studies have focused on how molecular processes underpin bacterial population structure, the impact of host migration and the connectivity of the local populations has received far less attention. A stochastic neutral model incorporating heightened local transmission has been previously shown to fit closely with genetic data for several bacterial species. However, this model did not incorporate transmission limiting population stratification, nor the possibility of migration of strains between subpopulations, which we address here by presenting an extended model. We study the consequences of migration in terms of shared genetic variation and show by simulation that the previously used summary statistic, the allelic mismatch distribution, can be insensitive to even large changes in microepidemic and migration rates. Using likelihood-free inference with genotype network topological summaries we fit a simpler model to commensal and hospital samples from the common nosocomial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Only the hospital data for E. faecium display clearly marked deviations from the model predictions which may be attributable to its adaptation to the hospital environment. PMID:26916623

  12. Bovine Host Genetic Variation Influences Rumen Microbial Methane Production with Best Selection Criterion for Low Methane Emitting and Efficiently Feed Converting Hosts Based on Metagenomic Gene Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Roehe, Rainer; Dewhurst, Richard J.; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Rooke, John A.; McKain, Nest; Ross, Dave W.; Hyslop, Jimmy J.; Waterhouse, Anthony; Freeman, Tom C.

    2016-01-01

    Methane produced by methanogenic archaea in ruminants contributes significantly to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The host genetic link controlling microbial methane production is unknown and appropriate genetic selection strategies are not developed. We used sire progeny group differences to estimate the host genetic influence on rumen microbial methane production in a factorial experiment consisting of crossbred breed types and diets. Rumen metagenomic profiling was undertaken to investigate links between microbial genes and methane emissions or feed conversion efficiency. Sire progeny groups differed significantly in their methane emissions measured in respiration chambers. Ranking of the sire progeny groups based on methane emissions or relative archaeal abundance was consistent overall and within diet, suggesting that archaeal abundance in ruminal digesta is under host genetic control and can be used to genetically select animals without measuring methane directly. In the metagenomic analysis of rumen contents, we identified 3970 microbial genes of which 20 and 49 genes were significantly associated with methane emissions and feed conversion efficiency respectively. These explained 81% and 86% of the respective variation and were clustered in distinct functional gene networks. Methanogenesis genes (e.g. mcrA and fmdB) were associated with methane emissions, whilst host-microbiome cross talk genes (e.g. TSTA3 and FucI) were associated with feed conversion efficiency. These results strengthen the idea that the host animal controls its own microbiota to a significant extent and open up the implementation of effective breeding strategies using rumen microbial gene abundance as a predictor for difficult-to-measure traits on a large number of hosts. Generally, the results provide a proof of principle to use the relative abundance of microbial genes in the gastrointestinal tract of different species to predict their influence on traits e.g. human metabolism

  13. Bovine Host Genetic Variation Influences Rumen Microbial Methane Production with Best Selection Criterion for Low Methane Emitting and Efficiently Feed Converting Hosts Based on Metagenomic Gene Abundance.

    PubMed

    Roehe, Rainer; Dewhurst, Richard J; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Rooke, John A; McKain, Nest; Ross, Dave W; Hyslop, Jimmy J; Waterhouse, Anthony; Freeman, Tom C; Watson, Mick; Wallace, R John

    2016-02-01

    Methane produced by methanogenic archaea in ruminants contributes significantly to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The host genetic link controlling microbial methane production is unknown and appropriate genetic selection strategies are not developed. We used sire progeny group differences to estimate the host genetic influence on rumen microbial methane production in a factorial experiment consisting of crossbred breed types and diets. Rumen metagenomic profiling was undertaken to investigate links between microbial genes and methane emissions or feed conversion efficiency. Sire progeny groups differed significantly in their methane emissions measured in respiration chambers. Ranking of the sire progeny groups based on methane emissions or relative archaeal abundance was consistent overall and within diet, suggesting that archaeal abundance in ruminal digesta is under host genetic control and can be used to genetically select animals without measuring methane directly. In the metagenomic analysis of rumen contents, we identified 3970 microbial genes of which 20 and 49 genes were significantly associated with methane emissions and feed conversion efficiency respectively. These explained 81% and 86% of the respective variation and were clustered in distinct functional gene networks. Methanogenesis genes (e.g. mcrA and fmdB) were associated with methane emissions, whilst host-microbiome cross talk genes (e.g. TSTA3 and FucI) were associated with feed conversion efficiency. These results strengthen the idea that the host animal controls its own microbiota to a significant extent and open up the implementation of effective breeding strategies using rumen microbial gene abundance as a predictor for difficult-to-measure traits on a large number of hosts. Generally, the results provide a proof of principle to use the relative abundance of microbial genes in the gastrointestinal tract of different species to predict their influence on traits e.g. human metabolism

  14. Murine Gut Microbiota Is Defined by Host Genetics and Modulates Variation of Metabolic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Williams, Evan G.; Brewer, Simon; Andreux, Pénélope A.; Bastiaansen, John W. M.; Wang, Xusheng; Kachman, Stephen D.; Auwerx, Johan; Williams, Robert W.; Benson, Andrew K.; Peterson, Daniel A.; Ciobanu, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex and diverse microbiota that has an important role in host metabolism. Microbial diversity is influenced by a combination of environmental and host genetic factors and is associated with several polygenic diseases. In this study we combined next-generation sequencing, genetic mapping, and a set of physiological traits of the BXD mouse population to explore genetic factors that explain differences in gut microbiota and its impact on metabolic traits. Molecular profiling of the gut microbiota revealed important quantitative differences in microbial composition among BXD strains. These differences in gut microbial composition are influenced by host-genetics, which is complex and involves many loci. Linkage analysis defined Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) restricted to a particular taxon, branch or that influenced the variation of taxa across phyla. Gene expression within the gastrointestinal tract and sequence analysis of the parental genomes in the QTL regions uncovered candidate genes with potential to alter gut immunological profiles and impact the balance between gut microbial communities. A QTL region on Chr 4 that overlaps several interferon genes modulates the population of Bacteroides, and potentially Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes–the predominant BXD gut phyla. Irak4, a signaling molecule in the Toll-like receptor pathways is a candidate for the QTL on Chr15 that modulates Rikenellaceae, whereas Tgfb3, a cytokine modulating the barrier function of the intestine and tolerance to commensal bacteria, overlaps a QTL on Chr 12 that influence Prevotellaceae. Relationships between gut microflora, morphological and metabolic traits were uncovered, some potentially a result of common genetic sources of variation. PMID:22723961

  15. Evidence for Within-Host Genetic Recombination among the Human Pegiviral Strains in HIV Infected Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haoming; Padhi, Abinash; Xu, Junqiang; Gong, Xiaoyan; Tien, Po

    2016-01-01

    The non-pathogenic Human Pegivirus (HPgV, formerly GBV-C/HGV), the most prevalent RNA virus worldwide, is known to be associated with reduced morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals. Although previous studies documented its ubiquity and important role in HIV-infected individuals, little is known about the underlying genetic mechanisms that maintain high genetic diversity of HPgV within the HIV-infected individuals. To assess the within-host genetic diversity of HPgV and forces that maintain such diversity within the co-infected hosts, we performed phylogenetic analyses taking into account 229 HPgV partial E1-E2 clonal sequences representing 15 male and 8 female co-infected HIV patients from Hubei province of central China. Our results revealed the presence of eleven strongly supported clades. While nine clades belonged to genotype 3, two clades belonged to genotype 2. Additionally, four clades that belonged to genotype 3 exhibited inter-clade recombination events. The presence of clonal sequences representing multiple clades within the HIV-infected individual provided the evidence of co-circulation of HPgV strains across the region. Of the 23 patients, six patients (i.e., five males and one female) were detected to have HPgV recombinant sequences. Our results also revealed that while male patients shared the viral strains with other patients, viral strains from the female patients had restricted dispersal. Taken together, the present study revealed that multiple infections with divergent HPgV viral strains may have caused within-host genetic recombination, predominantly in male patients, and therefore, could be the major driver in shaping genetic diversity of HPgV. PMID:27560699

  16. Evidence for Within-Host Genetic Recombination among the Human Pegiviral Strains in HIV Infected Subjects.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haoming; Padhi, Abinash; Xu, Junqiang; Gong, Xiaoyan; Tien, Po

    2016-01-01

    The non-pathogenic Human Pegivirus (HPgV, formerly GBV-C/HGV), the most prevalent RNA virus worldwide, is known to be associated with reduced morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals. Although previous studies documented its ubiquity and important role in HIV-infected individuals, little is known about the underlying genetic mechanisms that maintain high genetic diversity of HPgV within the HIV-infected individuals. To assess the within-host genetic diversity of HPgV and forces that maintain such diversity within the co-infected hosts, we performed phylogenetic analyses taking into account 229 HPgV partial E1-E2 clonal sequences representing 15 male and 8 female co-infected HIV patients from Hubei province of central China. Our results revealed the presence of eleven strongly supported clades. While nine clades belonged to genotype 3, two clades belonged to genotype 2. Additionally, four clades that belonged to genotype 3 exhibited inter-clade recombination events. The presence of clonal sequences representing multiple clades within the HIV-infected individual provided the evidence of co-circulation of HPgV strains across the region. Of the 23 patients, six patients (i.e., five males and one female) were detected to have HPgV recombinant sequences. Our results also revealed that while male patients shared the viral strains with other patients, viral strains from the female patients had restricted dispersal. Taken together, the present study revealed that multiple infections with divergent HPgV viral strains may have caused within-host genetic recombination, predominantly in male patients, and therefore, could be the major driver in shaping genetic diversity of HPgV. PMID:27560699

  17. Genetic Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Host Insects of Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Qing-Mei; Chen, Ling-Ling; Wang, Xi; Li, Shan; Yang, Xiao-Ling; Zhu, Yun-Guo; Wang, Mu; Cheng, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world, and it requires host insects in family Hepialidae (Lepidoptera) to complete its life cycle. However, the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structures of the host insects remain to be explored. We analyzed the genetic diversity and temporal and spatial distribution patterns of genetic variation of the host insects throughout the O. sinensis distribution. Abundant haplotype and nucleotide diversity mainly existed in the areas of Nyingchi, ShangriLa, and around the edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where are considered as the diversity center or micro-refuges of the host insects of O. sinensis. However, there was little genetic variation among host insects from 72.1% of all populations, indicating that the host species composition might be relatively simple in large-scale O. sinensis populations. All host insects are monophyletic except for those from four O. sinensis populations around Qinghai Lake. Significant phylogeographic structure (NST>GST, P<0.05) was revealed for the monophyletic host insects, and the three major phylogenetic groups corresponded with specific geographical areas. The divergence of most host insects was estimated to have occurred at ca. 3.7 Ma, shortly before the rapid uplift of the QTP. The geographical distribution and star-like network of the haplotypes implied that most host insects were derived from the relicts of a once-widespread host that subsequently became fragmented. Neutrality tests, mismatch distribution analysis, and expansion time estimation confirmed that most host insects presented recent demographic expansions that began ca. 0.118 Ma in the late Pleistocene. Therefore, the genetic diversity and distribution of the present-day insects should be attributed to effects of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift and glacial advance/retreat cycles during the Quaternary ice age. These results provide valuable information to guide

  18. Host Genetic Control of the Microbiome in Humans and Maise or Relating Host Genetic Variation to the Microbiome (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Ley, Ruth [Cornell University

    2011-06-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Ruth Ley of Cornell University gives a presentation on "Relating Host Genetic Variation to the Microbiome" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011.

  19. Host Genetic Control of the Microbiome in Humans and Maise or Relating Host Genetic Variation to the Microbiome (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Ley, Ruth

    2011-03-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Ruth Ley of Cornell University gives a presentation on "Relating Host Genetic Variation to the Microbiome" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011.

  20. Host plant use drives genetic differentiation in syntopic populations of Maculinea alcon.

    PubMed

    Tartally, András; Kelager, Andreas; Fürst, Matthias A; Nash, David R

    2016-01-01

    The rare socially parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon occurs in two forms, which are characteristic of hygric or xeric habitats and which exploit different host plants and host ants. The status of these two forms has been the subject of considerable controversy. Populations of the two forms are usually spatially distinct, but at Răscruci in Romania both forms occur on the same site (syntopically). We examined the genetic differentiation between the two forms using eight microsatellite markers, and compared with a nearby hygric site, Şardu. Our results showed that while the two forms are strongly differentiated at Răscruci, it is the xeric form there that is most similar to the hygric form at Şardu, and Bayesian clustering algorithms suggest that these two populations have exchanged genes relatively recently. We found strong evidence for population substructuring, caused by high within host ant nest relatedness, indicating very limited dispersal of most ovipositing females, but not association with particular host ant species. Our results are consistent with the results of larger scale phylogeographic studies that suggest that the two forms represent local ecotypes specialising on different host plants, each with a distinct flowering phenology, providing a temporal rather than spatial barrier to gene flow. PMID:27069804

  1. Host plant use drives genetic differentiation in syntopic populations of Maculinea alcon

    PubMed Central

    Fürst, Matthias A.

    2016-01-01

    The rare socially parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon occurs in two forms, which are characteristic of hygric or xeric habitats and which exploit different host plants and host ants. The status of these two forms has been the subject of considerable controversy. Populations of the two forms are usually spatially distinct, but at Răscruci in Romania both forms occur on the same site (syntopically). We examined the genetic differentiation between the two forms using eight microsatellite markers, and compared with a nearby hygric site, Şardu. Our results showed that while the two forms are strongly differentiated at Răscruci, it is the xeric form there that is most similar to the hygric form at Şardu, and Bayesian clustering algorithms suggest that these two populations have exchanged genes relatively recently. We found strong evidence for population substructuring, caused by high within host ant nest relatedness, indicating very limited dispersal of most ovipositing females, but not association with particular host ant species. Our results are consistent with the results of larger scale phylogeographic studies that suggest that the two forms represent local ecotypes specialising on different host plants, each with a distinct flowering phenology, providing a temporal rather than spatial barrier to gene flow. PMID:27069804

  2. Population Genetics of Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae: One Host (Apis mellifera) and Two Different Histories

    PubMed Central

    Maside, Xulio; Gómez-Moracho, Tamara; Jara, Laura; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; De la Rúa, Pilar; Higes, Mariano; Bartolomé, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Two microsporidians are known to infect honey bees: Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Whereas population genetics data for the latter have been released in the last few years, such information is still missing for N. apis. Here we analyze the patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at three single-copy loci (PTP2, PTP3 and RPB1) in a collection of Apis mellifera isolates from all over the world, naturally infected either with N. apis (N = 22) or N. ceranae (N = 23), to provide new insights into the genetic diversity, demography and evolution of N. apis, as well as to compare them with evidence from N. ceranae. Neutral variation in N. apis and N. ceranae is of the order of 1%. This amount of diversity suggests that there is no substantial differentiation between the genetic content of the two nuclei present in these parasites, and evidence for genetic recombination provides a putative mechanism for the flow of genetic information between chromosomes. The analysis of the frequency spectrum of neutral variants reveals a significant surplus of low frequency variants, particularly in N. ceranae, and suggests that the populations of the two pathogens are not in mutation-drift equilibrium and that they have experienced a population expansion. Most of the variation in both species occurs within honey bee colonies (between 62%-90% of the total genetic variance), although in N. apis there is evidence for differentiation between parasites isolated from distinct A. mellifera lineages (20%-34% of the total variance), specifically between those collected from lineages A and C (or M). This scenario is consistent with a long-term host-parasite relationship and contrasts with the lack of differentiation observed among host-lineages in N. ceranae (< 4% of the variance), which suggests that the spread of this emergent pathogen throughout the A. mellifera worldwide population is a recent event. PMID:26720131

  3. Population Genetics of Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae: One Host (Apis mellifera) and Two Different Histories.

    PubMed

    Maside, Xulio; Gómez-Moracho, Tamara; Jara, Laura; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; De la Rúa, Pilar; Higes, Mariano; Bartolomé, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Two microsporidians are known to infect honey bees: Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Whereas population genetics data for the latter have been released in the last few years, such information is still missing for N. apis. Here we analyze the patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at three single-copy loci (PTP2, PTP3 and RPB1) in a collection of Apis mellifera isolates from all over the world, naturally infected either with N. apis (N = 22) or N. ceranae (N = 23), to provide new insights into the genetic diversity, demography and evolution of N. apis, as well as to compare them with evidence from N. ceranae. Neutral variation in N. apis and N. ceranae is of the order of 1%. This amount of diversity suggests that there is no substantial differentiation between the genetic content of the two nuclei present in these parasites, and evidence for genetic recombination provides a putative mechanism for the flow of genetic information between chromosomes. The analysis of the frequency spectrum of neutral variants reveals a significant surplus of low frequency variants, particularly in N. ceranae, and suggests that the populations of the two pathogens are not in mutation-drift equilibrium and that they have experienced a population expansion. Most of the variation in both species occurs within honey bee colonies (between 62%-90% of the total genetic variance), although in N. apis there is evidence for differentiation between parasites isolated from distinct A. mellifera lineages (20%-34% of the total variance), specifically between those collected from lineages A and C (or M). This scenario is consistent with a long-term host-parasite relationship and contrasts with the lack of differentiation observed among host-lineages in N. ceranae (< 4% of the variance), which suggests that the spread of this emergent pathogen throughout the A. mellifera worldwide population is a recent event. PMID:26720131

  4. Surprisingly little population genetic structure in a fungus-associated beetle despite its exploitation of multiple hosts

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Corlett W; Donald, Hannah M; Formica, Vincent A; Brodie, Edmund D

    2013-01-01

    In heterogeneous environments, landscape features directly affect the structure of genetic variation among populations by functioning as barriers to gene flow. Resource-associated population genetic structure, in which populations that use different resources (e.g., host plants) are genetically distinct, is a well-studied example of how environmental heterogeneity structures populations. However, the pattern that emerges in a given landscape should depend on its particular combination of resources. If resources constitute barriers to gene flow, population differentiation should be lowest in homogeneous landscapes, and highest where resources exist in equal proportions. In this study, we tested whether host community diversity affects population genetic structure in a beetle (Bolitotherus cornutus) that exploits three sympatric host fungi. We collected B. cornutus from plots containing the three host fungi in different proportions and quantified population genetic structure in each plot using a panel of microsatellite loci. We found no relationship between host community diversity and population differentiation in this species; however, we also found no evidence of resource-associated differentiation, suggesting that host fungi are not substantial barriers to gene flow. Moreover, we detected no genetic differentiation among B. cornutus populations separated by several kilometers, even though a previous study demonstrated moderate genetic structure on the scale of a few hundred meters. Although we found no effect of community diversity on population genetic structure in this study, the role of host communities in the structuring of genetic variation in heterogeneous landscapes should be further explored in a species that exhibits resource-associated population genetic structure. PMID:23789061

  5. Genetic and behavioral discrimination of host plant populations of the leafbeetle, Psylliodes chalcomera, for biological control of yellow starthistle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular genetic techniques clearly distinguish three separate populations within the flea beetle "species" Psylliodes chalcomera that are associated with three different host plants (yellow starthistle, Scotch thistle and musk thistle). Preliminary studies have not revealed any reliable morpholog...

  6. Toward elucidation of genetic and functional genetic mechanisms in corn host resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination.

    PubMed

    Shan, Xueyan; Williams, W Paul

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by some species in the Aspergillus genus, such as A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Contamination of aflatoxins in corn profusely happens at pre-harvest stage when heat and drought field conditions favor A. flavus colonization. Commercial corn hybrids are generally susceptible to A. flavus infection. An ideal strategy for preventing aflatoxin contamination is through the enhancement of corn host resistance to Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin production. Constant efforts have been made by corn breeders to develop resistant corn genotypes. Significantly low levels of aflatoxin accumulation have been determined in certain resistant corn inbred lines. A number of reports of quantitative trait loci have provided compelling evidence supporting the quantitative trait genetic basis of corn host resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Important findings have also been obtained from the investigation on candidate resistance genes through transcriptomics approach. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms will provide in-depth understanding of the host-pathogen interactions and hence facilitate the breeding of corn with resistance to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. PMID:25101068

  7. A comprehensive review on host genetic susceptibility to human papillomavirus infection and progression to cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Koushik

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. This is caused by oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Although large numbers of young sexually active women get HPV-infected, only a small fraction develop cervical cancer. This points to different co-factors for regression of HPV infection or progression to cervical cancer. Host genetic factors play an important role in the outcome of such complex or multifactor diseases such as cervical cancer and are also known to regulate the rate of disease progression. The aim of this review is to compile the advances in the field of host genetics of cervical cancer. MEDLINE database was searched using the terms, ‘HPV’, ‘cervical’, ‘CIN’, ‘polymorphism(s)’, ‘cervical’+ *the name of the gene* and ‘HPV’+ *the name of the gene*. This review focuses on the major host genes reported to affect the progression to cervical cancer in HPV infected individuals. PMID:22345983

  8. Competitive Metagenomic DNA Hybridization Identifies Host-Specific Microbial Genetic Markers in Cow Fecal Samples†

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Orin C.; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Lamendella, Regina; Kelty, Catherine A.; Graham, James E.

    2006-01-01

    Several PCR methods have recently been developed to identify fecal contamination in surface waters. In all cases, researchers have relied on one gene or one microorganism for selection of host-specific markers. Here we describe the application of a genome fragment enrichment (GFE) method to identify host-specific genetic markers from fecal microbial community DNA. As a proof of concept, bovine fecal DNA was challenged against a porcine fecal DNA background to select for bovine-specific DNA sequences. Bioinformatic analyses of 380 bovine enriched metagenomic sequences indicated a preponderance of Bacteroidales-like regions predicted to encode membrane-associated and secreted proteins. Oligonucleotide primers capable of annealing to select Bacteroidales-like bovine GFE sequences exhibited extremely high specificity (>99%) in PCR assays with total fecal DNAs from 279 different animal sources. These primers also demonstrated a broad distribution of corresponding genetic markers (81% positive) among 148 different bovine sources. These data demonstrate that direct metagenomic DNA analysis by the competitive solution hybridization approach described is an efficient method for identifying potentially useful fecal genetic markers and for characterizing differences between environmental microbial communities. PMID:16751515

  9. The genetic architecture of a complex ecological trait: host plant use in the specialist moth, HELIOTHIS SUBFLEXA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study of the genetic basis of ecological adaptation remains in its infancy, and most studies have focused on phenotypically simple traits. Host plant use by herbivorous insects is phenotypically complex. While research has illuminated the evolutionary determinants of host use, knowledge of its...

  10. Draft genome sequences of 53 genetically distinct isolates of Bordetella bronchiseptica representing 11 terrestrial and aquatic hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica infects a variety of mammalian and avian hosts. Here we report the genome sequences of 53 genetically distinct isolates, acquired from a broad range of terrestrial and aquatic animals. These data will greatly facilitate ongoing efforts to better understand evolution, host...

