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Sample records for galaxaura marginata rhodophyta

  1. Polymorphic microsatellite loci for primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata.

    PubMed

    Johny, S; Chakraborty, S; Gadagkar, R; Nagaraju, J

    2009-07-01

    We report here development and characterization of 48 novel microsatellite markers for Ropalidia marginata, a tropical, primitively eusocial polistine wasp from peninsular India. Thirty-two microsatellites showed polymorphism in a wild population of R. marginata (N = 38) collected from Bangalore, India. These markers will facilitate answering some interesting questions in ecology and evolutionary biology of this wasp, such as population structure, serial polygyny, intra-colony genetic relatedness and the pattern of queen succession. PMID:21564866

  2. Carotenogenesis diversification in phylogenetic lineages of Rhodophyta.

    PubMed

    Takaichi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Akiko; Mochimaru, Mari; Uchida, Hiroko; Murakami, Akio

    2016-06-01

    Carotenoid composition is very diverse in Rhodophyta. In this study, we investigated whether this variation is related to the phylogeny of this group. Rhodophyta consists of seven classes, and they can be divided into two groups on the basis of their morphology. The unicellular group (Cyanidiophyceae, Porphyridiophyceae, Rhodellophyceae, and Stylonematophyceae) contained only β-carotene and zeaxanthin, "ZEA-type carotenoids." In contrast, within the macrophytic group (Bangiophyceae, Compsopogonophyceae, and Florideophyceae), Compsopogonophyceae contained antheraxanthin in addition to ZEA-type carotenoids, "ANT-type carotenoids," whereas Bangiophyceae contained α-carotene and lutein along with ZEA-type carotenoids, "LUT-type carotenoids." Florideophyceae is divided into five subclasses. Ahnfeltiophycidae, Hildenbrandiophycidae, and Nemaliophycidae contained LUT-type carotenoids. In Corallinophycidae, Hapalidiales and Lithophylloideae in Corallinales contained LUT-type carotenoids, whereas Corallinoideae in Corallinales contained ANT-type carotenoids. In Rhodymeniophycidae, most orders contained LUT-type carotenoids; however, only Gracilariales contained ANT-type carotenoids. There is a clear relationship between carotenoid composition and phylogenetics in Rhodophyta. Furthermore, we searched open genome databases of several red algae for references to the synthetic enzymes of the carotenoid types detected in this study. β-Carotene and zeaxanthin might be synthesized from lycopene, as in land plants. Antheraxanthin might require zeaxanthin epoxydase, whereas α-carotene and lutein might require two additional enzymes, as in land plants. Furthermore, Glaucophyta contained ZEA-type carotenoids, and Cryptophyta contained β-carotene, α-carotene, and alloxanthin, whose acetylenic group might be synthesized from zeaxanthin by an unknown enzyme. Therefore, we conclude that the presence or absence of the four enzymes is related to diversification of carotenoid

  3. Colony strength and queen replacement in Melipona marginata (Apidae: Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Kleinert, A de M P

    2005-08-01

    Physogastric queens of Melipona marginata were removed from their colonies in order to verify the acceptance of a new queen by workers. Colony strength was evaluated according to queen oviposition rate and comb diameters. Replacement was observed seven times. Its occurrence and speed related positively to colony strength, independently of queen's age. In weak colonies, queen replacement was observed only once, following colony population increase that occurred after introduction of combs from another colony. Worker oviposition after queen removal was observed three times: in a strong colony with virgin queens and males, and in two of the weak colonies. In the first two or three days of new queen oviposition, during which most of the eggs were eaten by the queen, worker oviposition preceded almost all provisioning and oviposition processes (POPs). After this period, worker oviposition decreased until it reached around 25% of the POPs. Daily oviposition rate of young queens decreased or was even interrupted by hatching of their first brood. PMID:16341425

  4. Ancestor-descendant relationships in evolution: origin of the extant pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2015-01-01

    Ancestor-descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea marginata in morphologically based analyses, thus suggesting a possible ADR-the first so far identified within baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti). The †Miocaperea-Caperea lineage may show long-term morphological stasis and, in turn, punctuated equilibrium. PMID:25589485

  5. Ancestor–descendant relationships in evolution: origin of the extant pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2015-01-01

    Ancestor–descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea marginata in morphologically based analyses, thus suggesting a possible ADR—the first so far identified within baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti). The †Miocaperea–Caperea lineage may show long-term morphological stasis and, in turn, punctuated equilibrium. PMID:25589485

  6. Dominance behaviour and regulation of foraging in the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata (Lep.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    PubMed

    Bruyndonckx, Nadia; Kardile, Sujata P; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2006-03-01

    Ropalidia marginata is a primitively eusocial, polistine wasp widely distributed in peninsular India. In spite of its primitively eusocial status, queens of R. marginata are surprisingly docile and behaviourally non-dominant (except during the first week or so of their careers as queens). Yet they successfully maintain reproductive monopoly throughout their careers, probably through the use of pheromones. Workers exhibit dominance-subordinate interactions but these behaviours are not involved in regulating reproductive competition among the workers because workers with high dominance ranks are not necessarily the ones who replace lost queens. We have speculated and provided correlational evidence before that dominance-subordinate interactions among the workers have been co-opted in this species for the workers to regulate each other's foraging. Here, we provide experimental evidence in support of the speculation, by reducing demand for food and showing that this results in a significant decrease in the frequency of dominance-subordinate interactions among the workers. PMID:16406371

  7. Purification and partial characterization of a mitogenic lectin from the latex of Euphorbia marginata.

    PubMed

    Stirpe, F; Licastro, F; Morini, M C; Parente, A; Savino, G; Abbondanza, A; Bolognesi, A; Falasca, A I; Rossi, C A

    1993-08-20

    A lectin was purified from the latex of Euphorbia marginata by affinity chromatography on acid-treated Sepharose 6B and elution with lactose. The lectin is a glycoprotein composed of two identical subunits with M(r) 30,000, approx. The haemagglutinating activity of the lectin is not specific for any human blood group, and is inhibited by galactose and galactose-containing sugars and by gentiobiose. The lectin is strongly mitogenic for human T-lymphocytes and induces the release of interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha from cultured mononuclear cells. PMID:8353129

  8. Evidence of ancient genome reduction in red algae (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huan; Price, Dana C; Yang, Eun Chan; Yoon, Hwan Su; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2015-08-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) comprise a monophyletic eukaryotic lineage of ~6,500 species with a fossil record that extends back 1.2 billion years. A surprising aspect of red algal evolution is that sequenced genomes encode a relatively limited gene inventory (~5-10 thousand genes) when compared with other free-living algae or to other eukaryotes. This suggests that the common ancestor of red algae may have undergone extensive genome reduction, which can result from lineage specialization to a symbiotic or parasitic lifestyle or adaptation to an extreme or oligotrophic environment. We gathered genome and transcriptome data from a total of 14 red algal genera that represent the major branches of this phylum to study genome evolution in Rhodophyta. Analysis of orthologous gene gains and losses identifies two putative major phases of genome reduction: (i) in the stem lineage leading to all red algae resulting in the loss of major functions such as flagellae and basal bodies, the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis pathway, and the autophagy regulation pathway; and (ii) in the common ancestor of the extremophilic Cyanidiophytina. Red algal genomes are also characterized by the recruitment of hundreds of bacterial genes through horizontal gene transfer that have taken on multiple functions in shared pathways and have replaced eukaryotic gene homologs. Our results suggest that Rhodophyta may trace their origin to a gene depauperate ancestor. Unlike plants, it appears that a limited gene inventory is sufficient to support the diversification of a major eukaryote lineage that possesses sophisticated multicellular reproductive structures and an elaborate triphasic sexual cycle. PMID:26986787

  9. Concentration of Inorganic Elements Content in Benthic Seaweeds of Fernando de Noronha Archipelago by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SRTXRF)

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Leandro De Santis; Lopes, Rosana Peporine; Ulbrich, Mabel Norma Costas; Guaratini, Thais; Colepicolo, Pio; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Garla, Ricardo Clapis; Oliveira Filho, Eurico Cabral; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Zucchi, Orghêda Luiza Araújo Domingues

    2012-01-01

    SRTXRF was used to determine As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn in eleven seaweed species commonly found in Fernando de Noronha: Caulerpa verticillata (J. Agardh) (Chlorophyta), Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile), Dictyurus occidentalis (J. Agardh), Galaxaura rugosa (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. obtusata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. marginata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux (Rhodophyta), Dictyota cervicornis (Kützing), Dictyopteris justii (J. V. Lamouroux), Dictyopteris plagiogramma (Montagne) Vickers, Padina gymnospora (Kützing) Sonder, and a Sargassum sp. (Phaeophyta). Data obtained were compared to those from the analysis of other parts of the world seaweeds using different analytical techniques and were found to be in general agreement in terms of major and minor elemental components. Results provide baseline information about the absorption and accumulation of these elements by macroalgae in the area. PMID:22505917

  10. Unusual Occurrence of Cocoons in Population of Haplodiplosis marginata (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Censier, F.; Chavalle, S.; Knor, S.; De Proft, M.; Bodson, B.; Skuhravá, M.

    2014-01-01

    The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum sativum, rye Secale cereale, and some other species of Poaceae. Only one generation develops per year. Full-grown larvae leave galls and drop onto the soil where they remain up to the springtime of the following year. Larvae do not usually spin cocoons. However, formation of cocoons by larvae was observed in populations developing in western Europe: in England in 1954, in the Netherlands in the 1960s, and in Belgium in 2011. On the basis of our analysis, a part of the larval population forms cocoons as protection against unfavorable weather conditions, especially drought. PMID:25525104

  11. Interlocking-based attachment during locomotion in the beetle Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Bußhardt, Philipp; Kunze, Daniel; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-01-01

    The attachment function of tibial spurs and pretarsal claws in the beetle Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) during locomotion was examined in this study. First, we measured the angle, at which the beetles detached from substrates with different roughness. At a surface roughness of 12 μm and higher, intact animals were able to cling to a completely tilted platform (180°). Second, we estimated the forces the beetles could exert in walking on smooth and rough cylinders of different diameters, on a plane and also between two plates. To elucidate the role of the individual structures, we ablated them consecutively. We found tibial spurs not to be in use in walking on flat substrates. On some of the curved substrates, ablation of tibial spurs caused an effect. A clear effect of tibial spurs was revealed in walking between two plates. Thus, these structures are probably used for generating propulsion in narrowed spaces. PMID:25385502

  12. Interlocking-based attachment during locomotion in the beetle Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bußhardt, Philipp; Kunze, Daniel; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    The attachment function of tibial spurs and pretarsal claws in the beetle Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) during locomotion was examined in this study. First, we measured the angle, at which the beetles detached from substrates with different roughness. At a surface roughness of 12 μm and higher, intact animals were able to cling to a completely tilted platform (180°). Second, we estimated the forces the beetles could exert in walking on smooth and rough cylinders of different diameters, on a plane and also between two plates. To elucidate the role of the individual structures, we ablated them consecutively. We found tibial spurs not to be in use in walking on flat substrates. On some of the curved substrates, ablation of tibial spurs caused an effect. A clear effect of tibial spurs was revealed in walking between two plates. Thus, these structures are probably used for generating propulsion in narrowed spaces. PMID:25385502

  13. Developmental abnormalities in Glomeris marginata (Villers 1789) (Myriapoda: Diplopoda): implications for body axis determination in a myriapod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Abnormally developing embryos (ADEs) of the common pill millipede Glomeris marginata have been investigated by means of nuclear staining and mRNA in situ hybridization. It showed that all ADEs represent cases of Duplicitas posterior, which means that the posterior body pole is duplicated. The severity of the duplication ranges from duplicated posterior trunk segments in one specimen to an almost completely duplicated specimen that only shares the very anterior head region. Remarkably, none of the encountered ADEs represents a case of Duplicitas anterior (duplicated anterior pole) or a case of Duplicitas cruciata (cruciate duplication with two anterior and two posterior poles). This observation is discussed in the light of earlier reports on G. marginata ADEs that claim to have found these abnormalities. The lack of any other axial abnormality aside from D. posterior implies that early axis determination in G. marginata, and possibly myriapods in general, underlies the developmental mechanisms that prevent the formation of any other type of axial duplication. It is proposed that the formation of D. posterior-type embryos could be caused by the formation of two instead of only one posterior cumulus early during development.

  14. Dracaena marginata biofilter: design of growth substrate and treatment of stormwater runoff.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Praveen, R S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the efficiency of Dracaena marginata planted biofilters to decontaminate urban runoff. A new biofilter growth substrate was prepared using low-cost and locally available materials such as red soil, fine sand, perlite, vermiculite, coco-peat and Sargassum biomass. The performance of biofilter substrate was compared with local garden soil based on physical and water quality parameters. Preliminary analyses indicated that biofilter substrate exhibited desirable characteristics such as low bulk density (1140 kg/m(3)), high water holding capacity (59.6%), air-filled porosity (7.82%) and hydraulic conductivity (965 mm/h). Four different biofilter assemblies, with vegetated and non-vegetated systems, were examined for several artificial rain events (un-spiked and metal-spiked). Results from un-spiked artificial rain events suggested that concentrations of most of the chemical components in effluent were highest at the beginning of rain events and thereafter subsided during the subsequent rain events. Biofilter growth substrate showed superior potential over garden soil to retain metal ions such as Al, Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb during metal-spiked rain events. Significant differences were also observed between non-vegetated and vegetated biofilter assemblies in runoff quality, with the latter producing better results. PMID:26512973

  15. Reproductive queue without overt conflict in the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata.

    PubMed

    Bang, Alok; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2012-09-01

    Colonies of the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata consist of a single egg layer (queen) and a number of non-egg-laying workers. Although the queen is a docile individual, not at the top of the behavioral dominance hierarchy of the colony, she maintains complete reproductive monopoly. If the queen is lost or removed, one and only one of the workers [potential queen (PQ)] becomes hyperaggressive and will become the next queen of the colony. The PQ is almost never challenged because she first becomes hyperaggressive and then gradually loses her aggression, develops her ovaries, and starts laying eggs. Although we are unable to identify the PQ when the queen is present, she appears to be a "cryptic heir designate." Here, we show that there is not just one heir designate but a long reproductive queue and that PQs take over the role of egg-laying, successively, without overt conflict, as the queen or previous PQs are removed. The dominance rank of an individual is not a significant predictor of its position in the succession hierarchy. The age of an individual is a significant predictor, but it is not a perfect predictor because PQs often bypass older individuals to become successors. We suggest that such a predesignated reproductive queue that is implemented without overt conflict is adaptive in the tropics, where conspecific usurpers from outside the colony, which can take advantage of the anarchy prevailing in a queenless colony and invade it, are likely to be present throughout the year. PMID:22908278

  16. The pygmy right whale Caperea marginata: the last of the cetotheres.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, R Ewan; Marx, Felix G

    2013-02-22

    The pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata, is the most enigmatic of the living baleen whales (Mysticeti). Its highly disparate morphology and the virtual absence of a described fossil record have made it extremely difficult to place Caperea into a broader evolutionary context, and molecular and morphological studies have frequently contradicted each other as to the origins and phylogenetic relationships of the species. Our study of a wealth of material from New Zealand collections, representing a wide range of ontogenetic stages, has identified several new features previously unreported in Caperea, which suggest that the pygmy right whale may be the last survivor of the supposedly extinct family Cetotheriidae. This hypothesis is corroborated by both morphology-based and total evidence cladistic analyses, including 166 morphological characters and 23 taxa, representing all the living and extinct families of toothless baleen whales. Our results allow us to formally refer Caperea to Cetotheriidae, thus resurrecting the latter from extinction and helping to clarify the origins of a long-problematic living species. PMID:23256199

  17. Homing abilities of the tropical primitively eusocial paper wasp Ropalidia marginata.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Souvik; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2015-08-01

    Compared to our extensive knowledge about the navigation and homing abilities of ants and bees, we know rather little about these phenomena in social wasps. Here, we report the homing abilities of the tropical primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata and the factors that affect their homing success. To determine from how far these wasps can return to their nests, we transported foragers blindfold and released them at gradually increasing distances from their nests in four cardinal directions. Their homing success was determined by checking their presence on their nests on three consecutive nights. All foragers (56 individuals, 115 releases) returned back from an area of 0.73 ± 0.25 km(2) on the day of release (minimal homing area), whereas 83.8 % of the foragers (217 individuals, 420 releases) returned when we enlarged the area of release to 6.22 ± 0.66 km(2) around their nests (maximal homing area). Of 66 releases, no wasps returned from beyond the maximal homing area. The minimal homing area might be familiar to the foragers because they probably routinely forage in this area and the maximal homing area represents the maximum distances from which the wasps are capable of returning to their nests, with or without familiarity. PMID:26050047

  18. Local mechanical properties of the head articulation cuticle in the beetle Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Barbakadze, N; Enders, S; Gorb, S; Arzt, E

    2006-02-01

    Insect exoskeleton (cuticle) has a broad range of mechanical properties depending on the function of a particular structure of the skeleton. Structure and mechanical properties of the specialised cuticle of insect joints remain largely unknown to date. We used scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to obtain information about the material structure of the gula plate, the head part of the head-to-neck articulation system in the beetle Pachnoda marginata. The surface of this cuticle appears rather smooth in SEM. The fibers of the exocuticle are partly oriented almost perpendicular to the surface, which is rather unusual for arthropod cuticle. Nanoindentation experiments were performed to determine the local mechanical properties (hardness and elastic modulus) of the gula material. To understand the effect of desiccation and the influence of an outer wax layer on the mechanical behavior of the material, the samples were tested in fresh, dry and chemically treated (lipid extraction in organic solvents) conditions. Nanoindentation results were found to be strongly influenced by desiccation but only slightly by lipid extraction. Decreasing water content ( approximately 15-20% of the cuticle mass) led to an increase in hardness (from 0.1 to 0.49 GPa) and elastic modulus (from 1.5 to 7.5 GPa). The lipid extraction caused a slight further hardening (to 0.52 GPa) as well as stiffening (to 7.7 GPa) of the material. The results are discussed in relation to the mechanical function of the gula plate. PMID:16449566

  19. The pygmy right whale Caperea marginata: the last of the cetotheres

    PubMed Central

    Fordyce, R. Ewan; Marx, Felix G.

    2013-01-01

    The pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata, is the most enigmatic of the living baleen whales (Mysticeti). Its highly disparate morphology and the virtual absence of a described fossil record have made it extremely difficult to place Caperea into a broader evolutionary context, and molecular and morphological studies have frequently contradicted each other as to the origins and phylogenetic relationships of the species. Our study of a wealth of material from New Zealand collections, representing a wide range of ontogenetic stages, has identified several new features previously unreported in Caperea, which suggest that the pygmy right whale may be the last survivor of the supposedly extinct family Cetotheriidae. This hypothesis is corroborated by both morphology-based and total evidence cladistic analyses, including 166 morphological characters and 23 taxa, representing all the living and extinct families of toothless baleen whales. Our results allow us to formally refer Caperea to Cetotheriidae, thus resurrecting the latter from extinction and helping to clarify the origins of a long-problematic living species. PMID:23256199

  20. Composition and protein quality of honeybee-collected pollen of Eucalyptus marginata and Eucalyptus calophylla.

    PubMed

    Bell, R R; Thornber, E J; Seet, J L; Groves, M T; Ho, N P; Bell, D T

    1983-12-01

    The composition and protein quality of the two most important Western Australian export-quality pollens were investigated. Crude pollen protein content was 20.6% and 27.9% for Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) and Marri (Eucalyptus calophylla), respectively. Lysine was the limiting amino acid relative to the FAO protein scoring pattern (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), and the amino acid scores were 0.73 and 0.66 for Jarrah and Marri pollen, respectively. Apparent biological value (BV) was 61.7 for Jarrah pollen, 66.9 for Marri pollen and 71.4 for the casein controls. Adjusted protein efficiency ratio (PER) values were 2.5, 1.2 and 1.1 for casein and Jarrah and Marri pollens, respectively. Apparent net protein utilization (NPU) was significantly reduced for both pollens (32.8 for Jarrah and 39.5 for Marri) compared to casein (63.6). The low apparent NPU values result from the relatively low digestibility of pollens. Apparent digestibility was 52 and 59% for Jarrah and Marri pollen compared to 89% for casein. Although both Jarrah and Marri pollen are relatively high in protein and have favorable amino acid patterns, their relatively low digestibility will be a limiting factor in their usefulness as a food for humans and monogastric animals. The proximate analysis and mineral content of the pollens are also presented. PMID:6655512

  1. Production of terpenes in the culture of Chlorophyceae and Rhodophyta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, M.; Hashimoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    Terpenes show high reactivity in the troposphere, contributing to organic aerosol reactions with OH radicals. One of the main sources of terpenes in the atmosphere is terrestrial plants. It has been recently reported that marine phytoplankton also produce monoterpenes (Yassaa et al: 2008). Because aerosol production of natural origin affects the cloud cover over the open ocean, it is important to investigate the origin of aerosol generation in the open ocean. In this study, we investigated the production of terpenes and isoprene with a focus on Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyceae) and Rhodella maculata (Rhodophyta). Concentrations of terpenes and isoprene were measured using a dynamic headspace (GERSTEL DHS)—gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N)—mass spectrometer (Agilent 5975C). In addition, chlorophyll a was measured using a fluorometer (Turner TD-700). The results showed that isoprene, α-pinene, and β-pinene were produced by Chlamydomonas sp. and that isoprene, limonene, and camphene were produced by Rhodella maculata. Chlamydomonas sp. produced α-pinene and β-pinene, similar to land plants. The ratio of the pinene/isoprene concentrations in the atmosphere over seawater where phytoplankton are blooming has been reported as approximately 0.7 (Yassaa et al: 2008). In this experiment, the pinene/isoprene concentration ratios in the cultures were approximately 0.1. This result indicates that marine phytoplankton may not be ignored in the marine atmosphere chemistry of terpenes.

  2. The comparison of structure and anticancer activity in vitro of polysaccharides from brown algae Alaria marginata and A. angusta.

    PubMed

    Usoltseva Menshova, Roza V; Anastyuk, Stanislav D; Shevchenko, Natalia M; Zvyagintseva, Tatiana N; Ermakova, Svetlana P

    2016-11-20

    Laminaran and three fucoidan fractions were obtained from the brown alga Alaria marginata. Alaria angusta, studied earlier by us, has the same polysaccharide composition. Galactofucan AmF3 from A. marginata has a main chain of →3)-α-l-Fucp-(2,4-SO3(-))-(1→residues, similar to galactofucan from A. angusta. However, the structure of the branches in fucoidan AmF3 can differ from those in the fucoidan from A. angusta. The following fragments were identified in AmF3: HexA-(1→2)-Fuc, HexA-(1→2)-Gal, Gal-(1→4)-HexA, Fuc-(1→2)-Gal-6-SO3(-), Fuc-4-SO3(-)-(1→6)-Gal, Gal-(1→2)-Gal-2-SO3(-), Gal-4-SO3(-)-(1 →6)-Gal, Gal-4-SO3(-)-(1→3)-Fuc-(1→3)-Fuc, Fuc-4-SO3(-)-(1→6)-Gal-(1→4)-Gal, Gal-(1→4)-Gal-(1→3)-Fuc, Gal-2-SO3(-)-(1→4)-Gal-(1→4)-Gal, Gal-(1→4)-Gal-6-SO3(-)-(1→2)-Gal. Chains of galactose residues (DP up to 9) were found in AmF3 fucoidan. The laminarans, galactofucans and their derivatives from both algae exhibited no cytotoxicity in vitro. Polysaccharides from A. angusta were more effective against colony formation of HT-29 cells, while those from A. marginata had a greater effect on T-47D cells. Sulfated and desulfated fucoidans possessed weak antitumor activity using SK-MEL-28 cells. PMID:27561495

  3. Reproductive queue without overt conflict in the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Alok; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2012-01-01

    Colonies of the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata consist of a single egg layer (queen) and a number of non–egg-laying workers. Although the queen is a docile individual, not at the top of the behavioral dominance hierarchy of the colony, she maintains complete reproductive monopoly. If the queen is lost or removed, one and only one of the workers [potential queen (PQ)] becomes hyperaggressive and will become the next queen of the colony. The PQ is almost never challenged because she first becomes hyperaggressive and then gradually loses her aggression, develops her ovaries, and starts laying eggs. Although we are unable to identify the PQ when the queen is present, she appears to be a “cryptic heir designate.” Here, we show that there is not just one heir designate but a long reproductive queue and that PQs take over the role of egg-laying, successively, without overt conflict, as the queen or previous PQs are removed. The dominance rank of an individual is not a significant predictor of its position in the succession hierarchy. The age of an individual is a significant predictor, but it is not a perfect predictor because PQs often bypass older individuals to become successors. We suggest that such a predesignated reproductive queue that is implemented without overt conflict is adaptive in the tropics, where conspecific usurpers from outside the colony, which can take advantage of the anarchy prevailing in a queenless colony and invade it, are likely to be present throughout the year. PMID:22908278

  4. The Dufour's Gland and the Cuticle in the Social Wasp Ropalidia marginata Contain the Same Hydrocarbons in Similar Proportions

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, A.; Gadagkar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Queens in many social insects are known to maintain their status through chemicals (pheromones) and cuticular hydrocarbons and have been the focus of many investigations that have looked at the chemicals involved in queen signaling. In the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), the Dufour's gland has been shown to be involved in queen signaling, and Dufour's gland hydrocarbons have been found to be correlated with fertility. Hence, this study analyzed the cuticle of R. marginata along with the Dufour's gland in order to compare their hydrocarbon profiles. The results show that the Dufour's gland and cuticle contained the same set of hydrocarbons in similar proportions (for the majority of compounds). Patterns pertaining to fertility signaling present in cuticular hydrocarbons were also similar to those present in the Dufour's gland hydrocarbons. Furthermore, the haemolymph contained the same hydrocarbons as found in the Dufour's gland and cuticle in similar proportions, thereby providing an explanation as to why the hydrocarbon profiles of the Dufour's gland and cuticle are correlated. PMID:25373156

  5. Factors influencing the abundance of pests in production fields and rates of interception of Dracaena marginata imported from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Eduardo; Benjamin, Tamara; Casanoves, Fernando; Sadof, Clifford

    2013-10-01

    Importation of live nursery plants, like Dracaena marginata Lamoureux (Ruscaceae), can provide a significant pathway for the entry of foliar pests from overseas into the United States. We studied the abundance of foliar pests of quarantine importance found on Costa Rican-grown D. marginata. These include five genera of leafhoppers (Heteroptera: Cicadellidae, Oncometopia, Caldweliola, Diestostema, Cypona, and Empoasca), Florida red scale (Heteroptera: Disapididae, Chrysomphalus aoinidum (L.)), katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae), and a snail (Succinea costarricana von Martens (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Succineidae)). In our first study, we examined the rationale behind size restrictions on Dracaena cuttings imported into the United States from Costa Rica. When comparing plant size, no differences were found in the abundance of quarantined pests on small (15-46 cm), medium (46-81 cm), and large (81-152 cm) propagules. In a second study, we estimated monthly abundances of pests in production plots for 1 yr to determine their relationship to rates of interception at U.S. ports. In any given month, < 6% of the marketable shoots standing in the field were infested with at least one quarantine pest. There was no relationship between the average monthly frequencies of pest detection in the field and in U.S. inspection ports. Pest detections increased during the 1 mo when average monthly shipments were abnormally high. Our data suggest that off-shore postprocessing efforts to remove pest-infested material from the market stream need to be adjusted to accommodate sharp increases in the volume of shipped plants. PMID:24224243

  6. A comparison of four geographic sources of the biocontrol agent Prokelisia marginata (Homoptera: Delphacidae) following introduction into a common environment.

    PubMed

    Grevstad, F S; O'Casey, C; Katz, M L

    2012-06-01

    As part of a biological control program against Spartina alterniflora Loisel. (smooth cordgrass), we simultaneously released populations of the planthopper Prokelisia marginata (van Duzee) from four geographic areas in each of five replicate field sites in the Willapa Bay estuary in Washington State. The four sources (California, Georgia, Virginia, and Rhode Island) have varying climate and seasonal regimes. We expected local adaptations would affect performance in the new environment. Using vacuum sampling, we measured population densities in spring and fall for 2 yr after release. In addition, we measured the timing of spring emergence through bi-weekly surveys of the number of nymphs residing in overwintering sites (curled leaves of senesced Spartina culms) versus on live green shoots. The observed sequence of emergence GA>CA>VA>RI was consistent with the hypothesis that this insect responds to a photoperiod cue for emergence timing. The four populations also differed in their reproductive capacity as measured by the increase in population densities over the summer months. Overall, the California and Rhode Island populations had higher population growth than those from Virginia and Georgia. Our results suggest that the climate and seasonal adaptations of biocontrol agents should be carefully considered as they can affect the performance and phenology in the new range. At the same time, it is noteworthy that all four populations were capable of establishing and growing, indicating a degree of resiliency for populations experiencing a rapid change in climate. PMID:22732601

  7. Changes in Cytokinin Concentrations in Xylem Extrudate following Infection of Eucalyptus marginata Donn ex Sm with Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands 1

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, David M.; Weste, Gretna M.; Grant, Bruce R.

    1986-01-01

    The concentrations of zeatin-type and isopentenyladenine-type cytokinins were reduced in the xylem extrudate collected from seedlings of Eucalyptus species following infection by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. The use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) allowed the detection of these cytokinins over the range of 0.3 to 7 picomoles for the isopentenyladenine-type and 1 to 1000 picomoles for the zeatin-type. Isopentenyladenine-type cytokinins occurred in concentrations less than 10% of the zeatin-type, but they could be readily detected and measured. This is the first report of their presence in xylem. The sensitivity of the assay allowed a short collection period (30 minutes) reducing any confusion with trauma-induced changes. Infection of the susceptible species Eucalyptus marginata Donn. ex Sm. resulted in significant reduction of zeatin-type cytokinins within 3 days of infection, and at 14 days postinfection the concentration of both cytokinin types was reduced to 26% of uninoculated controls. No reduction in cytokinins occurred with the field resistant Eucalyptus calophylla R. Br. It is suggested that failure of cytokinin transport from the root system may be responsible for the failure in water transport and symptoms of P. cinnamomi infection observed in infected susceptible eucalypts. PMID:16664951

  8. Changes in Cytokinin Concentrations in Xylem Extrudate following Infection of Eucalyptus marginata Donn ex Sm with Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands.

    PubMed

    Cahill, D M; Weste, G M; Grant, B R

    1986-08-01

    The concentrations of zeatin-type and isopentenyladenine-type cytokinins were reduced in the xylem extrudate collected from seedlings of Eucalyptus species following infection by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. The use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) allowed the detection of these cytokinins over the range of 0.3 to 7 picomoles for the isopentenyladenine-type and 1 to 1000 picomoles for the zeatin-type. Isopentenyladenine-type cytokinins occurred in concentrations less than 10% of the zeatin-type, but they could be readily detected and measured. This is the first report of their presence in xylem. The sensitivity of the assay allowed a short collection period (30 minutes) reducing any confusion with trauma-induced changes. Infection of the susceptible species Eucalyptus marginata Donn. ex Sm. resulted in significant reduction of zeatin-type cytokinins within 3 days of infection, and at 14 days postinfection the concentration of both cytokinin types was reduced to 26% of uninoculated controls. No reduction in cytokinins occurred with the field resistant Eucalyptus calophylla R. Br. It is suggested that failure of cytokinin transport from the root system may be responsible for the failure in water transport and symptoms of P. cinnamomi infection observed in infected susceptible eucalypts. PMID:16664951

  9. Evolution of social behaviour in the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata: do we need to look beyond kin selection?

    PubMed

    Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2016-02-01

    Ropalidia marginata is a primitively eusocial wasp widely distributed in peninsular India. Although solitary females found a small proportion of nests, the vast majority of new nests are founded by small groups of females. In such multiple foundress nests, a single dominant female functions as the queen and lays eggs, while the rest function as sterile workers and care for the queen's brood. Previous attempts to understand the evolution of social behaviour and altruism in this species have employed inclusive fitness theory (kin selection) as a guiding framework. Although inclusive fitness theory is quite successful in explaining the high propensity of the wasps to found nests in groups, several features of their social organization suggest that forces other than kin selection may also have played a significant role in the evolution of this species. These features include lowering of genetic relatedness owing to polyandry and serial polygyny, nest foundation by unrelated individuals, acceptance of young non-nest-mates, a combination of well-developed nest-mate recognition and lack of intra-colony kin recognition, a combination of meek and docile queens and a decentralized self-organized work force, long reproductive queues with cryptic heir designates and conflict-free queen succession, all resulting in extreme intra-colony cooperation and inter-colony conflict. PMID:26729933

  10. Ecto- and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can induce tolerance to toxic pulses of phosphorus in jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kariman, Khalil; Barker, Susan J; Finnegan, Patrick M; Tibbett, Mark

    2014-10-01

    In common with many plants native to low P soils, jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) develops toxicity symptoms upon exposure to elevated phosphorus (P). Jarrah plants can establish arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations, along with a non-colonizing symbiosis described recently. AM colonization is known to influence the pattern of expression of genes required for P uptake of host plants and our aim was to investigate this phenomenon in relation to P sensitivity. Therefore, we examined the effect on hosts of the presence of AM and ECM fungi in combination with toxic pulses of P and assessed possible correlations between the induced tolerance and the shoot P concentration. The P transport dynamics of AM (Rhizophagus irregularis and Scutellospora calospora), ECM (Scleroderma sp.), non-colonizing symbiosis (Austroboletus occidentalis), dual mycorrhizal (R. irregularis and Scleroderma sp.), and non-mycorrhizal (NM) seedlings were monitored following two pulses of P. The ECM and A. occidentalis associations significantly enhanced the shoot P content of jarrah plants growing under P-deficient conditions. In addition, S. calospora, A. occidentalis, and Scleroderma sp. all stimulated plant growth significantly. All inoculated plants had significantly lower phytotoxicity symptoms compared to NM controls 7 days after addition of an elevated P dose (30 mg P kg(-1) soil). Following exposure to toxicity-inducing levels of P, the shoot P concentration was significantly lower in R. irregularis-inoculated and dually inoculated plants compared to NM controls. Although all inoculated plants had reduced toxicity symptoms and there was a positive linear relationship between rank and shoot P concentration, the protective effect was not necessarily explained by the type of fungal association or the extent of mycorrhizal colonization. PMID:24584781

  11. Taxonomic biodiversity of geniculate coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from the Macaronesian region: summary and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas-Alquicira, Edgar F.; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Afonso-Carrillo, Julio; Neto, Ana I.

    2011-06-01

    A catalog and critical review of species and infraspecific taxa of non-fossil geniculate coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) previously reported from the Macaronesian region are presented along with an assessment of species diversity in the region. Published records of geniculate coralline algae are included along with comments relating to type material. Within the catalog, taxa are organized alphabetically by genus and within this by final epithet. From the 31 taxa recorded, 4 are based on type collections from Macaronesian localities. The types of most species and infraspecific taxa reported from the region have yet to be re-examined in a modern context, and most Macaronesian records require verification. The biodiversity of Macaronesian geniculate coralline algae may be lower than current information indicates.

  12. Red Algae (Rhodophyta) from the Coast of Madagascar: Preliminary Bioactivity Studies and Isolation of Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Rahelivao, Marie Pascaline; Gruner, Margit; Andriamanantoanina, Hanta; Andriamihaja, Bakolinirina; Bauer, Ingmar; Knölker, Hans-Joachim

    2015-07-01

    Several species of red algae (Rhodophyta) from the coastal regions of Madagascar have been investigated for their natural products. The most abundant compound was cholesterol (5) in combination with a series of oxidized congeners. The brominated indoles 1-3 along with the sesquiterpene debilone (4) have been isolated from Laurencia complanata. For the first time, debilone (4) has been obtained from a marine plant. From the methanol extract of Calloseris sp., we have achieved the second isolation of the unusual A-ring contracted steroids (-)-2-ethoxycarbonyl-2β-hydroxy-A-nor-cholest-5-en-4-one (9) and phorbasterone B (10). The crude extracts of Laurencia complanata exhibited antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Candida albicans. PMID:26198236

  13. Red Algae (Rhodophyta) from the Coast of Madagascar: Preliminary Bioactivity Studies and Isolation of Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Rahelivao, Marie Pascaline; Gruner, Margit; Andriamanantoanina, Hanta; Andriamihaja, Bakolinirina; Bauer, Ingmar; Knölker, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Several species of red algae (Rhodophyta) from the coastal regions of Madagascar have been investigated for their natural products. The most abundant compound was cholesterol (5) in combination with a series of oxidized congeners. The brominated indoles 1–3 along with the sesquiterpene debilone (4) have been isolated from Laurencia complanata. For the first time, debilone (4) has been obtained from a marine plant. From the methanol extract of Calloseris sp., we have achieved the second isolation of the unusual A-ring contracted steroids (−)-2-ethoxycarbonyl-2β-hydroxy-A-nor-cholest-5-en-4-one (9) and phorbasterone B (10). The crude extracts of Laurencia complanata exhibited antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Candida albicans. PMID:26198236

  14. Sensitivity of jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) to phosphate, phosphite, and arsenate pulses as influenced by fungal symbiotic associations.

    PubMed

    Kariman, Khalil; Barker, Susan J; Jost, Ricarda; Finnegan, Patrick M; Tibbett, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Many plant species adapted to P-impoverished soils, including jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata), develop toxicity symptoms when exposed to high doses of phosphate (Pi) and its analogs such as phosphite (Phi) and arsenate (AsV). The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of fungal symbionts Scutellospora calospora, Scleroderma sp., and Austroboletus occidentalis on the response of jarrah to highly toxic pulses (1.5 mmol kg(-1) soil) of Pi, Phi, and AsV. S. calospora formed an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis while both Scleroderma sp. and A. occidentalis established a non-colonizing symbiosis with jarrah plants. All these interactions significantly improved jarrah growth and Pi uptake under P-limiting conditions. The AM fungal colonization naturally declines in AM-eucalypt symbioses after 2-3 months; however, in the present study, the high Pi pulse inhibited the decline of AM fungal colonization in jarrah. Four weeks after exposure to the Pi pulse, plants inoculated with S. calospora had significantly lower toxicity symptoms compared to non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants, and all fungal treatments induced tolerance against Phi toxicity in jarrah. However, no tolerance was observed for AsV-treated plants even though all inoculated plants had significantly lower shoot As concentrations than the NM plants. The transcript profile of five jarrah high-affinity phosphate transporter (PHT1 family) genes in roots was not altered in response to any of the fungal species tested. Interestingly, plants exposed to high Pi supplies for 1 day did not have reduced transcript levels for any of the five PHT1 genes in roots, and transcript abundance of four PHT1 genes actually increased. It is therefore suggested that jarrah, and perhaps other P-sensitive perennial species, respond positively to Pi available in the soil solution through increasing rather than decreasing the expression of selected PHT1 genes. Furthermore, Scleroderma sp. can be considered as a fungus with

  15. A reappraisal of the vital effect in cultured benthic foraminifer Bulimina marginata on Mg/Ca values: assessing temperature uncertainty relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wit, J. C.; de Nooijer, L. J.; Barras, C.; Jorissen, F. J.; Reichart, G. J.

    2012-09-01

    The reconstruction of past temperatures is often achieved through measuring the Mg/Ca value of foraminiferal test carbonate. The diversity in foraminiferal Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations suggests that there is also a biological control on this proxy. This study presents a new Mg/Ca-temperature calibration for the benthic foraminifer Bulimina marginata, based on cultures under a range of temperatures (4-14 °C). Measured Mg/Ca values for B. marginata correlate with temperature (Mg/Ca = (1.10 ± 0.10) e(0.045±0.009)T, R2 = 0.28 p < 0.01). The inter-individual variability is, however, also significant (standard deviation is 10-35% of the average). Before applying this or any calibration, the effect of the inter-individual variability on the accuracy of the Mg/Ca-temperature calibration has to be evaluated. The inter-individual variability is quantified and split into three components, namely (1) an analytical error, (2) an environmental effect and (3) a vital effect. The effect of inter-individual variability on the accuracy of Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations depends on the sensitivity of the calibration used and the number of individuals measured (temperature uncertainty = (0.33 · N-0.50)/sensitivity). The less sensitive a calibration, the greater is the impact of inter-individual variability, which can partly be circumvented by measuring more individuals. This study shows the link between inter-individual variability and sensitivity and quantifies their influence on the accuracy of Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations. Differences in the sensitivity of the Mg/Ca-temperature calibration of foraminifera may depend on the environmental conditions in which foraminifera live and their concurring ecological strategies.

  16. Humoral responses of broiler chickens challenged with NDV following supplemental treatment with extracts of Aloe vera, Alma millsoni, Ganoderma lucidum and Archachatina marginata

    PubMed Central

    Eghafona, Nosahkare'Odeh

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study The significance of nutritional supplements for immunity has been documented. Locally sourced extracts used in alternative medicine were studied to determine their potential effects on antibody production and humoral responses in viral challenged birds. Method Three hundred and eighty birds were distributed into 19 groups of 20 birds each. Following acclimatization for 16 days, they were fed with standard broilers feed and water ad libitum. Group A was supplemented with Aloe vera (AV) extract, group B was given Alma millsoni (AM) extract, group C was given Archachatina marginata (AMS) extract and group D was given Ganoderma lucidum (GL) extract, and group E was the control group. Extract concentrations of 50 mg, 100 mg and 150 mg were given to three subsets of each treatment group for 30 days. Birds were then challenged with intramuscular administration of 0.2 ml of 50% Embryo Lethal Dose of saline suspension of the challenge strain of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) on the 30th day, and were examined for clinical signs and symptoms. Serum from venous blood was used for antibody and immunological assay. Results Aloe vera at 50 µg and A. millsoni extracts supplementations yielded a significant antibody titre (p < 0.001). The difference within the AMS, GL and AV groups and the control group was not statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion Unlike the extract of Ganoderma and A. marginata, pretreatment with A. millsoni extract and a lower dosage of Aloe vera enhanced the ability to mount humoral responses against viral infection in broiler chickens. PMID:26648773

  17. The freshwater alga Chroothece richteriana (Rhodophyta) as a potential source of lipids.

    PubMed

    Aboal, Marina; González-Silvera, Daniel; Roldán, Mónica; Hernández-Mariné, Mariona; López-Jiménez, José Ángel; Whitton, Brian A

    2014-11-01

    During an ecological study of Chroothece (Rhodophyta) in a small river in a semi-arid region of south-east Spain it became clear that most of these cells had a high lipid content. This suggested potential uses in biotechnology, which has been investigated further. The colonies, which occur in full sunlight, are typically orange-brown. Most, perhaps all, the yellow-orange colour is associated with their high carotenoid content, with the carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio up to 2.7. The polyunsaturated fatty acyl composition of the glycerides was 35.3% of the dry weight. This consisted mainly of omega-3 (5.9%) and omega-6 (29.4%) fats. The relatively high proportion of docosahexaenoyl (1.78%), eicosapentaenoyl (14.15%), arachidonoyl (0.92%) and γ-linolenoyl (0.78%) suggests use for medical and dietary purposes. All cells have a high phycocyanin content whilst phycoerythrin is absent. The alga has a wide distribution globally and hence provides scope for selecting strains with optimum properties. PMID:24874369

  18. Insight into glucosidase II from the red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Fisher, Merav; Shotland, Yoram; Tekoah, Yoram; Malis Arad, Shoshana

    2015-12-01

    N-glycosylation of proteins is one of the most important post-translational modifications that occur in various organisms, and is of utmost importance for protein function, stability, secretion, and loca-lization. Although the N-linked glycosylation pathway of proteins has been extensively characterized in mammals and plants, not much information is available regarding the N-glycosylation pathway in algae. We studied the α 1,3-glucosidase glucosidase II (GANAB) glycoenzyme in a red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta) using bioinformatic and biochemical approaches. The GANAB-gene was found to be highly conserved evolutionarily (compo-sed of all the common features of α and β subunits) and to exhibit similar motifs consistent with that of homolog eukaryotes GANAB genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its wide distribution across an evolutionarily vast range of organisms; while the α subunit is highly conserved and its phylogenic tree is similar to the taxon evolutionary tree, the β subunit is less conserved and its pattern somewhat differs from the taxon tree. In addition, the activity of the red microalgal GANAB enzyme was studied, including functional and biochemical characterization using a bioassay, indicating that the enzyme is similar to other eukaryotes ortholog GANAB enzymes. A correlation between polysaccharide production and GANAB activity, indicating its involvement in polysaccharide biosynthesis, is also demonstrated. This study represents a valuable contribution toward understanding the N-glycosylation and polysaccharide biosynthesis pathways in red microalgae. PMID:26987003

  19. Cloning and analysis of calmodulin gene from Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengqiang; Mao, Yunxiang; Zhuang, Yunyun; Kong, Fanna; Sui, Zhenghong

    2009-09-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of signal transduction and anti-desiccation mechanisms of Porphyra yezoensis, cDNA and its genomic sequence of Calmodulin gene (CaM) was cloned by the technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the analysis of P. yezoensis ESTs from dbEST database. The result shows that the full-length cDNA of CaM consists of 603 bps including an ORF encoding for 151 amino acids and a terminate codon UGA, while the length of genomic sequence is 1231 bps including 2 exons and 1 intron. The average GC content of the coding region is 58.77%, while the GC content of the third position of this gene is as high as 82.23%. Four Ca2+ binding sites (EF-hand) are found in this gene. The predicted molecular mass of the deduced peptide is 16688.72 Da and the pI is 4.222. By aligning with known CaM genes, the similarity of CaM gene sequence with homologous genes in Chlamydomonas incerta and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is 72.7% and 72.2% respectively, and the similarity of the deduced amino acid sequence of CaM gene with homologous genes in C. incerta and C. reinhardtii are both 71.5%. This is the first report on CaM from a species of Rhodophyta.

  20. Mevalonosomes: specific vacuoles containing the mevalonate pathway in Plocamium brasiliense cortical cells (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Paradas, Wladimir Costa; Crespo, Thalita Mendes; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; de Andrade, Leonardo Rodrigues; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Hellio, Claire; Paranhos, Ricardo Rogers; Hill, Lilian Jorge; de Souza, Geysa Marinho; Kelecom, Alphonse Germaine Albert Charles; Da Gama, Bernardo Antônio Perez; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Amado-Filho, Gilberto Menezes

    2015-04-01

    This paper has identified, for the first time in a member of the Rhodophyta, a vacuolar organelle containing enzymes that are involved in the mevalonate pathway-an important step in red algal isoprenoid biosynthesis. These organelles were named mevalonosomes (Mev) and were found in the cortical cells (CC) of Plocamium brasiliense, a marine macroalgae that synthesizes several halogenated monoterpenes. P. brasiliense specimens were submitted to a cytochemical analysis of the activity of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGS). Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we confirmed the presence of HMGS activity within the Mev. Because HMGS is necessary for the biosynthesis of halogenated monoterpenes, we isolated a hexanic fraction (HF) rich in halogenated monoterpenes from P. brasiliense that contained a pentachlorinated monoterpene as a major metabolite. Because terpenes are often related to chemical defense, the antifouling (AF) activity of pentachlorinated monoterpene was tested. We found that the settlement of the mussel Perna perna was reduced by HF treatment (2.25 times less than control; 40% and 90% of fouled surface, respectively; P = 0.001; F9,9 = 1.13). The HF (at 10 μg · mL(-1) ) also inhibited three species of fouling microalgae (Chlorarachnion reptans, Cylindrotheca cloisterium, and Exanthemachrysis gayraliae), while at a higher concentration (50 μg · mL(-1) ), it inhibited the bacteria Halomonas marina, Polaribacter irgensii, Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii, Shewanella putrefaciens, and Vibrio aestuarianus. The AF activity of P. brasiliense halogenated monoterpenes and the localization of HMGS activity inside Mev suggest that this cellular structure found in CC may play a role in thallus protection against biofouling. PMID:26986518

  1. DNA barcode assessment of Ceramiales (Rhodophyta) in the intertidal zone of the northwestern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guoying; Wu, Feifei; Guo, Hao; Xue, Hongfan; Mao, Yunxiang

    2015-05-01

    A total of 142 specimens of Ceramiales (Rhodophyta) were collected each month from October 2011 to November 2012 in the intertidal zone of the northwestern Yellow Sea. These specimens covered 21 species, 14 genera, and four families. Cluster analyses show that the specimens had a high diversity for the three DNA markers, namely, partial large subunit rRNA gene (LSU), universal plastid amplicon (UPA), and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). No intraspecific divergence was found in our collection for these markers, except for a 1-3 bp divergence in the COI of Ceramium kondoi, Symphyocladia latiuscula, and Neosiphonia japonica. Because short DNA markers were used, the phylogenetic relationships of higher taxonomic levels were hard to evaluate with poor branch support. More than half species of our collection failed to find their matched sequences owing to shortage information of DNA barcodes for macroalgae in GenBank or BOLD (Barcode of Life Data) Systems. Three specimens were presumed as Heterosiphonia crispella by cluster analyses on DNA barcodes assisted by morphological identification, which was the first record in the investigated area, implying that it might be a cryptic or invasive species in the coastal area of northwestern Yellow Sea. In the neighbor-joining trees of all three DNA markers, Heterosiphonia japonica converged with Dasya spp. and was distant from the other Heterosiphonia spp., implying that H. japonica had affinities to the genus Dasya. The LSU and UPA markers amplified and sequenced easier than the COI marker across the Ceramiales species, but the COI had a higher ability to discriminate between species.

  2. New records of rhodolith-forming species (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from deep water in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, Maria Carolina; Villas-Boas, Alexandre; Rodriguez, Rafael Riosmena; Figueiredo, Marcia A. O.

    2012-06-01

    Little is known about the diversity of non-geniculate coralline red algae (Rhodophyta, Corallinophycidae) from deep waters in Brazil. Most surveys undertaken in this country have been carried out in shallow waters. In 1994, however, the REVIZEE program surveyed the sustainable living resources potential of the Brazilian exclusive economic zone to depths of 500 m. In the present study, the rhodolith-forming coralline algae from the continental shelf of Espírito Santo State were identified. Samples were taken from 54 to 60 m depth by dredging during ship cruises in 1997. Three rhodolith-forming species were found: Spongites yendoi (Foslie) Chamberlain , Lithothamnion muelleri Lenormand ex Rosanoff and Lithothamnion glaciale Kjellman. These records extend the distribution ranges of these species into Brazilian waters and extend the depth distribution of non-geniculate coralline red algae into Brazilian water to 58 m.

  3. Thermal pollution and settlement of new tropical alien species: The case of Grateloupia yinggehaiensis (Rhodophyta) in the Venice Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, M. A.; Sfriso, A.; Moro, I.

    2014-06-01

    The Venice Lagoon has become increasingly affected by the introduction of allochthonous macroalgae mainly coming from the Indo-Pacific area. In consequence to the recent climate changes and temperature increase, such species could simply find numerous habitats suitable for their growth. One local process that contributes to water temperature changes is thermal pollution. In this study we used the DNA barcoding method to identify a new alien macroalgal species, Grateloupia yinggehaiensis Wang et Luan (Rhodophyta), found near the industrial area of Porto Marghera (Venice, Italy) hosting the Fusina thermoelectric power plant. The microclimate of this area has enabled the spread of this species native of the tropical area of the Hainan Province (China) and probably introduced in the Mediterranean Sea via shellfish transfers.

  4. Homologs of wingless and decapentaplegic display a complex and dynamic expression profile during appendage development in the millipede Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda)

    PubMed Central

    Prpic, Nikola-Michael

    2004-01-01

    Background The Drosophila genes wingless (wg) and decapentaplegic (dpp) comprise the top level of a hierarchical gene cascade involved in proximal-distal (PD) patterning of the legs. It remains unclear, whether this cascade is common to the appendages of all arthropods. Here, wg and dpp are studied in the millipede Glomeris marginata, a representative of the Myriapoda. Results Glomeris wg (Gm-wg) is expressed along the ventral side of the appendages compatible with functioning during the patterning of both the PD and dorsal-ventral (DV) axes. Gm-wg may also be involved in sensory organ formation in the gnathal appendages by inducing the expression of Distal-less (Dll) and H15 in the organ primordia. Expression of Glomeris dpp (Gm-dpp) is found at the tip of the trunk legs as well as weakly along the dorsal side of the legs in early stages. Taking data from other arthropods into account, these results may be interpreted in favor of a conserved mode of WG/DPP signaling. Apart from the main PD axis, many arthropod appendages have additional branches (e.g. endites). It is debated whether these extra branches develop their PD axis via the same mechanism as the main PD axis, or whether branch-specific mechanisms exist. Gene expression in possible endite homologs in Glomeris argues for the latter alternative. Conclusion All available data argue in favor of a conserved role of WG/DPP morphogen gradients in guiding the development of the main PD axis. Additional branches in multibranched (multiramous) appendage types apparently do not utilize the WG/DPP signaling system for their PD development. This further supports recent work on crustaceans and insects, that lead to similar conclusions. PMID:15679927

  5. Occurrence of aluminum in chloride cells of Perla marginata (Plecoptera) after exposure to low pH and elevated aluminum concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Guerold, F.; Giamberini, L.; Pihan, J.C.; Tourmann, J.L.; Kaufmann, R.

    1995-04-01

    As a consequence of acid depositions on poorly buffered catchments underlain by hard rocks, aluminum is mobilized and transported from terrestrial systems to the aquatic environment. Loss of fishes has been related to low pH and elevated aluminum concentrations in surface waters which present a low ionic content especially during acid stress such as snowmelt and heavy rainfalls. Among the causes of fish population decline in acid waters, aluminum is considered a toxic cofactor. Different studies have clearly shown that aluminum is accumulated in different organs such as kidneys, liver and gills. Research on fish has demonstrated that aluminum may be toxic, but the toxicity is markedly influenced by the pH, organic compounds and calcium content of the water. Field surveys have shown clearly that macroinvertebrates are also affected by surface-water acidification. However, little is know about the possible effects of aluminum on aquatic invertebrates and, particularly, on aquatic insects exposed to acidic conditions. Hall et al. have shown that the whole-body concentration of aluminum decreases in blackflies and mayflies transplated from neutral water to acid water. Similar results have been reported for Daphnia and chironomid. On the contrary, Ormerod et al. demonstrated the absence of relationship between water pH and insect aluminum concentrations. When aluminum occurs in aquatic insects, it has been shown that it is primarily adsorbed on the external surface and/or accumulates in gut contents. To our knowledge, the subcellular location as well as the toxicity of aluminum to acid-sensitive aquatic insects remains unclear and existing hypotheses are often based on research on fish. In this content the purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of aluminum at a subcellular level in the acid-sensitive species of stonefly, Perla marginata, after exposure to low pH and elevated aluminum concentrations. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. An improved PCR method for direct identification of Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) using conchocelis based on a RUBISCO intergenic spacer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Dong, Dong; Wang, Guangce; Zhang, Baoyu; Peng, Guang; Xu, Pu; Tang, Xiaorong

    2009-09-01

    An improved method of PCR in which the small segment of conchocelis is amplified directly without DNA extraction was used to amplify a RUBISCO intergenic spacer DNA fragment from nine species of red algal genus Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta), including Porphyra yezoensis (Jiangsu, China), P. haitanensis (Fujian, China), P. oligospermatangia (Qingdao, China), P. katadai (Qingdao, China), P. tenera (Qingdao, China), P. suborboculata (Fujian, China), P. pseudolinearis (Kogendo, Korea), P. linearis (Devon, England), and P. fallax (Seattle, USA). Standard PCR and the method developed here were both conducted using primers specific for the RUBISCO spacer region, after which the two PCR products were sequenced. The sequencing data of the amplicons obtained using both methods were identical, suggesting that the improved PCR method was functional. These findings indicate that the method developed here may be useful for the rapid identification of species of Porphyra in a germplasm bank. In addition, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using the RUBISCO spacer and partial rbcS sequence, and the results were in concordant with possible alternative phylogenies based on traditional morphological taxonomic characteristics, indicating that the RUBISCO spacer is a useful region for phylogenetic studies.

  7. Effect of nutrient supply on photosynthesis and pigmentation to short-term stress (UV radiation) in Gracilaria conferta (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Figueroa, F L; Israel, A; Neori, A; Martínez, B; Malta, E J; Put, A; Inken, S; Marquardt, R; Abdala, R; Korbee, N

    2010-10-01

    The effects of increased photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), UV radiation (UVR), and nutrient supply on photosynthetic activity, pigment content, C:N ratio and biomass yield were studied in tank cultivated Gracilaria conferta (Rhodophyta). Electron transport rate (ETR) and biliprotein content were higher under high nutrient supply (HNS), obtained from fishpond effluents, compared to low nutrient supply (LNS), in contrast to mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) dynamic. The high MAA content in LNS-algae could be explained by higher UVR penetration in the thallus and by the competition for the use of nutrients with other processes. Effective quantum yield decreased after short-term exposure to high irradiance whereas full recovery in shade was produced only under slightly heat shock. UVA radiation provoked an additional decrease in photosynthesis under high water temperature. UVB radiation reversed UVA's negative effect mainly with HNS. Results support that nutrient-sufficiency help G. conferta to resist environmental changes as short-term temperature increase. PMID:20619863

  8. Morphological study of the genus Herposiphonia (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae) on the coast of eastern Guangdong, China, with a description of H. pinnata sp. nov.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lanping; Tan, Huaqiang; Zhang, Quanliang; Zeng, Lingzhao; Huang, Bingxin

    2016-03-01

    We present a taxonomic study of taxa of the red algae genus Herposiphonia (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae), collected from the coast of eastern Guangdong, China. We made detailed morphological studies and considered recent taxonomic criteria for species delimitation, and are making the first report of five different species on the coast of Guangdong, including a new species. The species identified were H. caespitosa Tseng, H. hollenbergii Dawson, H. pecten - veneris (Harvey) Falkenberg, H. subdisticha Okamura and H. pinnata Ding and Tan sp. nov. H. pinnata sp. nov. is characterized by bright green thalli; most parts of the feathery thalli are free of the substratum; determinate branches and indeterminate branches are arranged in a chaotic sequence; the primary axis has bare segments; the determinate branch has 9-11 periaxial cells per segment; vegetative trichoblasts are abundant; and tetrasporangia are formed on the middle of the determinate branch with 1-8 successive segments in a single rectilinear series. This paper is also the first record of sporophyte plants of H. pecten-veneris.

  9. Preliminary study on the responses of three marine algae, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta), Gelidium amansii (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum enerve (Phaeophyta), to nitrogen source and its availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongyan; Amy, Pickering; Sun, Jun

    2004-04-01

    An experiment was designed to select economically valuable macroalga species with high nutrient uptake rates. Such species cultured on a large scale could be a potential solution to eutrophication. Three macroalgae species, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta), Gelidium amansii (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum enerve (Phaeophyta), were chosen for the experiment because of their economic values and availability. Control and four nitrogen concentrations were achieved by adding NH{4/+} and NO{3/-}. The results indicate that the fresh weights of all species increase faster than that of control after 5 d culture. The fresh weight of Ulva pertusa increases fastest among the 3 species. However, different species show different responses to nitrogen source and its availability. They also show the advantage of using NH{4/+} than using NO{3/-}. U. pertusa grows best and shows higher capability of removing nitrogen at 200µmolL-1, but it has lower economical value. G. amansii has higher economical value but lower capability of removing nitrogen at 200 µmolL-1. The capability of nitrogen assimilation of S. enerve is higher than that of G. amansii at 200µmolL -1, but the former’s increase of fresh weight is lower than those of other two species. Then present preliminary study demonstrates that it is possible to use macroalgae as biofilters and further development of this approach could provide biologically valuable information on the source, fate, and transport of N in marine ecosystems. Caution is needed should we extrapolate these findings to natural environments.

  10. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gavio, Brigitte; Reyes-Gómez, Viviana P; Wynne, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350,000 km2. However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37 m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5 mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions. PMID:24027904

  11. Grateloupia ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta), a new species from China based on morphological evidence and comparative rbcL sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Cuicui; Liu, Miao; Guo, Shaoru; Zhao, Dan; Luan, Rixiao; Wang, Hongwei

    2016-03-01

    Grateloupia ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) is newly described from Hainan Province, southern China. The organism has the following morphological features: (1) purplish red, cartilaginous and lubricous thalli 5-10 cm in height; (2) compressed percurrent axes bearing abundant branches with opposite arrangement; (3) claw-like apices on top, constricted to 2-4 cm at the base; (4) cortex consisting of 3-6 layers of elliptical or anomalous cells and a medulla covered by compact medullary filaments; (5) reproductive structures distributed throughout the thallus, especially centralized at the bottom of the end portion of the branches; and (6) 4-celled Carpogonial branches and 3-celled auxiliary-cell branches, both of the Grateloupia-type. The morphological diff erences were supported by molecular phylogenetics based on ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ( rbcL) gene sequence analysis. There was only a 1 bp divergence between specimens collected from Wenchang and Lingshui of Hainan province. The new species was embedded in the large Grateloupia clade of the Halymeniaceae. The pairwise distances between G. ramosa and other species within Grateloupia ranged from 26 to 105 bp, within pairwise distances of 13-111 bp between species of the large genus Grateloupia in Halymeniaceae. Thus, we propose this new species as G. ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov.

  12. Alterations in seawater pH and CO 2 affect calcification and photosynthesis in the tropical coralline alga, Hydrolithon sp. (Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semesi, I. Sware; Kangwe, Juma; Björk, Mats

    2009-09-01

    Calcification in the marine environment is the basis for the accretion of carbonate in structures such as coral reefs, algal ridges and carbonate sands. Among the organisms responsible for such calcification are the Corallinaceae (Rhodophyta), recognised as major contributors to the process world-wide. Hydrolithon sp. is a coralline alga that often forms rhodoliths in the Western Indian Ocean. In Zanzibar, it is commonly found in shallow lagoons, where it often grows within seagrass beds and/or surrounded by green algae such as Ulva sp. Since seagrasses in Zanzibar have recently been shown to raise the pH of the surrounding seawater during the day, and since calcification rates are sensitive to pH, which changes the saturation state of calcium carbonate, we measured the effects of pH on photosynthetic and calcification rates of this alga. It was found that pH had significant effects on both calcification and photosynthesis. While increased pH enhanced calcification rates both in the light and in the dark at pH >8.6, photosynthetic rates decreased. On the other hand, an increase in dissolved CO 2 concentration to ˜26 μmol kg -1 (by bubbling with air containing 0.9 mbar CO 2) caused a decrease in seawater pH which resulted in 20% less calcification after 5 days of exposure, while enhancing photosynthetic rates by 13%. The ecological implications of these findings is that photosynthetically driven changes in water chemistry by surrounding plants can affect calcification rates of coralline algae, as may future ocean acidification resulting from elevated atmospheric CO 2.

  13. Group I introns and associated homing endonuclease genes reveals a clinal structure for Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) along the Eastern coast of South America

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Group I introns are found in the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) of some species of the genus Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Size polymorphisms in group I introns has been interpreted as the result of the degeneration of homing endonuclease genes (HEG) inserted in peripheral loops of intron paired elements. In this study, intron size polymorphisms were characterized for different Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (PSA) populations on the Southern Brazilian coast, and were used to infer genetic relationships and genetic structure of these PSA populations, in addition to cox2-3 and rbcL-S regions. Introns of different sizes were tested qualitatively for in vitro self-splicing. Results Five intron size polymorphisms within 17 haplotypes were obtained from 80 individuals representing eight localities along the distribution of PSA in the Eastern coast of South America. In order to infer genetic structure and genetic relationships of PSA, these polymorphisms and haplotypes were used as markers for pairwise Fst analyses, Mantel's test and median joining network. The five cox2-3 haplotypes and the unique rbcL-S haplotype were used as markers for summary statistics, neutrality tests Tajima's D and Fu's Fs and for median joining network analyses. An event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number, followed by a pattern of isolation by distance was obtained for PSA populations with the three analyses. In vitro experiments have shown that introns of different lengths were able to self-splice from pre-RNA transcripts. Conclusion The findings indicated that degenerated HEGs are reminiscent of the presence of a full-length and functional HEG, once fixed for PSA populations. The cline of HEG degeneration determined the pattern of isolation by distance. Analyses with the other markers indicated an event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number. The different degrees of degeneration of the HEG

  14. Erythropeltidaceen (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta) von Helgoland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornmann, P.; Sahling, P.-H.

    1985-06-01

    Ontogenesis and reproduction of the Helgolandian taxa of the Erythropeltidaceae have been studied. In all species monospores are only produced from differentiated sporangia. Filamentous Conchocelis-like stages have not been observed. Sexual reproduction was formerly demonstrated in the heteromorphous genus Erythrotrichopeltis (Kornmann, 1984). Based on these features a revised classification for the family is presented. Porphyropsis imperfecta, a new species, is a widespread epiphyte in sublittoral habitats.

  15. Use of Galerina marginata genes and proteins for peptide production

    DOEpatents

    Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Scott-Craig, John S.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Luo, Hong

    2016-03-01

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods comprising genes and peptides associated with cyclic peptides and cyclic peptide production in mushrooms. In particular, the present invention relates to using genes and proteins from Galerina species encoding peptides specifically relating to amatoxins in addition to proteins involved with processing cyclic peptide toxins. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention also relates to methods for making small peptides and small cyclic peptides including peptides similar to amanitin. Further, the present inventions relate to providing kits for making small peptides.

  16. Agar polysaccharides from Gracilaria species (Rhodophyta, Gracilariaceae).

    PubMed

    Marinho-Soriano, E

    2001-07-26

    Yield, physical and chemical properties of agar from three agarophytes species (Gracilaria gracilis, G. dura and G. bursa-pastoris) were determined. The agar yield from the three species varied significantly (P<0.01). The highest yields of agar (34.8%) and the lowest (30%) were obtained from G. bursa-pastoris and G. gracilis, respectively. Highest gel strength (630+/-15 g cm(-2)) was obtained from agar extracted from G. gracilis and lowest from G. bursa-pastoris (26+/-3.6 g cm(-2)). The values of 3,6-anhydrogalactose were similar for G. gracilis and G. dura and there were no significant differences among the species. The sulfate contents varied significantly (P<0.01) and the higher value was obtained from G. bursa-pastoris. Among the three species, G. gracilis showed superior agar quality than the other two species, hence it can be considered a good potential source for industrial use. PMID:11472802

  17. Der Lebenszyklus von Porphyrostromium obscurum (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornmann, P.

    1987-06-01

    Studies on the sexuality and the heteromorphous life cycle of Erythrotrichia ciliaris provided decisive criteria for the establishment of the genus Erythrotrichopeltis (Kornmann, 1984). This genus was transferred by Wynne (1986) to Porphyrostromium Trevisan 1848. In the present study Erythrotrichia obscura, the original species of Berthold's (1882) classical observations on the sexuality of this genus, is incorporated to Porphyrostromium. Previously regarded as synonyms, Porphyrostromium ciliare (Carm. ex Harv.) Wynne and P. obscurum (Berth.) nov. comb. proved to be distinct species, differing both in the filamentous and in the peltoid phases of their life cycle. The relationship between P. ciliare and P. boryanum (Montagne) Trevisan, type species of the genus, may only be elucidated by future investigations on the basis of field collected material.

  18. The Porphyra species of Helgoland (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornmann, P.; Sahling, P.-H.

    1991-03-01

    This revision of seven Porphyra species of Helgoland was based on a study of the structure of their fertile thalli and the behaviour of their spores. Regarding the reproductive organization the species may be arranged in two groups. P. leucosticta and P. purpureo-violacea are obligate monoecious species. Asexual thalli have never been observed in the field. The other five species are generally dioecious. Isomorphic sexual thalli and asexually propagating ones are mixed in uniform populations. Carpospores originating from sexual fusion develop into the diploid Conchocelis phase. Sporangia of asexual plants, though homologous in formation, produce spores of different kinds: aplanospores that give rise to the vegetative thallus directly (in P. umbilicalis, P. insolita n. sp. and P. ochotensis) and spores that develop into haploid Conchocelis (in P. laciniata and in P. linearis). P. laciniata — formerly considered synonymous with P. purpurea — is an independent species.

  19. Early development of grateloupia turuturu (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaoge; Jiang, Chunmei; Wang, Shasha; Wei, Xiaojiao; Zhao, Fengjuan

    2012-03-01

    Grateloupia turuturu is a commercial red alga with potential value in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. To supplement information on its life history and verify whether carpospores can be used for seedling culture, early development of G. turuturu was investigated under culture conditions (27°C, 10-13 μol/(m2·s) in irradiance, photoperiod 10:14 h L:D). Three physiological stages were recognized by continuous microscopic observation: division stage, discoid crust stage, and juvenile seedling stage. At the beginning of the division stage, the carpospores developed germ tubes into which the carpospore protoplasm was evacuated, and then the carpospore protoplasm in the germ tubes began to divide continuously until discoid crusts formed. Finally, upright thalli appeared on the discoid crusts and developed into juvenile seedlings. It took about 60 days for carpospores to develop into juvenile seedlings. The growth parameters, including germination rate for carpospores and discoid crust diameter, were recorded. These results contribute more information on the life cycle, and at the same time are of great significance in the scaling-up of artificial seedling cultures of G. turuturu.

  20. Establishment of endolithic populations of extremophilic Cyanidiales (Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hwan Su; Ciniglia, Claudia; Wu, Min; Comeron, Josep M; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2006-01-01

    Background Cyanidiales are unicellular extremophilic red algae that inhabit acidic and high temperature sites around hot springs and have also adapted to life in endolithic and interlithic habitats. Comparative genomic analysis of Cyanidioschyzon merolae and Galdieria sulphuraria predicts that the latter may be more broadly distributed in extreme environments because its genome contains membrane transporters involved in the uptake of reduced carbon compounds that are absent from C. merolae. Analysis of an endolithic site in the Phlegrean Fields near Naples, Italy is consistent with this prediction showing this population to be comprised solely of the newly described lineage Galdieria-B and C. merolae to be limited to humid habitats. Here, we conducted an environmental PCR survey of another extreme environment in Tuscany, Italy and contrasted Cyanidiales population structure at endolithic and interlithic habitats in Naples and Tuscany. Results We find a second Galdieria lineage (Galdieria-A) in endolithic and interlithic habitats in Tuscany but surprisingly Cyanidium was also present at these sites. The photoautotrophic Cyanidium apparently survives below the rock surface where sufficient light is available for photosynthesis. C. merolae is absent from all endolithic and interlithic sites in Tuscany. Population genetic analyses of a partial calmodulin gene fragment suggest a recent establishment or recurrent gene flow between populations in Tuscany, whereas the highly structured Galdieria-B population in Naples likely originated from 2–3 founder events. We find evidence of several recombination events across the calmodulin gene, potentially indicating the presence of sexual reproduction in the Tuscany populations. Conclusion Our study provides important data regarding population structure in extreme endolithic environments and insights into how Cyanidiales may be established in and adapt to these hostile environments. PMID:17022817

  1. TOXICITY TEST USING LIFE STAGES OF 'CHAMPIA PARVULA' (RHODOPHYTA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A static-renewal, 11- to 14-day toxicity test has been developed using the life cycle of the marine red alga Champia parvula (C. Ag.) Harv. It measures the vegetative growth, formation of tetrasporangia (meiosis), and formation of cystocarps (sexual fusion). The procedure has bee...