  11. Unexpected absence of genetic separation of a highly diverse population of hookworms from geographically isolated hosts.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Benjamin T; Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gongora, Jaime; Gray, Rachael; Šlapeta, Jan

    2014-12-01

    The high natal site fidelity of endangered Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea) along the southern Australian coast suggests that their maternally transmitted parasitic species, such as hookworms, will have restricted potential for dispersal. If this is the case, we would expect to find a hookworm haplotype structure corresponding to that of the host mtDNA haplotype structure; that is, restricted among geographically separated colonies. In this study, we used a fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene to investigate the diversity of hookworms (Uncinaria sanguinis) in N. cinerea to assess the importance of host distribution and ecology on the evolutionary history of the parasite. High haplotype (h=0.986) and nucleotide diversity (π=0.013) were seen, with 45 unique hookworm mtDNA haplotypes across N. cinerea colonies; with most of the variation (78%) arising from variability within hookworms from individual colonies. This is supported by the low genetic differentiation co-efficient (GST=0.007) and a high gene flow (Nm=35.25) indicating a high migration rate between the populations of hookworms. The haplotype network demonstrated no clear distribution and delineation of haplotypes according to geographical location. Our data rejects the vicariance hypothesis; that female host natal site fidelity and the transmammary route of infection restrict hookworm gene flow between N. cinerea populations and highlights the value of studies of parasite diversity and dispersal to challenge our understanding of parasite and host ecology. PMID:25262830

  12. Real-time imaging and genetic dissection of host-microbe interactions in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Annemarie H; van der Vaart, Michiel; Spaink, Herman P

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects of host interactions with microbes can only be studied in the context of a whole organism. The zebrafish as a model organism has shown to be highly successful for studies of infection biology and the interactions of commensal microbiota with their hosts. Zebrafish are transparent during embryo and larval development and these early life stages are optimally suited for high-resolution imaging of host-microbe interactions in a vertebrate organism. This is facilitated by the development of a variety of fluorescent reporter lines that mark different immune cell types or subcellular compartments where pathogens reside. The zebrafish is an excellent vertebrate model for forward genetic screening and efficient tools for gene knock-down and targeted mutagenesis add further to the strength of this model organism. The use of zebrafish larvae for studying microbial infections has recently led to important new insights in host defence mechanisms, which are highlighted in this review focused on bacterial pathogens. Considering the highly conserved nature of the processes involved, including innate immune recognition, immunometabolism and autophagy, it is to be expected that these recent findings in zebrafish will have great translational value for biomedical applications. PMID:24188444

  13. Genetic and immunological host factors associated with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Buchacz, K A; Wilkinson, D A; Krowka, J F; Koup, R A; Padian, N S

    1998-01-01

    The probability of HIV transmission depends on the interplay of many different factors related to infectiousness of the HIV-infected partner, susceptibility of the HIV-uninfected partner, and biological characteristics of HIV strains. Here, we review recent studies of host immunological and genetic factors which may affect susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. These factors are summarized in Table 1. We propose how to explore biological correlates of susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in epidemiological studies, discuss the strengths and limitations of this research, and address the implications for public health. PMID:9632989

  14. Advances in inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis: linking host genetics and the microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Knights, Dan; Lassen, Kara G.; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the genetics underlying inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have increased our understanding of the pathways involved in both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) and focused attention on the role of the microbiome in these diseases. Full understanding of pathogenesis will require a comprehensive grasp of the delicate homeostasis between gut bacteria and the human host. In this review we present current evidence of microbiome-gene interactions in the context of other known risk factors and mechanisms, and describe the next steps necessary to pair genetic variant and microbiome sequencing data from patient cohorts. We discuss the concept of dysbiosis, proposing that the functional composition of the gut microbiome may provide a more consistent definition of dysbiosis and may more readily provide evidence of genome-microbiome interactions in future exploratory studies. PMID:24037875

  15. Right on Q: genetics begin to unravel Coxiella burnetii host cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Larson, Charles L; Martinez, Eric; Beare, Paul A; Jeffrey, Brendan; Heinzen, Robert A; Bonazzi, Matteo

    2016-07-01

    Invasion of macrophages and replication within an acidic and degradative phagolysosome-like vacuole are essential for disease pathogenesis by Coxiella burnetii, the bacterial agent of human Q fever. Previous experimental constraints imposed by the obligate intracellular nature of Coxiella limited knowledge of pathogen strategies that promote infection. Fortunately, new genetic tools facilitated by axenic culture now allow allelic exchange and transposon mutagenesis approaches for virulence gene discovery. Phenotypic screens have illuminated the critical importance of Coxiella's type 4B secretion system in host cell subversion and discovered genes encoding translocated effector proteins that manipulate critical infection events. Here, we highlight the cellular microbiology and genetics of Coxiella and how recent technical advances now make Coxiella a model organism to study macrophage parasitism. PMID:27418426

  16. Xylitol production by yeasts isolated from rotting wood in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, and description of Cyberlindnera galapagoensis f.a., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Guamán-Burneo, Maria C; Dussán, Kelly J; Cadete, Raquel M; Cheab, Monaliza A M; Portero, Patricia; Carvajal-Barriga, Enrique J; da Silva, Sílvio S; Rosa, Carlos A

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated D-xylose-assimilating yeasts that are associated with rotting wood from the Galápagos Archipelago, Ecuador, for xylitol production from hemicellulose hydrolysates. A total of 140 yeast strains were isolated. Yeasts related to the clades Yamadazyma, Kazachstania, Kurtzmaniella, Lodderomyces, Metschnikowia and Saturnispora were predominant. In culture assays using sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate, Candida tropicalis CLQCA-24SC-125 showed the highest xylitol production, yield and productivity (27.1 g L(-1) xylitol, Y p/s (xyl) = 0.67 g g(-1), Qp = 0.38 g L(-1). A new species of Cyberlindnera, strain CLQCA-24SC-025, was responsible for the second highest xylitol production (24 g L(-1), Y p/s (xyl) = 0.64 g g(-1), Qp = 0.33 g L(-1) h(-1)) on sugarcane hydrolysate. The new xylitol-producing species Cyberlindnera galapagoensis f.a., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate the strain CLQCA-24SC-025(T) (=UFMG-CM-Y517(T); CBS 13997(T)). The MycoBank number is MB 812171. PMID:26219566

  17. A cryptic species of Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) complex revealed by genetic divergence and different host plant association.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y; Lee, W; Lee, S; Kim, H

    2015-02-01

    Three cryptic species, Aphis gossypii, Aphis glycines, and Aphis rhamnicola sp. nov., are recognized as sharing buckthorn plant, Rhamnus spp. as primary hosts. These aphid species have morphological similarities; however, there are significant genetic differences between the three cryptic species. Based on the high level of genetic divergence and the different secondary host association, we described a new species, Aphis rhamnicola sp. nov., for apterous and alate vivipara, fundatrix, ovipara, and gynopara, including diagnostic key for the host sharing species in the genus Aphis. PMID:25413997

  18. Sympatric genetic differentiation of a generalist pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea, on two different host plants, grapevine and bramble.

    PubMed

    Fournier, E; Giraud, T

    2008-01-01

    Prime candidates for sympatric ecological divergence include parasites that differentiate via host shifts, because different host species exert strong disruptive selection and because both hosts and parasites are continually co-evolving. Sympatric divergence may be fostered even more strongly in phytopathogenic fungi, in particular those where sex must occur on the host, which allows adaptation alone to restrict gene flow between populations developing on different hosts. We sampled populations of Botrytis cinerea, a generalist ascomycete fungus, on sympatric grapes and brambles in six regions in France. Microsatellite data were analyzed using standard population genetics, a population graph analysis and a Bayesian approach. In addition to confirming that B. cinerea reproduces sexually, our results showed that the fungal populations on the two hosts were significantly differentiated, indicating restricted gene flow, even in sympatry. In contrast, only weak geographical differentiation could be detected. These results support the possibility of sympatric divergence associated with host use in generalist parasites. PMID:18028352

  19. Susceptibility of carnivore hosts to strains of canine distemper virus from distinct genetic lineages.

    PubMed

    Nikolin, Veljko M; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Michler, Frank-Uwe F; Wolf, Peter; East, Marion L

    2012-04-23

    Using the complete haemagglutinin (HA) gene and partial phosphoprotein (P) gene we investigated the genotype of canine distemper virus (CDV) strains recovered from two wildlife species in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated significant differences between the strains from raccoons Procyon lotor (family Procyonidae) obtained in 2007 and strains from red foxes Vulpes vulpes (family Canidae) obtained in 2008. The raccoon strains belonged to the CDV European wildlife lineage whereas the red fox strains belonged to the CDV Europe lineage. We combined our genetic sequence data with published data from 138 CDV stains worldwide to investigate the proposed importance of amino acid substitutions in the SLAM binding region of the CDV HA protein at position 530 (G/E to R/D/N) and 549 (Y to H) to the spread of domestic dog-adapted CDV strains to other carnivores. We found no evidence that amino acid 530 was strongly affected by host species. Rather, site 530 was conserved within CDV lineages, regardless of host species. Contrary to expectation, strains from non-dog hosts did not exhibit a bias towards the predicted substitution Y549H. Wild canid hosts were more frequently infected by strains with 549Y, a pattern similar to domestic dogs. Non-canid strains showed no significant bias towards either H or Y at site 549, although there was a trend towards 549H. Significant differences between the prevalence of 549Y and 549H in wild canid strains and non-canid strains suggests a degree of virus adaptation to these categories of host. PMID:22024346

  20. [Molecular-genetic analysis of wheat (T. aestivum L.) genome with introgression of Ae. cylindrica Host genetic elements].

    PubMed

    Galaev, A V; Sivolap, Iu M

    2005-01-01

    Wheat-aegilops hybrid plants Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 42) x Aegilops cylindrica Host (2n = 28) were investigated with using microsatellite markers. In two BC1F9 lines some genome modifications connected with losing DNA fragments of initial variety or appearing of Aegilops genome elements were detected. In some investigated hybrids new amplicons lacking in parental plants were found. Substitution of wheat chromosomes for aegilops chromosomes was not revealed. Analysis of microsatellite loci in BC2F5 plants showed stable introgression of aegilops genetic elements into wheat; elimination of some transferred aegilops DNA fragments in the course of backcrossing; decreasing size of introgressive elements after backcrossing. Introgressive lines were classified according to genome changes. PMID:16250247

  1. Toward elucidation of genetic and functional genetic mechanisms in corn host resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Xueyan; Williams, W. Paul

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by some species in the Aspergillus genus, such as A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Contamination of aflatoxins in corn profusely happens at pre-harvest stage when heat and drought field conditions favor A. flavus colonization. Commercial corn hybrids are generally susceptible to A. flavus infection. An ideal strategy for preventing aflatoxin contamination is through the enhancement of corn host resistance to Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin production. Constant efforts have been made by corn breeders to develop resistant corn genotypes. Significantly low levels of aflatoxin accumulation have been determined in certain resistant corn inbred lines. A number of reports of quantitative trait loci have provided compelling evidence supporting the quantitative trait genetic basis of corn host resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Important findings have also been obtained from the investigation on candidate resistance genes through transcriptomics approach. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms will provide in-depth understanding of the host–pathogen interactions and hence facilitate the breeding of corn with resistance to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. PMID:25101068

  2. Genetic diversity and structure of Neotyphodium species and their host Achnatherum sibiricum in a natural grass-endophyte system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Ren, Anzhi; Ci, Huacong; Gao, Yubao

    2010-05-01

    Achnatherum sibiricum (Poaceae) is a perennial bunchgrass native to the Inner Mongolia Steppe of China. This grass is commonly infected by epichloë endophytes with high-infection frequencies. Previously, we identified two predominant Neotyphodium spp., N. sibiricum and N. gansuense. In the present study, genetic diversity and structure were analyzed for the two predominant Neotyphodium spp. as well as the host grass. We obtained 103 fungal isolates from five populations; 33 were identified as N. sibiricum and 61 as N. gansuense. All populations hosted both endophytic species, but genetic variation was much higher for N. gansuense than for N. sibiricum. The majority of fungal isolates were haploid, and 13% of them were heterozygous at one SSR locus, suggesting hybrid origins of those isolates. Significant linkage disequilibrium of fungal SSR loci suggested that both fungal species primarily propagate by clonal growth through plant seeds, whereas variation in genetic diversity and the presence of hybrids in both endophytic species revealed that although clonal propagation was prevalent, occasional recombination might also occur. By comparing genetic differentiation among populations, we found around 4-7-fold greater differentiation of endophyte populations than host populations, implying more restricted gene flow of endophytes than hosts. We proposed that endophyte infection of A. sibiricum might confer the host some selective advantages under certain conditions, which could help to maintain high-endophyte-infection frequencies in host populations, even when their gene flows do not match each other. Furthermore, we suggested that the same genotype of endophyte as well as host should be confirmed if the objective of the study is to know the influence of endophyte or host genotype on their symbiotic relationship, instead of just considering whether the plant is infected by an endophyte or not, since endophytes from the same host species could exhibit high levels of

  3. Inter Individual Variations of the Fish Skin Microbiota: Host Genetics Basis of Mutualism?

    PubMed Central

    Boutin, Sébastien; Sauvage, Christopher; Bernatchez, Louis; Audet, Céline; Derome, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The commensal microbiota of fish skin is suspected to provide a protection against opportunist infections. The skin of fish harbors a complex and diverse microbiota that closely interacts with the surrounding water microbial communities. Up to now there is no clear evidence as to whether the host regulates the recruitment of environmental bacteria to build a specific skin microbiota. To address this question, we detected Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with the abundance of specific skin microbiota bacterial strains in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis), combining 16S RNA tagged-amplicon 454 pyrosequencing with genetic linkage analysis. Skin microbiota analysis revealed high inter-individual variation among 86 F2 fish progeny based upon the relative abundance of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Out of those OTUs, the pathogenic strain Flavobacterium psychrophilum and the non-pathogenic strain Methylobacterium rhodesianum explained the majority of inter-individual distances. Furthermore, a strong negative correlation was found between Flavobacterium and Methylobacterium, suggesting a mutually competitive relationship. Finally, after considering a total of 266 markers, genetic linkage analysis highlighted three major QTL associated with the abundance of Lysobacter, Rheinheimera and Methylobacterium. All these three genera are known for their beneficial antibacterial activity. Overall, our results provide evidence that host genotype may regulate the abundance of specific genera among their surface microbiota. They also indicate that Lysobacter, Rheinheimera and Methylobacterium are potentially important genera in providing protection against pathogens. PMID:25068850

  4. Genetic diversity, host range, and distribution of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, M; Mozafari, J; Rakhshandehroo, F; Shams-Bakhsh, M

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is considered one of the most important tomato pathogens in tropical and subtropical regions including Iran. During the years 2007 to 2009, a total number of 510 symptomatic and asymptomatic vegetable, ornamental and weed samples were collected from fields and greenhouses in ten provinces of Iran. Symptoms included stunting, yellowing, leaf curl and flower senescence. PCR with specific primers showed TYLCV infection in 184 samples (36%) such as cucumber, pepper, tomato and several weeds from seven provinces. Based on the geographical origin, host range and symptoms, twenty three representative isolates were selected for phylogenetic analysis. An amplicon with a size about 608 base pair (bp) comprising partial sequence of the coat (CP) and movement protein (MP) coding regions of the viral genome was sequenced and compared with the corresponding selected sequences available in GenBank for Iran and worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of the nucleotide sequences indicated two geographically separated clades. Isolates collected from Hormozgan, Khuzestan and Kerman provinces were grouped together with other Iranian isolates including TYLCV-Ir2, TYLCV-Kahnooj, and an isolate from Oman. It was also revealed that isolates collected from Boushehr, Fars, Tehran, and Isfahan placed close to the Iranian isolate TYLCV-Abadeh and isolates from Israel and Egypt. No correlation was found between the genetic variation and the host species, but selected Iranian isolates were grouped on the basis of the geographical origins. Results of this study indicated a high genetic diversity among Iranian TYLCV isolates. PMID:24957717

  5. The genetic diversity of Citrus dwarfing viroid populations is mainly dependent on the infected host species.

    PubMed

    Tessitori, Matilde; Rizza, Serena; Reina, Antonella; Causarano, Giovanni; Di Serio, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    As with viruses, viroids infect their hosts as polymorphic populations of variants. Identifying possible sources of genetic variability is significant in the case of the species Citrus dwarfing viroid (CDVd) which has been proposed as a dwarfing agent for high-density citrus plantings. Here, a natural CDVd isolate (CMC) was used as an inoculum source for long-term (25 years) and short-term (1 year) bioassays in different citrus host species. Characterization of progenies indicated that the genetic stability of CDVd populations was high in certain hosts (trifoliate orange, Troyer citrange, Etrog citron, Navelina sweet orange), which preserve viroid populations similar to the original CMC isolate even after 25 years. By contrast, CDVd variant populations in Interdonato lemon and Volkamer lemon were completely different to those in the inoculated sources, highlighting how influential the host is on the genetic variability of CDVd populations. Implications for risk assessment of CDVd as a dwarfing agent are discussed. The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession numbers for the complete sequences of the Citrus dwarfing viroid variants are JF970266.1 forH2-2, JF970267.1 for H2-7, EU938647.1 for H6-2, EU938651.1 forH6-10, JF970268.1 for H10-7, EU938652.1 for H14-13, EU938653.1for H14-14, JF970269.1 for H14-16, EU938648.1 for H15-9,EU938649.1 for H16-2, JF970265.1 for H16-9, EU938654.1 forH16-13, EU938650.1 for H20-3, JF970270.1 for H20-7, EU938641.1for PR-1, EU938642.1 for PR-3, EU938643.1 for PR-7, EU938644.1for CR-1, EU938639.1 for VR-4, JF12070.1 for VR-15, JF812069.1LS-4, EU938640.1 for LS-10 and JF970264.1 for LS-11. PMID:23152366

  6. Mycobacterium leprae–host-cell interactions and genetic determinants in leprosy: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; de Souza Salles, Jorgenilce; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Sampaio, Elizabeth Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Leprosy, also known as Hansen’s disease, is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae in which susceptibility to the mycobacteria and its clinical manifestations are attributed to the host immune response. Even though leprosy prevalence has decreased dramatically, the high number of new cases indicates active transmission. Owing to its singular features, M. leprae infection is an attractive model for investigating the regulation of human immune responses to pathogen-induced disease. Leprosy is one of the most common causes of nontraumatic peripheral neuropathy worldwide. The proportion of patients with disabilities is affected by the type of leprosy and delay in diagnosis. This article briefly reviews the clinical features as well as the immunopathological mechanisms related to the establishment of the different polar forms of leprosy, the mechanisms related to M. leprae–host cell interactions and prophylaxis and diagnosis of this complex disease. Host genetic factors are summarized and the impact of the development of interventions that prevent, reverse or limit leprosy-related nerve impairments are discussed. PMID:21366421

  7. Genetic mutations of avian leukosis virus subgroup J strains extended their host range.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanwei; Cai, Liming; Wang, Yanming; Wei, Rongrong; He, Menglian; Wang, Shanhui; Wang, Guihua; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2014-03-01

    The genetic diversity of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is determined not only by the env gene, but also by its 3' UTR and 3' LTR. They all play important roles in extending the host range and tumour development. In the present study, one ALV-J strain (ZB110604-6) from Black-Bone Silky Fowl (BSF) and three ALV-J strains (ZB110604-3/4/5) from grey partridge (GP), which bore multiple tumours and breed in one house of Farm A, were demonstrated extending their host to GP, while two other ALV-J strains (LC110515-3/4) from BSF of Farm B could not infect the embryo fibroblast of GP. The BSF is a unique species of chicken in China, while the GP is a close relative of the pheasant that previously demonstrated resistance to ALV-J. Histopathology showed that various tumours were induced by ALV-J in the two species. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the isolates from Farms A and B, rather than species, belong to two different clusters of ALV-J. Genetic mutations analysis revealed that the isolates obtained from Farm A showed a higher frequency of mutation in the hypervariable region 2 domain than in other variable regions of the gp85 gene. From the nucleotide alignment of the 3' UTR and 3' LTR gene, and the spectrum of tumours observed in this study, we speculate that the deletions or mutations in the redundant transmembrane region, E element and U3 (CAAT boxes, CArG box and Y box) might associate with tumour formation and development. The extension of the host range of ALV-J to the GP suggested that housing different species together provides more opportunities for ALV-J to evolve rapidly. PMID:24272684

  8. Effect of host plant chemistry on genetic differentiation and reduction of gene flow among Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations exploiting sympatric, synchronic hosts.

    PubMed

    Oroño, Luis; Paulin, Laura; Alberti, Andrea C; Hilal, Mirna; Ovruski, Sergio; Vilardi, Juan C; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Herbivore host specialization includes changes in behavior, driven by locally induced adaptations to specific plants. These adaptations often result in sexual isolation that can be gauged through detection of reduced gene flow between host associated populations. Hypothetically, reduced gene flow can be mediated both by differential response to specific plant kairomones and by the influence of larval diet on some adult traits such as pheromone composition. These hypotheses could serve as a model to explain rapid radiation of phytophagous tephritid fruit flies, a group that includes several complexes of cryptic species. The South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is a complex of at least seven cryptic species among which pheromone mediated sexual isolation resulted in rapid differentiation. Cryptic species also exhibit differences in host affiliation. In search of a model explaining rapid radiation in this group, we studied host plant chemical composition and genetic structure of three host associated sympatric populations of A. fraterculus. Chemical composition among host plant fruit varied widely both for nutrient and potentially toxic secondary metabolite content. Adaptation to plant chemistry appears to have produced population differentiation. We found host mediated differentiation to be stronger between populations exploiting sympatric synchronic hosts differing in chemical composition, than between populations that exploit hosts that fruit in succession. Gene flow among such host associated populations was extremely low. We propose as a working hypothesis for future research, that for those differences to persist over time, isolating mechanisms such as male produced sex pheromones and female preferences resulting from adaptation to different larval diets should evolve. PMID:23905743

  9. Host genetic influence on papillomavirus-induced tumors in the horse.

    PubMed

    Staiger, Elizabeth A; Tseng, Chia T; Miller, Donald; Cassano, Jennifer M; Nasir, Lubna; Garrick, Dorian; Brooks, Samantha A; Antczak, Douglas F

    2016-08-15

    The common equine skin tumors known as sarcoids have been causally associated with infection by bovine papillomavirus (BPV). Additionally, there is evidence for host genetic susceptibility to sarcoids. We investigated the genetic basis of susceptibility to sarcoid tumors on a cohort of 82 affected horses and 270 controls genotyped on a genome-wide platform and two custom panels. A Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) identified candidate regions on six chromosomes. Bayesian probability analysis of the same dataset verified only the regions on equine chromosomes (ECA) 20 and 22. Fine mapping using custom-produced SNP arrays for ECA20 and ECA22 regions identified two marker loci with high levels of significance: SNP BIEC2-530826 (map position 32,787,619) on ECA20 in an intron of the DQA1 gene in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II region (p = 4.6e-06), and SNP BIEC2-589604 (map position 25,951,536) on ECA22 in a 200 kb region containing four candidate genes: PROCR, EDEM2, EIF6 and MMP24 (p = 2.14e-06). The marker loci yielded odds ratios of 5.05 and 4.02 for ECA20 and ECA22, respectively. Associations between genetic MHC class II variants and papillomavirus-induced tumors have been reported for human papillomavirus and cottontail rabbit papillomavirus infections. This suggests a common mechanism for susceptibility to tumor progression that may involve subversion of the host immune response. This study also identified a genomic region other than MHC that influenced papillomavirus-induced tumor development in the studied population. PMID:27037728

  10. Genetic dissection of Flaviviridae host factors through genome-scale CRISPR screens.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Caleb D; Puschnik, Andreas S; Majzoub, Karim; Ooi, Yaw Shin; Brewer, Susan M; Fuchs, Gabriele; Swaminathan, Kavya; Mata, Miguel A; Elias, Joshua E; Sarnow, Peter; Carette, Jan E

    2016-07-01

    The Flaviviridae are a family of viruses that cause severe human diseases. For example, dengue virus (DENV) is a rapidly emerging pathogen causing an estimated 100 million symptomatic infections annually worldwide. No approved antivirals are available to date and clinical trials with a tetravalent dengue vaccine showed disappointingly low protection rates. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) also remains a major medical problem, with 160 million chronically infected patients worldwide and only expensive treatments available. Despite distinct differences in their pathogenesis and modes of transmission, the two viruses share common replication strategies. A detailed understanding of the host functions that determine viral infection is lacking. Here we use a pooled CRISPR genetic screening strategy to comprehensively dissect host factors required for these two highly important Flaviviridae members. For DENV, we identified endoplasmic-reticulum (ER)-associated multi-protein complexes involved in signal sequence recognition, N-linked glycosylation and ER-associated degradation. DENV replication was nearly completely abrogated in cells deficient in the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex. Mechanistic studies pinpointed viral RNA replication and not entry or translation as the crucial step requiring the OST complex. Moreover, we show that viral non-structural proteins bind to the OST complex. The identified ER-associated protein complexes were also important for infection by other mosquito-borne flaviviruses including Zika virus, an emerging pathogen causing severe birth defects. By contrast, the most significant genes identified in the HCV screen were distinct and included viral receptors, RNA-binding proteins and enzymes involved in metabolism. We found an unexpected link between intracellular flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) levels and HCV replication. This study shows notable divergence in host-depenency factors between DENV and HCV, and illuminates new host targets for

  11. Genetic Structure in the Seabuckthorn Carpenter Moth (Holcocerus hippophaecolus) in China: The Role of Outbreak Events, Geographical and Host Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jing; Chen, Min; Zong, Shi-Xiang; Luo, You-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Understanding factors responsible for structuring genetic diversity is of fundamental importance in evolutionary biology. The seabuckthorn carpenter moth (Holcocerus hippophaecolus Hua) is a native species throughout the north of China and is considered the main threat to seabuckthorn, Hippophae rhamnoides L. We assessed the influence of outbreaks, environmental factors and host species in shaping the genetic variation and structure of H. hippophaecolus by using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. We rejected the hypothesis that outbreak-associated genetic divergence exist, as evidenced by genetic clusters containing a combination of populations from historical outbreak areas, as well as non-outbreak areas. Although a small number of markers (4 of 933 loci) were identified as candidates under selection in response to population densities. H. hippophaecolus also did not follow an isolation-by-distance pattern. We rejected the hypothesis that outbreak and drought events were driving the genetic structure of H. hippophaecolus. Rather, the genetic structure appears to be influenced by various confounding bio-geographical factors. There were detectable genetic differences between H. hippophaecolus occupying different host trees from within the same geographic location. Host-associated genetic divergence should be confirmed by further investigation. PMID:22291983

  12. Molecular evolution and population genetics of two Drosophila mettleri cytochrome P450 genes involved in host plant utilization.