  2. Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta macroalgae: a source of health promoting phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sonia A O; Vilela, Carla; Freire, Carmen S R; Abreu, Maria H; Rocha, Silvia M; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2015-09-15

    A detailed study of the lipophilic composition of Codium tomentosum, Ulva lactuca, Gracilaria vermiculophylla and Chondrus crispus macroalgae cultivated in the Portuguese coast was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry before and after alkaline hydrolysis. Their long-chain aliphatic alcohols and monoglycerides compositions are reported for the first time. Additionally, other new compounds were also identified: phytol and neophytadiene in C. tomentosum, U. lactuca and G. vermiculophylla and stigmasterol, α-tocopherol and 24-methylenecholesterol in C. tomentosum. The lipophilic fraction of the studied macroalgae are mainly constituted by fatty acids (110.1-1030.5mgkg(-1) of dry material) and sterols (14.8-1309.1mgkg(-1) of dry material). C. tomentosum showed to be a valuable source of stigmasterol (1229.0mgkg(-1) of dry material) and α-tocopherol (21.8mgkg(-1) of dry material). These results are a relevant contribution for the valorisation of these macroalgae species as sources of valuable phytochemicals. PMID:25863619

  3. Light acclimation in Porphyridium purpureum (Rhodophyta): Growth, photosynthesis, and phycobilisomes

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, I.; Gantt, E. )

    1988-12-01

    Acclimation to three photon flux densities 10, 35, 180 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} was determined in laboratory cultures of Porphyridium purpureum Bory, Drew and Ross. Cultures grown at low, medium, and high PPFDs had compensation points of <3, 6, and 20 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1}, respectively, and saturating irradiances in the initial log phase of 90, 115, 175 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} and up to 240 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} in late log phase. High light cells had the smallest photosynthetic unit size (phycobiliproteins plus chlorophyll), the highest photosynthetic capacity, and the highest growth rates. Photosystem I reaction centers (P700) per cell remained proportional to chlorophyll at ca. 110 chl/P700. However, phycobiliprotein content decreased as did the phycobilisome number (ca. 50%) in high light cells, whereas the phycobilisome size remained the same as in medium and low light cells. We concluded that acclimation of this red alga to varied PPFDs was manifested by the plasticity of the photosystem II antennae with little, if any, affect noted on photosystem I.

  4. Polysaccharides from the red seaweed Gracilaria dura (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Marinho-Soriano, E; Bourret, E

    2005-02-01

    The yield and physical and chemical properties of agars from Gracilaria dura (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, harvested in Thau lagoon (Mediterranean sea, France), were investigated. The agar yield ranged from 32% to 35%. Gel strength of agar ranged from 263 to 600 g cm(-2), with the maximum observed in October. A positive correlation was found between agar yield and gel strength (r = 0.82; P < 0.01). The gelling temperature followed the same pattern of gel strength and also showed higher value in October (43 degrees C). The nitrogen content varied from 1.04+/-0.60% (June) to 4.70+/-0.01% (October). A positive correlation was noted between nitrogen content and gel strength (r = 0.77; P < 0.05). The 3,6-anhydrogalactose content ranged from 0.70 to 0.84 and showed monthly significant differences (P < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between 3,6-anhydrogalactose content and gel strength. The values of sulfate content were relatively constant during the studied period and no significant differences were observed. The relative high gel strength indicates that this species may be considered as source of agar for commercial use. PMID:15474941

  5. Reproductive morphology of Eucheumagelatinae (Esper) J. Agardh (Solieriaceae, Gigartinales, rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Mei; Xia, Bang-Mei

    1996-03-01

    Eucheuma gelatinae (Esper) J. Agardh has vegetative and reproductive features distinguishing it from other species of Eucheuma. The occurrence of reproductive nemathecia containing carpogonial branches, auxiliary cells and post-fertilization stages including gonimoblast and pericarp initiation, fusion cell formation stages and carposporophyte development are described and ilustrated for the first time for this species.

  6. Early development of Chondrus ocellatus holm (Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aihua; Wang, Jicheng; Duan, Delin

    2006-06-01

    Chondrus is an economically important red algae widely used for food and biochemical purpose. It early development is crucial for the culture and seedling propagation. We chose tetraspores and carpospores of Chondrus ocellatus as examples for experiment of the culture, induction and release in laboratory condition, aiming to understand early development of C. ocellatus and to apply in seedling production. Mature C. ocellatus were collected in Qingdao, China, from Nov. to Dec. 2004. After the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte were brushed and washed with sterilized seawater, the algal materials were treated in 1.5% KI for 20 min, then were dried for 1h to stimulate the releasing of spores. After the spores released overnight, it were cultured in PES medium, incubated at 18 °C, 10±2 μmol/(m2·s1) in 12∶12h (light: dark). The observation and recording under microscope were carried out. Continuous observation of the early development showed that both tetraspore and carpospore are similar to each other. In general, three stages of the early development were shown being division, discoid crust and seedling stages. To the division stage, the most obvious feature was the increasing of cell number; during the discoid crust stage, the discoid crust had a three-dimensional axis, and it began to differentiate into two types of cells: the basal cells and the apical cells; and to the seedling stage, several protuberances-like appeared on the discoid crusts and formed juvenile seedlings. Carpospores and tetraspores exhibited a similar development process that included division stage, discoid crust stage and seedling stage.

  7. [Stress proteins in the cells of Porphyra purpurea (Rhodophyta) thallus].

    PubMed

    Podlipaeva, Iu I; Ful'da, S; Gudkov, A V

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock proteins have been revealed for the first time by the methods of Western blotting using alkaline phosphatase and ECL in the cells of Porphyra purpurea from Kattegat area of the Baltic Sea in normal and experimental stress conditions. It was demonstrated with application of monoclonal anti-Hsp70 antibodies that a slight band about 70 kDa is present constitutively at the film; additionally the polypeptide of about 40 kDa ("Hsp40") has been detected. After heat shock at 28 degrees C during 1 hr significant "expenditure" of Hsp70 was observed, as well as the pronounced induction of "Hsp40"; the induction was expressed especially strongly in 24 hr after the stress application. PMID:25696998

  8. Early stage differentiation of thallus cells of Porphyra haitanensis (Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sujuan; Sun, Yunlong; Lu, Anming; Wang, Guangyuan

    1987-09-01

    The early stage differentiation of thallus cells of Porphyra haitanensis T. J. Chang et B. F. Zheng was studied. Protoplasts or single cells were isolated from the blades using enzyme mixture comprising 2% sea snail gut enzyme and 1% cellulase. The isolated protoplasts or single cells were incubated in the MES medium. The cell differentiations were examined under the microscope at intervals after incubation. Four types of cell differentiation, namely, normal, abnormal, carposporangial and spermatorangial, and rhizoidal types, were observed. Since normal cell differentiations occur mostly in small thalli 50 mm in length and middle portions of big thalli 200 mm in length, it is essential to select tissues from these two kinds of thalli essential for commercial production.

  9. Antibiotic activity of lectins from marine algae against marine vibrios.

    PubMed

    Liao, W-R; Lin, J-Y; Shieh, W-Y; Jeng, W-L; Huang, R

    2003-07-01

    Saline and aqueous ethanol extracts of marine algae and the lectins from two red algal species were assayed for their antibiotic activity against marine vibrios. Experimental studies were also carried out on the influence of environmental factors on such activity, using batch cultures. The results indicated that many of the saline extracts of the algal species were active and that the activity was selective against those vibrios assayed. The algal extracts were active against Vibrio pelagius and the fish pathogen V. vulnificus, but inactive against V. neresis. Algal lectins from Eucheuma serra (ESA) and Galaxaura marginata (GMA) strongly inhibited V. vulnificus but were inactive against the other two vibrios. The antibacterial activity of algal extracts was inhibited by pretreatment with various sugars and glycoprotein. Extracts of the two red algae, E. serra and Pterocladia capillacea, in saline and aqueous ethanol, inhibited markedly the growth rate of V. vulnificus at very low concentrations. Culture results indicated that metabolites active against V. vulnificus were invariably produced in P. capillacea over a wide range of temperature, light intensity, and nutritional conditions. Enhanced antibacterial activity occurred when P. capillacea was grown under higher irradiance, severe nutrient stress and moderate temperature (20 degrees C), reflecting the specific antibiotic characteristics of this alga. The strong antibiotic activity of lectins towards fish pathogenic bacteria reveals one of the important roles played by algal lectins, as well as the potential high economic value of those marine algae assayed for aquaculture and for biomedical purposes. PMID:12884128

  10. Direct evaluation of macroalgal removal by herbivorous coral reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantyka, C. S.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2007-06-01

    Few studies have examined the relative functional impacts of individual herbivorous fish species on coral reef ecosystem processes in the Indo-Pacific. This study assessed the potential grazing impact of individual species within an inshore herbivorous reef fish assemblage on the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), by determining which fish species were able to remove particular macroalgal species. Transplanted multiple-choice algal assays and remote stationary underwater digital video cameras were used to quantify the impact of local herbivorous reef fish species on 12 species of macroalgae. Macroalgal removal by the fishes was rapid. Within 3 h of exposure to herbivorous reef fishes there was significant evidence of intense grazing. After 12 h of exposure, 10 of the 12 macroalgal species had decreased to less than 15% of their original mass. Chlorodesmis fastigiata (Chlorophyta) and Galaxaura sp. (Rhodophyta) showed significantly less susceptibility to herbivorous reef fish grazing than all other macroalgae, even after 24 h exposure. Six herbivorous and/or nominally herbivorous reef fish species were identified as the dominant grazers of macroalgae: Siganus doliatus, Siganus canaliculatus, Chlorurus microrhinos, Hipposcarus longiceps, Scarus rivulatus and Pomacanthus sexstriatus. The siganid S. doliatus fed heavily on Hypnea sp., while S. canaliculatus fed intensively on Sargassum sp. Variation in macroalgal susceptibility was not clearly correlated with morphological and/or chemical defenses that have been previously suggested as deterrents against herbivory. Nevertheless, the results stress the potential importance of individual herbivorous reef fish species in removing macroalgae from coral reefs.

  11. Heavy metal concentrations in marine green, brown, and red seaweeds from coastal waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shwafi, Nabil A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three marine algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden coastal waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants ( Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds ( Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and Sargassum boveanum species), and Rhodophyta—red seaweeds ( Hypnea cornuta, Champia parvula, Galaxaura marginate, Laurencia paniculata, Gracilaria foliifere, and species). The heavy metals, which included cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAs). The concentrations of heavy metals in all algal species are in the order of Fe >> Cu > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > V > Co. The results also showed that the uptake of heavy metals by different marine algal divisions was in the order of Chlorophyta > Phaeophyta > Rhodophyta. These heavy metals were several order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the same metals in seawater. This indicates that marine alga progressively uptake heavy metals from seawater.

  12. Rhodenigma contortum, an obscure new genus and species of Rhodogorgonales (Rhodophyta) from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    West, John A; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C; de Goër, Susan Loiseaux; Stavrias, Lambros A; Verbruggen, Heroen

    2016-06-01

    An unknown microscopic, branched filamentous red alga was isolated into culture from coral fragments collected in Coral Bay, Western Australia. It grew well unattached or attached to glass with no reproduction other than fragmentation of filaments. Cells of some branch tips became slightly contorted and digitated, possibly as a substrate-contact-response seen at filament tips of various algae. Attached multicellular compact disks on glass had a very different cellular configuration and size than the free filaments. In culture the filaments did not grow on or in coral fragments. Molecular phylogenies based on four markers (rbcL, cox1, 18S, 28S) clearly showed it belongs to the order Rhodogorgonales, as a sister clade of Renouxia. Based on these results, the alga is described as the new genus and species Rhodenigma contortum in the Rhodogorgonaceae. It had no morphological similarity to either of the other genera in Rhodogorgonaceae and illustrates the unknown diversity in cryptic habitats such as tropical coral rubble. PMID:27273532

  13. Induction and cultivation of cloned filaments of Polysiphonia urceolata (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinxia; Shao, Kuishuang; Cheng, Bin; Lu, Qinqin; Zhou, Baicheng

    2011-11-01

    A filamentous clone of Polysiphonia urceolata was regenerated from segments cut from the fronds of gametophytes. Unlike wild thalli with short virgate branchlets, the clone was filamentous with few branches. Many transparent trichoblasts arose from pericentral cells during the induction culture, but these were seldom observed during normal growth. The trichoblasts were uniseriate, often colorless, and formed lobed rhizoids rapidly when they came into contact with solid substrates. In addition to morphological characteristics, the photosynthetic properties and growth conditions of the clone differed from those of the mother plant. Cross-gradient light and temperature culture experiments revealed that the most favorable conditions for culture of the filamentous clone were 22°C and 95-120 μE/(m2·s) light intensity. The photosynthetic light saturation value for filaments was approx. 100 μE/(m2·s), which is far lower than that of wild thalli. These results could be used to develop techniques for mass cultures of P. urceolata in photobioreactors for production of seed stock or bioactive products.

  14. Biosystematics, genetics and upper temperature tolerance of Gigartina teedii (Rhodophyta) from the Atlantic and Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiry, M. D.; Tripodi, G.; Lüning, K.

    1987-09-01

    Plants of Gigartina teedii from the mediterranean isolated into laboratory culture showed Polysiphonia-type life histories with consistent formation of dioecious gametangial plants, as previously reported for Atlantic isolates. Male and female plants from the Atlantic and Mediterranean were almost completely compatible in terms of cystocarp formation on female plants, and carpospores from positive crosses always formed plants that released viable tetraspores. Sex-linked inheritance of branching pattern was found in all strains, but showed varying degrees of expression. Female plants were more branched than male plants and it is suggested that this may be an adaptation for spermatial capture. G. teedii plants showed differences in morphology in culture that are considered to be genetically-based. Preliminary studies of tip elongation showed that Mediterranean strains may have up to three times the elongation rates of Atlantic strains at 15°C,bar 8. Such genetic variation in fully-interbreeding strains suggests that populations of this species in the Atlantic and Mediterranean are genecodemic. All strains showed an upper temperature tolerance of 31°C when tested at 1°C intervals from 29—34°C. An upper temperature tolerance of 31 32°C was found for the related species G. intermedia from Korea and Japan, but G. johnstonii from the Gulf of California showed an upper tolerance of 32 33°C.

  15. Physiological responses of macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) to UV-B radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Xiao, Hui; Wang, Ying; Jian, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Huanxin; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR) on Gracilaria lemaneiformis, a commercial red macroalga and an important source of agar. To study the in-vitro effect of UVBR on G. lemaneiformis, this plant was cultivated and exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 40 μmol photons/(m2 ·s) and enhanced UVBR (0, 0.36, 0.72, 1.08, 1.44, and 1.80 kJ/(m2 ·d)) for 13 days. The samples were processed for histochemical analysis, and the growth rate, photosynthetic pigment contents, photosynthetic performance, reactive oxygen species levels, membrane permeability, malonyl dialdehyde contents and antioxidant capacity of G. lemaneiformis were investigated. After 13 days of exposure to PAR+UVBR, G. lemaneiformis showed photodamage and photoinhibition of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin), leading to a decreased photosynthetic efficiency. Further, there was a corresponding decrease in the relative growth rates and depigmentation and partial necrosis of the apical segments were noted after exposure to PAR+UVBR. Additionally, UVBR induced excess production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide, eliciting a marked cellular membrane damage and antioxidative response.

  16. Global Transcriptome Analysis of Gracilaria changii (Rhodophyta) in Response to Agarolytic Enzyme and Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ee-Leen; Siow, Rouh-San; Abdul Rahim, Raha; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Many bacterial epiphytes of agar-producing seaweeds secrete agarase that degrade algal cell wall matrix into oligoagars which elicit defense-related responses in the hosts. The molecular defense responses of red seaweeds are largely unknown. In this study, we surveyed the defense-related transcripts of an agarophyte, Gracilaria changii, treated with β-agarase through next generation sequencing (NGS). We also compared the defense responses of seaweed elicited by agarase with those elicited by an agarolytic bacterium isolated from seaweed, by profiling the expression of defense-related genes using quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). NGS detected a total of 391 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with a higher abundance (>2-fold change with a p value <0.001) in the agarase-treated transcriptome compared to that of the non-treated G. changii. Among these DEGs were genes related to signaling, bromoperoxidation, heme peroxidation, production of aromatic amino acids, chorismate, and jasmonic acid. On the other hand, the genes encoding a superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase and related to photosynthesis were downregulated. The expression of these DEGs was further corroborated by qRT-PCR results which showed more than 90 % accuracy. A comprehensive analysis of their gene expression profiles between 1 and 24 h post treatments (hpt) revealed that most of the genes analyzed were consistently upregulated or downregulated by both agarase and agarolytic bacterial treatments, indicating that the defense responses induced by both treatments are highly similar except for genes encoding vanadium bromoperoxidase and animal heme peroxidase. Our study has provided the first glimpse of the molecular defense responses of G. changii to agarase and agarolytic bacterial treatments. PMID:26631182

  17. TRANSCRIPTOMIC ANALYSIS OF GRACILARIA CHANGII (RHODOPHYTA) IN RESPONSE TO HYPER- AND HYPOOSMOTIC STRESSES(1).

    PubMed

    Teo, Swee-Sen; Ho, Chai-Ling; Teoh, Seddon; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Phang, Siew-Moi

    2009-10-01

    Osmotic stress is one of the most significant natural abiotic stresses that occur in the intertidal zones. Seaweeds may physiologically acclimate to changing osmolarity by altering their transcriptome. Here, we investigated the transcriptomic changes of Gracilaria changii (B. M. Xia et I. A. Abbott) I. A. Abbott, J. Zhang et B. M. Xia in response to hyper- and hypoosmotic stresses using a cDNA microarray approach. Microarray analysis revealed that 199 and 200 genes from ∼3,300 genes examined were up- and down-regulated by >2-fold in seaweed samples treated at 50 parts per thousand (ppt) artificial seawater (ASW) compared with those at 30 ppt ASW, respectively. The number of genes that were up- and down-regulated by >2-fold in seaweed samples treated at 10 ppt ASW compared with those at 30 ppt ASW were 154 and 187, respectively. A majority of these genes were only differentially expressed under hyper- or hypoosmotic conditions, whereas 67 transcripts were affected by both stresses. The findings of this study have shed light on the expression profiles of many transcripts during the acclimation of G. changii to hyperosmotic and hypoosmotic conditions. This information may assist in the prioritization of genes to be examined in future studies. PMID:27032354

  18. Trichocytes in Lithophyllum kotschyanum and Lithophyllum spp. (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from the NW Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Basso, Daniela; Caragnano, Annalisa; Rodondi, Graziella

    2014-08-01

    The current diagnosis of the genus Lithophyllum includes absent or rare trichocyte occurrence. After examining holotype material, single trichocytes have been revealed to occur abundantly in Lithophyllum kotschyanum Unger, and in freshly collected specimens of Lithophyllum spp. from the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Socotra Island (Yemen). Trichocyte occurrence is not considered a diagnostic character at specific or supraspecific levels in the Lithophylloideae, and the ecological significance of trichocyte formation is discussed. The generitype species, L. incrustans Philippi, does not show trichocytes nor do many other Lithophyllum species from diverse geographic localities, but the presence of abundant trichocytes in other congeneric taxa requires emendation of the genus diagnosis. Therefore, the diagnosis of Lithophyllum is here emended by eliminating the adjective "rare" in the sentence concerning trichocyte occurrence, as follows: "Trichocytes present or absent, if present occurring singly." PMID:26988454

  19. The effects of NO3(-) supply on Mazzaella laminarioides (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) from southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Nelso P; Figueroa, Félix L; Korbee, Nathalie; Mansilla, Andrés; Matsuhiro, Betty; Barahona, Tamara; Plastino, Estela M

    2014-01-01

    The effects of nitrate supply on growth, pigments, mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), C:N ratios and carrageenan yield were investigated in Mazzaella laminarioides cultivated under solar radiation. This species is economically important in southern Chile where an increase of nitrogen in coastal waters is expected as a consequence of salmon aquaculture activity. Apical segments were cultivated in enriched seawater with five different NO3(-) concentrations (0, 0.09, 0.18, 0.38 and 0.75 mm) during 18 days. Although phycoerythrin and phycocyanin content, as well as C:N ratios, were reduced in the control treatment (without NO3(-) supply), when compared to NO3(-) treatments, total MAA concentration, carrageenan yield and growth rates were similar in all tested conditions. Nevertheless, during the experiment, an important synthesis of mycosporine-glycine took place in a nitrate concentration-dependent manner, with accumulation being saturated around 0.18 mm of nitrate. These results indicate that exposure to high NO3(-) concentration of more than 100 times the values observed in the nature did not impair the photoprotection system, as determined by MAAs, nor did it have a deleterious effect on growth or carrageenan yield of M. laminarioides, a late successional species from Chile. PMID:25214037

  20. Simulation of the clonal growth of Bostrychia radicans (Ceramiales-Rhodophyta) using Lindenmayer systems.

    PubMed

    Collado-Vides, L; Gómez-Alcaraz, G; Rivas-Lechuga, G; Gómez-Gutierrez, V

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model for the clonal growth of the alga Bostrychia radicans was constructed based on architectural growth rules and Lindenmayer systems. The sequence of theoretical growth and invasive strategy of space is shown in several graphical schemes which represent different steps of the model. We postulate that Bostrychia radicans has a 'phalanx' strategy of colonization (Lovett Doust, L. 1981. J. Ecol. 69, 743-755.) based on the biological interpretation of the model and field observations. PMID:9146832

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the holotype specimen of Wildemania schizophylla (Bangiales: Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Silva, Mayra Y; Hughey, Jeffery R

    2016-01-01

    Ion Proton data was used to assemble the complete mitochondrial genome from the holotype specimen of Wildemania schizophylla (29,156 bp). The mitogenome contains 50 genes, including 2 ribosomal RNA, 23 transfer RNA, 4 ribosomal proteins, 2 ymfs, 3 open reading frames (ORFs), and 19 genes involved in cellular respiration. Although gene synteny is conserved, the mitogenome of W. schizophylla is significantly smaller due to the lack of large intronic ORFs present in the cytochrome oxidase locus of other Bangiales. The results support the recognition of Wildemania as distinct from Porphyra, and demonstrate that small amounts of type material are suitable for genomic studies. PMID:24938105

  2. Discovery of the mineral brucite (magnesium hydroxide) in the tropical calcifying alga Polystrata dura (Peyssonneliales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Nash, Merinda C; Russell, Bayden D; Dixon, Kyatt R; Liu, Minglu; Xu, Huifang

    2015-06-01

    Red algae of the family Peyssonneliaceae typically form thin crusts impregnated with aragonite. Here, we report the first discovery of brucite in a thick red algal crust (~1 cm) formed by the peyssonnelioid species Polystrata dura from Papua New Guinea. Cells of P. dura were found to be infilled by the magnesium-rich mineral brucite [Mg(OH)2 ]; minor amounts of magnesite and calcite were also detected. We propose that cell infill may be associated with the development of thick (> ~5 mm) calcified red algal crusts, integral components of tropical biotic reefs. If brucite infill within the P. dura crust enhances resistance to dissolution similarly to crustose coralline algae that infill with dolomite, then these crusts would be more resilient to future ocean acidification than crusts without infill. PMID:26986657

  3. Different Responses to Heat Shock Stress Revealed Heteromorphic Adaptation Strategy of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhujun; Yang, Rui; Qian, Feijian; Chen, Haimin; Yan, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Pyropia has a unique heteromorphic life cycle with alternation stages between thallus and conchocelis, which lives at different water temperatures in different seasons. To better understand the different adaptation strategies for temperature stress, we tried to observe comparative biochemical changes of Pyropia haitanensis based on a short term heat shock model. The results showed that: (1) At normal temperature, free-living conchocelis contains significantly higher levels of H2O2, fatty acid-derived volatiles, the copy number of Phrboh and Phhsp70 genes,the activities of NADPH oxidase and floridoside than those in thallus. The released H2O2 and NADPH oxidase activity of conchocelis were more than 7 times higher than those of thallus. The copy number of Phrboh in conchocelis was 32 times that in thallus. (2) After experiencing heat shock at 35°C for 30 min, the H2O2 contents, the mRNA levels of Phrboh and Phhsp70, NADPH oxidase activity and the floridoside content in thallus were all significantly increased. The mRNA levels of Phrboh increased 5.78 times in 5 min, NADPH oxidase activity increased 8.45 times in 20 min. (3) Whereas, in conchocelis, the changes in fatty acids and their down-stream volatiles predominated, significantly increasing levels of saturated fatty acids and decreasing levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids occurred, and the 8-carbon volatiles were accumulated. However, the changes in H2O2 content and expression of oxidant-related genes and enzymatic activity were not obvious. Overall, these results indicate that conchocelis maintains a high level of active protective apparatus to endure its survival at high temperature, while thallus exhibit typical stress responses to heat shock. It is concluded that Pyropia haitanensis has evolved a delicate strategy for temperature adaptation for its heteromorphic life cycle. PMID:24709783

  4. BIODIVERSITY OF CORALLINE ALGAE IN THE NORTHEASTERN ATLANTIC INCLUDING CORALLINA CAESPITOSA SP. NOV. (CORALLINOIDEAE, RHODOPHYTA)(1).

    PubMed

    Walker, Rachel H; Brodie, Juliet; Russell, Stephen; Irvine, Linda M; Orfanidis, Sotiris

    2009-02-01

    The Corallinoideae (Corallinaceae) is represented in the northeastern Atlantic by Corallina officinalis L.; Corallina elongata J. Ellis et Sol.; Haliptilon squamatum (L.) H. W. Johans., L. M. Irvine et A. M. Webster; and Jania rubens (L.) J. V. Lamour. The delimitation of these geniculate coralline red algae is based primarily on morphological characters. Molecular analysis based on cox1 and 18S rRNA gene phylogenies supported the division of the Corallinoideae into the tribes Janieae and Corallineae. Within the Janieae, a sequence difference of 46-48 bp (8.6%-8.9%) between specimens of H. squamatum and J. rubens in the cox1 phylogeny leads us to conclude that they are congeneric. J. rubens var. rubens and J. rubens var. corniculata (L.) Yendo clustered together in both phylogenies, suggesting that for those genes, there was no genetic basis for the morphological variation. Within the Corallineae, it appears that in some regions, the name C. elongata has been misapplied. C. officinalis samples formed two clusters that differed by 45-54 bp (8.4%-10.0%), indicating species-level divergence, and morphological differences were sufficient to define two species. One of these clusters was consistent with the morphology of the type specimen of C. officinalis (LINN 1293.9). The other species cluster is therefore described here as Corallina caespitosa sp. nov. This study has demonstrated that there is a clear need for a revision of the genus Corallina to determine the extent of "pseudocryptic" diversity in this group of red algae. PMID:27033664

  5. The system of xylogalactans from the red seaweed Jania rubens (Corallinales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Navarro, Diego A; Stortz, Carlos A

    2008-10-13

    The main acidic polysaccharides from the red seaweed Jania rubens share the general characteristics of corallinans (agar-like xylogalactans). After fractionation by ion-exchange chromatography, ten fractions were separated and characterized by sugar composition, other components, methylation, ethylation, desulfation-methylation, and NMR analyses. The main group of fractions carry the agaran disaccharidic repeating unit [-->3)-beta-D-Gal-(1-->4)-alpha-L-Gal-(1-->] substituted mainly on O-6 of the beta-D-Gal unit by beta-xylosyl side stubs, and less with sulfate or methoxyl groups, and also on O-2 of the alpha-l-Gal unit with methoxyl or sulfate, or less on O-3 of the same unit with methoxyl groups. These features are somehow common to the four members of the order already studied. However, a sugar uncommon to the order appears in moderate proportions for all the fractions: it is 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose (partly sulfated or methoxylated on O-2) replacing the L-Gal unit. Besides, several other structural features never found in the order (and uncommon in any polysaccharide) appear in some minor fractions: the presence of side stubs of 2,3-di- and 3-O-methyl-D-galactose, and also part of the 3-O-methyl-L-galactose acting as side stubs. These results show that, although the main features of the corallinean xylogalactans are common to all the species studied, each one has minor characteristics of its own. PMID:18667196

  6. The lipidic extract of the seaweed Gracilariopsis longissima (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales): a potential resource for biotechnological purposes?

    PubMed

    Stabili, L; Acquaviva, M I; Biandolino, F; Cavallo, R A; De Pascali, S A; Fanizzi, F P; Narracci, M; Petrocelli, A; Cecere, E

    2012-02-15

    In recent years seaweeds increasingly attracted interest in the search for new drugs and have been shown to be a primary source of bioactive natural products including antibiotics. In the present investigation the antimicrobial activity of Gracilariopsis longissima lipidic extract was assayed and its chemical characterization was carried out by means of advanced analytical techniques such as gas-chromatography and multinuclear and multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. G. longissima lipidic extract showed an antibacterial activity against several Vibrio species. These results are interesting considering both the resistance against antibiotics developed by vibrios and the need to control fish and shellfish diseases due to vibriosis. Analysis of fatty acid methyl esters performed by gas-chromatography showed that palmitic acid methyl ester (16:0) was the predominant saturated fatty acid (42%), while, among monounsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid methyl ester (18:1) prevailed (8.5%). Because the palmitic acid represents the main component of fatty acids we hypothesized its involvement in the antibacterial activity observed. However, a pure sample of palmitic acid did not show an antibacterial activity. The fatty acid profile of G. longissima revealed also an interesting composition in polyunsaturated fatty acids and in particular the ratio of ω-3 to ω-6 fatty acids was >1 thus suggesting that this macroalga may be used as a natural source of ω3. Moreover, the (1)H NMR spectrum in CDCl(3) of algal lipid fraction shows the characteristic signals of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids as well as other metabolites. Interestingly, in the lipid extract the presence of polyhydroxybutyrate, a linear biodegradable and biocompatible polyester, was clearly identified by NMR spectroscopy. In conclusion, the lipidic extract of G. longissima on account of its antimicrobial activity, nutritional value and content in biodegradable and biocompatible polyester represents an interesting potential biotechnological resource. PMID:22100430

  7. Minimally destructive sampling of type specimens of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) recovers complete plastid and mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Hughey, Jeffery R; Gabrielson, Paul W; Rohmer, Laurence; Tortolani, Jacquie; Silva, Mayra; Miller, Kathy Ann; Young, Joel D; Martell, Craig; Ruediger, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Plant species, including algae and fungi, are based on type specimens to which the name of a taxon is permanently attached. Applying a scientific name to any specimen therefore requires demonstrating correspondence between the type and that specimen. Traditionally, identifications are based on morpho-anatomical characters, but recently systematists are using DNA sequence data. These studies are flawed if the DNA is isolated from misidentified modern specimens. We propose a genome-based solution. Using 4 × 4 mm(2) of material from type specimens, we assembled 14 plastid and 15 mitochondrial genomes attributed to the red algae Pyropia perforata, Py. fucicola, and Py. kanakaensis. The chloroplast genomes were fairly conserved, but the mitochondrial genomes differed significantly among populations in content and length. Complete genomes are attainable from 19(th) and early 20(th) century type specimens; this validates the effort and cost of their curation as well as supports the practice of the type method. PMID:24894641

  8. Investigation of the Gracilaria gracilis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) proteome response to nitrogen limitation.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Rene K; Rafudeen, Muhammad S; Coyne, Vernon E

    2016-06-01

    Inorganic nitrogen has been identified as the major growth-limiting nutritional factor affecting Gracilaria gracilis populations in South Africa. Although the physiological mechanisms implemented by G. gracilis for adaption to low nitrogen environments have been investigated, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of these adaptions. This study provides the first investigation of G. gracilis proteome changes in response to nitrogen limitation and subsequent recovery. A differential proteomics approach employing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to investigate G. gracilis proteome changes in response to nitrogen limitation and recovery. The putative identity of 22 proteins that changed significantly (P < 0.05) in abundance in response to nitrogen limitation and recovery was determined. The identified proteins function in a range of biological processes including glycolysis, photosynthesis, ATP synthesis, galactose metabolism, protein-refolding and biosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and cytoskeleton remodeling. The identity of fructose 1,6 biphosphate (FBP) aldolase was confirmed by western blot analysis and the decreased abundance of FBP aldolase observed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was validated by enzyme assays and western blots. The identification of key proteins and pathways involved in the G. gracilis nitrogen stress response provide a better understanding of G. gracilis proteome responses to varying degrees of nitrogen limitation and is the first step in the identification of biomarkers for monitoring the nitrogen status of cultivated G. gracilis populations. PMID:27273530

  9. Interactions between marine facultative epiphyte Chlamydomonas sp. (Chlamydomonadales, Chlorophyta) and ceramiaceaen algae (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Klochkova, Tatyana A; Cho, Ga Youn; Boo, Sung Min; Chung, Ki Wha; Kim, Song Ja; Kim, Gwang Hoon

    2008-07-01

    Previously unrecorded marine Chlamydomonas that grew epiphytic on ceramiaceaen algae was collected from the western coast of Korea and isolated into a unialgal culture. The isolate was subjected to 18S rDNA phylogenetic analysis as well as ultrastructure and life cycle studies. It had an affinity with the marine Chlamydomonas species and was less related to freshwater/terrestrial representatives of this genus. It had flagella shorter than the cell body two-layered cell wall with striated outer surface and abundant mucilaginous material beneath the innermost layer and no contractile vacuoles. This alga grew faster in mixed cultures with ceramiaceaen algae rather than in any tested unialgal culture condition; the cells looked healthier and zoosporangia and motile flagellated vegetative cells appeared more often. These results suggested that this Chlamydomonas might be a facultative epiphyte benefiting from its hosts. Several ceramiaceaen algae were tested as host plants. Meanwhile, cell deformation or collapse of the whole thallus was caused to Aglaothamnion byssoides, and preliminary study suggested that a substance released from Chlamydomonas caused the response. This is first report on harmful epiphytic interactions between Chlamydomonas species and red ceramiaceaen algae. PMID:19195375

  10. UVR defense mechanisms in eurytopic and invasive Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Roleda, Michael Y; Nyberg, Cecilia D; Wulff, Angela

    2012-10-01

    The invasive success of Gracilaria vermiculophylla has been attributed to its wide tolerance range to different abiotic factors, but its response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is yet to be investigated. In the laboratory, carpospores and vegetative thalli of an Atlantic population were exposed to different radiation treatments consisting of high PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) only (P), PAR+UV-A (PA) and PAR+UV-A+UV-B (PAB). Photosynthesis of carpospores was photoinhibited under different radiation treatments but photosystem II (PSII) function was restored after 12 h under dim white light. Growth of vegetative thalli was significantly higher under radiation supplemented with UVR. Decrease in chlorophyll a (Chl a) under daily continuous 16-h exposure to 300 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) of PAR suggests preventive accumulation of excited chlorophyll molecules within the antennae to minimize the generation of dangerous reactive oxygen species. Moreover, an increase in total carotenoids and xanthophyll cycle pigments (i.e. violaxanthin, antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin) further suggests effective photoprotection under UVR. The presence of the ketocarotenoid β-cryptoxanthin also indicates protection against UVR and oxidative stress. The initial concentration of total mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in freshly-released spores increased approximately four times after 8-h laboratory radiation treatments. On the other hand, initial specific MAAs in vegetative thalli changed in composition after 7-day exposure to laboratory radiation conditions without affecting the total concentration. The above responses suggest that G. vermiculophylla have multiple UVR defense mechanisms to cope with the dynamic variation in light quantity and quality encountered in its habitat. Beside being eurytopic, the UVR photoprotective mechanisms likely contribute to the current invasive success of the species in shallow lagoons and estuaries exposed to high solar radiation. PMID:22420775

  11. Mechanisms of metal tolerance in marine macroalgae, with emphasis on copper tolerance in Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta.

    PubMed

    Moenne, Alejandra; González, Alberto; Sáez, Claudio A

    2016-07-01

    Green and red macroalgae are closely related organisms, and with terrestrial plants, and constitute the base of marine food webs in coastal ecosystems. Green and red seaweeds, as all living organisms, require essential metals, such as copper, iron, zinc, which can act as co-factors for several proteins and enzymes; however, these metals in excess can induce stress and impair cell viability. Most important negative effects of metal excess are related to the induction of an oxidative stress condition, characterized by the over-accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). In this respect, copper, abundant in wastewaters disposed to coastal environments from domestic and industrial activities, has been one of the most studied metals. Different investigations have provided evidence that green and red macroalgae display several defenses against copper excess to prevent, or at least reduce, stress and damage, among which are cellular exclusion mechanisms, synthesis of metal-chelating compounds, and the activation of the antioxidant system. Most important defense mechanisms identified in green and red seaweed involve: metal-binding to cell wall and epibionts; syntheses of metallothioneins and phytochelatins that accumulate in the cytoplasm; and the increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and greater production of antioxidant metabolites as glutathione and ascorbate in organelles and the cytoplasm. In this review, we go through historical records, latest advances, and pending tasks aiming to expand our current knowledge on defense mechanisms to copper excess in green and red macroalgae, with emphasis on biochemical and molecular aspects. PMID:27107242

  12. A re-evaluation of Scinaia (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León-Cisneros, K.; Riosmena-Rodríguez, R.; Neto, A. I.

    2011-06-01

    The genus Scinaia in the Azores is re-evaluated based on historical and recent collections. A combination of morphological and anatomical diagnostic characters was used for species segregation, and a key for Azorean species determination is presented. Anatomical information associated to the hair development is described for the first time for the genus. The occurrence of S. furcellata and S. interrupta is confirmed for the archipelago. The presence of S. acuta is reported for the first time in the Azores, representing a spread from Australia to the N-Atlantic and specifically into the Macaronesian region. Its occurrence in the archipelago and the Canaries is discussed as a possible introduction.

  13. Possible sister groups and phylogenetic relationships among selected North Pacific and North Atlantic Rhodophyta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, Sandra C.

    1987-09-01

    Although the cool temperate (boreal) waters of the N. Pacific and N. Atlantic share many similar if not identical species, there have been few studies to test the identity of these species pairs. Whereas such tests are important from a taxonomic perspective, they tell us little if anything about biogeographic relationships. A more useful approach is one employing phylogenetic systematics (cladistics). The interpretation of phylogenetic diagrams (cladograms) in terms of biogeographic area relationships is explained. It is argued that cladistic analyses of taxa occurring in the cool temperate waters of the northern oceans can provide biogeographic tracks, which in turn can suggest the origins and migrations of species and possibly even floras. A number of cool temperate taxa that appear particularly amenable to this approach are discussed, including genera in the Palmariaceae, Corallinaceae, Dumontiaceae, Solieriaceae, Petrocelidaceae, Ceramiaceae and Rhodomelaceae.

  14. Identification of a new marine algal species Pyropia nitida sp. nov. (Bangiales: Rhodophyta) from Monterey, California.

    PubMed

    Harden, Leeanne K; Morales, Karina M; Hughey, Jeffery R

    2016-07-01

    An unidentified marine red algal species classified in Pyropia J. Agardh was discovered from Monterey, CA. Morphological, barcode, and complete mitochondrial genome analysis of the alga support its recognition as a new species, Pyropia nitida sp. nov. The species is a high-intertidal, winter annual that is lanceolate in shape, monostromatic, and dioecious. Based on CO1 sequences, P. nitida is closely allied with the P. nereocystis clade. The mitogenome of P. nitida is 35 313 bp in length and contains 53 genes, including two ribosomal RNAs, 24 transfer RNAs, four ribosomal proteins, two ymfs, four ORFs, and 17 genes involved in electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. The results support the recognition of P. nitida as distinct from the morphologically similar P. lanceolata. PMID:26153737

  15. A comparison of different Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) parts in biochemical characteristics, protoplast formation and regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongxia; Sui, Zhenghong; Hu, Yiyi; Zhang, Si; Pan, Yulong; Ju, Hongri

    2014-08-01

    Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis is a commercially exploited alga. Its filaceous thallus can be divided into three parts, holdfast, middle segment and tip. The growth and branch forming trend and agar content of these three parts were analyzed, respectively, in this study. The results showed that the tip had the highest growth rate and branched most, although it was the last part with branch forming ability. The holdfast formed branches earliest but slowly. Holdfast had the highest agar content. We also assessed the difference in protoplast formation and regeneration among three parts. The middle segment displayed the shortest enzymolysis time and the highest protoplast yield; whereas the tip had the strongest vitality of protoplasts formation. Juvenile plants were only obtained from the protoplasts generated from the tip. These results suggested that the differentiation and function of G. lemaneiformis was different.

  16. Species diversity of the genus Osmundea (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in the Macaronesian region.

    PubMed

    Machín-Sánchez, María; Rousseau, Florence; Le Gall, Line; Cassano, Valéria; Neto, Ana I; Sentíes, Abel; T Fujii, Mutue; Gil-Rodríguez, María Candelaria

    2016-08-01

    Species diversity within the genus Osmundea in the Macaronesian region was explored by conducting a comprehensive sampling in the Azores, the Canary, and the Madeira archipelagos. Toward identification, all specimens were first observed alive to verify the absence of corps en cerise, a diagnostic character for the genus and morphometric data were measured (thallus length and width, first-order branches length and width, branchlets length and width, cortical cell length and width in surface view, cortical cell length and width in transverse section). Specimens were sequenced for COI-5P (39 specimens) and three species delimitation methods (Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent, Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery method, and Poisson Tree Processes) were used to assess the threshold between infra- and interspecific relationships. Subsequently, one or several sequences of plastid-encoded large subunit of RuBisCO (21 specimens) per delimited species were generated to assess the phylogenetic relationships among Macaronesian Osmundea. Moreover, for each delineated species, vegetative and reproductive anatomy was thoroughly documented and, when possible, specimens were either assigned to existing taxa or described as novel species. This integrative approach has provided data for (i) the presence of O. oederi, O. pinnatifida, and O. truncata in Macaronesia; (ii) the proposal of two novel species, O. prudhommevanreinei sp. nov. and O. silvae sp. nov.; and (iii) evidence of an additional species referred as "Osmundea sp.1," which is a sister taxon of O. hybrida. PMID:27221970

  17. Effects of temperature and irradiance on early development of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Zhao, Peng; Wang, Gaoge; Li, Dapeng; Wang, Jicheng; Duan, Delin

    2010-05-01

    Chondrus is a type of commercially produced red seaweed that widely used for food and carrageen extraction. Although the natural life history of the alga had been well understood, the factors influencing development of the tetraspore and carpospore remain poorly understood. In the perspective of seedling resources, the regulation of early development is crucial for the seedling nursing; therefore, it is necessary to understand the physiological influences during its early development. In this study, we studied the effects of temperature and irradiance on the early development of Chondrus ocellatus Holm under laboratory conditions. The released tetraspores and carpospores were cultivated at different temperatures (10-28°C) and irradiances (10, 60 μmol photons m-2s-1) with a photoperiod of 12L:12D. The results indicate that both tetraspores and carpospores are tolerant to temperatures of 10-25°C, and have the highest relative growth rate at 20°C. Irradiance variances influenced the growth of the discoid crusts, and the influence was more significant with increasing temperature; 60 μmol photons m-2s-1 was more suitable than 10 μmol photons m-2s-1. The optimum temperature and irradiance for the development of seedlings was 20°C and 60 μmol photons m-2s-1, respectively.

  18. Complete nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence amplification and molecular analyses of Bangia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiajie; Jiang, Bo; Chai, Sanming; He, Yuan; Zhu, Jianyi; Shen, Zonggen; Shen, Songdong

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous Bangia, which are distributed extensively throughout the world, have simple and similar morphological characteristics. Scientists can classify these organisms using molecular markers in combination with morphology. We successfully sequenced the complete nuclear ribosomal DNA, approximately 13 kb in length, from a marine Bangia population. We further analyzed the small subunit ribosomal DNA gene (nrSSU) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence regions along with nine other marine, and two freshwater Bangia samples from China. Pairwise distances of the nrSSU and 5.8S ribosomal DNA gene sequences show the marine samples grouping together with low divergences (00.003; 0-0.006, respectively) from each other, but high divergences (0.123-0.126; 0.198, respectively) from freshwater samples. An exception is the marine sample collected from Weihai, which shows high divergence from both other marine samples (0.063-0.065; 0.129, respectively) and the freshwater samples (0.097; 0.120, respectively). A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree based on a combined SSU-ITS dataset with maximum likelihood method shows the samples divided into three clades, with the two marine sample clades containing Bangia spp. from North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia; and one freshwater clade, containing Bangia atropurpurea from North America and China.

  19. The bladed Bangiales (Rhodophyta) of the South Eastern Pacific: Molecular species delimitation reveals extensive diversity.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto; Ramírez, María Eliana; Macaya, Erasmo C; Contador, Cristian Bulboa; Woods, Helen; Wyatt, Christopher; Brodie, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    A molecular taxonomic study of the bladed Bangiales of the South Eastern Pacific (coast of Chile) was undertaken based on sequence data of the mitochondrial COI and chloroplast rbcL for 193 specimens collected from Arica (18°S) in the north to South Patagonia (53°S) in the south. The results revealed for the first time that four genera, Porphyra, Pyropia, Fuscifolium and Wildemania were present in the region. Species delimitation was determined based on a combination of a General Mixed Yule Coalescence model (GMYC) and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) coupled with detection of monophyly in tree reconstruction. The overall incongruence between the species delimitation methods within each gene was 29%. The GMYC method led to over-splitting groups, whereas the ABGD method had a tendency to lump groups. Taking a conservative approach to the number of putative species, at least 18 were recognized and, with the exception of the recently described Pyropia orbicularis, all were new to the Chilean flora. Porphyra and Pyropia were the most diverse genera with eight 'species' each, whereas only a 'single' species each was found for Fuscifolium and Wildemania. There was also evidence of recently diverging groups: Wildemania sp. was distinct but very closely related to W. amplissima from the Northern Hemisphere and raises questions in relation to such disjunct distributions. Pyropia orbicularis was very closely related to two other species, making species delimitation very difficult but provides evidence of an incipient speciation. The difference between the 'species' discovered and those previously reported for the region is discussed in relation to the difficulty of distinguishing species based on morphological identification. PMID:26484942

  20. Nuclear DNA Content Variation in Life History Phases of the Bonnemasoniaceae (Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Salvador Soler, Noemi; Gómez Garreta, Amelia; Ribera Siguan, Mª Antonia; Kapraun, Donald F.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content in gametophytes and sporophytes or the prostrate phases of the following species of Bonnemaisoniaceae (Asparagopsis armata, Asparagopsis taxiformis, Bonnemaisonia asparagoides, Bonnemaisonia clavata and Bonnemaisonia hamifera) were estimated by image analysis and static microspectrophotometry using the DNA-localizing fluorochrome DAPI (4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, dilactate) and the chicken erythrocytes standard. These estimates expand on the Kew database of DNA nuclear content. DNA content values for 1C nuclei in the gametophytes (spermatia and vegetative cells) range from 0.5 pg to 0.8 pg, and for 2C nuclei in the sporophytes or the prostrate phases range from 1.15–1.7 pg. Although only the 2C and 4C values were observed in the sporophyte or the prostrate phase, in the vegetative cells of the gametophyte the values oscillated from 1C to 4C, showing the possible start of endopolyploidy. The results confirm the alternation of nuclear phases in these Bonnemaisoniaceae species, in those that have tetrasporogenesis, as well as those that have somatic meiosis. The availability of a consensus phylogenetic tree for Bonnemaisoniaceae has opened the way to determine evolutionary trends in DNA contents. Both the estimated genome sizes and the published chromosome numbers for Bonnemaisoniaceae suggest a narrow range of values consistent with the conservation of an ancestral genome. PMID:24465835

  1. Host specificity and growth of kelp gametophytes symbiotic with filamentous red algae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Charlene B.; Garbary, David J.; Kim, Kwang Young; Chiasson, David M.

    2004-02-01

    Kelp gametophytes were previously observed in nature living endophytically in red algal cell walls. Here we examine the interactions of two kelp species and six red algae in culture. Gametophytes of Nereocystis luetkeana (Mertens) Postels et Ruprecht became endophytic in the cell walls of Griffithsia pacifica Kylin and Antithamnion defectum Kylin, and grew epiphytically in high abundance on G. japonica Okamura and Aglaothamnion oosumiense Itono. Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville from the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia became endophytic in Aglaothamnion oosumiense, Antithamnion defectum, Callithamnion sp., G. japonica, G. pacifica, and Pleonosporium abysicola Gardner, all from the Pacific Ocean. Some cultures were treated with phloroglucinol before infection to thicken the cell walls. The endophytic gametophytes were smaller and grew more slowly than gametophytes epiphytic on the same host. N. luetkeana failed to become endophytic in some of the potential hosts, and this may reflect host specificity, or culture artifacts. This work improves our understanding of the process of infection of red algae by kelp gametophytes, and broadens our knowledge of host specificity in endophytic symbioses.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships of corallinaceae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta): taxonomic implications for reef-building corallines.

    PubMed

    Rösler, Anja; Perfectti, Francisco; Peña, Viviana; Braga, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    A new, more complete, five-marker (SSU, LSU, psbA, COI, 23S) molecular phylogeny of the family Corallinaceae, order Corallinales, shows a paraphyletic grouping of seven well-supported monophyletic clades. The taxonomic implications included the amendment of two subfamilies, Neogoniolithoideae and Metagoniolithoideae, and the rejection of Porolithoideae as an independent subfamily. Metagoniolithoideae contained Harveylithon gen. nov., with H. rupestre comb. nov. as the generitype, and H. canariense stat. nov., H. munitum comb. nov., and H. samoënse comb. nov. Spongites and Pneophyllum belonged to separate clades. The subfamily Neogoniolithoideae included the generitype of Spongites, S. fruticulosus, for which an epitype was designated. Pneophyllum requires reassesment. The generitype of Hydrolithon, H. reinboldii, was a younger heterotypic synonym of H. boergesenii. The evolutionary novelty of the subfamilies Hydrolithoideae, Metagoniolithoideae, and Lithophylloideae was the development of tetra/bisporangial conceptacle roofs by filaments surrounding and interspersed among the sporangial initials. PMID:27273534

  3. Pyropia plicata sp. nov. (Bangiales, Rhodophyta): naming a common intertidal alga from New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Wendy A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A commonly found red alga of the upper intertidal zone of New Zealand rocky coasts is described for the first time as Pyropia plicata sp. nov. This species has been incorrectly known as Porphyra columbina Mont. (now Pyropia columbina (Mont.) W.A.Nelson) for many years. Pyropia plicata is widespread and common, and it is readily distinguished from other species of bladed Bangiales in New Zealand by its distinctive morphology, with pleated blades attached by a central rhizoidal holdfast. PMID:23794933

  4. Phylogeny of Gracilariaceae (Rhodophyta): evidence from plastid and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences.

    PubMed

    Lyra, Goia de M; Costa, Emmanuelle da S; de Jesus, Priscila B; de Matos, João Carlos G; Caires, Taiara A; Oliveira, Mariana C; Oliveira, Eurico C; Xi, Zhenxiang; Nunes, José Marcos de C; Davis, Charles C

    2015-04-01

    Gracilariaceae are mostly pantropical red algae and include ~230 species in seven genera. Infrafamilial classification of the group has long been based on reproductive characters, but previous phylogenies have shown that traditionally circumscribed groups are not monophyletic. We performed phylogenetic analyses using two plastid (universal plastid amplicon and rbcL) and one mitochondrial (cox1) loci from a greatly expanded number of taxa to better assess generic relationships and understand patterns of character distributions. Our analyses produce the most well-supported phylogeny of the family to date, and indicate that key characteristics of spermatangia and cystocarp type do not delineate genera as commonly suggested. Our results further indicate that Hydropuntia is not monophyletic. Given their morphological overlap with closely related members of Gracilaria, we propose that Hydropuntia be synonymized with the former. Our results additionally expand the known ranges of several Gracilariaceae species to include Brazil. Lastly, we demonstrate that the recently described Gracilaria yoneshigueana should be synonymized as G. domingensis based on morphological and molecular characters. These results demonstrate the utility of DNA barcoding for understanding poorly known and fragmentary materials of cryptic red algae. PMID:26986530

  5. Differential responses of tetrasporophytes and gametophytes of Mazzaella laminarioides (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) under solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Nelso P; Figueroa, Félix L; Korbee, Nathalie; Mansilla, Andrés; Plastino, Estela M

    2016-06-01

    The effects of solar UV radiation on mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), growth, photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, phycobiliproteins), soluble proteins (SP), and C and N content of Mazzaella laminarioides tetrasporophytes and gametophytes were investigated. Apical segments of tetrasporophytes and gametophytes were exposed to solar radiation under three treatments (PAR [P], PAR+UVA [PA], and PAR+UVA+UVB [PAB]) during 18 d in spring 2009, Punta Arenas, Chile. Samples were taken after 2, 6, 12, and 18 d of solar radiation exposure. Most of the parameters assessed on M. laminarioides were significantly influenced by the radiation treatment, and both gametophytes and tetrasporophytes seemed to respond differently when exposed to high UV radiation. The two main effects promoted by UV radiation were: (i) higher synthesis of MAAs in gametophytes than tetrasporophytes at 2 d, and (ii) a decrease in phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, and SPs, but an increase in MAA content in tetrasporophytes at 6 and 12 d of culture. Despite some changes that were observed in biochemical parameters in both tetrasporophytes and gametophytes of M. laminarioides when exposed to UVB radiation, these changes did not promote deleterious effects that might interfere with the growth in the long term (18 d). The tolerance and resistance of M. laminarioides to higher UV irradiance were expected, as this intertidal species is exposed to variation in solar radiation, especially during low tide. PMID:26990026

  6. Identification of proteins involved in desiccation tolerance in the red seaweed Pyropia orbicularis (Rhodophyta, Bangiales).

    PubMed

    López-Cristoffanini, Camilo; Zapata, Javier; Gaillard, Fanny; Potin, Philippe; Correa, Juan A; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto

    2015-12-01

    Extreme reduction in cellular water content leads to desiccation, which, if persistent, affects the physiology of organisms, mainly through oxidative stress. Some organisms are highly tolerant to desiccation, including resurrection plants and certain intertidal seaweeds. One such species is Pyropia orbicularis, a rhodophycean that colonizes upper intertidal zones along the Chilean coast. Despite long, daily periods of air exposure due to tides, this alga is highly tolerant to desiccation. The present study examined the proteome of P. orbicularis by 2DE and LC-MS/MS analyses to determine the proteins associated with desiccation tolerance (DT). The results showed that, under natural conditions, there were significant changes in the protein profile during low tide as compared to naturally hydrated plants at high tide. These changes were mainly in newly appeared proteins spots such as chaperones, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and manganese superoxide dismutase, among others. Previously undescribed proteins under desiccation conditions included phycobiliproteins, glyoxalase I, and phosphomannomutase. These changes evidenced that several physiological responses involved in DT are activated during low tide, including decreased photosynthetic activity, increased antioxidant capacity, and the preservation of cell physiology by regulating water content, cell wall structure, and cell volume. Similar responses have been observed in resurrection plants and bryophytes exposed to desiccation. Therefore, the coordinated activation of different desiccation tolerance pathways in P. orbicularis could explain the successful biological performance of this seaweed in the upper intertidal rocky zones. PMID:26154304

  7. Effects of season on the yield and quality of agar from Gracilaria species (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Marinho-Soriano, E; Bourret, E

    2003-12-01

    The effect of season on yield and physical properties of agars extracted from Gracia gracilis and G. bursa-pastoris were determined. The agar yield from G. gracilis was maximum during spring (30%) and minimum during autumn (19%). In G. bursa-pastoris, the agar yield was greatest in summer (36%) and lowest in winter (23%). Agar yield from G. bursa-pastoris was positively correlated with temperature (r=0.94; P<0.01) and salinity (r=0.97; P<0.01) and negatively with nitrogen content (r=-0.93; P<0.01). Agar gel strengths fluctuated from 229 to 828 gcm(-2) and 23 to 168 gcm(-2) for G. gracilis and G. bursa-pastoris, respectively. The gelling temperature showed significant seasonal variation for both species. Chemical analysis of agar from the two seaweeds indicated variation in 3,6-anhydrogalactose and sulfate content (P<0.01). Furthermore, there was an inverse correlation between the two chemical variables. In general, agar extracted from G. gracilis possessed better qualities than agar extracted from G. bursa-pastoris and can be considered a candidate for industrial use. PMID:14575957

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of the red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta) and its microbiome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Seaweeds of the Laurencia genus have a broad geographic distribution and are largely recognized as important sources of secondary metabolites, mainly halogenated compounds exhibiting diverse potential pharmacological activities and relevant ecological role as anti-epibiosis. Host-microbe interaction is a driving force for co-evolution in the marine environment, but molecular studies of seaweed-associated microbial communities are still rare. Despite the large amount of research describing the chemical compositions of Laurencia species, the genetic knowledge regarding this genus is currently restricted to taxonomic markers and general genome features. In this work we analyze the transcriptomic profile of L. dendroidea J. Agardh, unveil the genes involved on the biosynthesis of terpenoid compounds in this seaweed and explore the interactions between this host and its associated microbiome. Results A total of 6 transcriptomes were obtained from specimens of L. dendroidea sampled in three different coastal locations of the Rio de Janeiro state. Functional annotations revealed predominantly basic cellular metabolic pathways. Bacteria was the dominant active group in the microbiome of L. dendroidea, standing out nitrogen fixing Cyanobacteria and aerobic heterotrophic Proteobacteria. The analysis of the relative contribution of each domain highlighted bacterial features related to glycolysis, lipid and polysaccharide breakdown, and also recognition of seaweed surface and establishment of biofilm. Eukaryotic transcripts, on the other hand, were associated with photosynthesis, synthesis of carbohydrate reserves, and defense mechanisms, including the biosynthesis of terpenoids through the mevalonate-independent pathway. Conclusions This work describes the first transcriptomic profile of the red seaweed L. dendroidea, increasing the knowledge about ESTs from the Florideophyceae algal class. Our data suggest an important role for L. dendroidea in the primary production of the holobiont and the role of Bacteria as consumers of organic matter and possibly also as nitrogen source. Furthermore, this seaweed expressed sequences related to terpene biosynthesis, including the complete mevalonate-independent pathway, which offers new possibilities for biotechnological applications using secondary metabolites from L. dendroidea. PMID:22985125

  9. Population Studies and Carrageenan Properties in Eight Gigartinales (Rhodophyta) from Western Coast of Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Leonel

    2013-01-01

    Eight carrageenophytes, representing seven genera and three families of Gigartinales (Florideophyceae), were studied for 15 months. The reproductive status, dry weight, and carrageenan content have been followed by a monthly random sampling. The highest carrageenan yields were found in Chondracanthus acicularis (61.1%), Gigartina pistillata (59.7%), and Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (58.0%). Species of Cystocloniaceae family produces predominantly iota-carrageenans; Gigartinaceae family produces hybrid kappa-iota carrageenans (gametophytic plants) and lambda-family carrageenans (sporophytic plants); Phyllophoraceae family produces kappa-iota-hybrid carrageenans. Quadrate destructive sampling method was used to determine the biomass and line transect. Quadrate nondestructive sampling method, applied along a perpendicular transect to the shoreline, was used to calculate the carrageenophytes cover in two periods: autumn/winter and spring/summer. The highest cover and biomass were found in Chondrus crispus (3.75%–570 g/m2), Chondracanthus acicularis (3.45%–99 g/m2), Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (2.45%–207.5 g/m2), and Mastocarpus stellatus (2.02%–520 g/m2). PMID:24288514

  10. New Insights on the Terpenome of the Red Seaweed Laurencia dendroidea (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Louisi Souza; Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; de Oliveira, Aline Santos; Hill, Lilian Jorge; Paradas, Wladimir Costa; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; Thompson, Cristiane Carneiro; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    The red seaweeds belonging to the genus Laurencia are well known as halogenated secondary metabolites producers, mainly terpenoids and acetogennins. Several of these chemicals exhibit important ecological roles and biotechnological applications. However, knowledge regarding the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds is still very limited. We detected 20 different genes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoid precursors, and 21 different genes coding for terpene synthases that are responsible for the chemical modifications of the terpenoid precursors, resulting in a high diversity of carbon chemical skeletons. In addition, we demonstrate through molecular and cytochemical approaches the occurrence of the mevalonate pathway involved in the biosynthesis of terpenes in L. dendroidea. This is the first report on terpene synthase genes in seaweeds, enabling further studies on possible heterologous biosynthesis of terpenes from L. dendroidea exhibiting ecological or biotechnological interest. PMID:25675000

  11. New record and phylogenetic affinities of the oomycete Olpidiopsis feldmanni infecting Asparagopsis sp. (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Kyle; Uljević, Ante; Tsirigoti, Amerssa; Antolić, Boris; Katsaros, Christos; Nikolić, Vedran; van West, Pieter; Küpper, Frithjof C

    2015-11-17

    A new geographic record of the oomycete Olpidiopsis feldmanni infecting the tetrasporophytic stage of the red alga Asparagopsis sp. from the Adriatic Sea, confirmed through morphological identification, allowed us to expand previous observations of this organism. Ultrastructural investigations of environmental material showed a large central vacuole and a cell wall thicker than previously reported from other basal oomycete pathogens of algae. Phylogenetic analysis closely associates O. feldmanni to O. bostrychiae concurrent with structural observations. This constitutes the first genetic characterisation of an Olpidiopsis species that was initially described before 1960, adding to the genetic data of 3 other marine Olpidiopsis species established and genetically characterised in the last 2 decades. The paper discusses concurrences of the ultrastructural observations made here and in previous studies of the marine Olpidiopsis species with those made on the freshwater species. PMID:26575155

  12. Tolerance to oxidative stress induced by desiccation in Porphyra columbina (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Porcia, Loretto; Thomas, Daniela; Flores, Verónica; Correa, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    Unravelling the mechanisms underlying desiccation tolerance is crucial in order to understand the position of algal species in the intertidal zone. The alga Porphyra columbina lives in the uppermost part of the rocky intertidal zones around the world and was selected as a model for this study. Naturally desiccated plants were collected during low tide and studied for morphological changes, oxidative burst induction, biomolecule oxidation, antioxidant responses, and photosynthetic status. Naturally hydrated plants collected during high tides were used for comparative purposes. In addition, changes induced by desiccation were assessed in vitro and the capacity to recover from desiccation was determined by rehydrating the fronds in seawater. The global results show that desiccation induces morphological and cellular alterations accompanied by a loss of ∼96% of the water content. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced by desiccation and two peaks of H2O2 were detected at 1 and 3 h of desiccation. However, during in vitro rehydration post-desiccation, the ROS quickly returned to the basal levels. At the biomolecular level, only a low production of oxidized proteins was recorded during desiccation, whereas the activity of diverse antioxidant enzymes increased. However, this activity diminished to near basal levels during rehydration. The photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) during desiccation declined by 94–96% of the values recorded in hydrated plants. This reduction was generated by the low levels of trapped energy flux per cross-section (TRo/CS), electron transport flux per CS (ETo/CS), and density of reaction centres (RC/SCo) as well as the chlorophyll content. The inverse pattern was observed for the levels of phycocyanin and phycoerythrin content. Fv/Fm and the photosynthetic indicators were restored to normal levels after only 5 min of rehydration. The results indicate that desiccation in P. columbina causes overproduction of ROS that is efficiently attenuated. The morphological and photosynthetic changes could be operating as tolerance mechanisms due to the fact that these responses principally prevent biomolecular alteration and cellular collapse. Thus, the activation of different physiological mechanisms helps to explain the high tolerance to desiccation of P. columbina and, at least in part, the position of this species at the highest level in the intertidal zone. PMID:21196477

  13. Reproductive effort of Mastocarpus papillatus (Rhodophyta) along the California coast1

    PubMed Central

    Krueger-Hadfield, Stacy A.; Kübler, Janet E.; Dudgeon, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Species with sexual and asexual life cycles may exhibit intraspecific differences in reproductive effort. The spatial separation of sexual and asexual lineages, called geographic parthenogenesis, is common in plants, animals and algae. Mastocarpus papillatus is a well-documented case of geographic parthenogenesis in which sexuals dominate southern populations, asexuals dominate northern populations, while mixed populations occur throughout central California. We quantified abundances and reproductive effort of sexual and asexual fronds and tetrasporophytes at eight sites in California to test the hypotheses that (1) reduced sexual reproduction at higher latitudes and tidal heights explains the observed geographic parthenogenesis and (2) reproductive effort (spore production per blade area) declines with increasing latitude. Abundances of all phases varied site-specifically. However, there was no geographic pattern of reproductive effort of fronds. Reproductive effort of fronds was greater in 2006 than in 2007 and correlated with sea surface temperatures. Sexual fronds exhibited greater reproductive effort than did asexual fronds and sexual reproductive effort was also inversely correlated with local upwelling index. Tetrasporophytes showed greater reproductive effort in northern sites, but total supply of tetraspores per m2 was greatest in the middle of the sampling range where crusts were more abundant. There was no decline of reproductive effort at higher latitudes. Geographic patterns of fecundity of life stages do not explain geographic parthenogenesis in M. papillatus. Site-specific differences in viability among spores or established thalli of different life cycles may explain their respective geographic distributions, as the sexual and asexual life cycles responded differently to environmental variations. PMID:23772094

  14. Complete nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence amplification and molecular analyses of Bangia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiajie; Jiang, Bo; Chai, Sanming; He, Yuan; Zhu, Jianyi; Shen, Zonggen; Shen, Songdong

    2016-09-01

    Filamentous Bangia, which are distributed extensively throughout the world, have simple and similar morphological characteristics. Scientists can classify these organisms using molecular markers in combination with morphology. We successfully sequenced the complete nuclear ribosomal DNA, approximately 13 kb in length, from a marine Bangia population. We further analyzed the small subunit ribosomal DNA gene (nrSSU) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence regions along with nine other marine, and two freshwater Bangia samples from China. Pairwise distances of the nrSSU and 5.8S ribosomal DNA gene sequences show the marine samples grouping together with low divergences (00.003; 0-0.006, respectively) from each other, but high divergences (0.123-0.126; 0.198, respectively) from freshwater samples. An exception is the marine sample collected from Weihai, which shows high divergence from both other marine samples (0.063-0.065; 0.129, respectively) and the freshwater samples (0.097; 0.120, respectively). A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree based on a combined SSU-ITS dataset with maximum likelihood method shows the samples divided into three clades, with the two marine sample clades containing Bangia spp. from North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia; and one freshwater clade, containing Bangia atropurpurea from North America and China.

  15. Identification and characterization of a DnaJ gene from red alga Pyropia yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiao; Li, Xianchao; Tang, Xuexi; Zhou, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Members of the DnaJ family are proteins that play a pivotal role in various cellular processes, such as protein folding, protein transport and cellular responses to stress. In the present study, we identified and characterized the full-length DnaJ cDNA sequence from expressed sequence tags of Pyropia yezoensis ( PyDnaJ) via rapid identification of cDNA ends. This cDNA encoded a protein of 429 amino acids, which shared high sequence similarity with other identified DnaJ proteins, such as a heat shock protein 40/DnaJ from Pyropia haitanensis. The relative mRNA expression level of PyDnaJ was investigated using real-time PCR to determine its specific expression during the algal life cycle and during desiccation. The relative mRNA expression level in sporophytes was higher than that in gametophytes and significantly increased during the whole desiccation process. These results indicate that PyDnaJ is an authentic member of the DnaJ family in plants and red algae and might play a pivotal role in mitigating damage to P. yezoensis during desiccation.

  16. Compsopogon cf. coeruleus, a benthic red alga (Rhodophyta) new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Wujek, Daniel E.

    1991-01-01

    We found Compsopogon cf. coeruleus for the first time in the Laurentian Great Lakes, growing on limestone rocks at a depth of 21 m on Six Fathom Bank in central Lake Huron. It is the first freshwater red alga to be found in the Great Lakes and the only red alga ever found on an offshore reef in the Great Lakes. However, because this alga usually inhabits water 10–28 °C and has not survived freezing winter temperatures elsewhere, it may not be a permanent member of the flora.