    PubMed

    Bono, Jeremy M; Matzkin, Luciano M; Castrezana, Sergio; Markow, Therese A

    2008-07-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of adaptation is one of the primary goals of evolutionary biology. The evolution of xenobiotic resistance in insects has proven to be an especially suitable arena for studying the genetics of adaptation, and resistant phenotypes are known to result from both coding and regulatory changes. In this study, we examine the evolutionary history and population genetics of two Drosophila mettleri cytochrome P450 genes that are putatively involved in the detoxification of alkaloids present in two of its cactus hosts: saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) and senita (Lophocereus schottii). Previous studies demonstrated that Cyp28A1 was highly up-regulated following exposure to rotting senita tissue while Cyp4D10 was highly up-regulated following exposure to rotting saguaro tissue. Here, we show that a subset of sites in Cyp28A1 experienced adaptive evolution specifically in the D. mettleri lineage. Moreover, neutrality tests in several populations were also consistent with a history of selection on Cyp28A1. In contrast, we did not find evidence for positive selection on Cyp4D10, although this certainly does not preclude its involvement in host plant use. A surprising result that emerged from our population genetic analyses was the presence of significant genetic differentiation between flies collected from different host plant species (saguaro and senita) at Organ Pipe National Monument, Arizona, USA. This preliminary evidence suggests that D. mettleri may have evolved into distinctive host races that specialize on different hosts, a possibility that warrants further investigation. PMID:18510584

  13. High within-host genetic variation of the nematode Spirocerca lupi in a high-density urban dog population.

    PubMed

    de Waal, Pamela J; Gous, Annemarie; Clift, Sarah J; Greeff, Jaco M

    2012-06-01

    The nematode worm Spirocerca lupi has a cosmopolitan distribution and can cause the death of its final canid host, typically dogs. While its life cycle, which involves a coprophagous beetle intermediate host, a number of non-obligatory vertebrate paratenic hosts and a canid final host, is well understood, surprisingly little is known about its transmission dynamics and population genetic structure. Here we sequenced cox1 to quantify genetic variation and the factors that limit gene flow in a 300 km(2) area in South Africa. Three quarters of the genetic variation, was explained by differences between worms from the same host, whereas a quarter of the variation was explained by differences between worms from different hosts. With the help of a newly derived model we conclude that while the offspring from different infrapopulations mixes fairly frequently in new hosts, the level of admixture is not enough to homogenize the parasite populations among dogs. Small infrapopulation sizes along with clumped transmission may also result in members of infrapopulations being closely related. PMID:22226763

  14. How a haemosporidian parasite of bats gets around: the genetic structure of a parasite, vector and host compared.

    PubMed

    Witsenburg, F; Clément, L; López-Baucells, A; Palmeirim, J; Pavlinić, I; Scaravelli, D; Ševčík, M; Dutoit, L; Salamin, N; Goudet, J; Christe, P

    2015-02-01

    Parasite population structure is often thought to be largely shaped by that of its host. In the case of a parasite with a complex life cycle, two host species, each with their own patterns of demography and migration, spread the parasite. However, the population structure of the parasite is predicted to resemble only that of the most vagile host species. In this study, we tested this prediction in the context of a vector-transmitted parasite. We sampled the haemosporidian parasite Polychromophilus melanipherus across its European range, together with its bat fly vector Nycteribia schmidlii and its host, the bent-winged bat Miniopterus schreibersii. Based on microsatellite analyses, the wingless vector, and not the bat host, was identified as the least structured population and should therefore be considered the most vagile host. Genetic distance matrices were compared for all three species based on a mitochondrial DNA fragment. Both host and vector populations followed an isolation-by-distance pattern across the Mediterranean, but not the parasite. Mantel tests found no correlation between the parasite and either the host or vector populations. We therefore found no support for our hypothesis; the parasite population structure matched neither vector nor host. Instead, we propose a model where the parasite's gene flow is represented by the added effects of host and vector dispersal patterns. PMID:25641066

  15. Parasite-host interaction in malaria: genetic clues and copy number variation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In humans, infections contribute highly to mortality and morbidity rates worldwide. Malaria tropica is one of the major infectious diseases globally and is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Plasmodia have accompanied human beings since the emergence of humankind. Due to its pathogenicity, malaria is a powerful selective force on the human genome. Genetic epidemiology approaches such as family and twin studies, candidate gene studies, and disease-association studies have identified a number of genes that mediate relative protection against the severest forms of the disease. New molecular approaches, including genome-wide association studies, have recently been performed to expand our knowledge on the functional effect of human variation in malaria. For the future, a systematic determination of gene-dosage effects and expression profiles of protective genes might unveil the functional impact of structural alterations in these genes on either side of the host-parasite interaction. PMID:19725943

  16. ‘Stalled' periocular necrotising fasciitis: early effective treatment or host genetic determinants?

    PubMed Central

    Mutamba, A; Verity, D H; Rose, G E

    2013-01-01

    Background Necrotising fasciitis (NF) is a devastating disease with considerable mortality and morbidity, and early aggressive surgical debridement of devitalised necrotic tissues has traditionally been advocated. Methods We describe three patients who were referred from other units several weeks after developing periocular necrotising fasciitis; in all the three, the disease had been managed medically without surgical debridement, with apparent ‘stalling' of the inflammatory process despite persistent necrotic periocular tissue. Results Following ‘elective debridement' of the devitalised tissues and reconstruction with local flaps, all achieved a satisfactory aesthetic result. Discussion The role of host genetic determinants, polarised cytokine responses, and early, effective medical treatment in patients with atypical ‘disease phenotypes' in NF are discussed. PMID:23412558

  17. Using host-associated genetic markers to investigate sources of fecal contamination in two Vermont streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura; Matthews, Leslie J.; Stelzer, Erin A.

    2011-01-01

    The use of host-associated Bacteroidales-based 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid genetic markers was investigated as a tool for providing information to managers on sources of bacterial impairment in Vermont streams. The study was conducted during 2009 in two watersheds on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 303(d) List of Impaired Waters, the Huntington and the Mettawee Rivers. Streamwater samples collected during high-flow and base-flow conditions were analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacteroidales genetic markers (General AllBac, Human qHF183 and BacHum, Ruminant BoBac, and Canid BacCan) to identify humans, ruminants, and canids as likely or unlikely major sources of fecal contamination. Fecal reference samples from each of the potential source groups, as well as from common species of wildlife, were collected during the same season and from the same watersheds as water samples. The results were combined with data from other states to assess marker cross reaction and to relate marker results to E. coli, the regulated water-quality parameter, with a higher degree of statistical significance. Results from samples from the Huntington River collected under different flow conditions on three dates indicated that humans were unlikely to be a major source of fecal contamination, except for a single positive result at one station that indicated the potential for human sources. Ruminants (deer, moose, cow, or sheep) were potential sources of fecal contamination at all six stations on the Huntington River during one high-flow event and at all but two stations during the other high-flow event. Canids were potential sources of fecal contamination at some stations during two high-flow events, with genetic-marker concentrations in samples from two of the six stations showing consistent positive results for canids for both storm dates. A base-flow sample showed no evidence of major fecal contamination in the Huntington River from humans

  18. The gut microbiota composition in dichorionic triplet sets suggests a role for host genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kiera; O' Shea, Carol Anne; Ryan, C Anthony; Dempsey, Eugene M; O' Toole, Paul W; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2015-01-01

    Monozygotic and dizygotic twin studies investigating the relative roles of host genetics and environmental factors in shaping gut microbiota composition have produced conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the gut microbiota composition of a healthy dichorionic triplet set. The dichorionic triplet set contained a pair of monozygotic twins and a fraternal sibling, with similar pre- and post-natal environmental conditions including feeding regime. V4 16S rRNA and rpoB amplicon pyrosequencing was employed to investigate microbiota composition, and the species and strain diversity of the culturable bifidobacterial population was also examined. At month 1, the monozygotic pair shared a similar microbiota distinct to the fraternal sibling. By month 12 however, the profile was more uniform between the three infants. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of the microbiota composition revealed strong clustering of the monozygotic pair at month 1 and a separation of the fraternal infant. At months 2 and 3 the phylogenetic distance between the monozygotic pair and the fraternal sibling has greatly reduced and by month 12 the monozygotic pair no longer clustered separately from the fraternal infant. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of the bifidobacterial population revealed a lack of strain diversity, with identical strains identified in all three infants at month 1 and 12. The microbiota of two antibiotic-treated dichorionic triplet sets was also investigated. Not surprisingly, in both triplet sets early life antibiotic administration appeared to be a major determinant of microbiota composition at month 1, irrespective of zygosity. By month 12, early antibiotic administration appeared to no longer exert such a strong influence on gut microbiota composition. We hypothesize that initially host genetics play a significant role in the composition of an individual's gut microbiota, unless an antibiotic intervention is given, but by month 12 environmental

  19. Evolutionary analysis of genetic variation observed in citrus tristeza virus (CTV) after host passage.

    PubMed

    Sentandreu, V; Castro, J A; Ayllón, M A; Rubio, L; Guerri, J; González-Candelas, F; Moreno, P; Moya, A

    2006-05-01

    We have studied the genetic variability in two genes (p18 and p20) from two groups of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates. One group (isolates T385, T317, T318, and T305) was derived from a Spanish source by successive host passages while the other (isolates T388 and T390) was obtained after aphid transmission from a Japanese source. A total of 274 sequences were obtained for gene p18 and 451 for p20. In the corresponding phylogenetic trees, sequences derived from the severe isolates (T318, T305, and T388) clustered together and separately from those derived from mild or moderate isolates (T385, T317, and T390), regardless of their geographic origin. Hierarchical analyses of molecular variance showed that up to 53% of the total genetic variability in p18 and up to 87% of the variation in p20 could be explained by differences in the pathogenicity features of the isolates. Neutrality tests revealed that different selection forces had been acting between isolates and between genes, with purifying selection being suggested for p18 from isolates T385 and T390 and for p20 from isolates T385, T317, and T388, and balancing selection for p18 from isolates T318, T305, and T388 and for p20 from isolates T318 and T390. Furthermore, several models of codon selection were observed, with purifying selection being the most notable one, compatible with low effective population size of the virus populations resulting from transmission bottlenecks. We found no evidence of recombination playing a significant role during p18 and p20 evolution in these isolates. These results suggest that hosts can be an important evolutionary factor for CTV isolates. PMID:16329002

  20. Parasites as biological tags to assess host population structure: Guidelines, recent genetic advances and comments on a holistic approach☆

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, Sarah R.; Whittington, Ian D.; Donnellan, Stephen C.; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.

    2013-01-01

    We review the use of parasites as biological tags of marine fishes and cephalopods in host population structure studies. The majority of the work published has focused on marine fish and either single parasite species or more recently, whole parasite assemblages, as biological tags. There is representation of host organisms and parasites from a diverse range of taxonomic groups, although focus has primarily been on host species of commercial importance. In contrast, few studies have used parasites as tags to assess cephalopod population structure, even though records of parasites infecting cephalopods are well-documented. Squid species are the only cephalopod hosts for which parasites as biological tags have been applied, with anisakid nematode larvae and metacestodes being the parasite taxa most frequently used. Following a brief insight into the importance of accurate parasite identification, the population studies that have used parasites as biological tags for marine fishes and cephalopods are reviewed, including comments on the dicyemid mesozoans. The advancement of molecular genetic techniques is discussed in regards to the new ways parasite genetic data can be incorporated into population structure studies, alongside host population genetic analyses, followed by an update on the guidelines for selecting a parasite species as a reliable tag candidate. As multiple techniques and methods can be used to assess the population structure of marine organisms (e.g. artificial tags, phenotypic characters, biometrics, life history, genetics, otolith microchemistry and parasitological data), we conclude by commenting on a holistic approach to allow for a deeper insight into population structuring. PMID:25197624

  1. Genetic Determinism and Evolutionary Reconstruction of a Host Jump in a Plant Virus.

    PubMed

    Vassilakos, Nikon; Simon, Vincent; Tzima, Aliki; Johansen, Elisabeth; Moury, Benoît

    2016-02-01

    In spite of their widespread occurrence, only few host jumps by plant viruses have been evidenced and the molecular bases of even fewer have been determined. A combination of three independent approaches, 1) experimental evolution followed by reverse genetics analysis, 2) positive selection analysis, and 3) locus-by-locus analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) allowed reconstructing the Potato virus Y (PVY; genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae) jump to pepper (Capsicum annuum), probably from other solanaceous plants. Synthetic chimeras between infectious cDNA clones of two PVY isolates with contrasted levels of adaptation to C. annuum showed that the P3 and, to a lower extent, the CI cistron played important roles in infectivity toward C. annuum. The three analytical approaches pinpointed a single nonsynonymous substitution in the P3 and P3N-PIPO cistrons that evolved several times independently and conferred adaptation to C. annuum. In addition to increasing our knowledge of host jumps in plant viruses, this study illustrates also the efficiency of locus-by-locus AMOVA and combined approaches to identify adaptive mutations in the genome of RNA viruses. PMID:26503941

  2. Genetic evidence confirms polygamous mating system in a crustacean parasite with multiple hosts.

    PubMed

    Jossart, Quentin; Wattier, Rémi A; Kastally, Chedly; Aron, Serge; David, Bruno; De Ridder, Chantal; Rigaud, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Mating systems are diverse in animals, notably in crustaceans, but can be inferred from a limited set of parameters. Baeza and Thiel (2007) proposed a model predicting mating systems of symbiotic crustaceans with three host characteristics and the risk of predation. These authors proposed five mating systems, ranging from monogamy to polygynandry (where multiple mating occurs for both genders). Using microsatellite loci, we tested the putatively mating system of the ectoparasite crab Dissodactylus primitivus. We determined the mating frequencies of males and females, parentage assignment (COLONY & GERUD software) as well as the contents of female spermathecae. Our results are globally consistent with the model of Baeza and Thiel and showed, together with previous aquarium experiments, that this ectoparasite evolved a polygamous mating system where males and females move between hosts for mate search. Parentage analyses revealed that polyandry is frequent and concerns more than 60% of clutches, with clutches being fertilized by up to 6 different fathers. Polygyny is supported by the detection of eight males having sired two different broods. We also detected a significant paternity skew in 92% of the multipaternal broods. Moreover, this skew is probably higher than the estimation from the brood because additional alleles were detected in most of spermathecae. This high skew could be explained by several factors as sperm competition or cryptic female choice. Our genetic data, combined with previous anatomic analyses, provide consistent arguments to suggest sperm precedence in D. primitivus. PMID:24609105

  3. Genetic Evidence Confirms Polygamous Mating System in a Crustacean Parasite with Multiple Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Jossart, Quentin; Wattier, Rémi A.; Kastally, Chedly; Aron, Serge; David, Bruno; De Ridder, Chantal; Rigaud, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Mating systems are diverse in animals, notably in crustaceans, but can be inferred from a limited set of parameters. Baeza and Thiel (2007) proposed a model predicting mating systems of symbiotic crustaceans with three host characteristics and the risk of predation. These authors proposed five mating systems, ranging from monogamy to polygynandry (where multiple mating occurs for both genders). Using microsatellite loci, we tested the putatively mating system of the ectoparasite crab Dissodactylus primitivus. We determined the mating frequencies of males and females, parentage assignment (COLONY & GERUD software) as well as the contents of female spermathecae. Our results are globally consistent with the model of Baeza and Thiel and showed, together with previous aquarium experiments, that this ectoparasite evolved a polygamous mating system where males and females move between hosts for mate search. Parentage analyses revealed that polyandry is frequent and concerns more than 60% of clutches, with clutches being fertilized by up to 6 different fathers. Polygyny is supported by the detection of eight males having sired two different broods. We also detected a significant paternity skew in 92% of the multipaternal broods. Moreover, this skew is probably higher than the estimation from the brood because additional alleles were detected in most of spermathecae. This high skew could be explained by several factors as sperm competition or cryptic female choice. Our genetic data, combined with previous anatomic analyses, provide consistent arguments to suggest sperm precedence in D. primitivus. PMID:24609105

  4. Genetic diversity of avian and mammalian Chlamydia psittaci strains and relation to host origin.

    PubMed Central

    Fukushi, H; Hirai, K

    1989-01-01

    Genetic relationships were reported for Chlamydia psittaci derived from psittacine birds, pigeons, turkeys, humans, cats, muskrats, cattle, and sheep and for C. trachomatis, including representative strains of the three biovars, through physical analysis of genomic DNA including DNA fingerprinting with restriction endonuclease SalI, DNA-DNA hybridization in solution with S1 nuclease, and Southern analysis with genomic DNA probes. A total of 26 strains were divided into four groups of C. psittaci and two groups of C. trachomatis, on the basis of DNA fingerprints. The six groups of Chlamydia spp. were related to host origin: two avian groups (Av1 and Av2), one feline and muskrat group (Fe1), one ruminant group (Ru1), one C. trachomatis biovars trachoma and lymphogranuloma group (CtHu), and one C. trachomatis mouse biovar group (CtMo), although an ovine abortion strain belonged to the avian group Av2. DNA-DNA hybridization assay and Southern analysis with genomic DNA probes indicated three DNA homology groups in the genus Chlamydia: an avian-feline group (groups Av1, Av2, and Fe1), a ruminant group (group Ru1), and a C. trachomatis group (groups CtHu and CtMo). Furthermore, the Southern analysis indicated that the homologous sequences (DNA homology of at least 14%) within the avian-feline group were distributed along the whole genome, whereas the homologous sequences (DNA homology of less than 24%) among the three DNA homology groups were localized in distinct regions of the genome DNA. These results suggest that Chlamydia spp. are derived from a common ancestor and have diverged into various groups showing restricted host ranges as a natural characteristic and that the species C. psittaci should be differentiated into groups related to host origin and DNA homology. Images PMID:2565333

  5. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of host-range genes of Camelpox virus isolates from India.

    PubMed

    Bera, B C; Barua, S; Shanmugasundaram, K; Anand, T; Riyesh, T; Vaid, R K; Virmani, N; Kundu, S; Yadav, N K; Malik, P; Singh, R K

    2015-09-01

    Camelpox virus (CMLV), a close variant of variola virus (VARV) infects camels worldwide. The zoonotic infections reported from India signify the need to study the host-range genes-responsible for host tropism. We report sequence and phylogenetic analysis of five host-range genes: cytokine response modifier B (crmB), chemokine binding protein (ckbp), viral schlafen-like (v-slfn), myxomavirus T4-like (M-T4-like) and b5r of CMLVs isolated from outbreaks in India. Comparative analysis revealed that these genes are conserved among CMLVs and shared 94.5-100 % identity at both nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) levels. All genes showed identity (59.3-98.4 %) with cowpox virus (CPXV) while three genes-crmB, ckbp and b5r showed similarity (92-96.5 %) with VARVs at both nt and aa levels. Interestingly, three consecutive serine residue insertions were observed in CKBP protein of CMLV-Delhi09 isolate which was similar to CPXV-BR and VACVs, besides five point mutations (K53Q, N67I, F84S, A127T and E182G) were also similar to zoonotic OPXVs. Further, few inconsistent point mutation(s) were also observed in other gene(s) among Indian CMLVs. These indicate that different strains of CMLVs are circulating in India and these mutations could play an important role in adaptation of CMLVs in humans. The phylogeny revealed clustering of all CMLVs together except CMLV-Delhi09 which grouped separately due to the presence of specific point mutations. However, the topology of the concatenated phylogeny showed close evolutionary relationship of CMLV with VARV and TATV followed by CPXV-RatGer09/1 from Germany. The availability of this genetic information will be useful in unveiling new strategies to control emerging zoonotic poxvirus infections. PMID:26396982

  6. Enhanced biofilm formation and multi‐host transmission evolve from divergent genetic backgrounds in C ampylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Ben; Méric, Guillaume; Murray, Susan; Yahara, Koji; Mageiros, Leonardos; Bowen, Ryan; Jones, Nathan H.; Jeeves, Rose E.; Lappin‐Scott, Hilary M.; Asakura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Multicellular biofilms are an ancient bacterial adaptation that offers a protective environment for survival in hostile habitats. In microaerophilic organisms such as C ampylobacter, biofilms play a key role in transmission to humans as the bacteria are exposed to atmospheric oxygen concentrations when leaving the reservoir host gut. Genetic determinants of biofilm formation differ between species, but little is known about how strains of the same species achieve the biofilm phenotype with different genetic backgrounds. Our approach combines genome‐wide association studies with traditional microbiology techniques to investigate the genetic basis of biofilm formation in 102 C ampylobacter jejuni isolates. We quantified biofilm formation among the isolates and identified hotspots of genetic variation in homologous sequences that correspond to variation in biofilm phenotypes. Thirteen genes demonstrated a statistically robust association including those involved in adhesion, motility, glycosylation, capsule production and oxidative stress. The genes associated with biofilm formation were different in the host generalist ST‐21 and ST‐45 clonal complexes, which are frequently isolated from multiple host species and clinical samples. This suggests the evolution of enhanced biofilm from different genetic backgrounds and a possible role in colonization of multiple hosts and transmission to humans. PMID:26373338

  7. Host Genetic Risk Factors for West Nile Virus Infection and Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Bigham, Abigail W.; Buckingham, Kati J.; Husain, Sofia; Emond, Mary J.; Bofferding, Kathryn M.; Gildersleeve, Heidi; Rutherford, Ann; Astakhova, Natalia M.; Perelygin, Andrey A.; Busch, Michael P.; Murray, Kristy O.; Sejvar, James J.; Green, Sharone; Kriesel, John; Brinton, Margo A.; Bamshad, Michael

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a category B pathogen endemic in parts of Africa, Asia and Europe, emerged in North America in 1999, and spread rapidly across the continental U.S. Outcomes of infection with WNV range from asymptomatic to severe neuroinvasive disease manifested as encephalitis, paralysis, and/or death. Neuroinvasive WNV disease occurs in less than one percent of cases, and although host genetic factors are thought to influence risk for symptomatic disease, the identity of these factors remains largely unknown. We tested 360 common haplotype tagging and/or functional SNPs in 86 genes that encode key regulators of immune function in 753 individuals infected with WNV including: 422 symptomatic WNV cases and 331 cases with asymptomatic infections. After applying a Bonferroni correction for multiple tests and controlling for population stratification, SNPs in IRF3 (OR 0.54, p = 0.035) and MX1, (OR 0.19, p = 0.014) were associated with symptomatic WNV infection and a single SNP in OAS1 (OR 9.79, p = 0.003) was associated with increased risk for West Nile encephalitis and paralysis (WNE/P). Together, these results suggest that genetic variation in the interferon response pathway is associated with both risk for symptomatic WNV infection and WNV disease progression. PMID:21935451

  8. Host evolution in Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia: Muridae): An integrative approach using geometric morphometrics and genetics.

    PubMed

    Lalis, Aude; Evin, Allowen; Janier, Marc; Koivogui, Lamine; Denys, Christiane

    2015-11-01

    The commensal rodent Mastomys natalensis is the natural reservoir of Lassa arenavirus (LASV), which causes hemorrhagic fever in West Africa. To study a possible effect of the virus on phenotypic and genotypic variation of its persistently infected host, we compared LASV-positive and non-infected wild-caught M. natalensis. The LASV effects on the phenotypic variation were explored using standard external morphometric measurements, geometric morphometric analyses of the cranial size and shape, and brain case volume. The genetic variability of M. natalensis specimens was assessed using 9 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Independent of sex and age, LASV-infected animals had smaller external body measurements, reproductive organs, skull size and brain case volume. Cranial shape differences between the 2 groups are represented by a lateral constriction of the entire skull. The genetic variability revealed consanguinity only among the LASV-positive rodents. We hypothesize that growth impairment may result in a selective disadvantage for LASV-infected M. natalensis, leading to a preferably commensal lifestyle in areas where the LAVS is endemic and, thereby, increasing the risk of LASV transmission to humans. PMID:26331855

  9. Global Genetic Differentiation in a Cosmopolitan Pest of Stored Beans: Effects of Geography, Host-Plant Usage and Anthropogenic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tuda, Midori; Kagoshima, Kumiko; Toquenaga, Yukihiko; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Genetic differentiation can be promoted allopatrically by geographic isolation of populations due to limited dispersal ability and diversification over time or sympatrically through, for example, host-race formation. In crop pests, the trading of crops across the world can lead to intermixing of genetically distinct pest populations. However, our understanding of the importance of allopatric and sympatric genetic differentiation in the face of anthropogenic genetic intermixing is limited. Here, we examined global sequence variation in two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus that uses different legumes as hosts. We analyzed 180 samples from 42 populations of this stored bean pest from tropical and subtropical continents and archipelagos: Africa, the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, Oceania and South America. For the mitochondrial genes, there was weak but significant genetic differentiation across continents/archipelagos. Further, we found pronounced differentiation among subregions within continents/archipelagos both globally and within Africa but not within Asia. We suggest that multiple introductions into Asia and subsequent intermixing within Asia have generated this pattern. The isolation by distance hypothesis was supported globally (with or without continents controlled) but not when host species was restricted to cowpeas Vigna unguiculata, the ancestral host of C. maculatus. We also document significant among-host differentiation both globally and within Asia, but not within Africa. We failed to reject a scenario of a constant population size in the recent past combined with selective neutrality for the mitochondrial genes. We conclude that mitochondrial DNA differentiation is primarily due to geographic isolation within Africa and to multiple invasions by different alleles, followed by host shifts, within Asia. The weak inter-continental differentiation is most likely due to frequent inter-continental gene

  10. Global genetic differentiation in a cosmopolitan pest of stored beans: effects of geography, host-plant usage and anthropogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Tuda, Midori; Kagoshima, Kumiko; Toquenaga, Yukihiko; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Genetic differentiation can be promoted allopatrically by geographic isolation of populations due to limited dispersal ability and diversification over time or sympatrically through, for example, host-race formation. In crop pests, the trading of crops across the world can lead to intermixing of genetically distinct pest populations. However, our understanding of the importance of allopatric and sympatric genetic differentiation in the face of anthropogenic genetic intermixing is limited. Here, we examined global sequence variation in two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus that uses different legumes as hosts. We analyzed 180 samples from 42 populations of this stored bean pest from tropical and subtropical continents and archipelagos: Africa, the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, Oceania and South America. For the mitochondrial genes, there was weak but significant genetic differentiation across continents/archipelagos. Further, we found pronounced differentiation among subregions within continents/archipelagos both globally and within Africa but not within Asia. We suggest that multiple introductions into Asia and subsequent intermixing within Asia have generated this pattern. The isolation by distance hypothesis was supported globally (with or without continents controlled) but not when host species was restricted to cowpeas Vigna unguiculata, the ancestral host of C. maculatus. We also document significant among-host differentiation both globally and within Asia, but not within Africa. We failed to reject a scenario of a constant population size in the recent past combined with selective neutrality for the mitochondrial genes. We conclude that mitochondrial DNA differentiation is primarily due to geographic isolation within Africa and to multiple invasions by different alleles, followed by host shifts, within Asia. The weak inter-continental differentiation is most likely due to frequent inter-continental gene

  11. Population genetic structure of the acanthocephalan Acanthosentis cheni in anadromous, freshwater, and landlocked stocks of its fish host, Coilia nasus.

    PubMed

    Song, Rui; Li, Wen X; Wu, Shan G; Zou, Hong; Wang, Gui T

    2014-04-01

    The acanthocephalan Acanthosentis cheni was found in anadromous, freshwater, and landlocked stocks of its fish host, Coilia nasus. To examine the genetic variations of the acanthocephalan among the 3 populations with the adaptation of the host to the freshwater, the genetic structure of the helminth was investigated in anadromous (Zhoushan and Chongming islands, and Anqing), freshwater (Anqing, Ezhou, and Poyang Lake), and landlocked (Tian'ezhou Reserve) populations by sequencing intergenic transcribed spacers (ITS) of the ribosomal RNA coding genes. Low Fst values and high gene flow were found among the 7 populations (Fst = 0.0135, P = 0.2723; Nm = 36.48) and the 3 ecotypes of Acanthosentis cheni (Fst = 0.0178, P = 0.1044; Nm = 27.67). On the other hand, significant genetic differentiation of the C. nasus host populations was detected between the upstream and downstream areas of Xiaogu Mountain (Fst = 0.1961, P = 0.0030; Nm = 2.05), which is the farthest location of spawning migration for C. nasus . However, the migration break of the fish host appeared not to cause significant genetic differentiation of A. cheni populations between the upper and lower reaches of Xiaogu Mountain. Other factors might promote genetic exchange of A. cheni populations such as dispersal of the intermediate host by flooding or other fish species serving as the definitive or paratenic hosts. In Anqing, nucleotide diversity of the acanthocephalan was highest in the freshwater population (0.0038) and lower in the anadromous population (0.0026). This suggested that new mutations may have occurred in the freshwater A. cheni population in Anqing when adapting to a freshwater environment. PMID:24224788

  12. Tick-Borne Transmission of Two Genetically Distinct Anaplasma marginale Strains following Superinfection of the Mammalian Reservoir Host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strain superinfection affects the dynamics of epidemiological spread of pathogens through a host population. Superinfection has recently been shown to occur for genetically distinct strains of the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale that encode distinctly different surface protein variants. Supe...

  13. Limited genetic exchanges between populations of an insect pest living on uncultivated and related cultivated host plants.

    PubMed

    Vialatte, Aude; Dedryver, Charles-Antoine; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Galman, Marina; Plantegenest, Manuel

    2005-05-22

    Habitats in agroecosystems are ephemeral, and are characterized by frequent disturbances forcing pest species to successively colonize various hosts belonging either to the cultivated or to the uncultivated part of the agricultural landscape. The role of wild habitats as reservoirs or refuges for the aphid Sitobion avenae that colonize cultivated fields was assessed by investigating the genetic structure of populations collected on both cereal crops (wheat, barley and oat) and uncultivated hosts (Yorkshire fog, cocksfoot, bulbous oatgrass and tall oatgrass) in western France. Classical genetic analyses and Bayesian clustering algorithms indicate that genetic differentiation is high between populations collected on uncultivated hosts and on crops, revealing a relatively limited gene flow between the uncultivated margins and the cultivated part of the agroecosystem. A closer genetic relatedness was observed between populations living on plants belonging to the same tribe (Triticeae, Poeae and Aveneae tribes) where aphid genotypes appeared not to be specialized on a single host, but rather using a group of related plant species. Causes of this ecological differentiation and its implications for integrated pest management of S. avenae as cereals pest are discussed. PMID:16024367

  14. A population genetic model of evolution of host-mate attraction and nonhost repulsion in a bark beetle Pityogenes bidentatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have shown that the bark beetle Pityogenes bidentatus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) avoids volatiles of nonhost trees (Norway spruce, birch, and oak) and healthy host Scotch pine when orienting to aggregation pheromone. A population genetic model of two behavioral genes was hypothe...

  15. Limited genetic exchanges between populations of an insect pest living on uncultivated and related cultivated host plants

    PubMed Central

    Vialatte, Aude; Dedryver, Charles-Antoine; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Galman, Marina; Plantegenest, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Habitats in agroecosystems are ephemeral, and are characterized by frequent disturbances forcing pest species to successively colonize various hosts belonging either to the cultivated or to the uncultivated part of the agricultural landscape. The role of wild habitats as reservoirs or refuges for the aphid Sitobion avenae that colonize cultivated fields was assessed by investigating the genetic structure of populations collected on both cereal crops (wheat, barley and oat) and uncultivated hosts (Yorkshire fog, cocksfoot, bulbous oatgrass and tall oatgrass) in western France. Classical genetic analyses and Bayesian clustering algorithms indicate that genetic differentiation is high between populations collected on uncultivated hosts and on crops, revealing a relatively limited gene flow between the uncultivated margins and the cultivated part of the agroecosystem. A closer genetic relatedness was observed between populations living on plants belonging to the same tribe (Triticeae, Poeae and Aveneae tribes) where aphid genotypes appeared not to be specialized on a single host, but rather using a group of related plant species. Causes of this ecological differentiation and its implications for integrated pest management of S. avenae as cereals pest are discussed. PMID:16024367

  16. Pervasive effects of a dominant foliar endophytic fungus on host genetic and phenotypic expression in a tropical tree

    PubMed Central

    Mejía, Luis C.; Herre, Edward A.; Sparks, Jed P.; Winter, Klaus; García, Milton N.; Van Bael, Sunshine A.; Stitt, Joseph; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Guiltinan, Mark J.; Maximova, Siela N.

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that macro-organisms (corals, insects, plants, vertebrates) consist of both host tissues and multiple microbial symbionts that play essential roles in their host's ecological and evolutionary success. Consequently, identifying benefits and costs of symbioses, as well as mechanisms underlying them are research priorities. All plants surveyed under natural conditions harbor foliar endophytic fungi (FEF) in their leaf tissues, often at high densities. Despite producing no visible effects on their hosts, experiments have nonetheless shown that FEF reduce pathogen and herbivore damage. Here, combining results from three genomic, and two physiological experiments, we demonstrate pervasive genetic and phenotypic effects of the apparently asymptomatic endophytes on their hosts. Specifically, inoculation of endophyte-free (E−) Theobroma cacao leaves with Colletotrichum tropicale (E+), the dominant FEF species in healthy T. cacao, induces consistent changes in the expression of hundreds of host genes, including many with known defensive functions. Further, E+ plants exhibited increased lignin and cellulose content, reduced maximum rates of photosynthesis (Amax), and enrichment of nitrogen-15 and carbon-13 isotopes. These phenotypic changes observed in E+ plants correspond to changes in expression of specific functional genes in related pathways. Moreover, a cacao gene (Tc00g04254) highly up-regulated by C. tropicale also confers resistance to pathogen damage in the absence of endophytes or their products in host tissues. Thus, the benefits of increased pathogen resistance in E+ plants are derived in part from up-regulation of intrinsic host defense responses, and appear to be offset by potential costs including reduced photosynthesis, altered host nitrogen metabolism, and endophyte heterotrophy of host tissues. Similar effects are likely in most plant-endophyte interactions, and should be recognized in the design and interpretation of genetic

  17. Effects of parasitic sex-ratio distorters on host genetic structure in the Armadillidium vulgare-Wolbachia association.

    PubMed

    Verne, S; Johnson, M; Bouchon, D; Grandjean, F

    2012-02-01

    In the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Oniscidea), Wolbachia facilitates its spread through vertical transmission via the eggs by inducing feminization of genetic males. The spread of feminizing Wolbachia within and across populations is therefore expected to influence mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic structure by hitchhiking. To test this hypothesis, we analysed nuclear and mtDNA genetic structure, and Wolbachia prevalence in 13 populations of the pill bug host. Wolbachia prevalence (ranging from 0% to 100% of sampled females) was highly variable among populations. All three Wolbachia strains previously observed in A. vulgare were present (wVulC, wVulM and wVulP) with wVulC being the most prevalent (nine of 13 populations). The host showed a genetic structure on five microsatellite loci that is compatible with isolation by distance. The strong genetic structure observed on host mtDNA was correlated with Wolbachia prevalence: three mitotypes were in strong linkage disequilibrium with the three strains of Wolbachia. Neutrality tests showed that the mtDNA polymorphism is not neutral, and we thus suggest that this unusual pattern of mtDNA polymorphism found in A. vulgare was due to Wolbachia. PMID:22188300

  18. Development of microsatellite markers in the branched broomrape Phelipanche ramosa L. (Pomel) and evidence for host-associated genetic divergence.

    PubMed

    Le Corre, Valérie; Reibel, Carole; Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie

    2014-01-01

    Phelipanche ramosa is a parasitic plant that infects numerous crops worldwide. In Western Europe it recently expanded to a new host crop, oilseed rape, in which it can cause severe yield losses. We developed 13 microsatellite markers for P. ramosa using next-generation 454 sequencing data. The polymorphism at each locus was assessed in a sample of 96 individuals collected in France within 6 fields cultivated with tobacco, hemp or oilseed rape. Two loci were monomorphic. At the other 11 loci, the number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 3 to 6 and from 0.31 to 0.60, respectively. Genetic diversity within each cultivated field was very low. The host crop from which individuals were collected was the key factor structuring genetic variation. Individuals collected on oilseed rape were strongly differentiated from individuals collected on hemp or tobacco, which suggests that P. ramosa infecting oilseed rape forms a genetically diverged race. The microsatellites we developed will be useful for population genetics studies and for elucidating host-associated genetic divergence in P. ramosa. PMID:24419096

  19. Host Genetic Factors Associated with Symptomatic Primary HIV Infection and Disease Progression among Argentinean Seroconverters

    PubMed Central

    Coloccini, Romina Soledad; Dilernia, Dario; Ghiglione, Yanina; Turk, Gabriela; Laufer, Natalia; Rubio, Andrea; Socías, María Eugenia; Figueroa, María Inés; Sued, Omar; Cahn, Pedro; Salomón, Horacio; Mangano, Andrea; Pando, María Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    Background Variants in HIV-coreceptor C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are the most important host genetic factors associated with HIV infection and disease progression. Our aim was to analyze the association of these genetic factors in the presence of clinical symptoms during Primary HIV Infection (PHI) and disease progression within the first year. Methods Seventy subjects diagnosed during PHI were studied (55 symptomatic and 15 asymptomatic). Viral load (VL) and CD4 T-cell count were evaluated. HIV progression was defined by presence of B or C events and/or CD4 T-cell counts <350 cell/mm3. CCR5 haplotypes were characterized by polymerase chain reaction and SDM-PCR-RFLP. HLA-I characterization was performed by Sequencing. Results Symptoms during PHI were significantly associated with lower frequency of CCR5-CF1 (1.8% vs. 26.7%, p = 0.006). Rapid progression was significantly associated with higher frequency of CCR5-CF2 (16.7% vs. 0%, p = 0.024) and HLA-A*11 (16.7% vs. 1.2%, p = 0.003) and lower frequency of HLA-C*3 (2.8% vs. 17.5%, p = 0.035). Higher baseline VL was significantly associated with presence of HLA-A*11, HLA-A*24, and absence of HLA-A*31 and HLA-B*57. Higher 6-month VL was significantly associated with presence of CCR5-HHE, HLA-A*24, HLA-B*53, and absence of HLA-A*31 and CCR5-CF1. Lower baseline CD4 T-cell count was significantly associated with presence of HLA-A*24/*33, HLA-B*53, CCR5-CF2 and absence of HLA-A*01/*23 and CCR5-HHA. Lower 6-month CD4 T-cell count was associated with presence of HLA-A*24 and HLA-B*53, and absence of HLA-A*01 and HLA-B*07/*39. Moreover, lower 12-month CD4 T-cell count was significantly associated with presence of HLA-A*33, HLA-B*14, HLA-C*08, CCR5-CF2, and absence of HLA-B*07 and HLA-C*07. Conclusion Several host factors were significantly associated with disease progression in PHI subjects. Most results agree with previous studies performed in other groups

  20. Comprehensive Genetic Analysis of Early Host Body Reactions to the Bioactive and Bio-Inert Porous Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Ehashi, Tomo; Takemura, Taro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Minowa, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2014-01-01

    To design scaffolds for tissue regeneration, details of the host body reaction to the scaffolds must be studied. Host body reactions have been investigated mainly by immunohistological observations for a long time. Despite of recent dramatic development in genetic analysis technologies, genetically comprehensive changes in host body reactions are hardly studied. There is no information about host body reactions that can predict successful tissue regeneration in the future. In the present study, porous polyethylene scaffolds were coated with bioactive collagen or bio-inert poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (PMB) and were implanted subcutaneously and compared the host body reaction to those substrates by normalizing the result using control non-coat polyethylene scaffold. The comprehensive analyses of early host body reactions to the scaffolds were carried out using a DNA microarray assay. Within numerous genes which were expressed differently among these scaffolds, particular genes related to inflammation, wound healing, and angiogenesis were focused upon. Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 are important cytokines in tissue responses to biomaterials because IL-1β promotes both inflammation and wound healing and IL-10 suppresses both of them. IL-1β was up-regulated in the collagen-coated scaffold. Collagen-specifically up-regulated genes contained both M1- and M2-macrophage-related genes. Marked vessel formation in the collagen-coated scaffold was occurred in accordance with the up-regulation of many angiogenesis-inducible factors. The DNA microarray assay provided global information regarding the host body reaction. Interestingly, several up-regulated genes were detected even on the very bio-inert PMB-coated surfaces and those genes include inflammation-suppressive and wound healing-suppressive IL-10, suggesting that not only active tissue response but also the inert response may relates to these genetic regulations. PMID:24454803

  1. The evolution of novel host use is unlikely to be constrained by trade-offs or a lack of genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Gompert, Zachariah; Jahner, Joshua P; Scholl, Cynthia F; Wilson, Joseph S; Lucas, Lauren K; Soria-Carrasco, Victor; Fordyce, James A; Nice, Chris C; Buerkle, C Alex; Forister, Matthew L

    2015-06-01

    The genetic and ecological factors that shape the evolution of animal diets remain poorly understood. For herbivorous insects, the expectation has been that trade-offs exist, such that adaptation to one host plant reduces performance on other potential hosts. We investigated the genetic architecture of alternative host use by rearing individual Lycaeides melissa butterflies from two wild populations in a crossed design on two hosts (one native and one introduced) and analysing the genetic basis of differences in performance using genomic approaches. Survival during the experiment was highest when butterfly larvae were reared on their natal host plant, consistent with local adaptation. However, cross-host correlations in performance among families (within populations) were not different from zero. We found that L. melissa populations possess genetic variation for larval performance and variation in performance had a polygenic basis. We documented very few genetic variants with trade-offs that would inherently constrain diet breadth by preventing the optimization of performance across hosts. Instead, most genetic variants that affected performance on one host had little to no effect on the other host. In total, these results suggest that genetic trade-offs are not the primary cause of dietary specialization in L. melissa butterflies. PMID:25877787

  2. Genetic control of host resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Joan K; Chen, Hongbo

    2010-12-01

    This manuscript focuses on the advances made using genomic approaches to identify biomarkers that define genes and pathways that are correlated with swine resistance to infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the most economically important swine viral pathogen worldwide. International efforts are underway to assess resistance and susceptibility to infectious pathogens using tools such as gene arrays, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) chips, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), proteomics, and advanced bioinformatics. These studies should identify new candidate genes and biological pathways associated with host PRRS resistance and alternate viral disease processes and mechanisms; they may unveil biomarkers that account for genetic control of PRRS or, alternately, that reveal new targets for therapeutics or vaccines. Previous genomic approaches have expanded our understanding of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling traits of economic importance in pig production, e.g., feed efficiency, meat production, leanness; only recently have these included health traits and disease resistance. Genomic studies should have substantial impact for the pig industry since it is now possible to include the use of biomarkers for basic health traits alongside broader set of markers utilized for selection of pigs for improved performance and reproductive traits, as well as pork quality. Additionally these studies may reveal alternate PRRS control mechanisms that can be exploited for novel drugs, biotherapeutics and vaccine designs. PMID:20709118

  3. The genetic basis for fruit odor discrimination in Rhagoletis flies and its significance for sympatric host shifts.

    PubMed

    Dambroski, Hattie R; Linn, Charles; Berlocher, Stewart H; Forbes, Andrew A; Roelofs, Wendell; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2005-09-01

    Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) use volatile compounds emitted from the surface of ripening fruit as important chemosensory cues for recognizing and distinguishing among alternative host plants. Host choice is of evolutionary significance in Rhagoletis because these flies mate on or near the fruit of their respective host plants. Differences in host choice based on fruit odor discrimination therefore result in differential mate choice and prezygotic reproductive isolation, facilitating sympatric speciation in the absence of geographic isolation. We test for a genetic basis for host fruit odor discrimination through an analysis of F2 and backcross hybrids constructed between apple-, hawthorn-, and flowering dogwood-infesting Rhagoletis flies. We recovered a significant proportion (30-65%) of parental apple, hawthorn, and dogwood fly response phenotypes in F2 hybrids, despite the general failure of F1 hybrids to reach odor source spheres. Segregation patterns in F2 and backcross hybrids suggest that only a modest number of allelic differences at a few loci may underlie host fruit odor discrimination. In addition, a strong bias was observed for F2 and backcross flies to orient to the natal fruit blend of their maternal grandmother, implying the existence of cytonuclear gene interactions. We explore the implications of our findings for the evolutionary dynamics of sympatric host race formation and speciation. PMID:16261733

  4. Host Genetic Variants and Gene Expression Patterns Associated with Epstein-Barr Virus Copy Number in Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Houldcroft, Charlotte J.; Petrova, Velislava; Liu, Jimmy Z.; Frampton, Dan; Anderson, Carl A.; Gall, Astrid; Kellam, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) are commonly used in molecular genetics, supplying DNA for the HapMap and 1000 Genomes Projects, used to test chemotherapeutic agents, and informing the basis of a number of population genetics studies of gene expression. The process of transforming human B cells into LCLs requires the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a double-stranded DNA virus which through B-cell immortalisation maintains an episomal virus genome in every cell of an LCL at variable copy numbers. Previous studies have reported that EBV alters host-gene expression and EBV copy number may be under host genetic control. We performed a genome-wide association study of EBV genome copy number in LCLs and found the phenotype to be highly heritable, although no individual SNPs achieved a significant association with EBV copy number. The expression of two host genes (CXCL16 and AGL) was positively correlated and expression of ADARB2 was negatively correlated with EBV copy number in a genotype-independent manner. This study shows an association between EBV copy number and the gene expression profile of LCLs, and suggests that EBV copy number should be considered as a covariate in future studies of host gene expression in LCLs. PMID:25290448

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Differentiation across Six Shared Willow Host Species in Leaf- and Bud-Galling Sawflies

    PubMed Central

    Leppänen, Sanna A.; Malm, Tobias; Värri, Kaisa; Nyman, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    Genetic divergence and speciation in plant-feeding insects could be driven by contrasting selection pressures imposed by different plant species and taxa. While numerous examples of host-associated differentiation (HAD) have been found, the overall importance of HAD in insect diversification remains unclear, as few studies have investigated its frequency in relation to all speciation events. One promising way to infer the prevalence and repeatability of HAD is to estimate genetic differentiation in multiple insect taxa that use the same set of hosts. To this end, we measured and compared variation in mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS2 sequences in population samples of leaf-galling Pontania and bud-galling Euura sawflies (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) collected from six Salix species in two replicate locations in northern Fennoscandia. We found evidence of frequent HAD in both species complexes, as individuals from the same willow species tended to cluster together on both mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic trees. Although few fixed differences among the putative species were found, hierarchical AMOVAs showed that most of the genetic variation in the samples was explained by host species rather than by sampling location. Nevertheless, the levels of HAD measured across specific pairs of host species were not correlated in the two focal galler groups. Hence, our results support the hypothesis of HAD as a central force in herbivore speciation, but also indicate that evolutionary trajectories are only weakly repeatable even in temporally overlapping radiations of related insect taxa. PMID:25551608

  6. Forms of Melanoplus bowditchi (Orthoptera: Acrididae) collected from different host plants are indistinguishable genetically and in aedeagal morphology.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Muhammad Irfan; Mustafa, Fatima; Kneeland, Kate M; Brust, Mathew L; Hoback, W Wyatt; Kamble, Shripat T; Foster, John E

    2014-01-01

    The sagebrush grasshopper, Melanoplus bowditchi Scudder (Orthoptera: Acrididae), is a phytophilous species that is widely distributed in the western United States on sagebrush species. The geographical distribution of M. bowditchi is very similar to the range of its host plants and its feeding association varies in relation to sagebrush distribution. Melanoplus bowditchi bowditchi Scudder and M. bowditchi canus Hebard were described based on their feeding association with different sagebrush species, sand sagebrush and silver sagebrush, respectively. Recently, M. bowditchi have been observed feeding on other plant species in western Nebraska. We collected adult M. bowditchi feeding on four plant species, sand sagebrush, Artemisia filifolia, big sagebrush, A. tridentata, fringed sagebrush, A. frigidus, and winterfat, Krascheninnikovia lanata. We compared the specimens collected from the four plant species for their morphological and genetic differences. We observed no consistent differences among the aedeagal parameres or basal rings among the grasshoppers collected from different host plants. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers were used to test the genetic relationships among the grasshoppers. Analysis of Molecular Variance and distance-based Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean dendrogram failed to reveal significant differences. Although the forms showed behavioral and minor color and size differences, the genetic data suggest all forms under study likely interbreed, which indicates they are a single species instead of four species or subspecies. These results indicate that host plant use may influence melanopline phenotype and suggest the need of further genetic analysis of subspecies recognized based on morphology, distribution, and ecology. PMID:24949237

  7. Genetics of host-pathogen interactions in the wheat-Stagonospora nodorum pathosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stagonospora nodorum causes the disease Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) in wheat. S. nodorum produces numerous host-selective toxins (HSTs), all of which interact with dominant host sensitivity genes to cause disease. These host-toxin interactions are mirror images of classical gene-for-gene inter...

  8. Low genetic variation between isolates of Citrus leaf blotch virus from different host species and of different geographical origins.

    PubMed

    Vives, María C; Rubio, Luis; Galipienso, Luis; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Guerri, José

    2002-10-01

    The population structure and genetic diversity of Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV) were estimated by single-strand conformation polymorphism and nucleotide sequence analyses of two genomic regions located within the replicase (R) and the coat protein (C) genes. Analysis of 30 cDNA clones of each genomic region from two CLBV isolates showed that both isolates contained a predominant haplotype and others closely related. Analysis of 37 CLBV Spanish field isolates showed low genetic diversity (0.0041 and 0.0018 for genomic regions R and C, respectively). Comparison of 14 CLBV isolates from Spain, Japan, USA, France and Australia showed genetic diversities of 0.0318 (R) and 0.0209 (C), respectively. No correlation was found between genetic distance and geographical origin or host species of the isolates. The ratio between nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions was the lowest found in a plant virus, indicating a strong negative selective pressure in both genomic regions. PMID:12237442

  9. Ecological adaptation and reproductive isolation in sympatry: genetic and phenotypic evidence for native host races of Rhagoletis pomonella.

    PubMed

    Powell, Thomas H Q; Forbes, Andrew A; Hood, Glen R; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2014-02-01

    Ecological speciation with gene flow may be an important mode of diversification for phytophagous insects. The recent shift of Rhagoletis pomonella from its native host downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to introduced apple (Malus domestica) in the northeastern United States is a classic example of sympatric host race formation. Here, we test whether R. pomonella has similarly formed host races on four native Crataegus species in the southern United States: western mayhaw (C. opaca), blueberry hawthorn (C. brachyacantha), southern red hawthorn (C. mollis var. texana) and green hawthorn (C. viridis). These four southern hosts differ from each other in their fruiting phenology and in the volatile compounds emitted from the surface of their fruits. These two traits form the basis of ecological reproductive isolation between downy hawthorn and apple flies in the north. We report evidence from microsatellite population surveys and eclosion studies supporting the existence of genetically differentiated and partially reproductively isolated host races of southern hawthorn flies. The results provide an example of host shifting and ecological divergence involving native plants and imply that speciation with gene flow may be commonly initiated in Rhagoletis when ecological opportunity presents itself. PMID:24351094

  10. Genetic host-tree effects on the ectomycorrhizal community and root characteristics of Norway spruce.

    PubMed

    Velmala, S M; Rajala, T; Haapanen, M; Taylor, A F S; Pennanen, T

    2013-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was used to study the effects of host genotype on short root formation and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community structure in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Rooted cuttings representing 55 clones were inoculated with a mix of vegetative hyphae of five ECM fungal species (Laccaria sp., Amphinema byssoides, Piloderma sp., Cadophora finlandia, Paxillus involutus). After one growing season, the ECM fungal community structure was determined by amplifying the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal DNA directly from ECM root tips. Restriction profiles of obtained amplicons were then compared to those of the inoculated strains. Spruce clones differed in their ECM fungal community composition; we found a statistically significant clone-specific effect on ECM fungal diversity and dominating fungal species. Nevertheless, the broad sense heritabilities of the levels of Laccaria sp., Piloderma sp. and A. byssoides colonisations as well as the ECM fungal community structure were low (H(2) = 0.04-0.11), owing to the high within-clone variation. As nitrogen concentration of needles correlated negatively with ECM fungal richness, our results imply that in the experimental conditions nutrient acquisition of young trees may benefit from colonisation with only one or two ECM fungal species. The heritability of short root density was moderate (H(2) = 0.41) and highest among all the measured shoot and root growth characteristics of Norway spruce cuttings. We suggest that the genetic component determining root growth and short root formation is significant for the performance of young trees in natural environments as these traits drive the formation of the below-ground symbiotic interactions. PMID:22644394

  11. Effect of host genetics on incidence of HIV neuroretinal disorder in patients with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Sezgin, Efe; Hendrickson, Sher L.; Jabs, Douglas A.; Van Natta, Mark L.; Lewis, Richard A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; O’Brien, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 10 to 15% of patients with AIDS but without ocular opportunistic infections will have a presumed neuroretinal disorder (HIV-NRD), manifested by reduced contrast sensitivity and abnormal visual fields. The loss of contrast sensitivity often is sufficient to impair reading speed. To evaluate the effect of host genetics on HIV-NRD, we explored validated AIDS restriction gene variants CCR5Δ32, CCR2-64I, CCR5 P1, SDF-3`A, IL-10-5`A, RANTES -403A, RANTES -28G, RANTES-In1.1C, CX3CR1-249I, CX3CR1-280M, IFNG-179T, MDR1-3435T, and MCP-1364G, each of which has been implicated previously to influence HIV-1 infection, AIDS progression, therapy response, and antiviral drug metabolism, and an IL-10 receptor gene, IL-10R1, in the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (LSOCA) cohort. In European Americans (cases=55, controls=290), IL-10-5`A variant and its promoter haplotype (HR=2.09, CI: 1.19–3.67, P = 0.01); in African Americans (cases=54, controls=180) RANTES-In1.1C and the associated haplotype (HR=2.72, CI: 1.48–5.00, P = 0.001), showed increased HIV-NRD susceptibility. While sample sizes are small and P values do not pass a strict Bonferroni correction, our results suggest that, in European Americans, an IL-10-related pathway, and, in African Americans, chemokine receptor ligand polymorphisms in RANTES are risk factors for HIV- NRD development. Clearly, further studies are warrented. PMID:20531015

  12. Dietary input of microbes and host genetic variation shape among-population differences in stickleback gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chris C R; Snowberg, Lisa K; Gregory Caporaso, J; Knight, Rob; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2015-11-01

    To explain differences in gut microbial communities we must determine how processes regulating microbial community assembly (colonization, persistence) differ among hosts and affect microbiota composition. We surveyed the gut microbiota of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from 10 geographically clustered populations and sequenced environmental samples to track potential colonizing microbes and quantify the effects of host environment and genotype. Gut microbiota composition and diversity varied among populations. These among-population differences were associated with multiple covarying ecological variables: habitat type (lake, stream, estuary), lake geomorphology and food- (but not water-) associated microbiota. Fish genotype also covaried with gut microbiota composition; more genetically divergent populations exhibited more divergent gut microbiota. Our results suggest that population level differences in stickleback gut microbiota may depend more on internal sorting processes (host genotype) than on colonization processes (transient environmental effects). PMID:25909977

  13. Individuality in gut microbiota composition is a complex polygenic trait shaped by multiple environmental and host genetic factors

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Andrew K.; Kelly, Scott A.; Legge, Ryan; Ma, Fangrui; Low, Soo Jen; Kim, Jaehyoung; Zhang, Min; Oh, Phaik Lyn; Nehrenberg, Derrick; Hua, Kunjie; Kachman, Stephen D.; Moriyama, Etsuko N.; Walter, Jens; Peterson, Daniel A.; Pomp, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In vertebrates, including humans, individuals harbor gut microbial communities whose species composition and relative proportions of dominant microbial groups are tremendously varied. Although external and stochastic factors clearly contribute to the individuality of the microbiota, the fundamental principles dictating how environmental factors and host genetic factors combine to shape this complex ecosystem are largely unknown and require systematic study. Here we examined factors that affect microbiota composition in a large (n = 645) mouse advanced intercross line originating from a cross between C57BL/6J and an ICR-derived outbred line (HR). Quantitative pyrosequencing of the microbiota defined a core measurable microbiota (CMM) of 64 conserved taxonomic groups that varied quantitatively across most animals in the population. Although some of this variation can be explained by litter and cohort effects, individual host genotype had a measurable contribution. Testing of the CMM abundances for cosegregation with 530 fully informative SNP markers identified 18 host quantitative trait loci (QTL) that show significant or suggestive genome-wide linkage with relative abundances of specific microbial taxa. These QTL affect microbiota composition in three ways; some loci control individual microbial species, some control groups of related taxa, and some have putative pleiotropic effects on groups of distantly related organisms. These data provide clear evidence for the importance of host genetic control in shaping individual microbiome diversity in mammals, a key step toward understanding the factors that govern the assemblages of gut microbiota associated with complex diseases. PMID:20937875

  14. Chemical Genetics Reveals Bacterial and Host Cell Functions Critical for Type IV Effector Translocation by Legionella pneumophila

    PubMed Central

    Charpentier, Xavier; Gabay, Joëlle E.; Reyes, Moraima; Zhu, Jing W.; Weiss, Arthur; Shuman, Howard A.