  17. Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Lipidomic and Biochemical Alterations in the Intertidal Macroalga Gracilaria dura (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Puja; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-10-01

    The role of exogenously added methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a lipid-derived signaling compound, in inducing oxidative stress in the marine red macroalga Gracilaria dura was investigated. MeJA at a concentration of 1-100 µM was a strong stimulant of reactive oxygen species (H(2)O(2), HO· and O(2) (·-)) (P < 0.05) causing considerable oxidative stress in G. dura. This further led to lipid peroxidation and degradation of the pigments Chl a and phycocyanin, with a concomitant increase in phycoerythrin. The MeJA-induced oxidative burst also led to the induction of a fatty acid oxidation cascade, resulting in the synthesis of hydroxy-oxylipins and the up-regulation of the 13-lipoxygenase pathway. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomic analysis revealed that monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (a chloroplastic glycerolipid) and phosphatidylcholine (extrachloroplastidic phopholipid) were the most affected lipid classes. The degradation of 18:3-fatty acid-containing monogalactosyldiacylglycerol inferred that it provided fatty acyl chains for the biosynthesis of 13-hydroperoxylinolenic acid, which was further directed towards either the jasmonate pathway or other alternative pathways of the fatty acid oxidation cascade, analogous to higher plants. Also, G. dura modulated the lipid acyl chains in such a way that no significant change was observed in the fatty acid profile of the treated thalli as compared with those of the control, except for C16:0, C16:1 (n-9), C20:3 (n-6) and C20:4 (n-6) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, MeJA caused the accumulation of phenolic compounds and the up-regulation of enzymes involved in secondary metabolism such as polyphenol oxidase, shikimate dehydrogenase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, indicating a shift towards secondary metabolism as a defense strategy to combat the induced oxidative stress. PMID:26276825

  18. Effects of weed cover composition on insect pest and natural enemy abundance in a field of Dracaena marginata (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sadof, Clifford S; Linkimer, Mildred; Hidalgo, Eduardo; Casanoves, Fernando; Gibson, Kevin; Benjamin, Tamara J

    2014-04-01

    Weeds and their influence on pest and natural enemy populations were studied on a commercial ornamental farm during 2009 in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. A baseline survey of the entire production plot was conducted in February, along a 5 by 5 m grid to characterize and map initial weed communities of plants, cicadellids, katydids, and armored scales. In total, 50 plant species from 21 families were found. Seven weed treatments were established to determine how weed manipulations would affect communities of our targeted pests and natural enemies. These treatments were selected based on reported effects of specific weed cover on herbivorous insects and natural enemies, or by their use by growers as a cover crop. Treatments ranged from weed-free to being completely covered with endemic species of weeds. Although some weed treatments changed pest abundances, responses differed among arthropod pests, with the strongest effects observed for Caldwelliola and Empoasca leafhoppers. Removal of all weeds increased the abundance of Empoasca, whereas leaving mostly cyperacaeous weeds increased the abundance of Caldwelliola. Weed manipulations had no effect on the abundance of katydid and scale populations. No weed treatment reduced the abundance of all three of the target pests. Differential responses of the two leafhopper species to the same weed treatments support hypotheses, suggesting that noncrop plants can alter the abundance of pests through their effects on arthropod host finding and acceptance, as well as their impacts on natural enemies. PMID:24517852

  19. An examination of the epiphytic nature of Gambierdiscus toxicus, a dinoflagellate involved in ciguatera fish poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Michael L.; Settlemier, Chelsie J.; Ballauer, Josh M.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-four specimen of macroalgae were collected in nearshore waters of the island of Hawaii, identified, and maintained to examine how the epiphytic relationship between Gambierdiscus toxicus (isolate BIG12) varied among the macroalgal species. Gambierdiscus cells were introduced to petri dishes containing 100 g samples of each macroalgal host, which were examined at two, 16, 24, and every 24 to 72 hours thereafter, over a 29-day period. Gambierdiscus proliferated in the presence of some host species (e.g., Galaxaura marginata and Jania sp.), but grew little in the presence of other species (e.g., Portieria hornemannii). Gambierdiscus exhibited high survival rates (>99%) in the presence of Chaetomorpha sp., but died before the end of the experiment (after 21 days) with other host species (e.g., Dictyota and Microdictyon spp.). Gambierdiscus avoided contact with Portieria hornemannii, but averaged up to 30% attachment with other host species. The numbers of Gambierdiscus cells belonging to one of three classes (alive and attached; alive and unattached; and dead) were determined for each time point. The 24 algal hosts were grouped according to their commonalities relative to these three classes using a Bray-Curtis similarity index, similarity profile (SIMPROF) permutation tests, and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis (PRIMER 6). The resultant six groupings were used to construct different Gambierdiscus growth profiles for the different algal hosts. Group A is characterized by a preponderance of unattached cells and high mortality rates. Groups B, C, E, and F also displayed high proportions of unattached cells, but mortality either occurred later (Groups B and C) or rates were lower (Groups E and F). Group D had the highest proportion of attached cells. Group E contained three out of the four chlorophyte species, while Group F contained the majority of the rhodophytes. Over 50% of the species in Group F are considered to be palatable, whereas Groups A, B, and

  20. An examination of the epiphytic nature of Gambierdiscus toxicus, a dinoflagellate involved in ciguatera fish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Michael L; Settlemier, Chelsie J; Ballauer, Josh M

    2011-09-01

    Twenty-four specimen of macroalgae were collected in nearshore waters of the island of Hawaii, identified, and maintained to examine how the epiphytic relationship between Gambierdiscus toxicus (isolate BIG12) varied among the macroalgal species. Gambierdiscus cells were introduced to petri dishes containing 100 g samples of each macroalgal host, which were examined at two, 16, 24, and every 24 to 72 hours thereafter, over a 29-day period. Gambierdiscus proliferated in the presence of some host species (e.g., Galaxaura marginata and Jania sp.), but grew little in the presence of other species (e.g., Portieria hornemannii). Gambierdiscus exhibited high survival rates (>99%) in the presence of Chaetomorpha sp., but died before the end of the experiment (after 21 days) with other host species (e.g., Dictyota and Microdictyon spp.). Gambierdiscus avoided contact with Portieria hornemannii, but averaged up to 30% attachment with other host species. The numbers of Gambierdiscus cells belonging to one of three classes (alive and attached; alive and unattached; and dead) were determined for each time point. The 24 algal hosts were grouped according to their commonalities relative to these three classes using a Bray-Curtis similarity index, similarity profile (SIMPROF) permutation tests, and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis (PRIMER 6). The resultant six groupings were used to construct different Gambierdiscus growth profiles for the different algal hosts. Group A is characterized by a preponderance of unattached cells and high mortality rates. Groups B, C, E, and F also displayed high proportions of unattached cells, but mortality either occurred later (Groups B and C) or rates were lower (Groups E and F). Group D had the highest proportion of attached cells. Group E contained three out of the four chlorophyte species, while Group F contained the majority of the rhodophytes. Over 50% of the species in Group F are considered to be palatable, whereas Groups A, B, and

  1. Aragonite infill in overgrown conceptacles of coralline Lithothamnion spp. (Hapalidiaceae, Hapalidiales, Rhodophyta): new insights in biomineralization and phylomineralogy.

    PubMed

    Krayesky-Self, Sherry; Richards, Joseph L; Rahmatian, Mansour; Fredericq, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    New empirical and quantitative data in the study of calcium carbonate biomineralization and an expanded coralline psbA framework for phylomineralogy are provided for crustose coralline red algae. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) pinpointed the exact location of calcium carbonate crystals within overgrown reproductive conceptacles in rhodolith-forming Lithothamnion species from the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Panama. SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the elemental composition of these calcium carbonate crystals to be aragonite. After spore release, reproductive conceptacles apparently became overgrown by new vegetative growth, a strategy that may aid in sealing the empty conceptacle chamber, hence influencing the chemistry of the microenvironment and in turn promoting aragonite crystal growth. The possible relevance of various types of calcium carbonate polymorphs present in the complex internal structure and skeleton of crustose corallines is discussed. This is the first study to link SEM, SEM-EDS, XRD, Microtomography and X-ray microscopy data of aragonite infill in coralline algae with phylomineralogy. The study contributes to the growing body of literature characterizing and speculating about how the relative abundances of carbonate biominerals in corallines may vary in response to changes in atmospheric pCO2 , ocean acidification, and global warming. PMID:27037582

  2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION OF THE CONCHOCELIS STAGE OF ALASKAN PORPHYRA (BANGIALES, RHODOPHYTA) SPECIES IN RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES(1).

    PubMed

    Lin, Rulong; Lindstrom, Sandra C; Stekoll, Michael S

    2008-06-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration of three Alaskan Porphyra species, P. abbottiae V. Krishnam., P. pseudolinearis Ueda species complex (identified as P. "pseudolinearis" below), and P. torta V. Krishnam., were investigated under a range of environmental parameters. Photosynthesis versus irradiance (P-I) curves revealed that maximal photosynthesis (Pmax ), irradiance at maximal photosynthesis (Imax ), and compensation irradiance (Ic ) varied with salinity, temperature, and species. The Pmax of Porphyra abbottiae conchocelis varied between 83 and 240 μmol O2  · g dwt(-1)  · h(-1) (where dwt indicates dry weight) at 30-140 μmol photons · m(-2)  · s(-1) (Imax ) depending on temperature. Higher irradiances resulted in photoinhibition. Maximal photosynthesis of the conchocelis of P. abbottiae occurred at 11°C, 60 μmol photons · m(-2) ·s(-1) , and 30 psu (practical salinity units). The conchocelis of P. "pseudolinearis" and P. torta had similar Pmax values but higher Imax values than those of P. abbottiae. The Pmax of P. "pseudolinearis" conchocelis was 200-240 μmol O2  · g dwt(-1)  · h(-1) and for P. torta was 90-240 μmol O2  · g dwt(-1)  · h(-1) . Maximal photosynthesis for P. "pseudolinearis" occurred at 7°C and 250 μmol photons · m(-2)  · s(-1) at 30 psu, but Pmax did not change much with temperature. Maximal photosynthesis for P. torta occurred at 15°C, 200 μmol photons · m(-2)  · s(-1) , and 30 psu. Photosynthesis rates for all species declined at salinities <25 or >35 psu. Estimated compensation irradiances (Ic ) were relatively low (3-5 μmol · photons · m(-2)  · s(-1) ) for intertidal macrophytes. Porphyra conchocelis had lower respiration rates at 7°C than at 11°C or 15°C. All three species exhibited minimal respiration rates at salinities between 25 and 35 psu. PMID:27041417

  3. The complete chloroplast genome of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) gives new insight into the evolution of family Gracilariaceae.

    PubMed

    Du, Qingwei; Bi, Guiqi; Mao, Yunxiang; Sui, Zhenghong

    2016-06-01

    The complete chloroplast genome of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis was recovered from a Next Generation Sequencing data set. Without quadripartite structure, this chloroplast genome (183,013 bp, 27.40% GC content) contains 202 protein-coding genes, 34 tRNA genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 1 tmRNA gene. Synteny analysis showed plasmid incorporation regions in chloroplast genomes of three species of family Gracilariaceae and in Grateloupia taiwanensis of family Halymeniaceae. Combined with reported red algal plasmid sequences in nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, we postulated that red algal plasmids may have played an important role in ancient horizontal gene transfer among nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes. Substitution rate analysis showed that purifying selective forces maintaining stability of protein-coding genes of nine red algal chloroplast genomes over long periods must be strong and that the forces acting on gene groups and single genes of nine red algal chloroplast genomes were similar and consistent. The divergence of Gp. lemaneiformis occurred ~447.98 million years ago (Mya), close to the divergence time of genus Pyropia and Porphyra (443.62 Mya). PMID:27273536

  4. TRANSPORT AND DEFENSIVE ROLE OF ELATOL AT THE SURFACE OF THE RED SEAWEED LAURENCIA OBTUSA (CERAMIALES, RHODOPHYTA)(1).

    PubMed

    Sudatti, Daniela B; Rodrigues, Silvana V; Coutinho, Ricardo; Da Gama, Bernardo A P; Salgado, Leonardo T; Amado Filho, Gilberto M; Pereira, Renato C

    2008-06-01

    Natural within-thallus concentrations of elatol produced by Laurencia obtusa (Huds.) J. V. Lamour. inhibit herbivory and prevent fouling. However, elatol occurs in larger amounts within the thallus compared with the quantities from the surface of this alga. We evaluated whether the surface elatol concentrations inhibit both herbivory and fouling and whether the content of corps en cerise can be transferred to the external cell walls. Surface elatol concentrations did not inhibit herbivory by sea urchins, settlement of barnacle larvae, or mussel attachment. Evidence of a connection between the corps en cerise, where elatol is probably stored, and the cell wall of L. obtusa was based on channel-like membranous connections that transport vesicles from the corps to the cell wall region. Therefore, L. obtusa presents a specific process of chemical transport between the cell storage structures and the plant surface. We hypothesized that if high amounts of elatol are capable of inhibiting herbivory and fouling, if the tested organisms are ecologically relevant, and if elatol really occurs on the surface of L. obtusa and this seaweed can transport this compound to its surface, the low natural concentration of defensive chemicals on the surface of L. obtusa is probably not absolute but may be variable according to environmental conditions. We also hypothesized that herbivory and fouling would not exert the same selective force for the production of defensive chemicals on L. obtusa's surface since the low concentrations of elatol were inefficient to inhibit either processes or distinguish selective pressures. PMID:27041418

  5. Patterns of genetic diversity of the cryptogenic red alga Polysiphonia morrowii (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) suggest multiple origins of the Atlantic populations.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Destombe, Christophe; Kim, Byeongseok; Mauger, Stéphane; Raffo, María Paula; Kim, Myung Sook; Le Gall, Line

    2016-08-01

    The red alga Polysiphonia morrowii, native to the North Pacific (Northeast Asia), has recently been reported worldwide. To determine the origin of the French and Argentine populations of this introduced species, we compared samples from these two areas with samples collected in Korea and at Hakodate, Japan, the type locality of the species. Combined analyses of chloroplastic (rbcL) and mitochondrial (cox1) DNA revealed that the French and Argentine populations are closely related and differ substantially from the Korean and Japanese populations. The genetic structure of P. morrowii populations from South Atlantic and North Atlantic, which showed high haplotype diversity compared with populations from the North Pacific, suggested the occurrence of multiple introduction events from areas outside of the so-called native regions. Although similar, the French and Argentine populations are not genetically identical. Thus, the genetic structure of these two introduced areas may have been modified by cryptic and recurrent introduction events directly from Asia or from other introduced areas that act as introduction relays. In addition, the large number of private cytoplasmic types identified in the two introduced regions strongly suggests that local populations of P. morrowii existed before the recent detection of these invasions. Our results suggest that the most likely scenario is that the source population(s) of the French and Argentine populations was not located only in the North Pacific and/or that P. morrowii is a cryptogenic species. PMID:27547343

  6. Contrasting patterns of population structure and demographic history in cryptic species of Bostrychia intricata (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Muangmai, Narongrit; Fraser, Ceridwen I; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C

    2015-06-01

    Spatial patterns of genetic diversity provide insight into the demography and history of species. Morphologically similar but genetically distinct "cryptic" species are increasingly being recognized in marine organisms through molecular analyses. Such species are, on closer inspection, often discovered to display contrasting life histories or occasionally minor morphological differences; molecular tools can thus be useful indicators of diversity. Bostrychia intricata, a marine red alga, is widely distributed throughout the Southern Hemisphere and comprises many cryptic species. We used mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequences to assess the genetic variation, population genetic structure, and demographic history of B. intricata in New Zealand. Our results supported the existence of three cryptic species of B. intricata (N2, N4, and N5) in New Zealand. Cryptic species N4, which was found throughout New Zealand, showed a higher genetic diversity and wider distribution than the other two species, which were only found in the North Island and northern South Island. Our analyses showed low to moderate genetic differentiation among eastern North Island populations for cryptic species N2, but high differentiation among North and South Island populations for N4, suggesting different population structure between these cryptic species. Data also indicated that N2 has recently undergone population expansion, probably since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), while the higher genetic diversity in N4 populations suggests persistence in situ through the LGM. The contrasting population structures and inferred demographic histories of these species highlight that life history can vary greatly even among morphologically indistinguishable taxa. PMID:26986671

  7. Succession of crustose coralline red algae (Rhodophyta) on coralgal reefs exposed to physical disturbance in the southwest Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariath, Rodrigo; Rodriguez, Rafael Riosmena; Figueiredo, Marcia A. O.

    2013-12-01

    Biological and physical disturbances create the conditions for species succession in any biological ecosystem. In particular, coral reefs are susceptible to this process because of the complexity of their ecological relationships. In the southwest Atlantic, nearshore reefs are mostly coated by a thin layer of coralline crusts rather than stony corals. However, little is known about the succession of crustose coralline algae. We studied this process by means of a series of experimental and control discs exposed to physical disturbance. Our results showed that the dominant species in natural conditions, Pneophyllum conicum, had early recruits and later became dominant on the discs, replicating the community structure of the actual reef. This species had mature reproductive structures and available spores from the beginning of the colonization experiments. Thicker crusts of Porolithon pachydermum and Peyssonnelia sp. were found on the discs after 112 days, and significantly increased their cover over the succeeding months; and after 1 year, P. conicum was less abundant. Physical disturbance increased crust recruitment and the low-light environment created by sediments. The data demonstrated coexistence among crustose coralline species and a tolerance to physical disturbance, which seemed to favor the thinner crusts of P. conicum over thick-crust species during succession. The succession pattern observed in this subtropical Brazilian coral reef differs from that described for shallow tropical reef communities.

  8. MESOPHYLLUM SPHAERICUM SP. NOV. (CORALLINALES, RHODOPHYTA): A NEW MAËRL-FORMING SPECIES FROM THE NORTHEAST ATLANTIC(1).

    PubMed

    Peña, Viviana; Adey, Walter H; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Jung, Moon-Yung; Afonso-Carrillo, Julio; Choi, Han-Gu; Bárbara, Ignacio

    2011-08-01

    Mesophyllum sphaericum sp. nov. is described based on spherical maërl individuals (up to 10 cm) collected in a shallow subtidal maërl bed in Galicia (NW Spain). The thalli of these specimens are radially organized, composed of arching tiers of compact medullary filaments. Epithallial cells have flattened to rounded outermost walls, and they occur in a single layer. Subepithallial initials are as long as, or longer than the daughter cells that subtend them. Cell fusions are abundant. Multiporate asexual conceptacles are protruding, mound-like with a flattened pore plate, lacking a peripheral raised rim. Filaments lining the pore canal and the conceptacle roof are composed of five to six cells with straight elongate and narrow cells at their base. Carposporangial conceptacles are uniporate, protruding, and conical. Spermatangial conceptacles were not observed. Molecular results placed M. sphaericum near to M. erubescens, but M. sphaericum is anatomically close to M. canariense. The examination of the holotype and herbarium specimens of M. canariense indicated that both species have pore canal filaments with elongate basal cells, but they differ in number of cells (five to six in M. sphaericum vs. four in M. canariense). Based on the character of pore canal filaments, M. canariense shows similarities with M. erubescens (three to five celled). The outermost walls of epithallial cells of M. canariense are flared compared to the round to flattened ones of M. erubescens, the latter being widely accepted for the genus Mesophyllum. The addition of M. sphaericum as new maërl-forming species suggests that European maërl beds are more biodiverse than previously understood. PMID:27020026

  9. Dietary Supplementation with the Microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) Reduces Prolonged Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Carfagna, Simona; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pinto, Gabriele; Venditti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25874021

  10. Effects of eutrophic seawater and temperature on the physiology and morphology of Hypnea musciformis J. V. Lamouroux (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    de Faveri, Caroline; Schmidt, Éder C; Simioni, Carmem; Martins, Cintia D L; Bonomi-Barufi, José; Horta, Paulo A; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2015-07-01

    As both food and source of a kappa-carrageenan, Hypnea musciformis represents a species of great economic interest. It also synthesizes substances with antiviral, anti-helminthic and anti-inflammatory potential and shows promise for use as a bioindicator of cadmium. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of seawater from three urbanized areas (area 1: natural runoff, NRA; area 2: urbanized runoff and sewage with treatment, RTA; area 3: urbanized runoff and untreated sewage, RUS) and three different temperatures (15, 25 and 30 °C) on the growth rate, photosynthetic efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and cell morphology of H. musciformis. After 4 days (96 h) of culture, the biomass of H. musciformis showed differences that fluctuated among the areas and temperature treatments. Specifically, the specimens cultivated in 35 °C had low values of ETRmax, α(ETR), β(ETR), and Fv/Fm photosynthetic parameters, as well as changes in cell morphology, with reduction in photosynthetic pigments and drastic reduction in growth rates. When combined with the extreme temperatures, high concentrations of ammonium ion in seawater effluent caused an inhibition of photosynthetic activity, as well as significant variation in chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents. As observed by light microscopy, the synergism between different temperatures and pollutants found in eutrophic waters caused changes in cellular morphology with increased cell wall thickening and decreased floridean starch grains. H. musciformis also showed important changes in physiological response to each factor independently, as well as changes resulting from the synergistic interaction of these factors combined. Therefore, we can conclude that extreme temperature combined with the effect of eutrophic waters, especially RUS, caused distinct morphological and physiological changes in the red alga H. musciformis. PMID:25750015

  11. Expression of the phycoerythrin gene of Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) in E. coli and evaluation of the bioactivity of recombinant PE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ruobing; Sui, Zhenghong; Zhang, Xuecheng; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Song

    2007-10-01

    Phycoerythrin (PE) is one of the most important proteins involved in light capturing during photosynthesis in red algae. Its potential biological activities had gained wide concerns. In the present study, tumor cytotoxic and hydroxyl radical assay were preformed to detect the bioactivity of recombinant PE. Recombinant plasmids pGEX-PE and pBGL were transformed into E. coli BL21 to make two recombinant strains BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL). PE expressing in BEX (pGEX-PE) was validated by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the PE-GST fusion protein was mostly inclusion bodies. Specific expression of PE was confirmed by Western blotting analysis. The recombinant E. coli BEX (pGEX-PE) cells were collected and sonicated. The supernatants were reserved for the tumor cytotoxic experiments. The result of tumor cytotoxic assay indicated that the supernatants containing PE had the activity of inhibiting the growth of Hela cells and with the increase of protein concentration, the inhibiting rate increased from 37.31% to 63.26%, which showed significant difference from the control. Hydroxyl radical scavenging effect was tested with supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates treated with sonication and heating. For the sonication samples, the scavenging rates of the supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates were significantly higher than the negative control BL21(pGEX-4T) ( P<0.02), and the scavenging rates increased slowly following the increase of the protein content. For the heating samples, except for the 0.2 mg mL-1 BGL (pBGL) products, the scavenging effects of the supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates were stronger than that of negative control BL21(pGEX-4T). However, the effect intensity was not positively correlated with the increase of the protein concentration. Though a partially decreased hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was led by heating, the biological activity was still retained and conspicuous. This research showed that phycoerythrin protein expressing in E. coli has the potential medical and sanitarian value.

  12. The enhancement of cyclic electron flow around photosystem I improves the recovery of severely desiccated Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Wang, Guangce

    2012-07-01

    Porphyra yezoensis, a representative species of intertidal macro-algae, is able to withstand periodic desiccation at low tide but is submerged in seawater at high tide. In this study, changes in photosynthetic electron flow in P. yezoensis during desiccation and re-hydration were investigated. The results suggested that the cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (PSI) increased significantly during desiccation, continued to operate at times of severe desiccation, and showed greater tolerance to desiccation than the electron flow around PSII. In addition, PSI activity in desiccated blades recovered faster than PSII activity during re-hydration. Even though linear electron flow was suppressed by DCMU [3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea], cyclic electron flow could still be restored. This process was insensitive to antimycin A and could be suppressed by dibromothymoquinone (DBMIB). The prolonged dark treatment of blades reduced the speed in which the cyclic electron flow around PSI recovered, suggesting that stromal reductants, including NAD(P)H, played an important role in the donation of electrons to PSI and were the main cause of the rapid recovery of cyclic electron flow in desiccated blades during re-hydration. These results suggested that cyclic electron flow in P. yezoensis played a significant physiological role during desiccation and re-hydration and may be one of the most important factors allowing P. yezoensis blades to adapt to intertidal environments. PMID:22438301

  13. Effects of UV-B irradiation on isoforms of antioxidant enzymes and their activities in red alga Grateloupia filicina (Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiqiang; Li, Lixia

    2014-11-01

    Macroalgae in a littoral zone are inevitably exposed to UV-B irradiance. We analyzed the effects of UV-B on isoenzyme patterns and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) of red algae Grateloupia filicina (Lamour.) C. Agardh. The activities of SOD, CAT, and APX changed in response to UV-B in a time- and dose-dependent manner. POX activity increased significantly under all three UV-B treatments. The enzymatic assay showed three distinct bands of SODI (Mn-SOD), SODII (Fe-SOD), and SODIII (CuZn-SOD) under a low (Luv) and medium (Muv) dose of UV-B irradiation, while SODI and SODIII activities decreased significantly when exposed to a high dose of UV-B irradiation (Huv). The activity of POX isoenzymes increased significantly after exposure to UV-B, which is consistent with the total activity. In addition, a clear decrease in activity of CATIV was detected in response to all the three doses of UV treatments. Some bands of APX isoenzyme were also clearly influenced by UV-B irradiation. Correspondingly, the daily growth rate declined under all the three exposure doses, and was especially significant under Muv and Huv treatments. These data suggest that, although the protection mechanisms of antioxidant defense system are partly inducible by UV-B to prevent the damage, G. filicina has incomplete tolerance to higher UV-B irradiation stress.

  14. Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effects of red algae Gracilaria changii (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) extract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gracilaria changii (Xia et Abbott) Abbott, Zhang et Xia, a red algae commonly found in the coastal areas of Malaysia is traditionally used for foods and for the treatment of various ailments including inflammation and gastric ailments. The aim of the study was to investigate anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic activities of a mass spectrometry standardized methanolic extract of Gracilaria changii. Methods Methanolic extract of Gracilaria changii (MeOHGCM6 extract) was prepared and standardized using mass spectrometry (MS). Anti-inflammatory activities of MeOHGCM6 extract were examined by treating U937 cells during its differentiation with 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract. Tumour necrosis factors-α (TNF-α) response level and TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene expression were monitored and compared to that treated by 10 nM betamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug. Gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic activities of MeOHGCM6 extract were examined by feeding rats with MeOHGCM6 extract ranging from 2.5 to 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) following induction of gastric lesions. Production of mucus and gastric juice, pH of the gastric juice and non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) levels were determined and compared to that fed by 20 mg/kg b.w. omeprazole (OMP), a known anti-ulcer drug. Results MS/MS analysis of the MeOHGCM6 extracts revealed the presence of methyl 10-hydroxyphaeophorbide a and 10-hydroxypheophytin a, known chlorophyll proteins and several unidentified molecules. Treatment with 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract during differentiation of U937 cells significantly inhibited TNF-α response level and TNF-α and IL-6 gene expression. The inhibitory effect was comparable to that of betamethasone. No cytotoxic effects were recorded for cells treated with the 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract. Rats fed with MeOHGCM6 extract at 500 mg/kg b.w. showed reduced absolute ethanol-induced gastric lesion sizes by > 99% (p < 0.05). This protective effect was comparable to that conferred by OMP. The pH of the gastric mucus decreased in dose-dependent manner from 5.51 to 3.82 and there was a significant increase in NP-SH concentrations. Conclusions Results from the study, suggest that the mass spectrometry standardized methanolic extract of Gracillaria changii possesses anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic properties. Further examination of the active constituent of the extract and its mechanism of action is warranted in the future. PMID:23497105

  15. Effects of brefeldin A on the endomembrane system and germ tube formation of the tetraspore of Gelidium floridanum (Rhodophyta, Florideophyceae).

    PubMed

    Simioni, Carmen; Rover, Ticiane; Schmidt, Éder C; de L Felix, Marthiellen R; Polo, Luz Karime; Santos, Rodrigo Dos; Costa, Giulia Burle; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Ouriques, Luciane C; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2014-06-01

    Gelidium floridanum W.R. Taylor tetraspores are units of dispersal and are responsible for substrate attachment. This study aimed to examine evidence of direct interaction between germ tube formation and Golgi activity during tetraspore germination of G. floridanum. After release, the tetraspores were incubated with brefeldin A (BFA) in concentrations of 4 and 8 μM over a 6 h period. The controls and treatments were analyzed with light, fluorescence (FM4-64 dye) and transmission electron microscopy. In the control samples, the Golgi bodies were responsible for germ tube formation. In contrast, BFA-treated samples were observed to inhibit spore adhesion and germ tube formation. These tetraspores also showed an increase in volume (≥30 μm width). BFA treatment also resulted in the disassembly of Golgi cisternae and the formation of vesiculated areas of the cytoplasm, blocking the secretion of protein and amorphous matrix polysaccharides. When stained with FM4-64, the control samples showed fluorescence in the apical region of the germ tube, but the treated samples showed an intense fluorescence throughout the cytoplasm. From these results, we can conclude that the germ tube is formed by the incorporation of vesicles derived from Golgi. Thus, vesicle secretion and Golgi organization are basic processes and essential in adhesion and tube formation. By blocking the secretion of protein and amorphous matrix polysaccharides, BFA treatment precluded tetraspore germination. PMID:26988329

  16. Dietary supplementation with the microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) reduces prolonged exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Carfagna, Simona; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Venditti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25874021

  17. Photosynthetic parameters of sexually different parts of Porphyra katadai var. hemiphylla (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) during dehydration and re-hydration.

    PubMed

    Lin, A-Peng; Wang, Guang-Ce; Yang, Fang; Pan, Guang-Hua

    2009-03-01

    Physiological data from extreme habitat organisms during stresses are vital information for comprehending their survival. The intertidal seaweeds are exposed to a combination of environmental stresses, the most influential one being regular dehydration and re-hydration. Porphyra katadai var. hemiphylla is a unique intertidal macroalga species with two longitudinally separated, color distinct, sexually different parts. In this study, the photosynthetic performance of both PSI and PSII of the two sexually different parts of P. katadai thalli during dehydration and re-hydration was investigated. Under low-grade dehydration the variation of photosystems of male and female parts of P. katadai were similar. However, after the absolute water content reached 42%, the PSI of the female parts was nearly shut down while that of the male parts still coordinated well and worked properly with PSII. Furthermore, after re-hydration with a better conditioned PSI, the dehydrated male parts were able to restore photosynthesis within 1 h, while the female parts did not. It is concluded that in P. katadai the susceptibility of photosynthesis to dehydration depends on the accommodative ability of PSI. The relatively lower content of phycobiliprotein in male parts may be the cause for a stronger PSI after severe dehydration. PMID:19112580

  18. In vivo therapeutic potentiality of red seaweed, Asparagopsis (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta) in the treatment of Vibriosis in Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    PubMed Central

    Manilal, Aseer; Selvin, Joseph; George, Shiney

    2011-01-01

    The crude extract of the red seaweed, Asparagopsis sp. was evaluated for in vivo antibacterial activity against the shrimp vibrio pathogens. The algal extract was rationalized with commercial shrimp feed and orally administered for different duration of time followed by the artificial bacterial challenge experiment. In dose titration experiments, the oral administration of Asparagopsis sp. at a dosage of 850 mg kg–1 of biomass was highly efficacious in the treatment of natural infestations of Vibriosis in Penaeus monodon. The results of the confirmatory dose experiment revealed that the prophylactic treatment with moderate dose of 850 mg kg–1 of biomass day–1 for four weeks followed by 14 days of post infection therapy was highly effective in controlling Vibrio infection in shrimps. Moreover, results of the percent survival index and microbiological analysis clearly show that Asparagopsis extract incorporated medicated feed had broad therapeutic potential for managing shrimp Vibriosis. In addition, in vivo trials and results obtained in this work are based on the crude organic extract sourced from an unidentified Asparagopsis cryptic lineage, therefore further molecular analysis to identify the species will be required. PMID:23961176

  19. Complete Sequences of the Mitochondrial DNA of the Wild Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis and Two Mutagenic Cultivated Breeds (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xumin; Qian, Hao; Chi, Shan; Liu, Cui; Liu, Tao

    2012-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis was sequenced (25883 bp) and mapped to a circular model. The A+T composition was 72.5%. Forty six genes and two potentially functional open reading frames were identified. They include 24 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 20 tRNA genes and 2 ORFs (orf60, orf142). There is considerable sequence synteny across the five red algal mtDNAs falling into Florideophyceae including Gr. lemaneiformis in this study and previously sequenced species. A long stem-loop and a hairpin structure were identified in intergenic regions of mt genome of Gr. lemaneiformis, which are believed to be involved with transcription and replication. In addition, the mtDNAs of two mutagenic cultivated breeds (“981” and “07-2”) were also sequenced. Compared with the mtDNA of wild Gr. lemaneiformis, the genome size and gene length and order of three strains were completely identical except nine base mutations including eight in the protein-coding genes and one in the tRNA gene. None of the base mutations caused frameshift or a premature stop codon in the mtDNA genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNA genes demonstrated Gracilariopsis andersonii had closer phylogenetic relationship with its parasite Gracilariophila oryzoides than Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis which was from the same genus of Gracilariopsis. PMID:22768261

  20. Assessment of four molecular markers as potential DNA barcodes for red algae Kappaphycus Doty and Eucheuma J. Agardh (Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Tan, Ji; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Phang, Siew-Moi; Hong, Dang Diem; Sunarpi, H; Hurtado, Anicia Q

    2012-01-01

    DNA barcoding has been a major advancement in the field of taxonomy, seeing much effort put into the barcoding of wide taxa of organisms, macro and microalgae included. The mitochondrial-encoded cox1 and plastid-encoded rbcL has been proposed as potential DNA barcodes for rhodophytes, but are yet to be tested on the commercially important carrageenophytes Kappaphycus and Eucheuma. This study gauges the effectiveness of four markers, namely the mitochondrial cox1, cox2, cox2-3 spacer and the plastid rbcL in DNA barcoding on selected Kappaphycus and Eucheuma from Southeast Asia. Marker assessments were performed using established distance and tree-based identification criteria from earlier studies. Barcoding patterns on a larger scale were simulated by empirically testing on the commonly used cox2-3 spacer. The phylogeny of these rhodophytes was also briefly described. In this study, the cox2 marker which satisfies the prerequisites of DNA barcodes was found to exhibit moderately high interspecific divergences with no intraspecific variations, thus a promising marker for the DNA barcoding of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma. However, the already extensively used cox2-3 spacer was deemed to be in overall more appropriate as a DNA barcode for these two genera. On a wider scale, cox1 and rbcL were still better DNA barcodes across the rhodophyte taxa when practicality and cost-efficiency were taken into account. The phylogeny of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma were generally similar to those earlier reported. Still, the application of DNA barcoding has demonstrated our relatively poor taxonomic comprehension of these seaweeds, thus suggesting more in-depth efforts in taxonomic restructuring as well as establishment. PMID:23285223

  1. Assessment of Four Molecular Markers as Potential DNA Barcodes for Red Algae Kappaphycus Doty and Eucheuma J. Agardh (Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ji; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Phang, Siew-Moi; Hong, Dang Diem; Sunarpi, H.; Hurtado, Anicia Q.

    2012-01-01

    DNA barcoding has been a major advancement in the field of taxonomy, seeing much effort put into the barcoding of wide taxa of organisms, macro and microalgae included. The mitochondrial-encoded cox1 and plastid-encoded rbcL has been proposed as potential DNA barcodes for rhodophytes, but are yet to be tested on the commercially important carrageenophytes Kappaphycus and Eucheuma. This study gauges the effectiveness of four markers, namely the mitochondrial cox1, cox2, cox2-3 spacer and the plastid rbcL in DNA barcoding on selected Kappaphycus and Eucheuma from Southeast Asia. Marker assessments were performed using established distance and tree-based identification criteria from earlier studies. Barcoding patterns on a larger scale were simulated by empirically testing on the commonly used cox2-3 spacer. The phylogeny of these rhodophytes was also briefly described. In this study, the cox2 marker which satisfies the prerequisites of DNA barcodes was found to exhibit moderately high interspecific divergences with no intraspecific variations, thus a promising marker for the DNA barcoding of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma. However, the already extensively used cox2-3 spacer was deemed to be in overall more appropriate as a DNA barcode for these two genera. On a wider scale, cox1 and rbcL were still better DNA barcodes across the rhodophyte taxa when practicality and cost-efficiency were taken into account. The phylogeny of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma were generally similar to those earlier reported. Still, the application of DNA barcoding has demonstrated our relatively poor taxonomic comprehension of these seaweeds, thus suggesting more in-depth efforts in taxonomic restructuring as well as establishment. PMID:23285223

  2. Removal of eutrophication factors and heavy metal from a closed cultivation system using the macroalgae, Gracilaria sp. (Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Sui, Zhenghong

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the ability of macroalgae Gracilaria sp. of removing eutrophication factors and toxic heavy metals Al, Cr, and Zn in a closed cultivation system is reported. The results show that the concentration of the three heavy metals decreased significantly during the experimental period in an algal biomass dependent manner. The biofiltration capacity of the alga for Al, Cr, and Zn is 10.1%-72.6%, 52.5%-83.4% and 36.5%-91.7%, respectively. Using more materials resulted in stronger heavy metal removal. Additionally, the concentration of chl- a, TN, TP and DIN of water samples from aquariums involving large, medium, and small algal biomass cultivation increased first and then decreased during the experiment. COD value of all three groups decreased with time and displayed algal biomass dependency: more algae resulting in a greater COD value than those of less biomass. Furthermore, changes in COD reflect an obvious organic particles deprivation process of algae. This is the first report on heavy metal removal effect by Gracilaria species. The results suggest that macroalgae can be used as a biofilter for the treatment of nutrient-enriched or heavy-metal polluted water, to which an appropriate time range should be carefully determined.