    2009-01-01

    Delivery of effector proteins is a process widely used by bacterial pathogens to subvert host cell functions and cause disease. Effector delivery is achieved by elaborate injection devices and can often be triggered by environmental stimuli. However, effector export by the L. pneumophila Icm/Dot Type IVB secretion system cannot be detected until the bacterium encounters a target host cell. We used chemical genetics, a perturbation strategy that utilizes small molecule inhibitors, to determine the mechanisms critical for L. pneumophila Icm/Dot activity. From a collection of more than 2,500 annotated molecules we identified specific inhibitors of effector translocation. We found that L. pneumophila effector translocation in macrophages requires host cell factors known to be involved in phagocytosis such as phosphoinositide 3-kinases, actin and tubulin. Moreover, we found that L. pneumophila phagocytosis and effector translocation also specifically require the receptor protein tyrosine phosphate phosphatases CD45 and CD148. We further show that phagocytosis is required to trigger effector delivery unless intimate contact between the bacteria and the host is artificially generated. In addition, real-time analysis of effector translocation suggests that effector export is rate-limited by phagocytosis. We propose a model in which L. pneumophila utilizes phagocytosis to initiate an intimate contact event required for the translocation of pre-synthesized effector molecules. We discuss the need for host cell participation in the initial step of the infection and its implications in the L. pneumophila lifestyle. Chemical genetic screening provides a novel approach to probe the host cell functions and factors involved in host–pathogen interactions. PMID:19578436

  15. Tests for the existence of genetic determination or conditioning in host selection by Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Jimenez, J I; Bown, D N; Rodriguez, M H; Villarreal, C; Loyola, E G; Frederickson, C E

    1992-09-01

    The existence of sympatric populations within Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann with specific host preferences and the question of whether host selection has a genetic basis or is a learned characteristic were investigated. Progeny of wild females collected from corrals or human bait were reared in an insectary. F1 females were fed on a cow or on a human host, allowed to oviposit, and then were released in an experimental hut divided into three compartments. The side rooms occupied by two human or one calf baits were connected by a "funnel-like" cone with the central room in which mosquitoes were released. Females were released at 2000 hours and recaptured the next morning at 0600 hours. A fixed proportion of mosquitoes selected either host (approximately 65% cow and 35% human), irrespective of their parental origin or source of the first blood meal. The data indicate that the existence of cryptic populations with anthropophilic habits is unlikely and that a "learned" host selection also may be ruled out. PMID:1404273

  16. Development of Genetically Modified Chinese Hamster Ovary Host Cells for the Enhancement of Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Expression

    PubMed Central

    Rahimpour, Azam; Ahani, Roshanak; Najaei, Azita; Adeli, Ahmad; Barkhordari, Farzaneh; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most commonly used host system for the expression of high quality recombinant proteins. However, the development of stable, high-yielding CHO cell lines is a major bottleneck in the industrial manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. Therefore, different strategies such as the generation of more efficient expression vectors and establishment of genetically engineered host cells have been employed to increase the efficiency of cell line development. In order to examine the possibility of generating improved CHO host cells, cell line engineering approaches were developed based on ceramide transfer protein (CERT), and X-box binding protein 1s (XBP1s). Methods CHO cells were transfected with CERT S132A, a mutant variant of CERT which is resistant to phosphorylation, or XBP1s expression plasmids, and then stable cell pools were generated. Transient expression of t-PA was examined in engineered cell pools in comparison to un-modified CHO host cells. Results Overexpression of CERT S132A led to the enhancement of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) expression in transient expression by 50%. On the other hand, it was observed that the ectopic expression of the XBP1s, did not improve the t-PA expression level. Conclusion The results obtained in this study indicate successful development of the improved CHO host cells through CERT S132A overexpression. PMID:27547109

  17. Assessment of Host-Associated Genetic Differentiation among Phenotypically Divergent Populations of a Coral-Eating Gastropod across the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Lyza; Miller, Margaret W.; Baums, Iliana B.

    2012-01-01

    Host-associated adaptation is emerging as a potential driver of population differentiation and speciation for marine organisms with major implications for ecosystem structure and function. Coralliophila abbreviata are corallivorous gastropods that live and feed on most of the reef-building corals in the tropical western Atlantic and Caribbean. Populations of C. abbreviata associated with the threatened acroporid corals, Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis, display different behavioral, morphological, demographic, and life-history characteristics than those that inhabit other coral host taxa, indicating that host-specific selective forces may be acting on C. abbreviata. Here, we used newly developed polymorphic microsatellite loci and mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data to assess the population genetic structure, connectivity, and demographic history of C. abbreviata populations from three coral host taxa (A. palmata, Montastraea spp., Mycetophyllia spp.) and six geographic locations across the Caribbean. Analysis of molecular variance provided some evidence of weak and possibly geographically variable host-associated differentiation but no evidence of differentiation among sampling locations or major oceanographic regions, suggesting high gene flow across the Caribbean. Phylogenetic network and Bayesian clustering analyses supported a hypothesis of a single panmictic population as individuals failed to cluster by host or sampling location. Demographic analyses consistently supported a scenario of population expansion during the Pleistocene, a time of major carbonate reef development in the region. Although further study is needed to fully elucidate the interactive effects of host-associated selection and high gene flow in this system, our results have implications for local and regional community interactions and impact of predation on declining coral populations. PMID:23133600

  18. Host Genetic Factors Affect Susceptibility to Norovirus Infections in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Johan; Nitiema, Léon W.; Ouermi, Djeneba; Simpore, Jacques; Svensson, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) constitutes the second most common viral pathogen causing pediatric diarrhea after rotavirus. In Africa, diarrhea is a major health problem in children, and yet few studies have been performed regarding NoV. The association of histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) and susceptibility to NoV infection is well established in Caucasian populations with non-secretors being resistant to many common NoV strains. No study regarding HBGA and NoV susceptibility has yet been performed in Africa. We collected 309 stool and 208 saliva samples from diarrheal children in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; May 2009 to March 2010. NoV was detected using real-time PCR, and genotyped by sequencing. Saliva samples were ABO, Lewis and secretor phenotyped using in house ELISA assays. NoV was detected in 12% (n = 37) of the samples. The genotype diversity was unusually large; overall the 37 positive samples belonged to 14 genotypes. Only children <2 years of age were NoV positive and the GII.4 NoVs were more frequent in the late dry season (Jan-May). NoV infections were observed less in children with the secretor-negative phenotype or blood group A (OR 0.18; p = 0.012 and OR 0.31; p = 0.054; respectively), with two non-secretors infected with genotypes GII.7 and GII.4 respectively. Lewis-negative (Lea−b−) children, representing 32% of the study population, were susceptible to GII, but were not infected with any NoV GI. GII.4 strains preferentially infected children with blood group B whereas secretor-positive children with blood group O were infected with the largest variety of genotypes. This is the first study identifying host genetic factors associated with susceptibility to NoV in an African population, and suggests that while the non-secretor phenotype provides protection; the Lewis b antigen is not necessary for GII infection. PMID:23894502

  19. Cross-species comparisons of host genetic associations with the microbiome.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Julia K; Davenport, Emily R; Waters, Jillian L; Clark, Andrew G; Ley, Ruth E

    2016-04-29

    Recent studies in human populations and mouse models reveal notable congruences in gut microbial taxa whose abundances are partly regulated by host genotype. Host genes associating with these taxa are related to diet sensing, metabolism, and immunity. These broad patterns are further validated in similar studies of nonmammalian microbiomes. The next generation of genome-wide association studies will expand the size of the data sets and refine the microbial phenotypes to fully capture these intriguing signatures of host-microbiome coevolution. PMID:27126034

  20. Increased sampling reveals novel lineages of Entamoeba: consequences of genetic diversity and host specificity for taxonomy and molecular detection.

    PubMed

    Stensvold, C Rune; Lebbad, Marianne; Victory, Emma L; Verweij, Jaco J; Tannich, Egbert; Alfellani, Mohammed; Legarraga, Paulette; Clark, C Graham

    2011-07-01

    To expand the representation for phylogenetic analysis, ten additional complete Entamoeba small-subunit rRNA gene sequences were obtained from humans, non-human primates, cattle and a tortoise. For some novel sequences no corresponding morphological data were available, and we suggest that these organisms should be referred to as ribosomal lineages (RL) rather than being assigned species names at present. To investigate genetic diversity and host specificity of selected Entamoeba species, a total of 91 new partial small subunit rRNA gene sequences were obtained, including 49 from Entamoeba coli, 18 from Entamoeba polecki, and 17 from Entamoeba hartmanni. We propose a new nomenclature for significant variants within established Entamoeba species. Based on current data we propose that the uninucleated-cyst-producing Entamoeba infecting humans is called Entamoeba polecki and divided into four subtypes (ST1-ST4) and that Entamoeba coli is divided into two subtypes (ST1-ST2). New hosts for several species were detected and, while host specificity and genetic diversity of several species remain to be clarified, it is clear that previous reliance on cultivated material has given us a misleading and incomplete picture of variation within the genus Entamoeba. PMID:21295520

  1. Do pathogens reduce genetic diversity of their hosts? Variable effects of sylvatic plague in black-tailed prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Sackett, Loren C; Collinge, Sharon K; Martin, Andrew P

    2013-05-01

    Introduced diseases can cause dramatic declines in-and even the loss of-natural populations. Extirpations may be followed by low recolonization rates, leading to inbreeding and a loss of genetic variation, with consequences on population viability. Conversely, extirpations may create vacant habitat patches that individuals from multiple source populations can colonize, potentially leading to an influx of variation. We tested these alternative hypotheses by sampling 15 colonies in a prairie dog metapopulation during 7 years that encompassed an outbreak of sylvatic plague, providing the opportunity to monitor genetic diversity before, during and after the outbreak. Analysis of nine microsatellite loci revealed that within the metapopulation, there was no change in diversity. However, within extirpated colonies, patterns varied: In half of the colonies, allelic richness after recovery was less than the preplague conditions, and in the other half, richness was greater than the preplague conditions. Finally, analysis of variation within individuals revealed that prairie dogs present in recolonized colonies had higher heterozygosity than those present before plague. We confirmed plague survivorship in six founders; these individuals had significantly higher heterozygosity than expected by chance. Collectively, our results suggest that high immigration rates can maintain genetic variation at a regional scale despite simultaneous extirpations in spatially proximate populations. Thus, virulent diseases may increase genetic diversity of host populations by creating vacant habitats that allow an influx of genetic diversity. Furthermore, even highly virulent diseases may not eliminate individuals randomly; rather, they may selectively remove the most inbred individuals. PMID:23452304

  2. The Integral Role of Genetic Variation in the Evolution of Outcrossing in the Caenorhabditis elegans-Serratia marcescens Host-Parasite System.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Raymond C; Penley, McKenna J; Morran, Levi T

    2016-01-01

    Outcrossing is predicted to facilitate more rapid adaptation than self-fertilization as a result of genetic exchange between genetically variable individuals. Such genetic exchange may increase the efficacy of selection by breaking down Hill-Robertson interference, as well as promoting the maintenance of within-lineage genetic diversity. Experimental studies have demonstrated the selective advantage of outcrossing in novel environments. Here, we assess the specific role of genetic variation in the evolution of outcrossing. We experimentally evolved genetically variable and inbred populations of mixed mating (outcrossing and self-fertilizing) Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes under novel ecological conditions-specifically the presence of the virulent parasite Serratia marcescens. Outcrossing rates increased in genetically variable host populations evolved in the presence of the parasite, whereas parasite exposure in inbred populations resulted in reduced rates of host outcrossing. The host populations with genetic variation also exhibited increased fitness in the presence of the parasite over eight generations, whereas inbred populations did not. This increase in fitness was primarily the result of adaptation to the parasite, rather than recovery from initial inbreeding depression. Therefore, the benefits of outcrossing were only manifested in the presence of genetic variation, and outcrossing was favored over self-fertilization as a result. As predicted, the benefits of outcrossing under novel ecological conditions are a product of genetic exchange between genetically diverse lineages. PMID:27119159

  3. The Integral Role of Genetic Variation in the Evolution of Outcrossing in the Caenorhabditis elegans-Serratia marcescens Host-Parasite System

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Raymond C.; Penley, McKenna J.; Morran, Levi T.

    2016-01-01

    Outcrossing is predicted to facilitate more rapid adaptation than self-fertilization as a result of genetic exchange between genetically variable individuals. Such genetic exchange may increase the efficacy of selection by breaking down Hill-Robertson interference, as well as promoting the maintenance of within-lineage genetic diversity. Experimental studies have demonstrated the selective advantage of outcrossing in novel environments. Here, we assess the specific role of genetic variation in the evolution of outcrossing. We experimentally evolved genetically variable and inbred populations of mixed mating (outcrossing and self-fertilizing) Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes under novel ecological conditions—specifically the presence of the virulent parasite Serratia marcescens. Outcrossing rates increased in genetically variable host populations evolved in the presence of the parasite, whereas parasite exposure in inbred populations resulted in reduced rates of host outcrossing. The host populations with genetic variation also exhibited increased fitness in the presence of the parasite over eight generations, whereas inbred populations did not. This increase in fitness was primarily the result of adaptation to the parasite, rather than recovery from initial inbreeding depression. Therefore, the benefits of outcrossing were only manifested in the presence of genetic variation, and outcrossing was favored over self-fertilization as a result. As predicted, the benefits of outcrossing under novel ecological conditions are a product of genetic exchange between genetically diverse lineages. PMID:27119159

  4. Modelling the dispersal of the two main hosts of the raccoon rabies variant in heterogeneous environments with landscape genetics.

    PubMed

    Rioux Paquette, Sébastien; Talbot, Benoit; Garant, Dany; Mainguy, Julien; Pelletier, Fanie

    2014-08-01

    Predicting the geographic spread of wildlife epidemics requires knowledge about the movement patterns of disease hosts or vectors. The field of landscape genetics provides valuable approaches to study dispersal indirectly, which in turn may be used to understand patterns of disease spread. Here, we applied landscape genetic analyses and spatially explicit models to identify the potential path of raccoon rabies spread in a mesocarnivore community. We used relatedness estimates derived from microsatellite genotypes of raccoons and striped skunks to investigate their dispersal patterns in a heterogeneous landscape composed predominantly of agricultural, forested and residential areas. Samples were collected in an area covering 22 000 km(2) in southern Québec, where the raccoon rabies variant (RRV) was first detected in 2006. Multiple regressions on distance matrices revealed that genetic distance among male raccoons was strictly a function of geographic distance, while dispersal in female raccoons was significantly reduced by the presence of agricultural fields. In skunks, our results suggested that dispersal is increased in edge habitats between fields and forest fragments in both males and females. Resistance modelling allowed us to identify likely dispersal corridors used by these two rabies hosts, which may prove especially helpful for surveillance and control (e.g. oral vaccination) activities. PMID:25469156

  5. Modelling the dispersal of the two main hosts of the raccoon rabies variant in heterogeneous environments with landscape genetics

    PubMed Central

    Rioux Paquette, Sébastien; Talbot, Benoit; Garant, Dany; Mainguy, Julien; Pelletier, Fanie

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the geographic spread of wildlife epidemics requires knowledge about the movement patterns of disease hosts or vectors. The field of landscape genetics provides valuable approaches to study dispersal indirectly, which in turn may be used to understand patterns of disease spread. Here, we applied landscape genetic analyses and spatially explicit models to identify the potential path of raccoon rabies spread in a mesocarnivore community. We used relatedness estimates derived from microsatellite genotypes of raccoons and striped skunks to investigate their dispersal patterns in a heterogeneous landscape composed predominantly of agricultural, forested and residential areas. Samples were collected in an area covering 22 000 km2 in southern Québec, where the raccoon rabies variant (RRV) was first detected in 2006. Multiple regressions on distance matrices revealed that genetic distance among male raccoons was strictly a function of geographic distance, while dispersal in female raccoons was significantly reduced by the presence of agricultural fields. In skunks, our results suggested that dispersal is increased in edge habitats between fields and forest fragments in both males and females. Resistance modelling allowed us to identify likely dispersal corridors used by these two rabies hosts, which may prove especially helpful for surveillance and control (e.g. oral vaccination) activities. PMID:25469156

  6. Fecal source tracking in water by next-generation sequencing technologies using host-specific Escherichia coli genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Gomi, Ryota; Matsuda, Tomonari; Matsui, Yasuto; Yoneda, Minoru

    2014-08-19

    High levels of fecal bacteria are a concern for the aquatic environment, and identifying sources of those bacteria is important for mitigating fecal pollution and preventing waterborne disease. Escherichia coli has been used as an indicator of fecal pollution, however less success has been achieved using this organism for library-independent microbial source tracking. In this study, using next-generation sequencing technology we sequenced the whole genomes of 22 E. coli isolates from known sources (9 from humans, 2 from cows, 6 from pigs, and 5 from chickens) and identified candidate host-specific genomic regions. Specificity testing on the candidate regions was performed using 30 E. coli isolates from each source. Finally, we identified 4 human-, 2 cow-, 3 pig-, and 4 chicken-specific genetic markers useful for source tracking. We also found that a combination of multiplex PCR and dual index sequencing is effective for detecting multiple genetic markers in multiple isolates at one time. This technique was applied to investigating identified genetic markers in 549 E. coli isolates obtained from the Yamato River, Japan. Results indicate that humans constitute a major source of water contamination in the river. However, further work must include isolates obtained from geographically diverse animal hosts to make this method more reliable. PMID:25055157

  7. Trees to treehoppers: genetic variation in host plants contributes to variation in the mating signals of a plant-feeding insect.

    PubMed

    Rebar, Darren; Rodríguez, Rafael L

    2014-02-01

    Community genetics research has demonstrated 'bottom-up' effects of genetic variation within a plant species in shaping the larger community with which it interacts, such as compositions of arthropod faunas. We demonstrate that such cross-trophic interactions also influence sexually selected traits. We used a member of the Enchenopa binotata species complex of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) to ask whether male mating signals are influenced by host plant genetic variation. We reared a random sample of the treehoppers on potted replicates of a sample of host plant clone lines. We found that treehopper male signals varied according to the clone line on which they developed, showing that genetic variation in host plants affects male treehoppers' behavioural phenotypes. This is the first demonstration of cross-trophic indirect genetic effects on a sexually selected trait. We discuss how such effects may play an important role in the maintenance of variation and within-population phenotypic differentiation, thereby promoting evolutionary divergence. PMID:24350855

  8. First detection of Sarcoptes scabiei from domesticated pig (Sus scrofa) and genetic characterization of S. scabiei from pet, farm and wild hosts in Israel.

    PubMed

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Pozzi, Paolo S; Bouznach, Arieli; Shkap, Varda

    2015-08-01

    In this report we describe for the first time the detection of Sarcoptes scabiei type suis mites on domestic pigs in Israel and examine its genetic variation compared with S. sabiei from other hosts. Microscopic examination of skin samples from S. scabiei-infested pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) revealed all developmental stages of S. scabiei. To detect genetic differences between S. scabiei from different hosts, samples obtained from pig, rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus), fox (Vulpes vulpes), jackal (Canis aureus) and hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) were compared with GenBank-annotated sequences of three genetic markers. Segments from the following genes were examined: cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), glutathione-S-transferase 1 (GST1), and voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC). COX1 analysis did not show correlation between host preference and genetic identity. However, GST1 and VSSC had a higher percentage of identical sites within S. scabiei type suis sequences, compared with samples from other hosts. Taking into account the limited numbers of GST1 and VSSC sequences available for comparison, this high similarity between sequences of geographically-distant, but host-related populations, may suggest that different host preference is at least partially correlated with genetic differences. This finding may help in future studies of the factors that drive host preferences in this parasite. PMID:26002310

  9. Comparison of Genotypes I and III in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Reveals Distinct Differences in Their Genetic and Host Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Han, Na; Adams, James; Chen, Ping; Guo, Zhen-yang; Zhong, Xiang-fu; Fang, Wei; Li, Na; Wen, Lei; Tao, Xiao-yan; Yuan, Zhi-ming

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an arthropod-borne disease associated with the majority of viral encephalitis cases in the Asia-Pacific region. The causative agent, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), has been phylogenetically divided into five genotypes. Recent surveillance data indicate that genotype I (GI) is gradually replacing genotype III (GIII) as the dominant genotype. To investigate the mechanism behind the genotype shift and the potential consequences in terms of vaccine efficacy, human cases, and virus dissemination, we collected (i) all full-length and partial JEV molecular sequences and (ii) associated genotype and host information comprising a data set of 873 sequences. We then examined differences between the two genotypes at the genetic and epidemiological level by investigating amino acid mutations, positive selection, and host range. We found that although GI is dominant, it has fewer sites predicted to be under positive selection, a narrower host range, and significantly fewer human isolates. For the E protein, the sites under positive selection define a haplotype set for each genotype that shows striking differences in their composition and diversity, with GIII showing significantly more variety than GI. Our results suggest that GI has displaced GIII by achieving a replication cycle that is more efficient but is also more restricted in its host range. IMPORTANCE Japanese encephalitis is an arthropod-borne disease associated with the majority of viral encephalitis cases in the Asia-Pacific region. The causative agent, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), has been divided into five genotypes based on sequence similarity. Recent data indicate that genotype I (GI) is gradually replacing genotype III (GIII) as the dominant genotype. Understanding the reasons behind this shift and the potential consequences in terms of vaccine efficacy, human cases, and virus dissemination is important for controlling the spread of the virus and reducing human

  10. Genetic structure of Schistosoma mansoni in western Kenya: the effects of geography and host sharing

    PubMed Central

    Steinauer, M. L.; Hanelt, B.; Agola, L. E.; Mkoji, G. M.; Loker, E. S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the spatial structure of Schistosoma mansoni, a parasite of humans, from natural infections at two levels: across the Lake Victoria basin of Kenya and among snail hosts. Using 20 microsatellite markers we examined geographic patterns of relatedness and population structure of cercariae and found weak, but significant structure detected by some, but not all analyses. We hypothesize structure created by aggregations of clonal individuals or adherence of hosts to local transmission sites is eroded by high amounts of gene flow in the region. This finding also supports previous hypotheses concerning the evolution of drug resistance in the region. Intrasnail dynamics were investigated in the context of aggregation and kin selection theory to determine how relatedness and also sex influence host sharing and host exploitation. Cercarial production did not differ significantly between snails with one or two genotypes suggesting that mixed infections resulted in decreased individual fitness and provides a framework for reproductive competition. Coinfection patterns in snails were independent of parasite relatedness indicating that schistosomes were not aggregated according to their relatedness and that kin selection was not influencing host sharing. Additionally, host exploitation in coinfections (measured by cercarial production) was not negatively correlated with relatedness, as predicted by classical models due to increased competition and thus exploitation when parasites are unrelated. Because of the low levels of relatedness within the population, schistosomes may rarely encounter close relatives and kin selection mechanisms that influence the distribution of individuals within snails or the virulence mode of the parasites may simply have not evolved. PMID:19464296

  11. Understanding phyolgenetic relationships among species in the Nosema/Vairimorpha clade: what does genetic similarity say about host switching in the microsporidia?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsporidian species with high genetic identity based on rDNA phylogenies have been isolated from different insect species and even higher level host taxa across the globe. Complicating the picture, for genera such as the lepidopteran Nosema and Vairimorpha, isolates from different hosts may be mo...

  12. To be or not to be: The host genetic factor and beyond in Helicobacter pylori mediated gastro-duodenal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Datta De, Dipanjana; Roychoudhury, Susanta

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) have long been associated with a spectrum of disease outcomes in the gastro-duodenal system. Heterogeneity in bacterial virulence factors or strains is not enough to explain the divergent disease phenotypes manifested by the infection. This review focuses on host genetic factors that are involved during infection and eventually are thought to influence the disease phenotype. We have summarized the different host genes that have been investigated for association studies in H. pylori mediated duodenal ulcer or gastric cancer. We discuss that as the bacteria co-evolved with the host; these host gene also show much variation across different ethnic population. We illustrate the allelic distribution of interleukin-1B, across different population which is one of the most popular candidate gene studied with respect to H. pylori infections. Further, we highlight that several polymorphisms in the pathway gene can by itself or collectively affect the acid secretion pathway axis (gastrin: somatostatin) thereby resulting in a spectrum of disease phenotype PMID:25780285

  13. Genetic assignment methods for gaining insight into the management of infectious disease by understanding pathogen, vector, and host movement.

    PubMed

    Remais, Justin V; Xiao, Ning; Akullian, Adam; Qiu, Dongchuan; Blair, David

    2011-04-01

    For many pathogens with environmental stages, or those carried by vectors or intermediate hosts, disease transmission is strongly influenced by pathogen, host, and vector movements across complex landscapes, and thus quantitative measures of movement rate and direction can reveal new opportunities for disease management and intervention. Genetic assignment methods are a set of powerful statistical approaches useful for establishing population membership of individuals. Recent theoretical improvements allow these techniques to be used to cost-effectively estimate the magnitude and direction of key movements in infectious disease systems, revealing important ecological and environmental features that facilitate or limit transmission. Here, we review the theory, statistical framework, and molecular markers that underlie assignment methods, and we critically examine recent applications of assignment tests in infectious disease epidemiology. Research directions that capitalize on use of the techniques are discussed, focusing on key parameters needing study for improved understanding of patterns of disease. PMID:21552326

  14. The Distribution of Mobile Genetic Elements (MGEs) in MRSA CC398 Is Associated with Both Host and Country

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Alex J.; Witney, Adam A.; Gould, Katherine A.; Moodley, Arshnee; Guardabassi, Luca; Voss, Andreas; Denis, Olivier; Broens, Els M.; Hinds, Jason; Lindsay, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 398 has emerged from pigs to cause human infections in Europe and North America. We used a new 62-strain S. aureus microarray (SAM-62) to compare genomes of isolates from three geographical areas (Belgium, Denmark, and Netherlands) to understand how CC398 colonizes different mammalian hosts. The core genomes of 44 pig isolates and 32 isolates from humans did not vary. However, mobile genetic element (MGE) distribution was variable including SCCmec. φ3 bacteriophage and human specificity genes (chp, sak, scn) were found in invasive human but not pig isolates. SaPI5 and putative ruminant specificity gene variants (vwb and scn) were common but not pig specific. Virulence and resistance gene carriage was host associated but country specific. We conclude MGE exchange is frequent in CC398 and greatest among populations in close contact. This feature may help determine epidemiological associations among isolates of the same lineage. PMID:21920902

  15. Genetic Diversity and Host Alternation of the Egg Parasitoid Ooencyrtus pityocampae between the Pine Processionary Moth and the Caper Bug

    PubMed Central

    Samra, Shahar; Ghanim, Murad; Protasov, Alex; Branco, Manuela; Mendel, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of molecular tools for species identification in recent decades revealed that each of many apparently generalist parasitoids are actually a complex of morphologically similar congeners, most of which have a rather narrow host range. Ooencyrtus pityocampae (OP), an important egg parasitoid of the pine processionary moth (PPM), is considered a generalist parasitoid. OP emerges from PPM eggs after winter hibernation, mainly in spring and early summer, long before the eggs of the next PPM generation occurs. The occurrence of OP in eggs of the variegated caper bug (CB) Stenozygum coloratum in spring and summer suggests that OP populations alternate seasonally between PPM and CB. However, the identity of OP population on CB eggs seemed uncertain; unlike OP-PPM populations, the former displayed apparently high male/female ratios and lack of attraction to the PPM sex pheromone. We studied the molecular identities of the two populations since the morphological identification of the genus Ooencyrtus, and OP in particular, is difficult. Sequencing of COI and ITS2 DNA fragments and AFLP analysis of individuals from both hosts revealed no apparent differences between the OP-PPM and the OP-CB populations for both the Israeli and the Turkish OPs, which therefore supported the possibility of host alternation. Sequencing data extended our knowledge of the genetic structure of OP populations in the Mediterranean area, and revealed clear separation between East and West Mediterranean populations. The overall level of genetic diversity was rather small, with the Israeli population much less diverse than all others; possible explanations for this finding are discussed. The findings support the possibility of utilizing the CB and other hosts for enhancing biological control of the PPM. PMID:25856082

  16. Abnormalities in the handling of intracellular bacteria in Crohn's disease: a link between infectious etiology and host genetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Anne-Lise; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette

    2008-01-01

    The etiology of Crohn's disease (CD) is still poorly understood, but recent advances have highlighted the importance of the innate immune system and the critical relationship between the gut flora and the intestinal mucosa. Several combinations of genetic factors predisposing to CD have been described, with the most significant replicable associations including genes for intracellular receptors of bacterial cell walls (NOD2/CARD15) and for bacterial clearance and antigen processing via autophagy (ATG16L1 and IRGM). One theoretical link between susceptibility genes NOD2/CARD15, ATG16L1, and IRGM is that CD is primarily induced by the presence of a dysfunctional immunological response to persistent infection by intracellular bacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis or adherent-invasive Escherichia coli, both first-rank candidates on the basis of host genetic susceptibility, which concerns impaired functions in the defense against intracellular bacteria. PMID:18726145

  17. Genetic Drift during Systemic Arbovirus Infection of Mosquito Vectors Leads to Decreased Relative Fitness during Host Switching.

    PubMed

    Grubaugh, Nathan D; Weger-Lucarelli, James; Murrieta, Reyes A; Fauver, Joseph R; Garcia-Luna, Selene M; Prasad, Abhishek N; Black, William C; Ebel, Gregory D

    2016-04-13

    The emergence of mosquito-borne RNA viruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV), is facilitated by genetically complex virus populations within hosts. Here, we determine whether WNV enzootic (Culex tarsalis, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. pipiens) and bridge vectors (Aedes aegypti) have differential impacts on viral mutational diversity and fitness. During systemic mosquito infection, WNV faced stochastic reductions in genetic diversity that rapidly was recovered during intra-tissue population expansions. Interestingly, this intrahost selection and diversification was mosquito species dependent with Cx. tarsalis and Cx. quinquefasciatus exhibiting greater WNV divergence. However, recovered viral populations contained a preponderance of potentially deleterious mutations (i.e., high mutational load) and had lower relative fitness in avian cells compared to input virus. These findings demonstrate that the adaptive potential associated with mosquito transmission varies depending on the mosquito species and carries a significant fitness cost in vertebrates. PMID:27049584

  18. Response of a gall wasp community to genetic variation in the host plant Quercus crispula: a test using half-sib families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masato; Ozaki, Kenichi

    2005-02-01

    The structure of a herbivore community may change consistently along the genetic cline of a host plant, change at particular points along the cline, or respond independently of the cline. To reveal such relationships between a gall wasp community and genetic variation in the host plant Quercus crispula, we examined patterns in the species richness and abundance of gall wasps along a genetic cline of the host plant, using 12 half-sib families from six different regions. The genetic relationships among the half-sib families of Q. crispula were quantified on the basis of leaf morphology, which represented a morphological cline from leaves typical of Q. crispula to leaves resembling another oak species, Q. dentata. The morphological cline could be regarded as a genetic cline caused by a history of hybridization with Q. dentata. The mean numbers of gall types varied among the half-sib families, but did not show a consistent increase or decrease along the genetic cline. This pattern could be explained by the fact that responses to host plant variation differed among the gall wasp species. The half-sib families were classified into three groups based on an ordination analysis of the species composition of the gall wasp community that to some extent also reflected the genetic cline of Q. crispula. This suggests that the species composition of gall wasps changed intermittently along the genetic cline, rather than gradually and consistently along the cline.

  19. Genetic and host-associated differentiation within Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its links to Tomato spotted wilt virus-vector competence.

    PubMed

    Westmore, G C; Poke, F S; Allen, G R; Wilson, C R

    2013-09-01

    Of eight thelytokous populations of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) collected from potato (three populations), onion (four) or Chrysanthemum (one) hosts from various regions of Australia, only those from potato were capable of transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in controlled transmission experiments. Genetic differentiation of seven of these eight populations, and nine others not tested for TSWV vector competence, was examined by comparison of the DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. All Australian populations of T. tabaci grouped within the European 'L2' clade of Brunner et al. (2004). Within this clade the seven populations from potato, the three from onion, and the four from other hosts (Chrysanthemum, Impatiens, lucerne, blackberry nightshade) clustered as three distinct sub-groupings characterised by source host. Geographical source of thrips populations had no influence on genetic diversity. These results link genetic differentiation of thelytokous T. tabaci to source host and to TSWV vector capacity for the first time. PMID:23632893

  20. Genetics of Pathogen Fitness: Correlations with Virulence and Effects of Host Genotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plant pathology, a large body of work has focused on changes in virulence, the traits allowing infection of otherwise resistant hosts, while relatively few studies have examined changes in quantitative fitness traits, those affecting the reproductive success of the pathogen after infection has oc...

  1. Genetic analysis of Phytophthora nicotianae populations from different hosts using microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred thirty-one isolates of P. nicotianae representing 14 populations from different host genera, including agricultural crops (Citrus, Nicotiana, and Lycopersicon), potted ornamental species in nurseries (Lavandula, Convolvulus, Myrtus, Correa and Ruta) and other plant genera of lesser econo...

  2. COMPETITIVE METAGENOMIC DNA HYBRIDIZATION IDENTIFIES HOST-SPECIFIC GENETIC MARKERS IN CATTLE FECAL SAMPLES - ABSTRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several PCR methods have recently been developed to identify fecal contamination in surface waters. In all cases, researchers have relied on one gene or one microorganism for selection of host specific markers. Here, we describe the application of a genome fragment enrichment met...

  3. COMPETITIVE METAGENOMIC DNA HYBRIDIZATION IDENTIFIES HOST-SPECIFIC MICROBIAL GENETIC MARKERS IN COW FECAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several PCR methods have recently been developed to identify fecal contamination in surface waters. In all cases, researchers have relied on one gene or one microorganism for selection of host specific markers. Here, we describe the application of a genome fragment enrichment met...

  4. Solving cryptogenic histories using host and parasite molecular genetics: the resolution of Littorina littorea's North American origin.

    PubMed

    Blakeslee, April M H; Byers, James E; Lesser, Michael P

    2008-08-01

    Even after decades of investigation using multiple sources of evidence, the natural histories of some species remain unclear (i.e. cryptogenic). A key example is Littorina littorea, the most abundant intertidal snail in northeastern North America. Native to Europe, the snail's ecological history in North America has been debated for over 100 years with no definitive resolution. To resolve its cryptogenic status, we used molecular genetics from a novel combination of the snail and a highly associated trematode parasite, Cryptocotyle lingua. Based on mitochondrial sequences of 370 L. littorea and 196 C. lingua individuals, our results demonstrate a significant reduction in genetic diversity in North America vs. Europe, North American haplotypes nested within European haplotypes, and mean divergence estimates of approxiamtely 500 years ago from Europe for both host and parasite--thus supporting a recent introduction of both host and parasite to North America from Europe. Our study therefore resolves not only a specific cryptogenic history, but it also demonstrates the success of our approach generally and could be used in resolving difficult invasion histories worldwide. PMID:18643882

  5. Host genetic determinants of microbiota-dependent nutrition revealed by genome-wide analysis of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Adam J.; Chaston, John M.; Newell, Peter D.; Donahue, Leanne; Hermann, Sara L.; Sannino, David R.; Westmiller, Stephanie; Wong, Adam C.-N.; Clark, Andrew G.; Lazzaro, Brian P.; Douglas, Angela E.

    2015-01-01

    Animals bear communities of gut microorganisms with substantial effects on animal nutrition, but the host genetic basis of these effects is unknown. Here, we use Drosophila to demonstrate substantial among-genotype variation in the effects of eliminating the gut microbiota on five host nutritional indices (weight, and protein, lipid, glucose and glycogen contents); this includes variation in both the magnitude and direction of microbiota-dependent effects. Genome-wide associations to identify the genetic basis of the microbiota-dependent variation reveal polymorphisms in largely non-overlapping sets of genes associated with variation in the nutritional traits, including strong representation of conserved genes functioning in signaling. Key genes identified by the GWA study are validated by loss-of-function mutations that altered microbiota-dependent nutritional effects. We conclude that the microbiota interacts with the animal at multiple points in the signaling and regulatory networks that determine animal nutrition. These interactions with the microbiota are likely conserved across animals, including humans. PMID:25692519

  6. When History Repeats Itself: Exploring the Genetic Architecture of Host-Plant Adaptation in Two Closely Related Lepidopteran Species

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Hermine; Ponsard, Sergine; Bourguet, Denis; Vitalis, Renaud; Audiot, Philippe; Cros-Arteil, Sandrine; Streiff, Réjane

    2013-01-01

    The genus Ostrinia includes two allopatric maize pests across Eurasia, namely the European corn borer (ECB, O. nubilalis) and the Asian corn borer (ACB, O. furnacalis). A third species, the Adzuki bean borer (ABB, O. scapulalis), occurs in sympatry with both the ECB and the ACB. The ABB mostly feeds on native dicots, which probably correspond to the ancestral host plant type for the genus Ostrinia. This situation offers the opportunity to characterize the two presumably independent adaptations or preadaptations to maize that occurred in the ECB and ACB. In the present study, we aimed at deciphering the genetic architecture of these two adaptations to maize, a monocot host plant recently introduced into Eurasia. To this end, we performed a genome scan analysis based on 684 AFLP markers in 12 populations of ECB, ACB and ABB. We detected 2 outlier AFLP loci when comparing French populations of the ECB and ABB, and 9 outliers when comparing Chinese populations of the ACB and ABB. These outliers were different in both countries, and we found no evidence of linkage disequilibrium between any two of them. These results suggest that adaptation or preadaptation to maize relies on a different genetic architecture in the ECB and ACB. However, this conclusion must be considered in light of the constraints inherent to genome scan approaches and of the intricate evolution of adaptation and reproductive isolation in the Ostrinia spp. complex. PMID:23874914

  7. Integrating High-Content Imaging and Chemical Genetics to Probe Host Cellular Pathways Critical for Yersinia Pestis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Krishna P.; Eaton, Brett; Lane, Douglas; Ulrich, Melanie; Ulrich, Ricky; Peyser, Brian D.; Robinson, Camenzind G.; Jaissle, James G.; Pegoraro, Gianluca; Bavari, Sina; Panchal, Rekha G.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular machinery that regulates the entry and survival of Yersinia pestis in host macrophages is poorly understood. Here, we report the development of automated high-content imaging assays to quantitate the internalization of virulent Y. pestis CO92 by macrophages and the subsequent activation of host NF-κB. Implementation of these assays in a focused chemical screen identified kinase inhibitors that inhibited both of these processes. Rac-2-ethoxy-3 octadecanamido-1-propylphosphocholine (a protein Kinase C inhibitor), wortmannin (a PI3K inhibitor), and parthenolide (an IκB kinase inhibitor), inhibited pathogen-induced NF-κB activation and reduced bacterial entry and survival within macrophages. Parthenolide inhibited NF-κB activation in response to stimulation with Pam3CSK4 (a TLR2 agonist), E. coli LPS (a TLR4 agonist) or Y. pestis infection, while the PI3K and PKC inhibitors were selective only for Y. pestis infection. Together, our results suggest that phagocytosis is the major stimulus for NF-κB activation in response to Y. pestis infection, and that Y. pestis entry into macrophages may involve the participation of protein kinases such as PI3K and PKC. More importantly, the automated image-based screening platform described here can be applied to the study of other bacteria in general and, in combination with chemical genetic screening, can be used to identify host cell functions facilitating the identification of novel antibacterial therapeutics. PMID:23383093

  8. Genetic divergence along the speciation continuum: the transition from host race to species in rhagoletis (Diptera: tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Powell, Thomas H Q; Hood, Glen R; Murphy, Mason O; Heilveil, Jeffrey S; Berlocher, Stewart H; Nosil, Patrik; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2013-09-01

    Studies of related populations varying in their degrees of reproductive isolation can provide insights into speciation. Here, the transition from partially isolated host races to more fully separated sibling species is investigated by comparing patterns of genetic differentiation between recently evolved (∼150 generations) apple and ancestral hawthorn-infesting populations of Rhagoletis pomonella to their sister taxon, the undescribed flowering dogwood fly attacking Cornus florida. No fixed or diagnostic private alleles differentiating the three populations were found at any of 23 microsatellites and 10 allozymes scored. Nevertheless, allele frequency differences were sufficient across loci for flowering dogwood fly populations from multiple localities to form a diagnosable genotypic cluster distinct from apple and hawthorn flies, indicative of species status. Genome-wide patterns of differentiation were correlated between the host races and species pair comparisons along the majority of chromosomes, suggesting that similar disruptive selection pressures affect most loci. However, differentiation was more pronounced, with some additional regions showing elevated divergence, for the species pair comparison. Our results imply that Rhagoletis sibling species such as the flowering dogwood fly represent host races writ large, with the transition to species status primarily resulting from increased divergence of the same regions separating apple and hawthorn flies. PMID:24033167

  9. A genetic system for Citrus Tristeza Virus using the non-natural host Nicotiana benthamiana: an update

    PubMed Central

    Ambrós, Silvia; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Peña, Leandro; Moreno, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    In nature Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), genus Closterovirus, infects only the phloem cells of species of Citrus and related genera. Finding that the CTV T36 strain replicated in Nicotiana benthamiana (NB) protoplasts and produced normal virions allowed development of the first genetic system based on protoplast transfection with RNA transcribed from a full-genome cDNA clone, a laborious and uncertain system requiring several months for each experiment. We developed a more efficient system based on agroinfiltration of NB leaves with CTV-T36-based binary plasmids, which caused systemic infection in this non-natural host within a few weeks yielding in the upper leaves enough CTV virions to readily infect citrus by slash inoculation. Stem agroinoculation of citrus and NB plants with oncogenic strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying a CTV-T36 binary vector with a GUS marker, induced GUS positive galls in both species. However, while most NB tumors were CTV positive and many plants became systemically infected, no coat protein or viral RNA was detected in citrus tumors, even though CTV cDNA was readily detected by PCR in the same galls. This finding suggests (1) strong silencing or CTV RNA processing in transformed cells impairing infection progress, and (2) the need for using NB as an intermediate host in the genetic system. To maintain CTV-T36 in NB or assay other CTV genotypes in this host, we also tried to graft-transmit the virus from infected to healthy NB, or to mechanically inoculate NB leaves with virion extracts. While these trials were mostly unsuccessful on non-treated NB plants, agroinfiltration with silencing suppressors enabled for the first time infecting NB plants by side-grafting and by mechanical inoculation with virions, indicating that previous failure to infect NB was likely due to virus silencing in early infection steps. Using NB as a CTV host provides new possibilities to study virus-host interactions with a simple and reliable system. PMID

  10. Genetic structure of Aegilops cylindrica Host in its native range and in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Harish T; Vales, M Isabel; Mallory-Smith, Carol; Riera-Lizarazu, Oscar

    2009-10-01

    Chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite markers were used to study genetic diversity and genetic structure of Aegilops cylindrica Host collected in its native range and in adventive sites in the USA. Our analysis suggests that Ae. cylindrica, an allotetraploid, arose from multiple hybridizations between Ae. markgrafii (Greuter) Hammer. and Ae. tauschii Coss. presumably along the Fertile Crescent, where the geographic distributions of its diploid progenitors overlap. However, the center of genetic diversity of this species now encompasses a larger area including northern Iraq, eastern Turkey, and Transcaucasia. Although the majority of accessions of Ae. cylindrica (87%) had D-type plastomes derived from Ae. tauschii, accessions with C-type plastomes (13%), derived from Ae. markgrafii, were also observed. This corroborates a previous study suggesting the dimaternal origin of Ae. cylindrica. Model-based and genetic distance-based clustering using both chloroplast and nuclear markers indicated that Ae. tauschii ssp. tauschii contributed one of its D-type plastomes and its D genome to Ae. cylindrica. Analysis of genetic structure using nuclear markers suggested that Ae. cylindrica accessions could be grouped into three subpopulations (arbitrarily named N-K1, N-K2, and N-K3). Members of the N-K1 subpopulation were the most numerous in its native range and members of the N-K2 subpopulation were the most common in the USA. Our analysis also indicated that Ae. cylindrica accessions in the USA were derived from a few founder genotypes. The frequency of Ae. cylindrica accessions with the C-type plastome in the USA (approximately 24%) was substantially higher than in its native range of distribution (approximately 3%) and all C-type Ae. cylindrica in the USA except one belonged to subpopulation N-K2. The high frequency of the C-type plastome in the USA may reflect a favorable nucleo-cytoplasmic combination. PMID:19618161

  11. Environmental Mapping of Paracoccidioides spp. in Brazil Reveals New Clues into Genetic Diversity, Biogeography and Wild Host Association

    PubMed Central

    Arantes, Thales Domingos; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii are the etiological agents of Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), and are easily isolated from human patients. However, due to human migration and a long latency period, clinical isolates do not reflect the spatial distribution of these pathogens. Molecular detection of P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii from soil, as well as their isolation from wild animals such as armadillos, are important for monitoring their environmental and geographical distribution. This study aimed to detect and, for the first time, evaluate the genetic diversity of P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii for Paracoccidioidomycosis in endemic and non-endemic areas of the environment, by using Nested PCR and in situ hybridization techniques. Methods/Principal Findings Aerosol (n = 16) and soil (n = 34) samples from armadillo burrows, as well as armadillos (n = 7) were collected in endemic and non-endemic areas of PCM in the Southeastern, Midwestern and Northern regions of Brazil. Both P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii were detected in soil (67.5%) and aerosols (81%) by PCR of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region (60%), and also by in situ hybridization (83%). Fungal isolation from armadillo tissues was not possible. Sequences from both species of P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii were detected in all regions. In addition, we identified genetic Paracoccidioides variants in soil and aerosol samples which have never been reported before in clinical or armadillo samples, suggesting greater genetic variability in the environment than in vertebrate hosts. Conclusions/Significance Data may reflect the actual occurrence of Paracoccidioides species in their saprobic habitat, despite their absence/non-detection in seven armadillos evaluated in regions with high prevalence of PCM infection by P. lutzii. These results may indicate a possible ecological difference between P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii concerning their wild hosts. PMID:27045486

  12. IMPROVING PLANT GENETIC ENGINEERING BY MANIPULATING THE HOST. (R829479C001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a major technique for the genetic engineering of plants. However, there are many economically important crop and tree species that remain highly recalcitrant to Agrobacterium infection. Although attempts have been made to ...

  13. Genetic Diversity of Spiroplasma citri strains from Different Regions, Hosts, and Isolation Dates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited, leafhopper-transmitted pathogen, causes citrus stubborn disease (CSD). Losses due to CSD in California orchards has grown over the past decade. To investigate the possibility of introduction or emergence of a new spiroplasma strain, a study of genetic diversity ...

  14. Comparative genomics of Campylobacter iguaniorum to unravel genetic regions associated with reptilian hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is genetically related to the species C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, and C. lanienae. Reptiles, chelonians and lizards in particular, appear to be the primary reservoir of this Campylobacter species. Here we report the genome comparison of C. iguaniorum strain 1485E, isolated...

  15. Genetic and Phenotypic Variation of FMDV During Serial Passages in a Natural Host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) exhibits high mutation rates during replication that have been suggested to be of adaptive value. However, even though genetic variation in RNA viruses has been extensively examined during virus replication in a wide variety of in vitro cell cultures, very little ...