  3. Antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of three red seaweeds (Division: Rhodophyta) harvested from the Gulf of Mannar of Peninsular India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu; Praveen, Nammunayathuputhenkotta Krishnankartha

    2015-04-01

    The antioxidant activities of methanol extract and its solvent fractions (n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate) of three red seaweeds (Hypnea musciformis, H. valentiae, and Jania rubens) collected from the Gulf of Mannar of South eastern coast of India were evaluated, using different in vitro systems, viz., DPPH, ABTS, HO radical scavenging activities, H2O2 scavenging ability, Fe(2+) ion chelating ability and reducing potential. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content of the extracts/fractions, and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of the seaweed extracts/fractions. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) inhibition assay was employed to assess the ability of the seaweed extracts/fractions to inhibit lipid oxidation. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fractions of H. musciformis exhibited significantly higher total phenolic content (205.5 mg GAE/g), DPPH· scavenging activity (IC50 0.6 mg/mL), ABTS(.+) scavenging activity (IC50 0.51 μg/mL), Fe(2+) chelating ability (IC50 0.70 mg/mL), H2O2 scavenging activity (IC50 0.39 mg/mL), reducing ability (Abs700 nm 1.46) and lipid peroxidation inhibitory ability (2.71 MDAEC/kg) (P < 0.05) compared to its n-hexane, DCM fractions, crude MeOH extract and MeOH extracts/fractions of H. valentiae and J. rubens. DCM fraction of J. rubens showed significantly higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50 0.55 mg/mL) compared with H. musciformis and H. valentiae (P < 0.05). This study indicated the potential use of red seaweeds, in particular, H. musciformis as candidate species to be used as food supplement for increasing the shelf-life of food industry, and candidates in combating carcinogenesis and inflammatory diseases. PMID:25829573

  4. Genome Survey Sequencing and Genetic Background Characterization of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) Based on Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Zhenghong; Fu, Feng; Wang, Jinguo; Chang, Lianpeng; Guo, Weihua; Li, Binbin

    2013-01-01

    Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis has a high economic value and is one of the most important aquaculture species in China. Despite it is economic importance, it has remained largely unstudied at the genomic level. In this study, we conducted a genome survey of Gp. lemaneiformis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. In total, 18.70 Gb of high-quality sequence data with an estimated genome size of 97 Mb were obtained by HiSeq 2000 sequencing for Gp. lemaneiformis. These reads were assembled into 160,390 contigs with a N50 length of 3.64 kb, which were further assembled into 125,685 scaffolds with a total length of 81.17 Mb. Genome analysis predicted 3490 genes and a GC% content of 48%. The identified genes have an average transcript length of 1,429 bp, an average coding sequence size of 1,369 bp, 1.36 exons per gene, exon length of 1,008 bp, and intron length of 191 bp. From the initial assembled scaffold, transposable elements constituted 54.64% (44.35 Mb) of the genome, and 7737 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. Among these SSRs, the trinucleotide repeat type was the most abundant (up to 73.20% of total SSRs), followed by the di- (17.41%), tetra- (5.49%), hexa- (2.90%), and penta- (1.00%) nucleotide repeat type. These characteristics suggest that Gp. lemaneiformis is a model organism for genetic study. This is the first report of genome-wide characterization within this taxon. PMID:23875008

  5. Temperature response of photosynthetic light- and carbon-use characteristics in the red seaweed Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Zou, Dinghui; Gao, Kunshan

    2014-04-01

    The red seaweed Gracilariopsis is an important crop extensively cultivated in China for high-quality raw agar. In the cultivation site at Nanao Island, Shantou, China, G. lemaneiformis experiences high variability in environmental conditions like seawater temperature. In this study, G. lemaneiformis was cultured at 12, 19, or 26°C for 3 weeks, to examine its photosynthetic acclimation to changing temperature. Growth rates were highest in G. lemaneiformis thalli grown at 19°C, and were reduced with either decreased or increased temperature. The irradiance-saturated rate of photosynthesis (Pmax ) decreased with decreasing temperature, but increased significantly with prolonged cultivation at lower temperatures, indicating the potential for photosynthesis acclimation to lower temperature. Moreover, Pmax increased with increasing temperature (~30 μmol O2  · g(-1) FW · h(-1) at 12°C to 70 μmol O2  · g(-1) FW · h(-1) at 26°C). The irradiance compensation point for photosynthesis (Ic ) decreased significantly with increasing temperature (28 μmol photons · m(-2)  · s(-1) at high temperature vs. 38 μmol photons · m(-2)  · s(-1) at low temperature). Both the photosynthetic light- and carbon-use efficiencies increased with increasing growth or temperatures (from 12°C to 26°C). The results suggested that the thermal acclimation of photosynthetic performance of G. lemaneiformis would have important ecophysiological implications in sea cultivation for improving photosynthesis at low temperature and maintaining high standing biomass during summer. Ongoing climate change (increasing atmospheric CO2 and global warming) may enhance biomass production in G. lemaneiformis mariculture through the improved photosynthetic performances in response to increasing temperature. PMID:26988193

  6. Evaluation of food grade solvents for lipid extraction and impact of storage temperature on fatty acid composition of edible seaweeds Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) and Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Schmid, Matthias; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the impact of different food- and non-food grade extraction solvents on yield and fatty acid composition of the lipid extracts of two seaweed species (Palmaria palmata and Laminaria digitata). The application of chloroform/methanol and three different food grade solvents (ethanol, hexane, ethanol/hexane) revealed significant differences in both, extraction yield and fatty acid composition. The extraction efficiency, in terms of yields of total fatty acids (TFA), was in the order: chloroform/methanol>ethanol>hexane>ethanol/hexane for both species. Highest levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were achieved by the extraction with ethanol. Additionally the effect of storage temperature on the stability of PUFA in ground and freeze-dried seaweed biomass was investigated. Seaweed samples were stored for a total duration of 22months at three different temperatures (-20°C, 4°C and 20°C). Levels of TFA and PUFA were only stable after storage at -20°C for the two seaweed species. PMID:27132836

  7. Allelopathic inhibition of photosynthesis in the red tide-causing marine alga, Scrippsiella trochoidea (Pyrrophyta), by the dried macroalga, Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Changpeng; Liao, Heping; Yang, Yufeng

    2014-07-01

    The red tide-causing microalga, Scrippsiella trochoidea was co-cultured with different quantities of dried macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis under laboratory conditions, to characterize the allelopathic inhibition effect of the seaweed on photosynthesis of the microalga. Photosynthetic oxygen evolution was measured, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence transient O-J-I-P (O, J, I and P point in primary photochemistry reaction curve in photosystem II) curves associated with its specific parameters were determined. A concentration-dependent inhibition of S. trochoidea was observed when the dried seaweed was added. The rate of light-saturated maximum photosynthetic oxygen evolution (Pmax) was markedly decreased, and the O-J-I-P curve coupled with its specific parameters was reduced. The inhibitory effects of the macroalga on the microalga, according to the JIP-test (the relative fluorescence analysis based on O-J-I-P curve) and the activity of oxygen evolution, include a decrease in the number of active reaction centers, the blocking-up of the electron transport chain, and the damage to the oxygen-evolving complex. This study suggests that dried G. lemaneiformis is effective in inhibiting photosynthesis of S. trochoidea, and could thus be a potential candidate for mitigating S. trochoidea blooms.

  8. A phylogenetic re-appraisal of the family Liagoraceae sensu lato (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) based on sequence analyses of two plastid genes and postfertilization development.

    PubMed

    Lin, Showe-Mei; Rodríguez-Prieto, Conxi; Huisman, John M; Guiry, Michael D; Payri, Claude; Nelson, Wendy A; Liu, Shao-Lun

    2015-06-01

    The marine red algal family Liagoraceae sensu lato is shown to be polyphyletic based on analyses of a combined rbcL and psaA data set and the pattern of carposporophyte development. Fifteen of eighteen genera analyzed formed a monophyletic lineage that included the genus Liagora. Nemalion did not cluster with Liagoraceae sensu stricto, and Nemaliaceae is reinstated, characterized morphologically by the formation of the primary gonimolobes by longitudinal divisions of the gonimoblast initial. Yamadaella and Liagoropsis, previously placed in the Dermonemataceae, are shown to be independent lineages and are recognized as two new families Yamadaellaceae and Liagoropsidaceae. Yamadaellaceae is characterized by two gonimoblast initials cut off bilaterally from the fertilized carpogonium and diffusely spreading gonimoblast filaments. Liagoropsidaceae is characterized by at least three gonimoblast initials cut off by longitudinal septa from the fertilized carpogonium. In contrast, Liagoraceae sensu stricto is characterized by a single gonimoblast initial cut off transversely or diagonally from the fertilized carpogonium. Reproductive features, such as diffuse gonimoblasts and unfused carpogonial branches following postfertilization, appear to have evolved on more than one occasion in the Nemaliales and are therefore not taxonomically diagnostic at the family level, although they may be useful in recognizing genera. PMID:26986669

  9. Characterization of the putatively introduced red alga Acrochaetium secundatum (Acrochaetiales, Rhodophyta) growing epizoically on the pelage of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentall, Gena B.; Rosen, Barry H.; Kunz, Jessica M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Saunders, Gary W.; LaRoche, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological associations between epibionts (organisms that live on the surface of another living organism) and vertebrates have been documented in both marine and terrestrial environments, and may be opportunistic, commensal, or symbiotic (Lewin et al. 1981, Holmes 1985, Allen et al. 1993, Bledsoe et al. 2006, Pfaller et al. 2008, Suutari et al. 2010). Although epibiont proliferation is frequently reported on slow-moving, sparsely haired organisms such as manatees and sloths, reports from densely furred, highly mobile mammals are much less common. There are reports of epizoic algae for several species of pinnipeds (Kenyon and Rice 1959, Scheffer 1962, Baldridge 1977, Allen et al. 1993), which rely to varying degrees on both pelage and blubber for thermoregulation, but the phenomenon has not been widely described. Scheffer (1962) noted that red algae was fairly common on the pelage of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), pinnipeds for which fur likely makes a comparatively high contribution to thermoregulation (Donohue et al. 2000). For species with pelage that plays a critical role of thermal insulation, it seems implausible that an epibiont would persist on healthy individuals that devote significant energy resources toward grooming and actively maintaining their coat. Biological characteristics of epibiont settlement and attachment, and physiological requirements of epizoic species play key roles in their successful colonization and potential host impacts. To investigate this relationship, we explore a novel discovery of an epizoic alga from southern sea otters, including describing algal development on sea otter hair and molecular identification of the algae.

  10. The Japanese alga Polysiphonia morrowii (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) on the South Atlantic Ocean: first report of an invasive macroalga inhabiting oyster reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croce, M. Emilia; Parodi, Elisa R.

    2014-06-01

    Conspicuous tufts of the filamentous algae Polysiphonia Greville inhabit the reefs of Crassostrea gigas on the Atlantic Patagonian coast. The population was recorded for the first time in 1994 and identified as P. argentinica. This study exhaustively investigated the morphology and reproduction of specimens and the seasonality of the population. The results revealed the identity of the specimens as the invasive Japanese macroalga Polysiphonia morrowii Harvey, on the basis of several striking features: the setaceous and tufted thalli, the corymbose growing apices, the endogenous axillary branches, the urceolate cystocarps and the sharply pointed branches. Sexual reproduction was evidenced; however, fertile male gametophytes were absent in the samples. The population was found almost all year round, but its abundance became higher in autumn and winter. The present study constitutes the first record of this invasive macroalga on the South Atlantic Ocean; the fourth record of an exotic macroalgal species on the Atlantic Patagonian coast; and the first record of an invasive species related to the establishment of C. gigas in Atlantic Patagonia.

  11. Molecular cloning, homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis of vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase (GcVBPO1) from Gracilaria changii (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Baharum, H; Chu, W-C; Teo, S-S; Ng, K-Y; Rahim, R Abdul; Ho, C-L

    2013-08-01

    Vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases belong to a class of vanadium enzymes that may have potential industrial and pharmaceutical applications due to their high stability. In this study, the 5'-flanking genomic sequence and complete reading frame encoding vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase (GcVBPO1) was cloned from the red seaweed, Fracilaria changii, and the recombinant protein was biochemically characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence of GcVBPO1 is 1818 nucleotides in length, sharing 49% identity with the vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidases from Corralina officinalis and Cor. pilulifera, respectively. The amino acid residues associated with the binding site of vanadate cofactor were found to be conserved. The Km value of recombinant GcVBPO1 for Br(-) was 4.69 mM, while its Vmax was 10.61 μkat mg(-1) at pH 7. Substitution of Arg(379) with His(379) in the recombinant protein caused a lower affinity for Br(-), while substitution of Arg(379) with Phe(379) not only increased its affinity for Br(-) but also enabled the mutant enzyme to oxidize Cl(-). The mutant Arg(379)Phe was also found to have a lower affinity for I(-), as compared to the wild-type GcVBPO1 and mutant Arg(379)His. In addition, the Arg(379)Phe mutant has a slightly higher affinity for H2O2 compared to the wild-type GcVBPO1. Multiple cis-acting regulatory elements associated with light response, hormone signaling, and meristem expression were detected at the 5'-flanking genomic sequence of GcVBPO1. The transcript abundance of GcVBPO1 was relatively higher in seaweed samples treated with 50 parts per thousand (ppt) artificial seawater (ASW) compared to those treated in 10 and 30 ppt ASW, in support of its role in the abiotic stress response of seaweed. PMID:23684235

  12. Evidence for the introduction of the Asian red alga Neosiphonia japonica and its introgression with Neosiphonia harveyi (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in the Northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Savoie, Amanda M; Saunders, Gary W

    2015-12-01

    There is currently conflict in the literature on the taxonomic status of the reportedly cosmopolitan species Neosiphonia harveyi, a common red alga along the coast of Atlantic Canada and New England, USA. Neosiphonia harveyi sensu lato was assessed using three molecular markers: COI-5P, ITS and rbcL. All three markers clearly delimited three genetic species groups within N. harveyi sensu lato in this region, which we identified as N. harveyi, N. japonica and Polysiphonia akkeshiensis (here resurrected from synonymy with N. japonica). Although Neosiphonia harveyi is considered by some authors to be introduced to the Atlantic from the western Pacific, it was only confirmed from the North Atlantic suggesting it is native to this area. In contrast, Neosiphonia japonica was collected from only two sites in Rhode Island, USA, as well as from its reported native range in Asia (South Korea), which when combined with data in GenBank indicates that this species was introduced to the Northwest Atlantic. The GenBank data further indicate that N. japonica was also introduced to North Carolina, Spain, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the fact that all three markers clearly delimited N. harveyi and N. japonica as distinct genetic species groups, the ITS sequences for some N. harveyi individuals displayed mixed patterns and additivity indicating introgression of nuclear DNA from N. japonica into N. harveyi in the Northwest Atlantic. Introgression of DNA from an introduced species to a native species (i.e. 'genetic pollution') is one of the possible consequences of species introductions, and we believe this is the first documented evidence for this phenomenon in red algae. PMID:26477438

  13. A molecular evaluation of the Liagoraceae sensu lato (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in Bermuda including Liagora nesophila sp. nov. and Yamadaella grassyi sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Popolizio, Thea R; Schneider, Craig W; Lane, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive, molecular-assisted alpha-taxonomic examination of the rhodophyte family Liagoraceae sensu lato, a group that has not previously been targeted for molecular studies in the western Atlantic. Sequence data from three molecular markers indicate that in Bermuda alone there are 10 species in nine different genera. These include the addition of three genera to the flora - Hommersandiophycus, Trichogloeopsis, and Yamadaella. Liagora pectinata, a species with a type locality in Bermuda, is phylogenetically allied with Indo-Pacific species of Hommersandiophycus, and the species historically reported as L. ceranoides for the islands is morphologically and genetically distinct from that taxon, and is herein described as L. nesophila sp. nov. Molecular sequence data have also uncovered the Indo-Pacific L. mannarensis in Bermuda, a long-distance new western Atlantic record. DNA sequences of Trichogloeopsis pedicellata from the type locality (Bahamas) match with local specimens demonstrating its presence in Bermuda. We described Yamadaella grassyi sp. nov. from Bermuda, a species phylogenetically and morphologically distinct from the generitype, Y. caenomyce of the Indo-Pacific. Our data also indicated a single species each of Ganonema, Gloiocallis, Helminthocladia, Titanophycus, and Trichogloea in the flora. PMID:26986788

  14. GRACILARIA VERMICULOPHYLLA (RHODOPHYTA, GRACILARIALES) IN THE VIRGINIA COASTAL BAYS, USA: COX1 ANALYSIS REVEALS HIGH GENETIC RICHNESS OF AN INTRODUCED MACROALGA.

    PubMed

    Gulbransen, Dana J; McGlathery, Karen J; Marklund, Maria; Norris, James N; Gurgel, Carlos Frederico D

    2012-10-01

    Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss is an invasive alga that is native to Southeast Asia and has invaded many estuaries in North America and Europe. It is difficult to differentiate G. vermiculophylla from native forms using morphology and therefore molecular techniques are needed. In this study, we used three molecular markers (rbcL, cox2-cox3 spacer, cox1) to identify G. vermiculophylla at several locations in the western Atlantic. RbcL and cox2-cox3 spacer markers confirmed the presence of G. vermiculophylla on the east coast of the USA from Massachusetts to South Carolina. We used a 507 base pair region of cox1 mtDNA to (i) verify the widespread distribution of G. vermiculophylla in the Virginia (VA) coastal bays and (ii) determine the intraspecific diversity of these algae. Cox1 haplotype richness in the VA coastal bays was much higher than that previously found in other invaded locations, as well as some native locations. This difference is likely attributed to the more intensive sampling design used in this study, which was able to detect richness created by multiple, diverse introductions. On the basis of our results, we recommend that future studies take differences in sampling design into account when comparing haplotype richness and diversity between native and non-native studies in the literature. PMID:27011285

  15. Development of chloroplast simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) for the intraspecific study of Gracilaria tenuistipitata (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from different populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gracilaria tenuistipitata is an agarophyte with substantial economic potential because of its high growth rate and tolerance to a wide range of environment factors. This red seaweed is intensively cultured in China for the production of agar and fodder for abalone. Microsatellite markers were developed from the chloroplast genome of G. tenuistipitata var. liui to differentiate G. tenuistipitata obtained from six different localities: four from Peninsular Malaysia, one from Thailand and one from Vietnam. Eighty G. tenuistipitata specimens were analyzed using eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer-pairs that we developed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Findings Five mononucleotide primer-pairs and one trinucleotide primer-pair exhibited monomorphic alleles, whereas the other two primer-pairs separated the G. tenuistipitata specimens into two main clades. G. tenuistipitata from Thailand and Vietnam were grouped into one clade, and the populations from Batu Laut, Middle Banks and Kuah (Malaysia) were grouped into another clade. The combined dataset of these two primer-pairs separated G. tenuistipitata obtained from Kelantan, Malaysia from that obtained from other localities. Conclusions Based on the variations in repeated nucleotides of microsatellite markers, our results suggested that the populations of G. tenuistipitata were distributed into two main geographical regions: (i) populations in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and (ii) populations facing the South China Sea. The correct identification of G. tenuistipitata strains with traits of high economic potential will be advantageous for the mass cultivation of seaweeds. PMID:24490797

  16. Effects of elevated CO2 on the photosynthesis and nitrate reductase activity of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) grown at different nutrient levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunxiang; Zou, Dinghui

    2015-03-01

    Pyropia haitanensis, a commercially important species, was cultured at two CO2 concentrations (390×10-6 and 700×10-6 (parts per million)) and at low and high nutrient levels, to explore the effect of elevated CO2 on the species under nutrient enrichment. Results show that in CO2-enriched thalli, relative growth rate (RGR) was enhanced under nutrient enrichment. Elevated CO2 decreased phycobiliprotein (PB) contents, but increased the contents of soluble carbohydrates. Nutrient enrichment increased the contents of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and PB, while soluble carbohydrate content decreased. CO2 enrichment enhanced the relative maximum electronic transport rate and light saturation point. In nutrient-enriched thalli the activity of nitrate reductase (NRA) increased under elevated CO2. An instantaneous pH change in seawater (from 8.1 to 9.6) resulted in reduction of NRA, and the thalli grown under both elevated CO2 and nutrient enrichment exhibited less pronounced reduction than in algae grown at the ambient CO2. The thermal optima of NRA under elevated CO2 and/or nutrient enrichment shifted to a lower temperature (10-15°C) compared to that in ambient conditions (20°C). We propose that accelerated photosynthesis could result in growth increment. N assimilation remained high in acidified seawater and reflected increased temperature sensitivity in response to elevated CO2 and eutrophication.

  17. Effects of three macroalgae, Ulva linza (Chlorophyta), Corallina pilulifera (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum thunbergii (Phaeophyta) on the growth of the red tide microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Renjun; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Zhou, Wenli; Tang, Xuexi

    2007-10-01

    Allelopathic effects of several concentrations of fresh tissue and dry powder of three macroalgae, Ulva linza, Corallina pilulifera and Sargassum thunbergii, on the red tide microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense were evaluated in microcosms. Preliminary studies on the algicidal effects of one aqueous and four organic solvent extracts from the macroalgae on the microalga were carried out to confirm the existence of allelochemicals in the tissues of the macroalgae. The effects of macroalgal culture medium filtrate on P. donghaiense were investigated using initial or semi-continuous filtrate addition. Furthermore, the potential effects of the microalga on these three macroalgae were also tested. The results of the microcosm assay showed that the growth of P. donghaiense was strongly inhibited by using fresh tissues and dry powder of the three macroalgae. Both aqueous and methanol extracts of the macroalgae had strong growth inhibitory effects on P. donghaiense, while the other three organic solvent extracts (acetone, ether and chloroform) had no apparent effect on its growth; this suggested that the allelochemicals from these three macroalga had relatively high polarities. The three macroalgal culture medium filtrates exhibited apparent growth inhibitory effect on the microalgae under initial or semi-continuous addition, which suggested that the cells of P. donghaiense are sensitive to the allelochemicals. In contrast, P. donghaiense had no apparent effect on the growth of the macroalgae in coexistence experiment.

  18. Etheliaceae fam. nov. (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta), with a clarification of the generitype of Ethelia and the addition of six novel species from warm waters.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Kyatt R; Saunders, Gary W; Schneider, Craig W; Lane, Christopher E

    2015-12-01

    Based upon COI-5P, LSU rDNA, and rbcL sequence data and morphological characteristics, six new members of the noncalcified crustose genus of red algae Ethelia are described in a new family, Etheliaceae (Gigartinales), sister to the recently described Ptilocladiopsidaceae. The novel species are described from subtropical to tropical Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Ocean basins; E. mucronata sp. nov. and E. denizotii sp. nov. from southern and northern Western Australia respectively, E. wilcei sp. nov. from the Cocos (Keeling) Islands of Australia, E. suluensis sp. nov. from the Philippines, E. umbricola sp. nov. from Bermuda and E. kraftii sp. nov. from Lord Howe Island, Australia. The generitype, Ethelia biradiata, originally reported from the Seychelles, Indian Ocean, is added to the Western Australian flora. PMID:26987010

  19. A novel phylogeny of the Gelidiales (Rhodophyta) based on five genes including the nuclear CesA, with descriptions of Orthogonacladia gen. nov. and Orthogonacladiaceae fam. nov.

    PubMed

    Boo, Ga Hun; Le Gall, Line; Miller, Kathy Ann; Freshwater, D Wilson; Wernberg, Thomas; Terada, Ryuta; Yoon, Kyung Ju; Boo, Sung Min

    2016-08-01

    Although the Gelidiales are economically important marine red algae producing agar and agarose, the phylogeny of this order remains poorly resolved. The present study provides a molecular phylogeny based on a novel marker, nuclear-encoded CesA, plus plastid-encoded psaA, psbA, rbcL, and mitochondria-encoded cox1 from subsets of 107 species from all ten genera within the Gelidiales. Analyses of individual and combined datasets support the monophyly of three currently recognized families, and reveal a new clade. On the basis of these results, the new family Orthogonacladiaceae is described to accommodate Aphanta and a new genus Orthogonacladia that includes species previously classified as Gelidium madagascariense and Pterocladia rectangularis. Acanthopeltis is merged with Gelidium, which has nomenclatural priority. Nuclear-encoded CesA was found to be useful for improving the resolution of phylogenetic relationships within the Gelidiales and is likely to be valuable for the inference of phylogenetic relationship among other red algal taxa. PMID:27223999

  20. Effects of sodium bicarbonate concentration on growth, photosynthesis, and carbonic anhydrase activity of macroalgae Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Sui, Zhenghong; Wang, Jinguo; Hu, Yiyi; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Hong, Hye Ran; Niaz, Zeeshan; Wei, Huihui; Du, Qingwei; Peng, Chong; Mi, Ping; Que, Zhou

    2016-06-01

    There is potential for bicarbonate to improve crop yields and economic efficiency of marine algae. However, few studies have focused on the effect of bicarbonate on the growth, photosynthesis, and enzyme activity associated with carbon utilization, especially in commercial macroalgae. Here, the addition of bicarbonate (up to 420 mg L(-1)) to macroalgal cultures has been evaluated for Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae with respect to growth rate, photosynthetic activity, carbonic anhydrase activity, and biochemical composition. The results showed that the effects of NaHCO3 on growth, chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, photosynthetic oxygen evolution, photochemical parameters of PSI and PSII, carbonic anhydrase activity, and nitrogen content were significant (P < 0.05) and followed the same pattern in the three species. The parameter values were promoted in lower NaHCO3 concentrations (up to 252 or 336 mg L(-1)) and inhibited in higher NaHCO3 concentrations (>336 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and >420 mg L(-1) for the other two species). Moreover, species-specific differences induced by supplementation with bicarbonate were discovered during culture. Optimal concentrations of NaHCO3 used in this study were 252 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and 336 mg L(-1) for G. vermiculophylla and G. chouae. These results suggest that an adequate supplementation of sodium bicarbonate is a viable strategy for promoting growth and photosynthetic activity in some macroalgae as well as for improving biochemical composition. The study will help to accelerate the growth rate of algae and improve the quality of thalli, and will also be useful for enhancing the understanding of carbon utilization in macroalgae. PMID:26960545

  1. Next-Generation Sequencing of an 88-Year-Old Specimen of the Poorly Known Species Liagora japonica (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) Supports the Recognition of Otohimella gen. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Segawa, Takahiro; Mori, Hiroshi; Akiyoshi, Ayumi; Ootsuki, Ryo; Kurihara, Akira; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Kitayama, Taiju; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Kogame, Kazuhiro; Kawai, Hiroshi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Liagora japonica is a red algal species distributed in temperate regions of Japan. This species has not been collected from its type locality on the Pacific coast of Japan since 1927 and seems to have become extinct in this area. For molecular characterization of L. japonica, we extracted DNA from the topotype material of L. japonica collected in 1927, analyzed seven genes using Illumina next-generation sequencing, and compared these data with sequences from modern samples of similar red algae collected from the Japan Sea coast of Japan. Both morphological and molecular data from modern samples and historical specimens (including the lectotype and topotype) suggest that the specimens from the Pacific and Japan Sea coasts of Japan should be treated as a single species, and that L. japonica is phylogenetically separated from the genus Liagora. Based on the phylogenetic results and examination of reproductive structures, we propose Otohimella japonica gen. et comb. nov., characterized morphologically by diffuse carposporophytes, undivided carposporangia, and involucral filaments initiated only from the cortical cell on the supporting cell. PMID:27388436

  2. Nocturama gen. nov., Nothocladus s. lat. and other taxonomic novelties resulting from the further resolution of paraphyly in Australasian members of Batrachospermum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Entwisle, Timothy J; Johnston, Emily T; Lam, Daryl W; Stewart, Sarah A; Vis, Morgan L

    2016-06-01

    The informal "Australasica Group" was established in 2009 to include several Australasian endemic Batrachospermum species, a few species of the cosmopolitan Batrachospermum section Setacea, and the South American endemic Petrohua bernabei. Although useful for communication purposes, no formal taxonomic designation was proposed due to weakly supported basal nodes. The present research took a two-pronged approach of adding more taxa (29 additional specimens) as well as more sequence data (LSU, cox1, psaA, and psbA markers added to rbcL data) to provide better resolution. The resulting tree showed improved statistical support values (Bayesian posterior probability and maximum likelihood bootstrap) for most nodes providing a framework for taxonomic revision. Based on our well-resolved phylogeny, a new genus, Nocturama, is proposed for a clade of Batrachospermum antipodites specimens. The circumscription of Nothocladus is expanded to include Batrachospermum section Setacea and four additional sections composed of at least 10 species, mostly from Australia and New Zealand. One new species added to the data set, N. diatyches, did not form a clade with the other species of section Setaceus, where it was classified previously, rendering that section paraphyletic. To resolve this, N. diatyches and the morphologically similar species N. latericius are included with N. theaquus, in the new section Theaquus within Nothocladus s. lat. A specimen from Australia unaligned to these clades was sister to the Australia-New Zealand genus Psilosiphon and the cosmopolitan B. cayennense, but lacked statistical support. This specimen has the gross morphology of Batrachospermum s. lat. and is here provisionally assigned to that genus, as B. serendipidum sp. nov. PMID:27273531

  3. Sequencing type material resolves the identity and distribution of the generitype Lithophyllum incrustans, and related European species L. hibernicum and L. bathyporum (Corallinales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Kantun, Jazmin J; Rindi, Fabio; Adey, Walter H; Heesch, Svenja; Peña, Viviana; Le Gall, Line; Gabrielson, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    DNA sequences from type material in the nongeniculate coralline genus Lithophyllum were used to unambiguously link some European species names to field-collected specimens, thus providing a great advance over morpho-anatomical identifi-cation. In particular, sequence comparisons of rbcL, COI and psbA genes from field-collected specimens allowed the following conclusion: the generitype species, L. incrustans, occurs mostly as subtidal rhodoliths and crusts on both Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, and not as the common, NE Atlantic, epilithic, intertidal crust reported in the literature. The heterotypic type material of L. hibernicum was narrowed to one rhodolith belonging in Lithophyllum. As well as occurring as a subtidal rhodolith, L. hibernicum is a common, epilithic and epizoic crust in the intertidal zone from Ireland south to Mediterranean France. A set of four features distinguished L. incrustans from L. hibernicum, including epithallial cell diameter, pore canal shape of sporangial conceptacles and sporangium height and diameter. An rbcL sequence of the lectotype of Lithophyllum bathyporum, which was recently proposed to accommodate Atlantic intertidal collections of L. incrustans, corresponded to a distinct taxon hitherto known only from Brittany as the subtidal, bisporangial, lectotype, but also occurs intertidally in Atlantic Spain. Specimens from Ireland and France morpho-anatomically identified as L. fasciculatum and a specimen from Cornwall likewise identified as L. duckerae were resolved as L. incrustans and L. hibernicum, respectively. PMID:26986797

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF CROSS-FERTILIZED CONCHOCELIS USING CLEAVED AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC SEQUENCE MARKERS IN CROSS-EXPERIMENTS OF PORPHYRA YEZOENSIS (BANGIALES, RHODOPHYTA)(1).

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jeong; Fukuda, Satoru; Endo, Hirotoshi; Kitade, Yukihiro; Saga, Naotsune

    2008-04-01

    As a part of the construction of a Porphyra yezoensis Ueda genetic linkage map, we conducted intraspecific cross-experiments and subsequent screening of cross-fertilized conchocelis by cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) analysis. The cross-experiments were carried out between males of the wildtype (KGJ) and females of the recessive green mutant (TU-2) using two methods, controlled and random crosses. A total of 42 and 186 wildtype-colored conchocelis colonies were obtained from the former and latter experiments, respectively. Among those, 49 DNA samples (14% and 23% obtained from the former and latter crosses, respectively) showed biparental CAPS patterns in the two gene regions (EF-1α open reading frame [ORF] region and V-ATPase). This study represents the first report in which the cross-fertilized conchocelis of P. yezoensis has been directly confirmed by molecular marker. The combination of the simple DNA extraction and CAPS analysis may be applicable in genetic studies of other macroalgae that are monoecious and/or grow slowly in laboratory culture. PMID:27041189

  5. Effects of UV-B radiation on tetraspores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Rhodophyta), and effects of red and blue light on repair of UV-B-induced damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Qing; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of red and blue light on the repair of UV-B radiation-induced damage in tetraspores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm. Tetraspores of C. ocellatus were treated with different UV-B radiation levels (0, 36, 72, 108, 144 and 180 J/m2), and thereafter subjected to PAR, darkness, or red or blue light during a 2-h repair stage, each day for 48 days. The diameters and cellular contents of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers (CPDs), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phycoerythrin, and UV-B-absorbing mycosporinelike amino acids (MAAs) contents of the tetraspores were determined. Our results show that low doses of UV-B radiation (36 and 72 J/m2) promoted the growth of C. ocellatus; however, increased UV-B radiation gradually reduced the C. ocellatus growth (greater than 72 J/m2). The MAAs (palythine and asterina-330) in C. ocellatus were detected and analyzed by LC/MS. Our results suggest that moderate red light could induce the growth of this alga in aquaculture. In addition, photorepair was inhibited by red light, so there may be some other DNA repair mechanism activated by red light. Blue light promoted the activity of DNA photolyase, greatly improving remediation efficiency. Red and blue lights were found to reduce the capacity of C. ocellatus to form MAAs. Therefore, PAR, red light, and blue light play different roles during the repair processes for damage induced by UV-B radiation.

  6. INDUCTION OF APOMIXIS BY OUTCROSSING BETWEEN GENETICALLY DIVERGENT ENTITIES OF CALOGLOSSA LEPRIEURII (CERAMIALES, RHODOPHYTA) AND EVIDENCE OF HYBRID APOMICTS IN NATURE(1).

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Mitsunobu; West, John A; Hara, Yoshiaki

    2011-08-01

    Our previous study revealed that apomixis, recycling of tetrasporophytes, can be generated through outcrossing between genetically divergent entities of Caloglossa monosticha M. Kamiya, though such apomicts have never been found in nature. In the case of C. leprieurii (Mont.) G. Martens, the most widespread species in this genus, many apomictic strains have been isolated worldwide, but it is unknown whether these apomicts evolved through an outcrossing process similar to that in C. monosticha. In this study, heterogeneity of the apomicts and their sexual relatives as well as their evolutionary relationships was examined using the nuclear-encoded actin gene and plastid-encoded RUBISCO spacer region. Thirteen out of 18 apomictic strains were heterogeneous and contained divergent actin alleles, whereas only two out of 23 sexual strains were heterogeneous. The five homogeneous apomicts were genetically identical, or quite similar, to the sexual strains isolated from adjacent sites. Furthermore, three of the five homogeneous apomicts frequently produced tetraspores that grew into gametophytes, while all the heterogeneous apomicts never generated gametophytes. Apomictic strains from Florida were allotriploid, and each of the three actin sequences was closely related to those of sexual strains from Florida, Peru, and Mexico/Guatemala. In crossing tests, obligate apomixis was generated through the outcrossing between the male from Madagascar and the female from the northwestern Atlantic. These results suggest that outcrossing between genetically divergent sexual entities is one factor that induces apomixis in C. leprieurii. PMID:27020011

  7. Effects of thermal stress on the growth of an intertidal population of Ellisolandia elongata (Rhodophyta) from N-W Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Nannini, Matteo; De Marchi, Lucia; Lombardi, Chiara; Ragazzola, Federica

    2015-12-01

    Coralline algae are calcareous algae able to build biogenic structures, thus playing a key-role as marine biodiversity promoters and calcium carbonate producers. The aim was to estimate the growth of Ellisolandia elongata under thermal stress. E. elongata were cultured for 2, 4 and 6 months under "natural" temperature (Tc) and increased temperature (Ti = Tc + 3 °C). In order to determine a possible culturing effect, growth in the field was also measured. For the first time, Alizarin Red S dye was used in high energy shallow water environments. Thallus linear extension was higher in the cultured specimens (Tc and Ti) compared to the field specimens. The carbonate mass in the field was higher than in Ti and Tc after 2, 4 months but decreased after 6 months. Partly unknown in situ environmental factors could have affected growth and calcification rates in the field while thermal adaptation could explain growth rates in the culturing experiment. PMID:26004519

  8. Associations among coral reef macroalgae influence feeding by herbivorous fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loffler, Z.; Bellwood, D. R.; Hoey, A. S.

    2015-03-01

    Benthic macroalgae often occur in close association with other macroalgae, yet the implications of such associations on coral reefs are unclear. We selected three pairs of commonly associated macroalgae on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef and exposed them, either independently or paired, to herbivore assemblages. Pairing the palatable alga Acanthophora with the calcified and chemically defended Galaxaura resulted in a 69 % reduction in the consumption of Acanthophora, but had no effect on the consumption of Galaxaura. The reduced consumption of Acanthophora was related to 53-85 % reductions in the feeding rates of two herbivorous fish species, Kyphosus vaigiensis and Siganus doliatus. Neither Acanthophora nor Sargassum were afforded protection when paired with the brown macroalga Turbinaria. Although limited to one of the three species pairings, such associations between algae may allow the ecological persistence of palatable species in the face of intense herbivory, enhancing macroalgal diversity on coral reefs.

  9. Docile sitters and active fighters in paper wasps: a tale of two queens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardile, Sujata; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2002-02-01

    Ropalidia marginata and Ropalidia cyathiformis are sympatric, primitively eusocial paper wasps widely distributed in peninsular India. We compare the two species, especially their queens, in an attempt to begin to understand the role of the power of queens over their workers, in social organisation and evolution. Queens of R. marginata have lower levels of activity, rates of interactions and dominance behaviour, compared with queens of R. cyathiformis. For the same variables, R. marginata queens are either indistinguishable from or have lower values than their workers, while R. cyathiformis queens have higher values than their workers. R. marginata queens never occupy the top rank while R. cyathiformis queens are always at the top of the behavioural dominance hierarchies of their colonies. R. marginata queens thus do not appear to use dominance behaviour to suppress reproduction by their workers, while R. cyathiformis queens appear to do so. These different mechanisms used by the two queens to regulate worker reproduction give them different powers over their workers, because R. marginata queens are completely successful in suppressing reproduction by their nestmates while in R. cyathiformis colonies, other individuals also sometimes lay eggs. There is also some evidence that the different powers of the queens result in different mechanisms of regulation of worker foraging in the two species - decentralised, self-regulation in R. marginata and relatively more centralised regulation by the queen in R. cyathiformis. Thus we show here, perhaps for the first time, that the power of the queens over their workers can have important consequences for social organisation and evolution.

  10. Nutritional status of four species of giant land snails in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Fagbuaro, O.; Oso, J.A.; Edward, J.B.; Ogunleye, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    Four species of African giant land snails (Archachatina marginata (ovum) Pfeiffer, Archachatina marginata (saturalis) Philippi, Achatina achatina and Limicolaria spp.) were assessed for their proximate and mineral compositions aimed at establishing their nutritive values on wet weight basis. Analysis of muscle revealed that composition of crude protein varied from 18.66%±0.57% in Limicolaria spp. and 20.56%±0.05% in Archachatina marginata (ovum) Pfeiffer; moisture content was 76.56%±0.04% in Archachatina marginata (ovum) Pfeiffer and 78.68%±0.68% in Limicolaria spp. and ash was 1.34%±0.02% in Achatina achatina and 1.44%±0.01% in Archachatina marginata (ovum) Pfeiffer. These values were statistically different from each other (P<0.05). Carbohydrate and fat content were generally low. Crude fibre was not detected in any of the species. The concentrations of zinc, iron, manganese, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium and sodium in the flesh of the snails were determined. Values of iron, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium were consistently high while cobalt, copper and lead were not detected. Snails complement the required trace and minor elements needed for proper growth and development in human being, so it is recommended for regular consumption. PMID:16909467

  11. Nutritional status of four species of giant land snails in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fagbuaro, O; Oso, J A; Edward, J B; Ogunleye, R F

    2006-09-01

    Four species of African giant land snails (Archachatina marginata (ovum) Pfeiffer, Archachatina marginata (saturalis) Philippi, Achatina achatina and Limicolaria spp.) were assessed for their proximate and mineral compositions aimed at establishing their nutritive values on wet weight basis. Analysis of muscle revealed that composition of crude protein varied from 18.66%+/-0.57% in Limicolaria spp. and 20.56%+/-0.05% in Archachatina marginata (ovum) Pfeiffer; moisture content was 76.56%+/-0.04% in Archachatina marginata (ovum) Pfeiffer and 78.68%+/-0.68% in Limicolaria spp. and ash was 1.34%+/-0.02% in Achatina achatina and 1.44%+/-0.01% in Archachatina marginata (ovum) Pfeiffer. These values were statistically different from each other (P<0.05). Carbohydrate and fat content were generally low. Crude fibre was not detected in any of the species. The concentrations of zinc, iron, manganese, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium and sodium in the flesh of the snails were determined. Values of iron, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium were consistently high while cobalt, copper and lead were not detected. Snails complement the required trace and minor elements needed for proper growth and development in human being, so it is recommended for regular consumption. PMID:16909467

  12. An annotated checklist and key to the Bulgarian cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattodea).

    PubMed

    Hristov, Georgi H; Chobanov, Dragan P

    2016-01-01

    An annotated checklist of the Bulgarian species of cockroaches is prepared based on a full published scientific record and own unpublished data. According to the current state of knowledge the Bulgarian cockroach fauna includes 17 species and subspecies. One synonymization is established-Phyllodromica marginata erythronota Br. v. W., syn. n. = Ph. marginata. Two species (Capraiellus tamaninii and Supella longipalpa) are recorded for the first time for this country and other three (Ectobius punctatissimus, Phyllodromica subaptera and Phyllodromica pallida) are eliminated from the list of the Bulgarian fauna. The list is complemented with maps and full locality data and a dichotomic identification key for the studied taxa is presented. PMID:27615847

  13. Screening for antibacterial and antifungal activities in some marine algae from the Fujian coast of China with three different solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Chen, Yin-Shan; Lu, Hai-Sheng

    2001-12-01

    Three different solvents viz ethanol, acetone and methanol-toluene (3:1) were used to extract antibiotics from 23 species of marine algae belonging to the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. Their crude extracts were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among them, the ethanol extract showed the strongest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested. Four species of the Rhodophyta ( Laurencia okamurai, Dasya scoparia, Grateloupia filicina and plocamium telfairiae) showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Every solvent extract from the four species was active against all the bacteria tested. The test bacterium Pseudomonas solancearum and the fungus Penicilium citrinum were most sensitive to the extracts of marine algae. In general, the extracts of seaweeds inhibited bacteria more strongly than fungi and species of the Rhodophyta showed the greatest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested.

  14. Environmental variability drives rapid and dramatic changes in nutrient limitation of tropical macroalgae with different ecological strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausing, Rachel J.; Fong, Peggy

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) limits primary productivity in nearly every ecosystem worldwide, yet how limitation changes over time, particularly in connection to variation in environmental drivers, remains understudied. We evaluated temporal and species-specific variability in the relative importance of N and P limitation among tropical macroalgae in two-factor experiments conducted twice after rains and twice after dry conditions to explore potential linkages to environmental drivers. We studied three common macroalgal species with varying ecological strategies: a fast-growing opportunist, Dictyota bartayresiana; and two calcifying species likely to be slower growing, Galaxaura fasciculata and Padina boryana. On the scale of days to weeks, nutrient responses ranged among and within species from no limitation to increases in growth by 20 and 40 % over controls in 3 d with N and P addition, respectively. After light rain or dry conditions, Dictyota grew rapidly (up to ~60 % in 3 d) with little indication of nutrient limitation, while Padina and Galaxaura shifted between N, P, or no limitation. All species grew slowly or lost mass after a large storm, presumably due to unfavorable conditions on the reef prior to the experiment that limited nutrient uptake. Padina and Galaxaura both became nutrient limited 3 d post-storm, while Dictyota did not. These results suggest that differing capabilities for nutrient uptake and storage dictate the influence of nutrient history and thus drive nutrient responses and, in doing so, may allow species with differing ecological strategies to coexist in a fluctuating environment. Moreover, the great variability in species' responses indicates that patterns of nutrient limitation are more complex than previously recognized, and generalizations about N versus P limitation of a given system may not convey the inherent complexity in governing conditions and processes.

  15. Biosorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution by red macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Wael M

    2011-09-15

    Biosorption is an effective process for the removal and recovery of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. The biomass of marine algae has been reported to have high biosorption capacities for a number of heavy metal ions. In this study, four species of red seaweeds Corallina mediterranea, Galaxaura oblongata, Jania rubens and Pterocladia capillacea were examined to remove Co(II), Cd(II), Cr(III) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. The experimental parameters that affect the biosorption process such as pH, contact time and biomass dosage were studied. The maximum biosorption capacity of metal ions was 105.2mg/g at biomass dosage 10 g/L, pH 5 and contact time 60 min. The biosorption efficiency of algal biomass for the removal of heavy metal ions from industrial wastewater was evaluated for two successive cycles. Galaxaura oblongata biomass was relatively more efficient to remove metal ions with mean biosorption efficiency of 84%. This study demonstrated that these seaweeds constitute a promising, efficient, cheap and biodegradable sorbent biomaterial for lowering the heavy metal pollution in the environment. PMID:21798665

  16. Classification, Naming and Evolutionary History of Glycosyltransferases from Sequenced Green and Red Algal Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ulvskov, Peter; Paiva, Dionisio Soares; Domozych, David; Harholt, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    The Archaeplastida consists of three lineages, Rhodophyta, Virideplantae and Glaucophyta. The extracellular matrix of most members of the Rhodophyta and Viridiplantae consists of carbohydrate-based or a highly glycosylated protein-based cell wall while the Glaucophyte covering is poorly resolved. In order to elucidate possible evolutionary links between the three advanced lineages in Archaeplastida, a genomic analysis was initiated. Fully sequenced genomes from the Rhodophyta and Virideplantae and the well-defined CAZy database on glycosyltransferases were included in the analysis. The number of glycosyltransferases found in the Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta are generally much lower then in land plants (Embryophyta). Three specific features exhibited by land plants increase the number of glycosyltransferases in their genomes: (1) cell wall biosynthesis, the more complex land plant cell walls require a larger number of glycosyltransferases for biosynthesis, (2) a richer set of protein glycosylation, and (3) glycosylation of secondary metabolites, demonstrated by a large proportion of family GT1 being involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. In a comparative analysis of polysaccharide biosynthesis amongst the taxa of this study, clear distinctions or similarities were observed in (1) N-linked protein glycosylation, i.e., Chlorophyta has different mannosylation and glucosylation patterns, (2) GPI anchor biosynthesis, which is apparently missing in the Rhodophyta and truncated in the Chlorophyta, (3) cell wall biosynthesis, where the land plants have unique cell wall related polymers not found in green and red algae, and (4) O-linked glycosylation where comprehensive orthology was observed in glycosylation between the Chlorophyta and land plants but not between the target proteins. PMID:24146880

  17. Classification, naming and evolutionary history of glycosyltransferases from sequenced green and red algal genomes.

    PubMed

    Ulvskov, Peter; Paiva, Dionisio Soares; Domozych, David; Harholt, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    The Archaeplastida consists of three lineages, Rhodophyta, Virideplantae and Glaucophyta. The extracellular matrix of most members of the Rhodophyta and Viridiplantae consists of carbohydrate-based or a highly glycosylated protein-based cell wall while the Glaucophyte covering is poorly resolved. In order to elucidate possible evolutionary links between the three advanced lineages in Archaeplastida, a genomic analysis was initiated. Fully sequenced genomes from the Rhodophyta and Virideplantae and the well-defined CAZy database on glycosyltransferases were included in the analysis. The number of glycosyltransferases found in the Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta are generally much lower then in land plants (Embryophyta). Three specific features exhibited by land plants increase the number of glycosyltransferases in their genomes: (1) cell wall biosynthesis, the more complex land plant cell walls require a larger number of glycosyltransferases for biosynthesis, (2) a richer set of protein glycosylation, and (3) glycosylation of secondary metabolites, demonstrated by a large proportion of family GT1 being involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. In a comparative analysis of polysaccharide biosynthesis amongst the taxa of this study, clear distinctions or similarities were observed in (1) N-linked protein glycosylation, i.e., Chlorophyta has different mannosylation and glucosylation patterns, (2) GPI anchor biosynthesis, which is apparently missing in the Rhodophyta and truncated in the Chlorophyta, (3) cell wall biosynthesis, where the land plants have unique cell wall related polymers not found in green and red algae, and (4) O-linked glycosylation where comprehensive orthology was observed in glycosylation between the Chlorophyta and land plants but not between the target proteins. PMID:24146880

  18. Molluscicidal effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts on edible tropical land snails.

    PubMed

    Ebenso, Ime E

    2004-02-01

    The effects of 350, 500 and 700 mg kg(-1) of crude extracts of neem, Azadirachta indica A Juss, on edible tropical land snails Archachatina marginata and Limicolaria aurora (Jay) were determined and compared with control using pawpaw, Carica papaya L as bait. Responses were measured through normal feeding, cessation of food intake, cessation of crawling, mucus secretion, lack of response to mechanical stimuli (mortality) and decomposition. Results showed no effects on the controls or snails exposed to neem seed oil extract. Crude extracts of bark, root and leaf of neem at 500 and 700 mg kg(-1) produced mortality after exposure for 48 h for L aurora and 72 h for A marginata. PMID:14971686

  19. Comparative magnetic measurements of migratory ant and its only termite prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquivel, D. M. S.; Wajnberg, E.; Cernicchiaro, G. R.; Alves, O. C.

    2004-07-01

    Termites and ants are social insects living organized in nests in castes. Behavioral studies with the migratory ant Pachycondyla marginata have shown that it conducts well-organized predatory raids toward nests of its only prey, the termite Neocapritermes opacus. The magnetic materials in these two insects were studied using a SQUID magnetometer for two orientations. The Jr/ Js and Jr/ χ0, ratios were calculated from the two insects hysteresis curves. These ratios are in the range of magnetite pseudo-single or multi-domain particle values. The magnetic material are distinguishable by Hc values (30 Oe for ants and 100 Oe for termites) and by the magnetization magnitude, which is about two magnitude orders higher in the termite than in migratory ant. The Pachycondyla marginata SQUID results show an anisotropy in the magnetic material arrangement while for Neocapritermes opacus termite it is revealed by FMR spectra.

  20. Transmission of Haemogregarina balli from painted turtles to snapping turtles through the leech Placobdella ornata.

    PubMed

    Siddall, M E; Desser, S S

    2001-10-01

    Six leeches (Placobdella ornata) were allowed to feed on a painted turtle (Chrysemys picta marginata) infected with Haemogregarina balli and subjected to a period of diapause before being allowed to feed on 2 laboratory-reared snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). Weekly examination of thin blood films revealed infections of the turtles at 130 days postfeeding. These observations provide support for broad host specificity of hemogregarine parasites of chelonians. PMID:11695407

  1. Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

    2007-04-01

    This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively. PMID:17461064

  2. Peptide Macrocyclization Catalyzed by a Prolyl Oligopeptidase Involved in α-Amanitin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hong; Hong, Sung-Yong; Sgambelluri, R Michael; Angelos, Evan; Li, Xuan; Walton, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Amatoxins are ribosomally-encoded and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) that account for the majority of fatal mushroom poisonings of humans. A representative amatoxin is the bicyclic octapeptide α-amanitin formed via head-to-tail macrocyclization, which is ribosomally biosynthesized as a 35-amino acid propeptide in Amanita bisporigera and in the distantly related mushroom Galerina marginata. Although members of the prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) family of serine proteases were proposed to play a role in α- amanitin post-translational processing the exact mechanistic details are not known. Here, we show that a specific prolyl oligopeptidase (GmPOPB) is required for toxin maturation in G. marginata. Recombinant GmPOPB catalyzed two nonprocessive reactions: hydrolysis at an internal Pro to release the C-terminal 25mer from the 35mer propeptide, and transpeptidation at the second Pro to produce the cyclic octamer. On the other hand, we show that GmPOPA, the putative housekeeping POP of G. marginata, behaves like a conventional POP. PMID:25484237

  3. Seaweed composition from Bintulu coast of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zawawi, Mohd Hafizbillah; Idris, Mohd Hanafi; Kamal, Abu Hena Mustafa; King, Wong Sing

    2014-08-01

    Species composition of seaweed and distribution were investigated in the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak. The seaweed samples were collected during low tide between May 2011 and May 2012 from the six different stations. In total 54 species of seaweeds were identified from study areas of Bintulu coastal waters. Among them, 23 species were from Rhodophyta with 11 families, 15 species were from Phaeophyta with 2 families and 16 species were from Chlorophyta with 10 families: Seventeen species of seaweeds were recorded from the Tanjung Batu, while 23 species from Pantai Telekom, 14 species from Golden Beach, 26 species from Kuala Similajau, 12 species from Kuala Nyalau and 21 species from Batu Mandi. Seaweeds abundance was high in rocky substrate and Rhodophyta (11 families and 23 species) was the common and highest group of seaweeds in this coastal areas. Present study recorded high diversified seaweed species at the rocky shore area compare to reef area. PMID:26031019

  4. Immunochemistry of Biliproteins 1

    PubMed Central

    Berns, Donald S.

    1967-01-01

    Biliproteins were extracted from representatives of the Cyanophyta, Rhodophyta, and Cryptophyta and purified. Both purified and crude biliproteins were used to stimulate rabbit antibody directed specifically against the biliproteins. The antigenic and immunogenic inter-relationships of these proteins were investigated by the Ouchterlony double diffusion technique. C-phycocyanins from all sources were found to be antigenically and immunogenically related and apparently also related to allophycocyanin but not to any of the phycoerythrins. Larger antigenic differences among phycoerythrins from different groups of algae were discovered. The role of aggregation of the individual biliproteins in their immunochemistry was characterized. Attempts were made to determine the phylogenetic significance of these results. The immunochemical aspects of the biliproteins were striking in that protein antigens from vastly different cell types were found to be closely related. This relationship may be interpreted as supporting the suggestion that Rhodophyta evolved from Cyanophyta or from some common ancestral stock. Images PMID:6080871

  5. Seaweed-Coral Interactions: Variance in Seaweed Allelopathy, Coral Susceptibility, and Potential Effects on Coral Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Bonaldo, Roberta M.; Hay, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70–80% lower, macroalgal cover 4–9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5–15 fold more frequent and 23–67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae), and coral cover 51–68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa) against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals. PMID:24465707

  6. Seaweed-coral interactions: variance in seaweed allelopathy, coral susceptibility, and potential effects on coral resilience.

    PubMed

    Bonaldo, Roberta M; Hay, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70-80% lower, macroalgal cover 4-9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5-15 fold more frequent and 23-67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae), and coral cover 51-68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa) against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals. PMID:24465707

  7. Reconstructing the complex evolutionary history of mobile plasmids in red algal genomes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, JunMo; Kim, Kyeong Mi; Yang, Eun Chan; Miller, Kathy Ann; Boo, Sung Min; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2016-01-01

    The integration of foreign DNA into algal and plant plastid genomes is a rare event, with only a few known examples of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Plasmids, which are well-studied drivers of HGT in prokaryotes, have been reported previously in red algae (Rhodophyta). However, the distribution of these mobile DNA elements and their sites of integration into the plastid (ptDNA), mitochondrial (mtDNA), and nuclear genomes of Rhodophyta remain unknown. Here we reconstructed the complex evolutionary history of plasmid-derived DNAs in red algae. Comparative analysis of 21 rhodophyte ptDNAs, including new genome data for 5 species, turned up 22 plasmid-derived open reading frames (ORFs) that showed syntenic and copy number variation among species, but were conserved within different individuals in three lineages. Several plasmid-derived homologs were found not only in ptDNA but also in mtDNA and in the nuclear genome of green plants, stramenopiles, and rhizarians. Phylogenetic and plasmid-derived ORF analyses showed that the majority of plasmid DNAs originated within red algae, whereas others were derived from cyanobacteria, other bacteria, and viruses. Our results elucidate the evolution of plasmid DNAs in red algae and suggest that they spread as parasitic genetic elements. This hypothesis is consistent with their sporadic distribution within Rhodophyta. PMID:27030297

  8. [Presence of lectins, tannins and protease inhibitors in venezuelan marine algae].

    PubMed

    Perez-Lorenzo, S; Levy-Benshimol, A; Gomez-Acevedo, S

    1998-01-01

    The presence of lectins, tannins and protease inhibitors was studied in 27 algae species collected at four Venezuelan coral rift sites. Among the species studied, only six had hemagglutinating activity, apparently due to their lectin content. Higher hemagglutinating titers were obtained when the extracts were tested on pronase-treated erythrocytes. Hemagglutination was inhibited by simple sugars and by bovine submaxillary gland mucine. GaINAc was the only inhibitor of the hemagglutination caused by Grateulopia filicina extracts. None of the compounds tested inhibited the hemagglutination caused by Halimeda opuntia. The polyvinylpolypirrolidone treatment abolished the hemagglutinating activity of both brown and red algae. However, in Grateulopia filicina and Hypnea cervicornis (Rhodophyta) hemagglutinating activity persisted after the polyvinylpolypirrolidone treatment, presumably due to the presence of true lectins in those algae. Tannin content (presumably phlorotannins) was higher in the Phaeophyta as compared to the Rhodophyta. The brown alga Padina gymnospora had the higher content of these polyphenols. Trypsin inhibitors were detected, in minute ammounts, only in Padina gymnospora (Phaeophyta) and Acantophora spicifera (Rhodophyta). No subtilisin inhibition was observed whatsoever. PMID:10030041

  9. Reconstructing the complex evolutionary history of mobile plasmids in red algal genomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, JunMo; Kim, Kyeong Mi; Yang, Eun Chan; Miller, Kathy Ann; Boo, Sung Min; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2016-01-01

    The integration of foreign DNA into algal and plant plastid genomes is a rare event, with only a few known examples of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Plasmids, which are well-studied drivers of HGT in prokaryotes, have been reported previously in red algae (Rhodophyta). However, the distribution of these mobile DNA elements and their sites of integration into the plastid (ptDNA), mitochondrial (mtDNA), and nuclear genomes of Rhodophyta remain unknown. Here we reconstructed the complex evolutionary history of plasmid-derived DNAs in red algae. Comparative analysis of 21 rhodophyte ptDNAs, including new genome data for 5 species, turned up 22 plasmid-derived open reading frames (ORFs) that showed syntenic and copy number variation among species, but were conserved within different individuals in three lineages. Several plasmid-derived homologs were found not only in ptDNA but also in mtDNA and in the nuclear genome of green plants, stramenopiles, and rhizarians. Phylogenetic and plasmid-derived ORF analyses showed that the majority of plasmid DNAs originated within red algae, whereas others were derived from cyanobacteria, other bacteria, and viruses. Our results elucidate the evolution of plasmid DNAs in red algae and suggest that they spread as parasitic genetic elements. This hypothesis is consistent with their sporadic distribution within Rhodophyta. PMID:27030297

  10. Species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from Groupers (Mycteroperca spp., Epinephelidae) in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic Ocean, with Special Reference to the ‘Beverleyburtonae Group’ and Description of Two New Species

    PubMed Central

    Neifar, Lassad; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is a species-rich diplectanid genus, mainly restricted to the gills of groupers (Epinephelidae) and especially abundant in warm seas. Species from the Mediterranean are not fully documented. Two new and two previously known species from the gills of Mycteroperca spp. (M. costae, M. rubra, and M. marginata) in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic Ocean are described here from new material and slides kept in collections. Identifications of newly collected fish were ascertained by barcoding of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences. Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Oliver, 1984) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 and P. sosia Neifar & Euzet 2007 are redescribed from type-specimens and new specimens collected off Tunisia and Libya from M. marginata and M. costae, respectively. Pseudorhabdosynochus oliveri n. sp., from M. marginata (type-host) off the Mediterranean coast of France (type-locality), is described from specimens found among voucher specimens of P. beverleyburtonae deposited by Guy Oliver in the collection of the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Pseudorhabdosynochus oliveri is distinguished by the shape of its sclerotised vagina; it was not found in the other localities investigated. Pseudorhabdosynochus hayet n. sp. is described from M. rubra (type host) off Senegal (type-locality) and Tunisia. Pseudorhabdosynochus hayet is morphologically similar to P. sosia (type-host: M. costae) but was distinguished by differences in measurements of the vagina and male copulatory organ, different host, and divergent COI sequences. The four species (P. beverleyburtonae, P. sosia, P. oliveri, and P. hayet) share common characteristics such as squamodiscs with 2 innermost circular rows of rodlets and a similar general structure of the sclerotised vagina; we propose to group them into a ‘beverleyburtonae group’ within Pseudorhabdosynochus. PMID:27532108

  11. Species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from Groupers (Mycteroperca spp., Epinephelidae) in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic Ocean, with Special Reference to the 'Beverleyburtonae Group' and Description of Two New Species.

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is a species-rich diplectanid genus, mainly restricted to the gills of groupers (Epinephelidae) and especially abundant in warm seas. Species from the Mediterranean are not fully documented. Two new and two previously known species from the gills of Mycteroperca spp. (M. costae, M. rubra, and M. marginata) in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic Ocean are described here from new material and slides kept in collections. Identifications of newly collected fish were ascertained by barcoding of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences. Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Oliver, 1984) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 and P. sosia Neifar & Euzet 2007 are redescribed from type-specimens and new specimens collected off Tunisia and Libya from M. marginata and M. costae, respectively. Pseudorhabdosynochus oliveri n. sp., from M. marginata (type-host) off the Mediterranean coast of France (type-locality), is described from specimens found among voucher specimens of P. beverleyburtonae deposited by Guy Oliver in the collection of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Pseudorhabdosynochus oliveri is distinguished by the shape of its sclerotised vagina; it was not found in the other localities investigated. Pseudorhabdosynochus hayet n. sp. is described from M. rubra (type host) off Senegal (type-locality) and Tunisia. Pseudorhabdosynochus hayet is morphologically similar to P. sosia (type-host: M. costae) but was distinguished by differences in measurements of the vagina and male copulatory organ, different host, and divergent COI sequences. The four species (P. beverleyburtonae, P. sosia, P. oliveri, and P. hayet) share common characteristics such as squamodiscs with 2 innermost circular rows of rodlets and a similar general structure of the sclerotised vagina; we propose to group them into a 'beverleyburtonae group' within Pseudorhabdosynochus. PMID:27532108

  12. Contrasting physiological responses of two co-occurring eucalypts to seasonal drought at restored bauxite mine sites.

    PubMed

    Szota, Christopher; Farrell, Claire; Koch, John M; Lambers, Hans; Veneklaas, Erik J

    2011-10-01

    This study describes the physiological response of two co-occurring tree species (Eucalyptus marginata and Corymbia calophylla) to seasonal drought at low- and high-quality restored bauxite mine sites in south-western Australia. Seasonal changes in photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)), leaf water potential (ψ), leaf osmotic potential (ψ), leaf relative water content (RWC) and pressure-volume analysis were captured over an 18-month field study to (i) determine the nature and severity of physiological stress in relation to site quality and (ii) identify any physiological differences between the two species. Root system restriction at the low-quality site reduced maximum rates of gas exchange (g(s) and A) and increased water stress (midday ψ and daily RWC) in both species during drought. Both species showed high stomatal sensitivity during drought; however, E. marginata demonstrated a higher dehydration tolerance where ψ and RWC fell to -3.2 MPa and 73% compared with -2.4 MPa and 80% for C. calophylla. Corymbia calophylla showed lower g(s) and higher ψ and RWC during drought, indicating higher drought tolerance. Pressure-volume curves showed that cell-wall elasticity of E. marginata leaves increased in response to drought, while C. calophylla leaves showed lower osmotic potential at zero turgor in summer than in winter, indicating osmotic adjustment. Both species are clearly able to tolerate seasonal drought at hostile sites; however, by C. calophylla closing stomata earlier in the drought cycle, maintaining a higher water status during drought and having the additional mechanism of osmotic adjustment, it may have a greater capacity to survive extended periods of drought. PMID:21908435

  13. Spider sedation induced by defensive chemicals of milliped prey.

    PubMed

    Carrel, J E; Eisner, T

    1984-02-01

    Wolf spiders (Lycosa spp.) show delayed induced sedation (total immobilization) of prolonged duration (in the order of days) after attacks upon millipeds (Glomeris marginata). The sedation is specifically attributable to glomerin and homoglomerin, two previously characterized quinazolinones present in the defensive secretion of Glomeris. Median sedative doses for the quinazolinones are in the range of 1-7 mug per spider, a fraction of the total (60-90 mug) present in the secretion of medium to full-grown millipeds. A sedative effect upon an invertebrate predator has not previously been demonstrated for an animal defense. Quinazolinones include the synthetic drug methaqualone (Quaalude), a potent human sedative. PMID:16593414

  14. The effects of cold acclimation on electrocardiogram parameters in five species of turtles.

    PubMed

    Risher, J F; Claussen, D L

    1987-01-01

    The effects of thermal acclimation at 25 or 5 degrees C on electrical activity in the heart were investigated in Pseudemys scripta, Terrapene carolina, Chrysemys picta marginata, Chrysemys picta dorsalis, Chelydra serpentina, and Sternotherus odoratus. The durations of the QRS complex and P-R, R-T and R-R intervals were found to increase with decreasing body temperature in all animals tested. The amplitudes of the P and T waves and QRS complex were dependent upon both acclimation temperature and test temperature. Differences between acclimation groups in the change in QRS amplitudes between 20 and 0 degrees C were statistically significant for all species. PMID:2886260

  15. Ecological distribution of stream macroalgal communities from a drainage basin in the Serra da Canastra National Park, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Necchi-Júnior, O; Branco, L H Z; Branco, C C Z

    2003-11-01

    Twelve stream segments were sampled four times in 1998-1999 (one sampling per season) in the drainage basin of the upper São Francisco River (19 masculine 45'-21 masculine 25'S, 49 masculine 05'-51 masculine 30'W), situated in Serra da Canastra National Park, at altitudes ranging from 1,175 to 1,400 m. The macroalgae survey resulted in 30 species, with a predominance of Cyanophyta (12 species = 40%) and Chlorophyta (11 species = 36.5%) and a lower proportion of Rhodophyta (seven species = 23.5%). Two species, Klebsormidium rivulare (Chlorophyta) and Kyliniella latvica (Rhodophyta), were new records for Brazil. Capsosira sp. and Stigonema sp. (Cyanophyta) and the "Chantransia" stage of Batrachospermum (Rhodophyta) were the most widespread macroalgae, occurring in six sampling sites, whereas 11 species were found at only one site. The proportion of macroalgal morphological types were as follows: mats (33%), free filaments (27%), gelatinous filaments (27%), crusts (7%), tufts (3%), and gelatinous colonies (3%). The flora revealed few species in common (4%-8%) with stream macroalgae from other Brazilian regions. The macroalgal communities proved to have species richness values close to the highest values reported in previous studies. The patterns typical for stream macroalgal communities (patchy distribution and dominance of few species) were also found in this basin. However, the stream variables most influential in macroalgal distribution in this study (rocky substratum, low pH, high COD, water color, and current velocity) were essentially the same that best describe the limnological characteristics of this lotic ecosystem. In addition, this combination of variables differed sharply from results of previous studies in other Brazilian stream ecosystems. PMID:15029374

  16. PLMItRNA, a database for mitochondrial tRNA genes and tRNAs in photosynthetic eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Fabrizio; Gallerani, Raffaele; Liuni, Sabino; Licciulli, Flavio; Ceci, Luigi R.