  16. Genetic Variability of Stolbur Phytoplasma in Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) and its Main Host Plants in Vineyard Agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Landi, Lucia; Riolo, Paola; Murolo, Sergio; Romanazzi, Gianfranco; Nardi, Sandro; Isidoro, Nunzio

    2015-08-01

    Bois noir is an economically important grapevine yellows that is induced by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' and principally vectored by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). This study explores the 'Ca. P. solani' genetic variability associated to the nettle-H. obsoletus and bindweed-H. obsoletus systems in vineyard agroecosystems of the central-eastern Italy. Molecular characterization of 'Ca. P. solani' isolates was carried out using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism to investigate the nonribosomal vmp1 gene. Seven phytoplasma vmp-types were detected among the host plants- and insect-associated field-collected samples. The vmp1 gene showed the highest polymorphism in the bindweed-H. obsoletus system, according to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, which is in agreement with nucleotide sequence analysis. Five vmp-types were associated with H. obsoletus from bindweed, of which one was solely restricted to planthoppers, with one genotype also in planthoppers from nettle. Type V12 was the most prevalent in both planthoppers and bindweed. H. obsoletus from nettle harbored three vmp-types, of which V3 was predominant. V3 was the only type detected for nettle. Our data demonstrate that planthoppers might have acquired some 'Ca. P. solani' profiles from other plant hosts before landing on nettle or bindweed. Overall, the different vmp1 gene rearrangements observed in these two plant hosts-H. obsoletus systems might represent different adaptations of the pathogen to the two host plants. Molecular information about the complex of vmp-types provides useful data for better understanding of Bois noir epidemiology in vineyard agroecosystem. PMID:26470289

  17. Genetic Diversity and Host Specificity Varies across Three Genera of Blood Parasites in Ducks of the Pacific Americas Flyway

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Andrew B.; Smith, Mathew M.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Fleskes, Joseph P; Ramey, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Birds of the order Anseriformes, commonly referred to as waterfowl, are frequently infected by Haemosporidia of the genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon via dipteran vectors. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the Cytochrome b (Cytb) gene from parasites of these genera detected in six species of ducks from Alaska and California, USA to characterize the genetic diversity of Haemosporidia infecting waterfowl at two ends of the Pacific Americas Flyway. In addition, parasite Cytb sequences were compared to those available on a public database to investigate specificity of genetic lineages to hosts of the order Anseriformes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of Haemoproteus Cytb sequences was lower than was detected for Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon parasites. Although waterfowl are presumed to be infected by only a single species of Leucocytozoon, L. simondi, diversity indices were highest for haplotypes from this genus and sequences formed five distinct clades separated by genetic distances of 4.9%–7.6%, suggesting potential cryptic speciation. All Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon haplotypes derived from waterfowl samples formed monophyletic clades in phylogenetic analyses and were unique to the order Anseriformes with few exceptions. In contrast, waterfowl-origin Plasmodium haplotypes were identical or closely related to lineages found in other avian orders. Our results suggest a more generalist strategy for Plasmodium parasites infecting North American waterfowl as compared to those of the genera Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon. PMID:25710468

  18. No Major Host Genetic Risk Factor Contributed to A(H1N1)2009 Influenza Severity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Bracho, María Alma; Galán, Juan Carlos; Pumarola, Tomàs; Castilla, Jesús; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Rodríguez-Dominguez, Mario; Quintela, Inés; Bonet, Núria; Garcia-Garcerà, Marc; Domínguez, Angela; González-Candelas, Fernando; Calafell, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    While most patients affected by the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic experienced mild symptoms, a small fraction required hospitalization, often without concomitant factors that could explain such a severe course. We hypothesize that host genetic factors could contribute to aggravate the disease. To test this hypothesis, we compared the allele frequencies of 547,296 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between 49 severe and 107 mild confirmed influenza A cases, as well as against a general population sample of 549 individuals. When comparing severe vs. mild influenza A cases, only one SNP was close to the conventional p = 5×10-8. This SNP, rs28454025, sits in an intron of the GSK233 gene, which is involved in a neural development, but seems not to have any connections with immunological or inflammatory functions. Indirectly, a previous association reported with CD55 was replicated. Although sample sizes are low, we show that the statistical power in our design was sufficient to detect highly-penetrant, quasi-Mendelian genetic factors. Hence, and assuming that rs28454025 is likely to be a false positive, no major genetic factor was detected that could explain poor influenza A course. PMID:26379185

  19. No Major Host Genetic Risk Factor Contributed to A(H1N1)2009 Influenza Severity

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Bracho, María Alma; Galán, Juan Carlos; Pumarola, Tomàs; Castilla, Jesús; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Rodríguez-Dominguez, Mario; Quintela, Inés; Bonet, Núria; Garcia-Garcerà, Marc; Domínguez, Angela; González-Candelas, Fernando; Calafell, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    While most patients affected by the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic experienced mild symptoms, a small fraction required hospitalization, often without concomitant factors that could explain such a severe course. We hypothesize that host genetic factors could contribute to aggravate the disease. To test this hypothesis, we compared the allele frequencies of 547,296 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between 49 severe and 107 mild confirmed influenza A cases, as well as against a general population sample of 549 individuals. When comparing severe vs. mild influenza A cases, only one SNP was close to the conventional p = 5×10−8. This SNP, rs28454025, sits in an intron of the GSK233 gene, which is involved in a neural development, but seems not to have any connections with immunological or inflammatory functions. Indirectly, a previous association reported with CD55 was replicated. Although sample sizes are low, we show that the statistical power in our design was sufficient to detect highly-penetrant, quasi-Mendelian genetic factors. Hence, and assuming that rs28454025 is likely to be a false positive, no major genetic factor was detected that could explain poor influenza A course. PMID:26379185

  20. Correlations between the ages of Alnus host species and the genetic diversity of associated endosymbiotic Frankia strains from nodules.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yumei; Zhang, Chenggang; Xiong, Zhi; Zhang, Zhongze

    2005-05-01

    Nodule samples were collected from four alder species: Alnus nepalensis, A. sibirica, A. tinctoria and A. mandshurica growing in different environments on Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan Province of Southwest China and on Changbai Mountains, Jilin Province of Northeast China. PCR-RFLP analysis of the IGS between nifD and nifK genes was directly applied to uncultured Frankia strains in the nodules. A total of 21 restriction patterns were obtained. The Frankia population in the nodules of A. nepalensis had the highest genetic diversity among all four Frankia populations; by contrast, the population in the nodules of A. mandshurica had the lowest degree of divergence; the ones in the nodules of A. sibirica and A. tinctoria were intermediate. A dendrogram, which was constructed based on the genetic distance between the restriction patterns, indicated that Frankia strains from A. sibirica and A. tinctoria had a close genetic relationship. Frankia strains from A. nepalensis might be the ancestor of Frankia strains infecting other Alnus species. From these results and the inference of the ages of Alnus host species, it is deduced that there was a co-evolution between Alnus and its microsymbiont Frankia in China. PMID:16089332

  1. A genetically novel, narrow-host-range isolate of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from rosemary.

    PubMed

    Tepfer, Mark; Girardot, Gregory; Fénéant, Lucie; Ben Tamarzizt, Hana; Verdin, Eric; Moury, Benoît; Jacquemond, Mireille

    2016-07-01

    An isolate of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), designated CMV-Rom, was isolated from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) plants in several locations near Avignon, France. Laboratory studies showed that, unlike typical CMV isolates, CMV-Rom has a particularly narrow host range. It could be transmitted by aphids Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae, but with low efficacy compared to a typical CMV isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the CMV-Rom genomic RNAs shows that this isolate does not belong to any of the previously described CMV subgroups, IA, IB, II or III. PMID:27138549

  2. Genetic variation of eggplant mottled dwarf virus from annual and perennial plant hosts.

    PubMed

    Pappi, Polyxeni G; Maliogka, Varvara I; Amoutzias, Gregory D; Katis, Nikolaos I

    2016-03-01

    The genetic diversity of eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV), a member of the family Rhabdoviridae, was studied using isolates collected from different herbaceous and woody plant species and remote geographic areas. Sequences corresponding to the N, X, P, Y, M and G ORFs as well as the untranslated regions (UTRs) between ORFs were determined from all isolates. Low genetic diversity was found in almost all genomic regions studied except for the X ORF and the UTRs, which were more variable, while interestingly, an EMDV isolate from caper possessed a truncated G gene sequence. Furthermore, low d N /d S ratios, indicative of purifying selection, were calculated for all genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the EMDV isolates clustered in three distinct subgroups based on their geographical origin, with the exception of one subgroup that consisted of isolates from northern Greece and Cyprus. Overall, the level of genetic diversity of EMDV differed between seed- and asexually propagated plants in our collection, and this could be related to the mode of transmission. PMID:26660163

  3. Spatio-temporal Analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Arctic Rabies Viruses and Their Reservoir Hosts in Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, Dennis; Freuling, Conrad M.; Fischer, Susanne; Hueffer, Karsten; Hundertmark, Kris; Nadin-Davis, Susan; Marston, Denise; Fooks, Anthony R.; Bøtner, Anette; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Beer, Martin; Rasmussen, Thomas B.; Müller, Thomas F.; Höper, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    There has been limited knowledge on spatio-temporal epidemiology of zoonotic arctic fox rabies among countries bordering the Arctic, in particular Greenland. Previous molecular epidemiological studies have suggested the occurrence of one particular arctic rabies virus (RABV) lineage (arctic-3), but have been limited by a low number of available samples preventing in-depth high resolution phylogenetic analysis of RABVs at that time. However, an improved knowledge of the evolution, at a molecular level, of the circulating RABVs and a better understanding of the historical perspective of the disease in Greenland is necessary for better direct control measures on the island. These issues have been addressed by investigating the spatio-temporal genetic diversity of arctic RABVs and their reservoir host, the arctic fox, in Greenland using both full and partial genome sequences. Using a unique set of 79 arctic RABV full genome sequences from Greenland, Canada, USA (Alaska) and Russia obtained between 1977 and 2014, a description of the historic context in relation to the genetic diversity of currently circulating RABV in Greenland and neighboring Canadian Northern territories has been provided. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed delineation into four major arctic RABV lineages (arctic 1–4) with viruses from Greenland exclusively grouping into the circumpolar arctic-3 lineage. High resolution analysis enabled distinction of seven geographically distinct subclades (3.I – 3.VII) with two subclades containing viruses from both Greenland and Canada. By combining analysis of full length RABV genome sequences and host derived sequences encoding mitochondrial proteins obtained simultaneously from brain tissues of 49 arctic foxes, the interaction of viruses and their hosts was explored in detail. Such an approach can serve as a blueprint for analysis of infectious disease dynamics and virus-host interdependencies. The results showed a fine-scale spatial population structure

  4. Spatio-temporal Analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Arctic Rabies Viruses and Their Reservoir Hosts in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Dennis; Freuling, Conrad M; Fischer, Susanne; Hueffer, Karsten; Hundertmark, Kris; Nadin-Davis, Susan; Marston, Denise; Fooks, Anthony R; Bøtner, Anette; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Beer, Martin; Rasmussen, Thomas B; Müller, Thomas F; Höper, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    There has been limited knowledge on spatio-temporal epidemiology of zoonotic arctic fox rabies among countries bordering the Arctic, in particular Greenland. Previous molecular epidemiological studies have suggested the occurrence of one particular arctic rabies virus (RABV) lineage (arctic-3), but have been limited by a low number of available samples preventing in-depth high resolution phylogenetic analysis of RABVs at that time. However, an improved knowledge of the evolution, at a molecular level, of the circulating RABVs and a better understanding of the historical perspective of the disease in Greenland is necessary for better direct control measures on the island. These issues have been addressed by investigating the spatio-temporal genetic diversity of arctic RABVs and their reservoir host, the arctic fox, in Greenland using both full and partial genome sequences. Using a unique set of 79 arctic RABV full genome sequences from Greenland, Canada, USA (Alaska) and Russia obtained between 1977 and 2014, a description of the historic context in relation to the genetic diversity of currently circulating RABV in Greenland and neighboring Canadian Northern territories has been provided. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed delineation into four major arctic RABV lineages (arctic 1-4) with viruses from Greenland exclusively grouping into the circumpolar arctic-3 lineage. High resolution analysis enabled distinction of seven geographically distinct subclades (3.I - 3.VII) with two subclades containing viruses from both Greenland and Canada. By combining analysis of full length RABV genome sequences and host derived sequences encoding mitochondrial proteins obtained simultaneously from brain tissues of 49 arctic foxes, the interaction of viruses and their hosts was explored in detail. Such an approach can serve as a blueprint for analysis of infectious disease dynamics and virus-host interdependencies. The results showed a fine-scale spatial population structure in

  5. Lack of population genetic structure and host specificity in the bat fly, Cyclopodia horsfieldi, across species of Pteropus bats in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Population-level studies of parasites have the potential to elucidate patterns of host movement and cross-species interactions that are not evident from host genealogy alone. Bat flies are obligate and generally host-specific blood-feeding parasites of bats. Old-World flies in the family Nycteribiidae are entirely wingless and depend on their hosts for long-distance dispersal; their population genetics has been unstudied to date. Methods We collected a total of 125 bat flies from three Pteropus species (Pteropus vampyrus, P. hypomelanus, and P. lylei) from eight localities in Malaysia, Cambodia, and Vietnam. We identified specimens morphologically and then sequenced three mitochondrial DNA gene fragments (CoI, CoII, cytB; 1744 basepairs total) from a subset of 45 bat flies. We measured genetic diversity, molecular variance, and population genetic subdivision (FST), and used phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses to quantify parasite genetic structure across host species and localities. Results All flies were identified as Cyclopodia horsfieldi with the exception of two individuals of Eucampsipoda sundaica. Low levels of population genetic structure were detected between populations of Cyclopodia horsfieldi from across a wide geographic range (~1000 km), and tests for isolation by distance were rejected. AMOVA results support a lack of geographic and host-specific population structure, with molecular variance primarily partitioned within populations. Pairwise FST values from flies collected from island populations of Pteropus hypomelanus in East and West Peninsular Malaysia supported predictions based on previous studies of host genetic structure. Conclusions The lack of population genetic structure and morphological variation observed in Cyclopodia horsfieldi is most likely due to frequent contact between flying fox species and subsequent high levels of parasite gene flow. Specifically, we suggest that Pteropus vampyrus may facilitate movement of

  6. Differences in straggling rates between two genera of dove lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) reinforce population genetic and cophylogenetic patterns.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Noah Kerness; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Johnson, Kevin P; Parker, Patricia G

    2004-09-01

    Differences in dispersal abilities have been implicated for causing disparate evolutionary patterns between Columbicola and Physconelloides lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera). However, no study has documented straggling (when lice are found on atypical hosts) rates within these lineages. We used the fact that the Galapagos Hawk, Buteo galapagoensis (Gould) (Falconiformes) feeds on the Galapagos Dove Zenaida galapagoensis Gould (Columbiformes) within an ecologically simplified setting. The Galapagos Dove is the only typical host of Columbicola macrourae (Wilson) and Physconelloides galapagensis (Kellogg and Huwana) in Galapagos. We quantitatively sampled and found these lice on both bird species. A DNA barcoding approach confirmed that stragglers were derived from Galapagos doves. We also collected a Bovicola sp. louse, likely originating from a goat (Capra hircus). On hawks, C. macrourae was significantly more prevalent than P. galapagensis. On doves, the two lice were equally prevalent and abundant. Differences in prevalence on hawks was a function of differences in straggling rate between lice, and not a reflection of their relative representation within the dove population. This provides further evidence that differences in dispersal abilities may drive differences in the degree of cospeciation in Columbicola and Phyconelloides lice, which have become model systems in evolutionary biology. PMID:15380682

  7. Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals the Virulence and Environmental Genetic Programs of Vibrio vulnificus Exposed to Host and Estuarine Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Tiffany C.; Blackman, Elliot R.; Morrison, Shatavia S.; Gibas, Cynthia J.; Oliver, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a natural inhabitant of estuarine waters worldwide and is of medical relevance due to its ability to cause grievous wound infections and/or fatal septicemia. Genetic polymorphisms within the virulence-correlated gene (vcg) serve as a primary feature to distinguish clinical (C-) genotypes from environmental (E-) genotypes. C-genotypes demonstrate superior survival in human serum relative to E-genotypes, and genome comparisons have allowed for the identification of several putative virulence factors that could potentially aid C-genotypes in disease progression. We used RNA sequencing to analyze the transcriptome of C-genotypes exposed to human serum relative to seawater, which revealed two divergent genetic programs under these two conditions. In human serum, cells displayed a distinct “virulence profile” in which a number of putative virulence factors were upregulated, including genes involved in intracellular signaling, substrate binding and transport, toxin and exoenzyme production, and the heat shock response. Conversely, the “environmental profile” exhibited by cells in seawater revealed upregulation of transcription factors such as rpoS, rpoN, and iscR, as well as genes involved in intracellular signaling, chemotaxis, adherence, and biofilm formation. This dichotomous genetic switch appears to be largely governed by cyclic-di-GMP signaling, and remarkably resembles the dual life-style of V. cholerae as it transitions from host to environment. Furthermore, we found a “general stress response” module, known as the stressosome, to be upregulated in seawater. This signaling system has been well characterized in Gram-positive bacteria, however its role in V. vulnificus is not clear. We examined temporal gene expression patterns of the stressosome and found it to be upregulated in natural estuarine waters indicating that this system plays a role in sensing and responding to the environment. This study advances our understanding of

  8. Beneficial bacteria stimulate host immune cells to counteract dietary and genetic predisposition to mammary cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Lakritz, Jessica R; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Levkovich, Tatiana; Varian, Bernard J; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Chatzigiagkos, Antonis; Mirabal, Sheyla; Alm, Eric J; Erdman, Susan E

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies suggest health benefits including protection from cancer after eating fermented foods such as probiotic yogurt, though the mechanisms are not well understood. Here we tested mechanistic hypotheses using two different animal models: the first model studied development of mammary cancer when eating a Westernized diet, and the second studied animals with a genetic predilection to breast cancer. For the first model, outbred Swiss mice were fed a Westernized chow putting them at increased risk for development of mammary tumors. In this Westernized diet model, mammary carcinogenesis was inhibited by routine exposure to Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC-PTA-6475 in drinking water. The second model was FVB strain erbB2 (HER2) mutant mice, genetically susceptible to mammary tumors mimicking breast cancers in humans, being fed a regular (non-Westernized) chow diet. We found that oral supplement with these purified lactic acid bacteria alone was sufficient to inhibit features of mammary neoplasia in both models. The protective mechanism was determined to be microbially-triggered CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes. When isolated and transplanted into other subjects, these L. reuteri-stimulated lymphocytes were sufficient to convey transplantable anti-cancer protection in the cell recipient animals. These data demonstrate that host immune responses to environmental microbes significantly impact and inhibit cancer progression in distal tissues such as mammary glands, even in genetically susceptible mice. This leads us to conclude that consuming fermentative microbes such as L. reuteri may offer a tractable public health approach to help counteract the accumulated dietary and genetic carcinogenic events integral in the Westernized diet and lifestyle. PMID:24382758

  9. Do differences in life-history traits and the timing of peak mating activity between host-associated populations of Chilo suppressalis have a genetic basis?

    PubMed

    Quan, Wei-Li; Liu, Wen; Zhou, Rui-Qi; Qureshi, Sundas Rana; Ding, Nan; Ma, Wei-Hua; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The development of host races, genetically distinct populations of the same species with different hosts, is considered to be the initial stage of ecological speciation. Ecological and biological differences consistent with host race formation have been reported between water-oat and rice-associated populations of Chilo suppressalis. In order to confirm whether these differences have a genetic basis, we conducted experiments to determine the extent to which various life-history traits and the time of peak mating activity of these populations were influenced by the species of host plant larvae were raised on. Individuals from each population were reared for three consecutive generations on either water-oat fruit pulp or rice seedlings. Descendants of both populations had higher larval survival rates, shorter larval developmental periods, higher pupal weight, and longer adult forewings, when reared on water-oats than when reared on rice. The time of peak of mating activity differed between the descendants of each population, irrespective of whether they were raised on water-oats or rice. These results indicate that although some life-history traits of host-associated populations of C. suppressalis are influenced by the host plant larvae are raised on, time of peak mating activity is not. Because it is a stable, objective, phenotypic trait, further research on difference in the time of peak mating activity between host-associated populations of C. suppressalis should be conducted to clarify the mechanism responsible for host race formation in this species. PMID:27386090

  10. Host Genetics and Environment Drive Divergent Responses of Two Resource Sharing Gall-Formers on Norway Spruce: A Common Garden Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, E. Petter; Iason, Glenn R.; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Whitham, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    A central issue in the field of community genetics is the expectation that trait variation among genotypes play a defining role in structuring associated species and in forming community phenotypes. Quantifying the existence of such community phenotypes in two common garden environments also has important consequences for our understanding of gene-by-environment interactions at the community level. The existence of community phenotypes has not been evaluated in the crowns of boreal forest trees. In this study we address the influence of tree genetics on needle chemistry and genetic x environment interactions on two gall-inducing adelgid aphids (Adelges spp. and Sacchiphantes spp.) that share the same elongating bud/shoot niche. We examine the hypothesis that the canopies of different genotypes of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) support different community phenotypes. Three patterns emerged. First, the two gallers show clear differences in their response to host genetics and environment. Whereas genetics significantly affected the abundance of Adelges spp. galls, Sacchiphantes spp. was predominately affected by the environment suggesting that the genetic influence is stronger in Adelges spp. Second, the among family variation in genetically controlled resistance was large, i.e. fullsib families differed as much as 10 fold in susceptibility towards Adelges spp. (0.57 to 6.2 galls/branch). Also, the distribution of chemical profiles was continuous, showing both overlap as well as examples of significant differences among fullsib families. Third, despite the predicted effects of host chemistry on galls, principal component analyses using 31 different phenolic substances showed only limited association with galls and a similarity test showed that trees with similar phenolic chemical characteristics, did not host more similar communities of gallers. Nonetheless, the large genetic variation in trait expression and clear differences in how community members respond to host

  11. Genetic determinants of lactococcal C2viruses for host infection and their role in phage evolution.

    PubMed

    Millen, Anne M; Romero, Dennis A

    2016-08-01

    Lactococcus lactis is an industrial starter culture used for the production of fermented dairy products. Pip (phage infection protein) bacteriophage-insensitive mutant (BIM) L. lactis DGCC11032 was isolated following challenge of parental strain DGCC7271 with C2viruses. Over a period of industrial use, phages infecting DGCC11032 were isolated from industrial whey samples and identified as C2viruses. Although Pip is reported to be the receptor for many C2viruses including species type phage c2, a similar cell-membrane-associated protein, YjaE, was recently reported as the receptor for C2virus bIL67. Characterization of DGCC7271 BIMs following challenge with phage capable of infecting DGCC11032 identified mutations in yjaE, confirming YjaE to be necessary for infection. DGCC7271 YjaE mutants remained sensitive to the phages used to generate pip variant DGCC11032, indicating a distinction in host phage determinants. We will refer to C2viruses requiring Pip as c2-type andC2viruses that require YjaE as bIL67-type. Genomic comparisons of two c2-type phages unable to infect pip mutant DGCC11032 and four bIL67-type phages isolated on DGCC11032 confirmed the segregation of each group based on resemblance to prototypical phages c2 and bIL67, respectively. The distinguishing feature is linked to three contiguous late-expressed genes: l14-15-16 (c2) and ORF34-35-36 (bIL67). Phage recombinants in which the c2-like l14-15-16 homologue gene set was exchanged with corresponding bIL67 genes ORF34-35-36 were capable of infecting a pip mutated host. Together, these results correlate the phage genes corresponding to l14-15-16 (c2) and ORF34-35-36 (bIL67) to host lactococcal phage determinants Pip and YjaE, respectively. PMID:27389474

  12. Genetic and environmental factors affecting host response to drugs and other chemical compounds in our environment.

    PubMed Central

    Vesell, E S; Passananti, G T

    1977-01-01

    Compared to laboratory animals, humans are extremely heterogenous with respect to the many factors that can influence the distribution and biological effects of toxic chemicals. This heterogeneity can prevent an accurate assessment of the impact of a particular toxic compound on the health of an individual subject. Some of the factors that can significantly modify the host response to certain drugs, which serve in this review as a model for environmental chemicals, are enumerated and discussed. Although the mechanisms by which many of these factors modify the biological effects of certain environmental chemicals and drugs have been determined in some cases, better definition of the nature of interactions between these factors and environmental chemicals in a particular individual is required at a biochemical and molecular level. Recommendations are offered for the further development of our knowledge concerning interactions between environmental chemicals and such factors in a particular individual. PMID:598349

  13. The chemical interactome space between the human host and the genetically defined gut metabotypes

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Ulrik Plesner; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Hildebrand, Falk; Raes, Jeroen; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene; Panagiotou, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    The bacteria that colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of mammals represent a highly selected microbiome that has a profound influence on human physiology by shaping the host's metabolic and immune system activity. Despite the recent advances on the biological principles that underlie microbial symbiosis in the gut of mammals, mechanistic understanding of the contributions of the gut microbiome and how variations in the metabotypes are linked to the host health are obscure. Here, we mapped the entire metabolic potential of the gut microbiome based solely on metagenomics sequencing data derived from fecal samples of 124 Europeans (healthy, obese and with inflammatory bowel disease). Interestingly, three distinct clusters of individuals with high, medium and low metabolic potential were observed. By illustrating these results in the context of bacterial population, we concluded that the abundance of the Prevotella genera is a key factor indicating a low metabolic potential. These metagenome-based metabolic signatures were used to study the interaction networks between bacteria-specific metabolites and human proteins. We found that thirty-three such metabolites interact with disease-relevant protein complexes several of which are highly expressed in cells and tissues involved in the signaling and shaping of the adaptive immune system and associated with squamous cell carcinoma and bladder cancer. From this set of metabolites, eighteen are present in DrugBank providing evidence that we carry a natural pharmacy in our guts. Furthermore, we established connections between the systemic effects of non-antibiotic drugs and the gut microbiome of relevance to drug side effects and health-care solutions. PMID:23178670

  14. Population genetic structure of two primary parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera), Chelonus insularis and Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera): to what extent is the host plant important?

    PubMed

    Jourdie, Violaine; Alvarez, Nadir; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Williams, Trevor; Bergvinson, David; Benrey, Betty; Turlings, Ted C J; Franck, Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Plant chemistry can strongly influence interactions between herbivores and their natural enemies, either by providing volatile compounds that serve as foraging cues for parasitoids or predators, or by affecting the quality of herbivores as hosts or prey. Through these effects plants may influence parasitoid population genetic structure. We tested for a possible specialization on specific crop plants in Chelonus insularis and Campoletis sonorensis, two primary parasitoids of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Throughout Mexico, S. frugiperda larvae were collected from their main host plants, maize and sorghum and parasitoids that emerged from the larvae were used for subsequent comparison by molecular analysis. Genetic variation at eight and 11 microsatellites were respectively assayed for C. insularis and C. sonorensis to examine isolation by distance, host plant and regional effects. Kinship analyses were also performed to assess female migration among host-plants. The analyses showed considerable within population variation and revealed a significant regional effect. No effect of host plant on population structure of either of the two parasitoid species was found. Isolation by distance was observed at the individual level, but not at the population level. Kinship analyses revealed significantly more genetically related--or kin--individuals on the same plant species than on different plant species, suggesting that locally, mothers preferentially stay on the same plant species. Although the standard population genetics parameters showed no effect of plant species on population structure, the kinship analyses revealed that mothers exhibit plant species fidelity, which may speed up divergence if adaptation were to occur. PMID:20406384

  15. Multi-input CRISPR/Cas genetic circuits that interface host regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Alec AK; Voigt, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Genetic circuits require many regulatory parts in order to implement signal processing or execute algorithms in cells. A potentially scalable approach is to use dCas9, which employs small guide RNAs (sgRNAs) to repress genetic loci via the programmability of RNA:DNA base pairing. To this end, we use dCas9 and designed sgRNAs to build transcriptional logic gates and connect them to perform computation in living cells. We constructed a set of NOT gates by designing five synthetic Escherichia coli σ70 promoters that are repressed by corresponding sgRNAs, and these interactions do not exhibit crosstalk between each other. These sgRNAs exhibit high on-target repression (56- to 440-fold) and negligible off-target interactions (< 1.3-fold). These gates were connected to build larger circuits, including the Boolean-complete NOR gate and a 3-gate circuit consisting of four layered sgRNAs. The synthetic circuits were connected to the native E. coli regulatory network by designing output sgRNAs to target an E. coli transcription factor (malT). This converts the output of a synthetic circuit to a switch in cellular phenotype (sugar utilization, chemotaxis, phage resistance). PMID:25422271

  16. Multi-input CRISPR/Cas genetic circuits that interface host regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Alec A K; Voigt, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Genetic circuits require many regulatory parts in order to implement signal processing or execute algorithms in cells. A potentially scalable approach is to use dCas9, which employs small guide RNAs (sgRNAs) to repress genetic loci via the programmability of RNA:DNA base pairing. To this end, we use dCas9 and designed sgRNAs to build transcriptional logic gates and connect them to perform computation in living cells. We constructed a set of NOT gates by designing five synthetic Escherichia coli σ70 promoters that are repressed by corresponding sgRNAs, and these interactions do not exhibit crosstalk between each other. These sgRNAs exhibit high on-target repression (56- to 440-fold) and negligible off-target interactions (< 1.3-fold). These gates were connected to build larger circuits, including the Boolean-complete NOR gate and a 3-gate circuit consisting of four layered sgRNAs. The synthetic circuits were connected to the native E. coli regulatory network by designing output sgRNAs to target an E. coli transcription factor (malT). This converts the output of a synthetic circuit to a switch in cellular phenotype (sugar utilization, chemotaxis, phage resistance). PMID:25422271

  17. Novel host genetic variations associated with spontaneous clearance of a single-source outbreak of HCV1b infections

    PubMed Central

    You, Hong; Liu, Sandu; Xie, Yong; Cong, Rui; Sun, Yameng; Ren, Jingjing; Wei, Kangfei; Jin, Xin; Shi, Yujian; Zhang, Haiying; Li, Jie; Wei, Lai; Zhuang, Hui; Cheng, Mingliang; Jia, Jidong

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims A total of 105 patients were identified as accidentally infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1b (HCV1b) through blood transfusion from a single blood donor. This group provides a unique patient population to study host factors involved in the spontaneous clearance of HCV and disease progression. Methods Clinical markers, HCV RNA and eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of interleukin-28B (IL-28B) were detected. Exome capture and sequencing were analysed for association with HCV clearance. Results Among the 85 patients with the positive HCV antibody, 27 cases (31.8%) were HCV RNA negative over a period of 9–12 years. Of the 58 patients with positive HCV RNA, 22.4% developed chronic hepatitis, and 5.2% developed cirrhosis. Age was found to be associated with HCV1b clearance. IL-28 rs10853728 CC showed the trend. By exon sequencing, 39 SNPs were found to be significantly different in spontaneous clearance patients (p<0.001). Two SNPs in the tenascin receptor (TNR), five in the transmembrane protease serine 11A (TMPRSS11A), and one in the serine peptidase inhibitor kunitz type 2 (SPINT2) showed the closest associations (p<10−5). Conclusions Host genetic analyses on the unique, single source HCV1b-infected patient population has suggested that age and mutations in TNR, TMPRSS11A and SPINT2 genes may be factors associated with HCV clearance. PMID:26462265

  18. A single genetic locus in the phytopathogen Pantoea stewartii enables gut colonization and pathogenicity in an insect host.

    PubMed

    Stavrinides, John; No, Alexander; Ochman, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Aphids are typically exposed to a variety of epiphytic and phytopathogenic bacteria, many of which have entomopathogenic potential. Here we describe the interaction between Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii DC283 (DC283), an enteric phytopathogen and causal agent of Stewart's wilt, and the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. When ingested by aphids, DC283 establishes and aggregates in the crop and gut, preventing honeydew flow and excretion, resulting in aphid death in 72 h. A mutagenesis screen identified a single locus, termed ucp1 (youcannot pass), whose disruption abolishes aphid pathogenicity. Moreover, the expression of ucp1 in Escherichia coli is sufficient to mediate the hindgut aggregation phenotype by this normally avirulent species. Ucp1 is related to six other proteins in the DC283 genome, each having a common N-terminal region and a divergent C-terminus, but only ucp1 has a role in pathogenicity. Based on predicted motifs and secondary structure, Ucp1 is a membrane-bound protein that functions in bacterial adhesion and promotes the formation of aggregates that are lethal to the insect host. These results illustrate that the enteric plant pathogenic bacteria have the capacity to exploit alternative non-plant hosts, and retain genetic determinants for colonizing the gut. PMID:19788413

  19. Jack of all trades masters novel host plants: positive genetic correlations in specialist and generalist insect herbivores expanding their diets to novel hosts

    PubMed Central

    GARCÍA-ROBLEDO, CARLOS; HORVITZ, CAROL C.

    2011-01-01

    One explanation for the widespread host specialization of insect herbivores is the “Jack of all trades-master of none” principle, which states that genotypes with high performance on one host will perform poorly on other hosts. This principle predicts that cross-host correlation in performance of genotypes will be negative. In this study we experimentally explored cross-host correlations and performance among families in four species (two generalist and two specialist) of leaf beetles (Cephaloleia spp.) that are currently expanding their diets from native to exotic plants. All four species displayed similar responses in body size, developmental rates and mortality rates to experimentally controlled diets. When raised on novel hosts, body size of larvae, pupae and adults were reduced. Development times were longer and larval mortality was higher on novel hosts. Genotype × host plant interactions were not detected for most traits. All significant cross-host correlations were positive. These results indicate very different ecological and evolutionary dynamics than those predicted by the “Jack of all trades-master of none” principle. PMID:22022877

  20. Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castellucci, Léa Cristina; Almeida, Lucas Frederico de; Jamieson, Sarra Elisabeth; Fakiola, Michaela; Carvalho, Edgar Marcelino de; Blackwell, Jenefer Mary

    2014-06-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease. PMID:24863979

  1. Effectiveness of vaccination with recombinant HpaA from Helicobacter pylori is influenced by host genetic background.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Philip; Doidge, Christopher; Pinczower, Gideon; Wilson, John; Harbour, Stacey; Swierczak, Agnieszka; Lee, Adrian

    2007-07-01

    Several studies have explored the production and immunogenicity of HpaA as a potential protective antigen against Helicobacter pylori but little is known regarding its protective capabilities. We therefore evaluated the protective efficacy of recombinant HpaA (rHpaA) as a candidate vaccine antigen against H. pylori. To explore the impact of genetic diversity, inbred and outbred mice were prophylactically and therapeutically immunized with rHpaA adjuvanted with cholera toxin (CT). Prophylactic immunization induced a reduction in bacterial colonization in BALB/c and QS mice, but was ineffective in C57BL/6 mice, despite induction of antigen-specific antibodies. By contrast, therapeutic immunization was effective in all three strains of mice. Prophylactic immunization with CT-adjuvanted rHpaA was more effective when delivered via the nasal route than following intragastric delivery in BALB/c mice. However, HpaA-mediated protection was inferior to that induced by bacterial lysate. Hence, protective efficacy is inducible with vaccines containing HpaA, most relevantly shown in an outbred population of mice. The effectiveness of protection induced by HpaA antigen was influenced by host genetics and was less effective than lysate. HpaA therefore has potential for the development of effective immunization against H. pylori but this would probably entail the antigen to be one component of a multiantigenic vaccine. PMID:17567282

  2. A versatile selection system for folding competent proteins using genetic complementation in a eukaryotic host

    PubMed Central

    Lyngsø, Christina; Kjaerulff, Søren; Müller, Sven; Bratt, Tomas; Mortensen, Uffe H; Dal Degan, Florence

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant expression of native or modified eukaryotic proteins is pivotal for structural and functional studies and for industrial and pharmaceutical production of proteins. However, it is often impeded by the lack of proper folding. Here, we present a stringent and broadly applicable eukaryotic in vivo selection system for folded proteins. It is based on genetic complementation of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe growth marker gene invertase fused C-terminally to a protein library. The fusion proteins are directed to the secretion system, utilizing the ability of the eukaryotic protein quality-control systems to retain misfolded proteins in the ER and redirect them for cytosolic degradation, thereby only allowing folded proteins to reach the cell surface. Accordingly, the folding potential of the tested protein determines the ability of autotrophic colony growth. This system was successfully demonstrated using a complex insertion mutant library of TNF-α, from which different folding competent mutant proteins were uncovered. PMID:20082307

  3. Genetic diversity and tissue and host specificity of Grapevine vein clearing virus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiang; Honesty, Shae; Xu, Mei Long; Zhang, Yu; Schoelz, James; Qiu, Wenping

    2014-05-01

    Grapevine vein clearing virus (GVCV) is a new badnavirus in the family Caulimoviridae that is closely associated with an emerging vein-clearing and vine decline disease in the Midwest region of the United States. It has a circular, double-stranded DNA genome of 7,753 bp that is predicted to encode three open reading frames (ORFs) on the plus-strand DNA. The largest ORF encodes a polyprotein that contains domains for a reverse transcriptase (RT), an RNase H, and a DNA-binding zinc-finger protein (ZF). In this study, two genomic regions, a 570-bp region of the RT domain and a 540-bp region of the ZF domain were used for an analysis of the genetic diversity of GVCV populations. In total, 39 recombinant plasmids were sequenced. These plasmids consisted of three individual clones from each of 13 isolates sampled from five grape varieties in three states. The sequence variants of GVCV could not be phylogenetically grouped into clades according to geographical location and grape variety. Codons of RT or ZF regions are subject to purifying selection pressure. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays indicated that GVCV accumulates abundantly in the petioles and least in the root tip tissue. Upon grafting of GVCV-infected buds onto four major grape cultivars, GVCV was not detected in the grafted 'Chambourcin' vine but was present in the grafted 'Vidal Blanc', 'Cayuga White', and 'Traminette' vines, suggesting that Chambourcin is resistant to GVCV. Furthermore, seven nucleotides were changed in the sequenced RT and ZF regions of GVCV from a grafted Traminette vine and one in the sequenced regions of GVCV from grafted Cayuga White but no changes were found in the sequenced regions of GVCV in the grafted Vidal Blanc. The results provide a genetic snapshot of GVCV populations, which will yield knowledge important for monitoring GVCV epidemics and for preventing the loss of grape production that is associated with GVCV. PMID:24502205

  4. Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Jostins, Luke; Ripke, Stephan; Weersma, Rinse K; Duerr, Richard H; McGovern, Dermot P; Hui, Ken Y; Lee, James C; Schumm, L Philip; Sharma, Yashoda; Anderson, Carl A; Essers, Jonah; Mitrovic, Mitja; Ning, Kaida; Cleynen, Isabelle; Theatre, Emilie; Spain, Sarah L; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Goyette, Philippe; Wei, Zhi; Abraham, Clara; Achkar, Jean-Paul; Ahmad, Tariq; Amininejad, Leila; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Andersen, Vibeke; Andrews, Jane M; Baidoo, Leonard; Balschun, Tobias; Bampton, Peter A; Bitton, Alain; Boucher, Gabrielle; Brand, Stephan; Büning, Carsten; Cohain, Ariella; Cichon, Sven; D’Amato, Mauro; De Jong, Dirk; Devaney, Kathy L; Dubinsky, Marla; Edwards, Cathryn; Ellinghaus, David; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Franchimont, Denis; Fransen, Karin; Gearry, Richard; Georges, Michel; Gieger, Christian; Glas, Jürgen; Haritunians, Talin; Hart, Ailsa; Hawkey, Chris; Hedl, Matija; Hu, Xinli; Karlsen, Tom H; Kupcinskas, Limas; Kugathasan, Subra; Latiano, Anna; Laukens, Debby; Lawrance, Ian C; Lees, Charlie W; Louis, Edouard; Mahy, Gillian; Mansfield, John; Morgan, Angharad R; Mowat, Craig; Newman, William; Palmieri, Orazio; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y; Potocnik, Uros; Prescott, Natalie J; Regueiro, Miguel; Rotter, Jerome I; Russell, Richard K; Sanderson, Jeremy D; Sans, Miquel; Satsangi, Jack; Schreiber, Stefan; Simms, Lisa A; Sventoraityte, Jurgita; Targan, Stephan R; Taylor, Kent D; Tremelling, Mark; Verspaget, Hein W; De Vos, Martine; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wilson, David C; Winkelmann, Juliane; Xavier, Ramnik J; Zeissig, Sebastian; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Clarence K; Zhao, Hongyu; Silverberg, Mark S; Annese, Vito; Hakonarson, Hakon; Brant, Steven R; Radford-Smith, Graham; Mathew, Christopher G; Rioux, John D; Schadt, Eric E; Daly, Mark J; Franke, Andre; Parkes, Miles; Vermeire, Severine; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Cho, Judy H

    2012-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), affect over 2.5 million people of European ancestry with rising prevalence in other populations1. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and subsequent meta-analyses of CD and UC2,3 as separate phenotypes implicated previously unsuspected mechanisms, such as autophagy4, in pathogenesis and showed that some IBD loci are shared with other inflammatory diseases5. Here we expand knowledge of relevant pathways by undertaking a meta-analysis of CD and UC genome-wide association scans, with validation of significant findings in more than 75,000 cases and controls. We identify 71 new associations, for a total of 163 IBD loci that meet genome-wide significance thresholds. Most loci contribute to both phenotypes, and both directional and balancing selection effects are evident. Many IBD loci are also implicated in other immune-mediated disorders, most notably with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriasis. We also observe striking overlap between susceptibility loci for IBD and mycobacterial infection. Gene co-expression network analysis emphasizes this relationship, with pathways shared between host responses to mycobacteria and those predisposing to IBD. PMID:23128233

  5. IL-17 Genetic and Immunophenotypic Evaluation in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Renata Gonçalves; Correia-Silva, Jeane de Fátima; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Salomão, Ulisses Eliezer; Marques-Silva, Luciano; Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Although interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a recently discovered cytokine associated with several autoimmune diseases, its role in the pathogenesis of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) was not established yet. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of IL17A and IL17F genes polymorphisms and IL-17A and IL-17F levels with cGVHD. IL-17A expression was also investigated in CD4+ T cells of patients with systemic cGVHD. For Part I of the study, fifty-eight allo-HSCT recipients and donors were prospectively studied. Blood samples were obtained to determine IL17A and IL17F genes polymorphisms. Cytokines levels in blood and saliva were assessed by ELISA at days +35 and +100 after HSCT. In Part II, for the immunophenotypic evaluation, eight patients with systemic cGVHD were selected and the expression of IL-17A was evaluated. We found association between recipient AA genotype with systemic cGVHD. No association was observed between IL-17A levels and cGVHD. Lower IL-17A levels in the blood were associated with AA genotype. In flow cytometry analysis, decreased expression of IL-17A was observed in patients with cGVHD after stimulation. In conclusion, IL-17A may have an important role in the development of systemic cGVHD. PMID:25136146

  6. Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Jostins, Luke; Ripke, Stephan; Weersma, Rinse K; Duerr, Richard H; McGovern, Dermot P; Hui, Ken Y; Lee, James C; Schumm, L Philip; Sharma, Yashoda; Anderson, Carl A; Essers, Jonah; Mitrovic, Mitja; Ning, Kaida; Cleynen, Isabelle; Theatre, Emilie; Spain, Sarah L; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Goyette, Philippe; Wei, Zhi; Abraham, Clara; Achkar, Jean-Paul; Ahmad, Tariq; Amininejad, Leila; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Andersen, Vibeke; Andrews, Jane M; Baidoo, Leonard; Balschun, Tobias; Bampton, Peter A; Bitton, Alain; Boucher, Gabrielle; Brand, Stephan; Büning, Carsten; Cohain, Ariella; Cichon, Sven; D'Amato, Mauro; De Jong, Dirk; Devaney, Kathy L; Dubinsky, Marla; Edwards, Cathryn; Ellinghaus, David; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Franchimont, Denis; Fransen, Karin; Gearry, Richard; Georges, Michel; Gieger, Christian; Glas, Jürgen; Haritunians, Talin; Hart, Ailsa; Hawkey, Chris; Hedl, Matija; Hu, Xinli; Karlsen, Tom H; Kupcinskas, Limas; Kugathasan, Subra; Latiano, Anna; Laukens, Debby; Lawrance, Ian C; Lees, Charlie W; Louis, Edouard; Mahy, Gillian; Mansfield, John; Morgan, Angharad R; Mowat, Craig; Newman, William; Palmieri, Orazio; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y; Potocnik, Uros; Prescott, Natalie J; Regueiro, Miguel; Rotter, Jerome I; Russell, Richard K; Sanderson, Jeremy D; Sans, Miquel; Satsangi, Jack; Schreiber, Stefan; Simms, Lisa A; Sventoraityte, Jurgita; Targan, Stephan R; Taylor, Kent D; Tremelling, Mark; Verspaget, Hein W; De Vos, Martine; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wilson, David C; Winkelmann, Juliane; Xavier, Ramnik J; Zeissig, Sebastian; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Clarence K; Zhao, Hongyu; Silverberg, Mark S; Annese, Vito; Hakonarson, Hakon; Brant, Steven R; Radford-Smith, Graham; Mathew, Christopher G; Rioux, John D; Schadt, Eric E; Daly, Mark J; Franke, Andre; Parkes, Miles; Vermeire, Severine; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Cho, Judy H

    2012-11-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), affect over 2.5 million people of European ancestry, with rising prevalence in other populations. Genome-wide association studies and subsequent meta-analyses of these two diseases as separate phenotypes have implicated previously unsuspected mechanisms, such as autophagy, in their pathogenesis and showed that some IBD loci are shared with other inflammatory diseases. Here we expand on the knowledge of relevant pathways by undertaking a meta-analysis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis genome-wide association scans, followed by extensive validation of significant findings, with a combined total of more than 75,000 cases and controls. We identify 71 new associations, for a total of 163 IBD loci, that meet genome-wide significance thresholds. Most loci contribute to both phenotypes, and both directional (consistently favouring one allele over the course of human history) and balancing (favouring the retention of both alleles within populations) selection effects are evident. Many IBD loci are also implicated in other immune-mediated disorders, most notably with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriasis. We also observe considerable overlap between susceptibility loci for IBD and mycobacterial infection. Gene co-expression network analysis emphasizes this relationship, with pathways shared between host responses to mycobacteria and those predisposing to IBD. PMID:23128233

  7. Genetic diversity and host range studies of turnip curly top virus.

    PubMed

    Razavinejad, Sara; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Kamali, Mehdi; Massumi, Hossain; Kraberger, Simona; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-04-01

    Turnip curly top virus (TCTV) is a unique geminivirus that has recently been characterised as infecting turnips in Iran. The genome of TCTV shares <68 % pairwise identity with other geminiviruses and has a genome organisation similar to that of curtoviruses and topocuvirus. The replication-associated protein (Rep) bears the highest similarity to curtovirus Reps (48.5-69.0 %); however, in the case of the capsid protein (CP), the extent of similarity is only 39.5-44.5 %. We constructed an agroinfectious clone of TCTV and undertook host range studies on ten plant species; in three species (turnip, sugar beet and cowpea), we detected infection which presents curly top symptoms in turnip and sugar beet. The efficiency of TCTV infection in agroinoculated turnip plants was 71.7 %, and the infection was successfully transmitted to 80 % of the healthy turnip plants used in the insect transmission studies by Circulifer haematoceps under greenhouse conditions. We also determined the genome sequence of 14 new TCTV isolates from southern Iran isolated from turnips. We observed ~13 % diversity amongst all the TCTV isolates and found evidence of recombination in the CP- and Rep-coding regions of the genomes. PMID:23225113

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Novel Pathogen “Brachyspira hampsonii” Reveals Relationships between Diverse Genetic Groups, Regions, Host Species, and Other Pathogenic and Commensal Brachyspira Species

    PubMed Central

    Mirajkar, Nandita S.; Bekele, Aschalew Z.; Chander, Yogesh Y.

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of bloody diarrhea in swine herds in the late 2000s signaled the reemergence of an economically significant disease, swine dysentery, in the United States. Investigations confirmed the emergence of a novel spirochete in swine, provisionally designated “Brachyspira hampsonii,” with two genetically distinct clades. Although it has since been detected in swine and migratory birds in Europe and North America, little is known about its genetic diversity or its relationships with other Brachyspira species. This study characterizes B. hampsonii using a newly developed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach and elucidates the diversity, distribution, population structure, and genetic relationships of this pathogen from diverse epidemiological sources globally. Genetic characterization of 81 B. hampsonii isolates, originating from six countries, with our newly established MLST scheme identified a total of 20 sequence types (STs) belonging to three clonal complexes (CCs). B. hampsonii showed a heterogeneous population structure with evidence of microevolution locally in swine production systems, while its clustering patterns showed associations with its epidemiological origins (country, swine production system, and host species). The close genetic relatedness of B. hampsonii isolates from different countries and host species highlights the importance of strict biosecurity control measures. A comparative analysis of 430 isolates representing seven Brachyspira species (pathogens and commensals) from 19 countries and 10 host species depicted clustering by microbial species. It revealed the close genetic relatedness of B. hampsonii with commensal Brachyspira species and also provided support for the two clades of B. hampsonii to be considered a single species. PMID:26135863

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Novel Pathogen "Brachyspira hampsonii" Reveals Relationships between Diverse Genetic Groups, Regions, Host Species, and Other Pathogenic and Commensal Brachyspira Species.

    PubMed

    Mirajkar, Nandita S; Bekele, Aschalew Z; Chander, Yogesh Y; Gebhart, Connie J

    2015-09-01

    Outbreaks of bloody diarrhea in swine herds in the late 2000s signaled the reemergence of an economically significant disease, swine dysentery, in the United States. Investigations confirmed the emergence of a novel spirochete in swine, provisionally designated "Brachyspira hampsonii," with two genetically distinct clades. Although it has since been detected in swine and migratory birds in Europe and North America, little is known about its genetic diversity or its relationships with other Brachyspira species. This study characterizes B. hampsonii using a newly developed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach and elucidates the diversity, distribution, population structure, and genetic relationships of this pathogen from diverse epidemiological sources globally. Genetic characterization of 81 B. hampsonii isolates, originating from six countries, with our newly established MLST scheme identified a total of 20 sequence types (STs) belonging to three clonal complexes (CCs). B. hampsonii showed a heterogeneous population structure with evidence of microevolution locally in swine production systems, while its clustering patterns showed associations with its epidemiological origins (country, swine production system, and host species). The close genetic relatedness of B. hampsonii isolates from different countries and host species highlights the importance of strict biosecurity control measures. A comparative analysis of 430 isolates representing seven Brachyspira species (pathogens and commensals) from 19 countries and 10 host species depicted clustering by microbial species. It revealed the close genetic relatedness of B. hampsonii with commensal Brachyspira species and also provided support for the two clades of B. hampsonii to be considered a single species. PMID:26135863

  10. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Busseola segeta Bowden (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae): A Case Study of Host Use Diversification in Guineo-Congolian Rainforest Relic Area, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ong’amo, George O.; Le Ru, Bruno P.; Campagne, Pascal; Branca, Antoine; Calatayud, Paul-Andre; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire;  Silvain, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    Habitat modification and fragmentation are considered as some of the factors that drive organism distribution and host use diversification. Indigenous African stem borer pests are thought to have diversified their host ranges to include maize [Zea mays L.] and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in response to their increased availability through extensive cultivation. However, management efforts have been geared towards reducing pest populations in the cultivated fields with few attempts to understand possible evolution of "new" pest species. Recovery and growing persistence of Busseola segeta Bowden on maize (Zea mays L.) in Kakamega called for studies on the role of wild host plants on the invasion of crops by wild borer species. A two-year survey was carried out in a small agricultural landscape along the edge of Kakamega forest (Kenya) to assess host range and population genetic structure of B. segeta. The larvae of B. segeta were found on nine different plant species with the majority occurring on maize and sorghum. Of forty cytochrome b haplotypes identified, twenty-three occurred in both wild and cultivated habitats. The moths appear to fly long distances across the habitats with genetic analyses revealing weak differentiation between hosts in different habitats (FST = 0.016; p = 0.015). However, there was strong evidence of variation in genetic composition between growing seasons in the wild habitat (FST = 0.060; p < 0.001) with emergence or disappearance of haplotypes between habitats. Busseola segeta is an example of a phytophagous insect that utilizes plants with a human induced distribution range, maize, but does not show evidence of host race formation or reduction of gene flow among populations using different hosts. However, B. segeta is capable of becoming an important pest in the area and the current low densities may be attributed to the general low infestation levels and presence of a wide range of alternative hosts in the area. PMID:26466732