    2001-01-01

    The PLMItRNA database for mitochondrial tRNA molecules and genes in Viridiplantae (green plants) [Volpetti,V., Gallerani,R., DeBenedetto,C., Liuni,S., Licciulli,F. and Ceci,L.R. (2000) Nucleic Acids Res., 28, 159–162] has been enlarged to include algae. The database now contains 436 genes and 16 tRNA entries relative to 25 higher plants, eight green algae, four red algae (Rhodophytae) and two Stramenopiles. The PLMItRNA database is accessible via the WWW at http://bio-www.ba.cnr.it:8000/PLMItRNA. PMID:11125079

  17. Signaling hunger through aggression—the regulation of foraging in a primitively eusocial wasp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamba, Shakti; Chandrasekhar, K.; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2008-07-01

    Primitively eusocial wasps are generally headed by behaviorally dominant queens who use their aggression to suppress worker reproduction. In contrast, queens in the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata are strikingly docile and non-aggressive. However, workers exhibit dominance-subordinate interactions among themselves. These interactions do not appear to reflect reproductive competition because there is no correlation between the relative position of an individual in the dominance hierarchy of the colony and the likelihood that she will succeed a lost/removed queen. Based on the observation that foraging continues unaltered in the absence of the queen and the correlation between dominance behavior and foraging, we have previously suggested that dominance-subordinate interactions among workers in R. marginata have been co-opted to serve the function of decentralized, self-organized regulation of foraging. This idea has been supported by an earlier experimental study where it was found that a reduced demand for food led to a significant decrease in dominance behavior. In this study, we perform the converse experiment, demonstrate that dominance behavior increases under conditions of starvation, and thus provide further evidence in support of the hypothesis that intranidal workers signal hunger through aggression.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals functional anatomy and biomechanics of a living dragon tree

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Linnea; Masselter, Tom; Leupold, Jochen; Spengler, Nils; Speck, Thomas; Korvink, Jan Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to gain in vivo insight into load-induced displacements of inner plant tissues making a non-invasive and non-destructive stress and strain analysis possible. The central aim of this study was the identification of a possible load-adapted orientation of the vascular bundles and their fibre caps as the mechanically relevant tissue in branch-stem-attachments of Dracaena marginata. The complex three-dimensional deformations that occur during mechanical loading can be analysed on the basis of quasi-three-dimensional data representations of the outer surface, the inner tissue arrangement (meristem and vascular system), and the course of single vascular bundles within the branch-stem-attachment region. In addition, deformations of vascular bundles could be quantified manually and by using digital image correlation software. This combination of qualitative and quantitative stress and strain analysis leads to an improved understanding of the functional morphology and biomechanics of D. marginata, a plant that is used as a model organism for optimizing branched technical fibre-reinforced lightweight trusses in order to increase their load bearing capacity. PMID:27604526

  19. Immunotoxicity activity from various essential oils of Angelica genus from South Korea against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Eun-Hye; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

    2012-02-01

    The leaves of Angelica anomala Lallemant, Angelica cartilagino-marginata var. distans (Nakai) Kitag, Angelica czernevia (Fisch. et Meyer) Kitagawa, Angelica dahurica Benth. et Hooker, Angelica decursiva (Miq.) Franch. & Sav, Angelica fallax Boissieu, Angelica gigas Nakai, Angelica japonica A. gray were essential oil extracted and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The Angelica anomala, A. cartilagino-marginata var. distans, A. czernevia, A. dahurica, A. decursiva, A. fallax, A. gigas, A. japonica essential oil yield were 4.13, 4.83, 4.45, 3.25, 4.11, 4.73, 4.34 and 4.21%. The A. dahurica essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with a lethal concentration 50 (LC₅₀) value of 43.12 ppm and an LC₉₀ value of 65.23 ppm. The above indicates that essential oil contents may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil. PMID:21506693

  20. Effects of sulphur dioxide, hydrogen fluoride and their combination on three Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Murray, F; Wilson, S

    1988-01-01

    The effects of joint action of SO(2) and HF on three Eucalyptus species were studied by exposing them to combinations of < 13, 122 or 271 microg m(-3) of SO(2) and 0.03, 0.39 or 1.05 microg m(-3) of HF in open top chambers for 120 days. HF and SO(2) reduced the area and weight of immature leaves in all three species, but there were few interactive effects on immature leaves. The response of mature leaves to exposure differed among the species, with the greatest effects on E. calophylla and least effects on E. marginata. The interaction of HF + SO2 had no effect on leaf S concentrations in any of the species, but it reduced leaf F concentrations in E. calophylla and E. gomphocephala. HF increased leaf injury in E. calophylla and E. gomphocephala when simultaneously exposed to 271 microg m(-3) of SO(2), but had no effect at 122 microg m(-3), or on E. marginata. The addition of 271 microg m(-3) of SO(2) increased leaf injury when E. gomphocephala was exposed to 0.39 microg m(-3) of HF and when E. calophylla was exposed to 1.05 microg m(-3) of HF, despite reducing the leaf F concentrations. In some cases the interaction of the pollutants may increase susceptibility to visible injury. PMID:15092600

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals functional anatomy and biomechanics of a living dragon tree.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Linnea; Masselter, Tom; Leupold, Jochen; Spengler, Nils; Speck, Thomas; Korvink, Jan Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to gain in vivo insight into load-induced displacements of inner plant tissues making a non-invasive and non-destructive stress and strain analysis possible. The central aim of this study was the identification of a possible load-adapted orientation of the vascular bundles and their fibre caps as the mechanically relevant tissue in branch-stem-attachments of Dracaena marginata. The complex three-dimensional deformations that occur during mechanical loading can be analysed on the basis of quasi-three-dimensional data representations of the outer surface, the inner tissue arrangement (meristem and vascular system), and the course of single vascular bundles within the branch-stem-attachment region. In addition, deformations of vascular bundles could be quantified manually and by using digital image correlation software. This combination of qualitative and quantitative stress and strain analysis leads to an improved understanding of the functional morphology and biomechanics of D. marginata, a plant that is used as a model organism for optimizing branched technical fibre-reinforced lightweight trusses in order to increase their load bearing capacity. PMID:27604526

  2. [Negative air ions generated by plants upon pulsed electric field stimulation applied to soil].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ren-ye; Deng, Chuan-yuan; Yang, Zhi-jian; Weng, Hai-yong; Zhu, Tie-jun-rong; Zheng, Jin-gui

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigated the capacity of plants (Schlumbergera truncata, Aloe vera var. chinensis, Chlorophytum comosum, Schlumbergera bridgesii, Gymnocalycium mihanovichii var. friedrichii, Aspidistra elatior, Cymbidium kanran, Echinocactus grusonii, Agave americana var. marginata, Asparagus setaceus) to generate negative air ions (NAI) under pulsed electric field stimulation. The results showed that single plant generated low amounts of NAI in natural condition. The capacity of C. comosum and G. mihanovichii var. friedrichii generated most NAI among the above ten species, with a daily average of 43 ion · cm(-3). The least one was A. americana var. marginata with the value of 19 ion · cm(-3). When proper pulsed electric field stimulation was applied to soil, the NAI of ten plant species were greatly improved. The effect of pulsed electric field u3 (average voltage over the pulse period was 2.0 x 10(4) V, pulse frequency was 1 Hz, and pulse duration was 50 ms) was the greatest. The mean NAI concentration of C. kanran was the highest 1454967 ion · cm(-3), which was 48498.9 times as much as that in natural condition. The lowest one was S. truncata with the value of 34567 ion · cm(-3), which was 843.1 times as much as that in natural condition. The capacity of the same plants to generate negative air ion varied extremely under different intensity pulsed electric fields. PMID:26094455

  3. Competition induces allelopathy but suppresses growth and anti-herbivore defence in a chemically rich seaweed

    PubMed Central

    Rasher, Douglas B.; Hay, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Many seaweeds and terrestrial plants induce chemical defences in response to herbivory, but whether they induce chemical defences against competitors (allelopathy) remains poorly understood. We evaluated whether two tropical seaweeds induce allelopathy in response to competition with a reef-building coral. We also assessed the effects of competition on seaweed growth and seaweed chemical defence against herbivores. Following 8 days of competition with the coral Porites cylindrica, the chemically rich seaweed Galaxaura filamentosa induced increased allelochemicals and became nearly twice as damaging to the coral. However, it also experienced significantly reduced growth and increased palatability to herbivores (because of reduced chemical defences). Under the same conditions, the seaweed Sargassum polycystum did not induce allelopathy and did not experience a change in growth or palatability. This is the first demonstration of induced allelopathy in a seaweed, or of competitors reducing seaweed chemical defences against herbivores. Our results suggest that the chemical ecology of coral–seaweed–herbivore interactions can be complex and nuanced, highlighting the need to incorporate greater ecological complexity into the study of chemical defence. PMID:24403332

  4. Paper Synthesis, Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis Induction in Human Tumor Cells by Galaxamide and Its Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xi; Liao, Xiaojian; Qiu, Shaoling; Liu, Zihao; Du, Bin; Xu, Shihai

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study reported that galaxamide, which is a cyclo-pentapeptide containing five leucines that was extracted from Galaxaura filamentosa, displayed remarkable anticancer cytotoxicity. This novel cyclo-peptide provided a new skeleton for the structural modifications used in finding new drugs with better anticancer properties. In this study, five analogues were synthesized based on changing the number of d/l amino acids by adding a new amino acid, phenylalanine. Galaxamide and five of its analogues were evaluated through MTT assays to examine their cytotoxic activities. We found that modified analogue 5, which is referred to as A5, displayed broad spectrum cytotoxic activity toward every cell line tested; in addition, the IC50 of A5 was lower than that of galaxamide and the other analogues. Furthermore, we used flow cytometry and western blot assays to investigate whether galaxamide and A5 could induce cancer cell apoptosis. The flow cytometric studies showed that HepG2 cells treated with different concentrations of galaxamide or A5 over 72 h displayed significant and dose-dependent increases in the percentages of early-stage apoptotic cells. Western blotting revealed that both compounds induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in HepG2 cells through a mitochondria-mediated pathway. The results demonstrate that galaxamide and its analogues have potential applications as clinical anticancer drugs. PMID:25231922

  5. Induction of apoptosis by three marine algae through generation of reactive oxygen species in human leukemic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huey-Lan; Wu, Shwu-Li; Liao, Hui-Fen; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Huang, Ray-Ling; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Yang, Yuh-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2005-03-01

    In this study, we examined the antitumor effect of marine algae extracts on human hepatoma and leukemia cells. Ethyl acetate extracts from Colpomenia sinuosa (Cs-EA), Halimeda discoidae (Hd-EA), and Galaxaura oblongata (Go-EA) directly inhibited the growth of human hepatoma HuH-7 cells and leukemia U937 and HL-60 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Specifically, these algae extracts induced apoptosis of U937 and HL-60 cells as evaluated by detection of hypodiploid cells using flow cytometry and observation of condensed and fragmented nuclei in algae extract-treated cells. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion, were increased about 2-3-fold in U937 cells treated with Cs-EA for 3-5 h. Interestingly, antioxidant N-acetylcysteine effectively blocked Cs-EA-, Hd-EA-, and Go-EA-induced apoptosis, suggesting that ROS is a key mediator in the apoptotic signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results show that algae extracts induce apoptosis in human leukemia cells through generation of ROS. PMID:15740073

  6. Cryptic effects of habitat declines: coral-associated fishes avoid coral-seaweed interactions due to visual and chemical cues.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rohan M; Brandl, Simon J; Dixson, Danielle L

    2016-01-01

    Seaweed-dominated coral reefs are becoming increasingly common as environmental conditions shift away from those required by corals and toward those ideal for rampant seaweed growth. How coral-associated organisms respond to seaweed will not only impact their fate following environmental change but potentially also the trajectories of the coral communities on which they rely. However, behavioral responses by coral-associated organisms to seaweeds are poorly understood. This study examined interactions between a guild of obligate and opportunistic coral-feeding butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae) and scleractinian corals to determine whether fishes continue to interact with corals in contact with seaweed or if they are avoided. Under natural conditions, all species interacted almost exclusively with seaweed-free corals. In a controlled patch reef experiment, fishes avoided corals in physical contact with seaweed, irrespective of dietary preferences. When visual seaweed cues were removed, butterflyfish continued to avoid corals that had been in contact with the allelopathic Galaxaura filamentosa, suggesting that chemical cues produced by coral-seaweed interactions are repellent. These findings suggest that, due to deleterious visual and chemical cues produced by coral-seaweed interactions, coral-associated organisms may struggle to locate resources as seaweed-free corals decline in abundance. PMID:26725835

  7. Cryptic effects of habitat declines: coral-associated fishes avoid coral-seaweed interactions due to visual and chemical cues

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rohan M.; Brandl, Simon J.; Dixson, Danielle L.

    2016-01-01

    Seaweed-dominated coral reefs are becoming increasingly common as environmental conditions shift away from those required by corals and toward those ideal for rampant seaweed growth. How coral-associated organisms respond to seaweed will not only impact their fate following environmental change but potentially also the trajectories of the coral communities on which they rely. However, behavioral responses by coral-associated organisms to seaweeds are poorly understood. This study examined interactions between a guild of obligate and opportunistic coral-feeding butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae) and scleractinian corals to determine whether fishes continue to interact with corals in contact with seaweed or if they are avoided. Under natural conditions, all species interacted almost exclusively with seaweed-free corals. In a controlled patch reef experiment, fishes avoided corals in physical contact with seaweed, irrespective of dietary preferences. When visual seaweed cues were removed, butterflyfish continued to avoid corals that had been in contact with the allelopathic Galaxaura filamentosa, suggesting that chemical cues produced by coral-seaweed interactions are repellent. These findings suggest that, due to deleterious visual and chemical cues produced by coral-seaweed interactions, coral-associated organisms may struggle to locate resources as seaweed-free corals decline in abundance. PMID:26725835

  8. Competition induces allelopathy but suppresses growth and anti-herbivore defence in a chemically rich seaweed.

    PubMed

    Rasher, Douglas B; Hay, Mark E

    2014-02-22

    Many seaweeds and terrestrial plants induce chemical defences in response to herbivory, but whether they induce chemical defences against competitors (allelopathy) remains poorly understood. We evaluated whether two tropical seaweeds induce allelopathy in response to competition with a reef-building coral. We also assessed the effects of competition on seaweed growth and seaweed chemical defence against herbivores. Following 8 days of competition with the coral Porites cylindrica, the chemically rich seaweed Galaxaura filamentosa induced increased allelochemicals and became nearly twice as damaging to the coral. However, it also experienced significantly reduced growth and increased palatability to herbivores (because of reduced chemical defences). Under the same conditions, the seaweed Sargassum polycystum did not induce allelopathy and did not experience a change in growth or palatability. This is the first demonstration of induced allelopathy in a seaweed, or of competitors reducing seaweed chemical defences against herbivores. Our results suggest that the chemical ecology of coral-seaweed-herbivore interactions can be complex and nuanced, highlighting the need to incorporate greater ecological complexity into the study of chemical defence. PMID:24403332

  9. Studies on marine algae for haemagglutinic activity.

    PubMed

    Alam, M T; Usmanghani, K

    1994-07-01

    Lectins (agglutinins) are important in medical and immunological applications. Phytohaemagglutinins have been found useful in blood banking. Keeping in view of these facts, the marine algae found at Karachi coastal region have been screened for agglutinic activity by using human erythrocytes of A, B, AB and 0 group. Altogether 53 algal samples were collected and subjected to extraction, fractionation serial dilution and titre determinations. The total marine algae screened for haemagglutinic activity were 44 out of these 14, 13 and 17 belonged to Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta respectively. Among these three groups the Rhodophyta showed the highest number of lytic activity. The green marine alga Valoniopsis pachynema showed a titre value between 2(2) and 2(3), which is statistically significant. In case of brown marine algae Colpomenia sinuosa was found to be active (titre 2(3)), while Dictyota dichotoma, D. indica and Iyengaria stellata, furnished week titre value as 2(2). The red marine algae screened were 17, out of these 4 spp. showed significant activity (titre 2(3)), and these are Gelidium usmanghani, Gracilaria foliifera Hypnea pannosa and Hynea valentiae. While Scinaia fascicularis, Scinaia indica and Champia parvula were found to be weak in their onset on human erythrocytes. The results obtained were quite in agreement with those reported in the literature. PMID:16414751

  10. Trophic ecology in a Northern Brittany (Batz Island, France) kelp ( Laminaria digitata) forest, as investigated through stable isotopes and chemical assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaal, Gauthier; Riera, Pascal; Leroux, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the relationships between the food web's structure and the nutritive value of basal food sources in a Northern Brittany (France) Laminaria digitata bed. Stable isotopes were used to identify the food sources consumed by benthic invertebrates, and the nutritive value of primary producers was assessed according to four descriptors (total organic matter, C/N ratio, proteins content, lipids content). Although the food web appeared to be based on a wide diversity of food sources, only Rhodophyta (red algae) and biofilms (epilithic and epiphytic) were heavily consumed by grazers. In contrast, Phaeophyta (brown algae), which are dominant in this habitat, have no specialized grazer (with the exception of Helcion pellucidum, specialized grazer of Laminaria digitata). This selective consumption may be related to the higher protein content and lower C/N ratio of Rhodophyta and biofilms, in comparison with Phaeophyta. Fresh brown algae are thus of poor nutritive value, but processes associated with their degradation are likely to improve this nutritive value, leading in the assimilation of detritus by filter-feeders, revealed by high δ13C in these consumers. Our results thus suggest that the nutritive value of basal food sources may be an important factor involved in the structuration of kelp-associated food webs.

  11. Bathymetric variation of epiphytic assemblages on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves in relation to anthropogenic disturbance in the southeastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Ben Brahim, Mounir; Mabrouk, Lotfi; Hamza, Asma; Mahfoudi, Mabrouka; Bouain, Abderrahmane; Aleya, Lotfi

    2014-12-01

    A survey of the epiphytic leaves of Posidonia oceanica was conducted along a depth transect at both the control station Attaya in the Kerkennah Islands and the disturbed Mahres station on the Sfax coast (Tunisia). Samples were collected by scuba divers at depths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 m in July 2008. We evaluated whether the pattern of spatial variability of the macroepiphyte assemblages of leaves of Posidonia oceanica differed in relation to anthropogenic interference. The results indicate that the decrease in shoot density and leaf length according to depth was low at Mahres. The biomass of epiphytic leaves and the percentage cover of epiphytic assemblages decreased with depth for both stations and heavily at Mahres, this decline being related to anthropogenic disturbance. This study shows that the highest values of epifauna and epiflora were detected at the disturbed station Mahres. Macroalgae assemblages decreased with depth at both stations and were dominated by Rhodophyta, whereas the percentage cover of the epifauna leaf that decreases according to depth was dominated by Hydrozoa and Bryozoa. Changes in epiphyte assemblages, epiphytic biomass, percentage cover, and species richness in proportion to Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, Cyanobacteria, Hydrozoa, Porifera, and Tunicata between the two stations constitute promising tools for detecting environmental disturbance. PMID:25023658

  12. Codon Adaptation of Plastid Genes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Haruo; Morton, Brian R

    2016-01-01

    Codon adaptation is codon usage bias that results from selective pressure to increase the translation efficiency of a gene. Codon adaptation has been studied across a wide range of genomes and some early analyses of plastids have shown evidence for codon adaptation in a limited set of highly expressed plastid genes. Here we study codon usage bias across all fully sequenced plastid genomes which includes representatives of the Rhodophyta, Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Euglenozoa, Glaucocystophyceae, Rhizaria, Stramenopiles and numerous lineages within the Viridiplantae, including Chlorophyta and Embryophyta. We show evidence that codon adaptation occurs in all genomes except for two, Theileria parva and Heicosporidium sp., both of which have highly reduced gene contents and no photosynthesis genes. We also show evidence that selection for codon adaptation increases the representation of the same set of codons, which we refer to as the adaptive codons, across this wide range of taxa, which is probably due to common features descended from the initial endosymbiont. We use various measures to estimate the relative strength of selection in the different lineages and show that it appears to be fairly strong in certain Stramenopiles and Chlorophyta lineages but relatively weak in many members of the Rhodophyta, Euglenozoa and Embryophyta. Given these results we propose that codon adaptation in plastids is widespread and displays the same general features as adaptation in eubacterial genomes. PMID:27196606

  13. Codon Adaptation of Plastid Genes

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Haruo; Morton, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Codon adaptation is codon usage bias that results from selective pressure to increase the translation efficiency of a gene. Codon adaptation has been studied across a wide range of genomes and some early analyses of plastids have shown evidence for codon adaptation in a limited set of highly expressed plastid genes. Here we study codon usage bias across all fully sequenced plastid genomes which includes representatives of the Rhodophyta, Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Euglenozoa, Glaucocystophyceae, Rhizaria, Stramenopiles and numerous lineages within the Viridiplantae, including Chlorophyta and Embryophyta. We show evidence that codon adaptation occurs in all genomes except for two, Theileria parva and Heicosporidium sp., both of which have highly reduced gene contents and no photosynthesis genes. We also show evidence that selection for codon adaptation increases the representation of the same set of codons, which we refer to as the adaptive codons, across this wide range of taxa, which is probably due to common features descended from the initial endosymbiont. We use various measures to estimate the relative strength of selection in the different lineages and show that it appears to be fairly strong in certain Stramenopiles and Chlorophyta lineages but relatively weak in many members of the Rhodophyta, Euglenozoa and Embryophyta. Given these results we propose that codon adaptation in plastids is widespread and displays the same general features as adaptation in eubacterial genomes. PMID:27196606

  14. Nuclear DNA Content Estimates in Multicellular Green, Red and Brown Algae: Phylogenetic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    KAPRAUN, DONALD F.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Multicellular eukaryotic algae are phylogenetically disparate. Nuclear DNA content estimates have been published for fewer than 1 % of the described species of Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. The present investigation aims to summarize the state of our knowledge and to add substantially to our database of C-values for theses algae. • Methods The DNA-localizing fluorochrome DAPI (4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and RBC (chicken erythrocyte) standard were used to estimate 2C values with static microspectrophotometry. • Key Results 2C DNA contents for 85 species of Chlorophyta range from 0·2–6·1 pg, excluding the highly polyploidy Charales and Desmidiales with DNA contents of up to 39·2 and 20·7 pg, respectively. 2C DNA contents for 111 species of Rhodophyta range from 0·1–2·8 pg, and for 44 species of Phaeophyta range from 0·2–1·8 pg. • Conclusions New availability of consensus higher-level molecular phylogenies provides a framework for viewing C-value data in a phylogenetic context. Both DNA content ranges and mean values are greater in taxa considered to be basal. It is proposed that the basal, ancestral genome in each algal group was quite small. Both mechanistic and ecological processes are discussed that could have produced the observed C-value ranges. PMID:15596456

  15. New records of benthic marine algae and Cyanobacteria for Costa Rica, and a comparison with other Central American countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernecker, Andrea; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2009-09-01

    We present the results of an intensive sampling program carried out from 2000 to 2007 along both coasts of Costa Rica, Central America. The presence of 44 species of benthic marine algae is reported for the first time for Costa Rica. Most of the new records are Rhodophyta (27 spp.), followed by Chlorophyta (15 spp.), and Heterokontophyta, Phaeophycea (2 spp.). Overall, the currently known marine flora of Costa Rica is comprised of 446 benthic marine algae and 24 Cyanobacteria. This species number is an under estimation, and will increase when species of benthic marine algae from taxonomic groups where only limited information is available (e.g., microfilamentous benthic marine algae, Cyanobacteria) are included. The Caribbean coast harbors considerably more benthic marine algae (318 spp.) than the Pacific coast (190 spp.); such a trend has been observed in all neighboring countries. Compared to other Central American countries, Costa Rica has the highest number of reported benthic marine algae; however, Panama may have a similarly high diversity after unpublished results from a Rhodophyta survey (Wysor, unpublished) are included. Sixty-two species have been found along both the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica; we discuss this result in relation to the emergence of the Central American Isthmus.

  16. [Diatoms from Unare and Píritu Lagoons, Anzoátegui state, Venezuela. Subclass Bacillariophycidae D. G. Mann ].

    PubMed

    Subero-Pino, Sonia S; Diaz-Ramos, José R; Sanchez-Suarez, Isaac G; Ferraz-Reyes, Elvira

    2002-01-01

    The diatom flora of Unare and Píritu Lagoons, Venezuela, comprises freshwater, estuarine and marine organisms. In this paper, 15 species of diatoms belonging to the subclass Bacillariophyceae D.G. Mann are described. Water samples from Unare and Píritu lagoons (Venezuela) were collected from November 1988 to July 1989. Samples were fixed with neutral formaldehyde (10%) and were examined under phase contrast microscopy. Species under study were Dictyoneis marginata (Lewis) Cleve, Cymbella affinis (Kützing) Cleve, Cymbella sp., Achnanthes brevipes var. intermedia (Kützing) Cleve, Lyrella irroratoides (Hustedt) Mann, Navicula carinifera (Grunow) Peragallo, Navicula liber (W. Smith) Peragallo, Navicula vacillans (Schmidt) Peragallo, Navicula sp, Amphora crassa var. campechiana Grunow, Amphora decussata Grunow, Caloneis powelli (Lewis) Cholnoky, Tryblionella acuta (Cleve) Mann in Round et al., Tryblionella apiculata Gregory, Surirella febigerii Lewis. PMID:12216503

  17. Pleistocene survival of an archaic dwarf baleen whale (Mysticeti: Cetotheriidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boessenecker, Robert W.

    2013-04-01

    Pliocene baleen whale assemblages are characterized by a mix of early records of extant mysticetes, extinct genera within modern families, and late surviving members of the extinct family Cetotheriidae. Although Pleistocene baleen whales are poorly known, thus far they include only fossils of extant genera, indicating Late Pliocene extinctions of numerous mysticetes alongside other marine mammals. Here a new fossil of the Late Neogene cetotheriid mysticete Herpetocetus is reported from the Lower to Middle Pleistocene Falor Formation of Northern California. This find demonstrates that at least one archaic mysticete survived well into the Quaternary Period, indicating a recent loss of a unique niche and a more complex pattern of Plio-Pleistocene faunal overturn for marine mammals than has been previously acknowledged. This discovery also lends indirect support to the hypothesis that the pygmy right whale ( Caperea marginata) is an extant cetotheriid, as it documents another cetotheriid nearly surviving to modern times.

  18. Generic redescription, two new species, and a key to the species of the cicada genus Ariasa Distant, 1905 with the description of a new genus (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadinae: Fidicinini).

    PubMed

    Sanborn, Allen F

    2016-01-01

    The cicada genus Ariasa Distant, 1905 is redescribed.  Ariasa albimaculosa n. sp. is described from Colombia and A. bartletti n. sp. is described from Peru.  The current 14 species of Ariasa are listed along with their synonymies, known distribution of each species, and a key to the species is provided.  The first records of Ariasa bilaqueata (Uhler, 1903) for Peru and French Guiana are provided. Cracenpsaltria brasiliorum (Kirkaldy, 1909) rev. stat., n. comb. is determined to be the correct name for the taxon Cicada marginata Olivier, 1790 and the new genus Cracenpsaltria n. gen. is erected for the taxon.  The distribution of C. brasiliorum rev. stat., n. comb. is expanded to include Bolivia and Peru. PMID:27470740

  19. HPLC analysis and cytotoxic activity of Vernonia cinerea.

    PubMed

    Khay, Mom; Toeng, Phirom; Mahiou-Leddet, Valérie; Mabrouki, Fathi; Sothea, Kim; Ollivier, Evelyne; Elias, Riad; Bun, Sok-Siya

    2012-10-01

    The extracts of five Cambodian medicinal plants (Aganosma marginata, Dracaena cambodiana, Harrisonia perforata, Hymenodictyon excelsum and Vernonia cinerea) were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells and HepG2 hepatoma cells, using the MTT assay. Among these five plants, Vernonia cinerea displayed potent cytotoxicity. One main sesquiterpene lactone, 8alpha-tigloyloxy-hirsutinolide-13-O-acetate was isolated from the whole plant of V. cinerea. This compound was active against both cancer cell lines (IC50 = 3.50 microM for HT29 and IC50 = 4.27 microM for HepG2). To quantify this compound in the plant, an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated. PMID:23156983

  20. Deep-sea foraminifera from the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean): assessing the environmental impact of bauxite red mud disposal.

    PubMed

    Fontanier, C; Fabri, M-C; Buscail, R; Biscara, L; Koho, K; Reichart, G J; Cossa, D; Galaup, S; Chabaud, G; Pigot, L

    2012-09-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were investigated from two sites along the axis of the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean Sea). Both areas are contaminated by bauxite red mud enriched in iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium. These elemental enrichments are related to bauxite-derived minerals and various amorphous phases. At the shallowest station located very close to the pipe outlet, the benthic living foraminiferal community is characterised by a very low diversity and by an unusual dominance of Gyroidina umbonata and Bulimina marginata. The mechanical stress related to downslope transport of red mud is a likely source of hydro-sedimentary pollution precluding the settlement of diverse fauna. The living and dead foraminiferal faunas from the deepest site are typical of oligo-mesotrophic conditions prevailing in natural environments. There, bauxite residues have obviously no environmental impact on foraminiferal faunas. The bioavailability of trace metals is likely low as elemental enrichments were not observed in foraminiferal test chemistry. PMID:22795490

  1. Genetic Diversity of Freshwater Leeches in Lake Gusinoe (Eastern Siberia, Russia)

    PubMed Central

    Kaygorodova, Irina A.; Mandzyak, Nadezhda; Petryaeva, Ekaterina; Pronin, Nikolay M.

    2014-01-01

    The study of leeches from Lake Gusinoe and its adjacent area offered us the possibility to determine species diversity. As a result, an updated species list of the Gusinoe Hirudinea fauna (Annelida, Clitellata) has been compiled. There are two orders and three families of leeches in the Gusinoe area: order Rhynchobdellida (families Glossiphoniidae and Piscicolidae) and order Arhynchobdellida (family Erpobdellidae). In total, 6 leech species belonging to 6 genera have been identified. Of these, 3 taxa belonging to the family Glossiphoniidae (Alboglossiphonia heteroclita f. papillosa, Hemiclepsis marginata, and Helobdella stagnalis) and representatives of 3 unidentified species (Glossiphonia sp., Piscicola sp., and Erpobdella sp.) have been recorded. The checklist gives a contemporary overview of the species composition of leeches and information on their hosts or substrates. The validity of morphological identification of each taxon has been verified by phylogenetic approach with a molecular marker adopted for a DNA barcoding of most invertebrates. PMID:25544958

  2. Fungal Planet description sheets: 92-106.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Summerell, B A; Shivas, R G; Romberg, M; Mel'nik, V A; Verkley, G J M; Groenewald, J Z

    2011-12-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Diaporthe ceratozamiae on Ceratozamia robusta, Seiridium banksiae on Banksia marginata, Phyllosticta hymenocallidicola on Hymenocallis littoralis, Phlogicylindrium uniforme on Eucalyptus cypellocarpa, Exosporium livistonae on Livistona benthamii and Coleophoma eucalyptorum on Eucalyptus piperita. Several species are also described from South Africa, namely: Phoma proteae, Pyrenochaeta protearum and Leptosphaeria proteicola on Protea spp., Phaeomoniella niveniae on Nivenia stokoei, Toxicocladosporium leucadendri on Leucadendron sp. and Scorias leucadendri on Leucadendron muirii. Other species include Myrmecridium phragmitis on Phragmites australis (Netherlands) and Camarographium carpini on Carpinus betulus (Russia). Furthermore, Pseudoidriella syzygii on Syzygium sp. represents a novel genus of hyphomycetes collected in Australia. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa. PMID:22403481

  3. A New Species of the Genus Parasa Moore (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) from Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Solovyev, Alexey V.; Saldaitis, Aidas

    2010-01-01

    A new species Parasa dusii Solovyev and Saldaitis from northern Yemen is described (holotype in Museum Witt, Munich; Germany). The species has tendency to lose the green pigment typical for other congeners. It is provisionally placed into the genus Parasa Moore, 1859 where it is closely related to P. divisa West, 1940, P. catori Bethune-Baker, 1911, P. marginata West, 1940, P. thamia Rungs, 1951, P. dentina Hering, 1932, P. ananii Karsch, 1896, and P. semiochracea Hering, 1933. The relationship of the new species to these African species suggests its secondary penetration into the Arabian Peninsula from an origin in tropical Africa. The problems of monophyly of the genus Parasa and several associated genera are briefly discussed. All important characters of the new species, and some related species, are illustrated. PMID:21265613

  4. A new species of the genus Parasa Moore (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) from Yemen.

    PubMed

    Solovyev, Alexey V; Saldaitis, Aidas

    2010-01-01

    A new species Parasa dusii Solovyev and Saldaitis from northern Yemen is described (holotype in Museum Witt, Munich; Germany). The species has tendency to lose the green pigment typical for other congeners. It is provisionally placed into the genus Parasa Moore, 1859 where it is closely related to P. divisa West, 1940, P. catori Bethune-Baker, 1911, P. marginata West, 1940, P. thamia Rungs, 1951, P. dentina Hering, 1932, P. ananii Karsch, 1896, and P. semiochracea Hering, 1933. The relationship of the new species to these African species suggests its secondary penetration into the Arabian Peninsula from an origin in tropical Africa. The problems of monophyly of the genus Parasa and several associated genera are briefly discussed. All important characters of the new species, and some related species, are illustrated. PMID:21265613

  5. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Megalopodidae and Chrysomelidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; LeSage, Laurent; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Zeugophora varians Crotch and the family Megalopodidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, Canada. Twenty-eight species of Chrysomelidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, including Acalymma gouldi Barber, Altica knabii Blatchley, Altica rosae Woods, Altica woodsi Isely, Bassareus mammifer (Newman), Chrysolina marginata (Linnaeus), Chrysomela laurentia Brown, Crepidodera violacea Melsheimer, Cryptocephalus venustus Fabricius, Neohaemonia melsheimeri (Lacordaire), Neohaemonia nigricornis (Kirby), Pachybrachis bivittatus (Say), Pachybrachis m-nigrum (Melsheimer), Phyllobrotica limbata (Fabricius), Psylliodes affinis (Paykull), Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), Ophraella communa (LeSage), Ophraella cribrata (LeConte), Ophraella notata (Fabricius), Systena hudsonias (Forster), Tricholochmaea ribicola (Brown), and Tricholochmaea rufosanguinea (Say), which are also newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539900

  6. Contribution of gall microscopic structure to taxonomy of gallicolous aphids on Pistacia.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, R; Martinez, J-J I; Muñoz-Viveros, A L; Molist, P; Abad-González, J; Nieto Nafría, J M

    2016-09-01

    Aphids inducing galls on Pistacia plants belong to the tribe Fordini. According to the Heie & Wegierek classification, the genera are grouped into three subtribes. Previous microscopic studies showed that this taxonomy is not consistent with the histological characteristics of the galls. In this paper, galls induced by Aplonerura lentisci, Asiphonella cynodonti, Forda riccobonii, Slavun wertheimae and Smynthurodes betae were analyzed for the first time, as well as nine other galls previously described. Based on histological features three groups of galls can be establish: the first group comprises closed galls, induced by Baizongia pistaciae, Geoica utricularia, Rectinasus buxtoni and Slavun wertheimae; the second group includes two species of Geopemphigus (G. blackmani and G. torsus), and the third one is divided into two subgroups, the first comprises Aplonerura lentisci, Asiphonella cynodonti and Geopemphigus morral, and the second that includes Forda formicaria, F. marginata, F. riccobonii, Paracletus cimiciformis and Smynthurodes betae. An identification key of species based on microscopic features of galls is presented. PMID:27259077

  7. Magnetic material arrangement in oriented termites: a magnetic resonance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, O. C.; Wajnberg, E.; de Oliveira, J. F.; Esquivel, D. M. S.

    2004-06-01

    Temperature dependence of the magnetic resonance is used to study the magnetic material in oriented Neocapritermes opacus (N.o.) termite, the only prey of the migratory ant Pachycondyla marginata (P.m.). A broad line in the g=2 region, associated to isolated nanoparticles shows that at least 97% of the magnetic material is in the termite's body (abdomen + thorax). From the temperature dependence of the resonant field and from the spectral linewidths, we estimate the existence of magnetic nanoparticles 18.5 ± 0.3 nm in diameter and an effective magnetic anisotropy constant, Keff between 2.1 and 3.2 × 10 4 erg/cm 3. A sudden change in the double integrated spectra at about 100 K for N.o. with the long body axis oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field can be attributed to the Verwey transition, and suggests an organized film-like particle system.

  8. Modulation of P-glycoprotein function and multidrug resistance in cancer cells by Thai plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Takano, M; Kakizoe, S; Kawami, M; Nagai, J; Patanasethnont, D; Sripanidkulchai, B; Yumoto, R

    2014-11-01

    The effects of ethanol extracts from Thai plants belonging to the families of Annonaceae, Rutaceae, and Zingiberaceae on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function and multidrug resistance were examined in paclitaxel-resistant HepG2 (PR-HepG2) cells. All the extracts tested, significantly increased the accumulation of [3H]paclitaxel, a P-gp substrate, in the cells. Among nine extracts, Z01 and Z02, extracts from Curcuma comosa and Kaempferia marginata (Zingiberaceae family), respectively, potently increased the accumulation. In addition, Z01 and Z02 increased the accumulation of other P-gp substrates, rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin, in PR-HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Increased accumulation of rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin by Z01 and Z02 was also confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The effect of Z01 and Z02 pretreatment on the expression of MDR1 mRNA was also examined. The expression of MDR1 mRNA was not affected by the treatment of PR-HepG2 cells with these extracts for 48 hours. Cytotoxicity of paclitaxel was examined by XTT and protein assays in the absence and presence of Z02. Z02 potentiated the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel in PR-HepG2 cells. These results suggest that Curcuma comosa and Kaempferia marginata belonging to Zingiberaceae are useful sources to search for new P-gp modulator(s) that can be used to overcome multidrug resistance of cancer cells. PMID:25985578

  9. A reappraisal of the vital effect in benthic foraminifera on Mg/Ca ratios: species specific uncertainty relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wit, J. C.; de Nooijer, L. J.; Barras, C.; Jorissen, F.; Reichart, G. J.

    2012-04-01

    The reconstruction of past temperatures is often achieved through measuring the Mg/Ca value of foraminiferal test carbonate. The diversity in foraminiferal Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations suggests that there is also a biological control on this proxy. This study presents a new Mg/Ca-temperature calibration for the benthic foraminifer Bulimina marginata, based on cultures under a range of temperatures (4-14 ° C). Measured Mg/Ca values for B. marginata correlate well with temperature (Mg/Ca = 1.10 ± 0.10e0.045 ± 0.009T, R2=0.28, p<0.01). The inter-individual variability is, however, also significant (standard deviation is 10-35 % of the average). Before applying this or any calibration, the effect of the inter-individual variability on the accuracy of the Mg/Ca-temperature calibration has to be evaluated. The inter-individual variability is quantified and split in three components, namely (1) an analytical error; (2) an environmental effect and (3) a vital effect. The effect of inter-individual variability on the accuracy of Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations is depending on the sensitivity of the used calibration and the number of individuals measured (Temperature uncertainty = (0.33 · N-0.50)/sensitivity). The less sensitive a calibration, the greater is the impact of inter-individual variability. This can partly be circumvented by measuring more individuals. Differences in sensitivity may depend on the stability of the environment in which the foraminifera live and the concurring ecological strategy. This study shows the link between inter-individual variability en sensitivity and their influence on the accuracy of Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations.

  10. Evidence for a new species of Cryptosporidium infecting tortoises: Cryptosporidium ducismarci

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis affects the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract of humans as well as of a wide range of companion, farm, laboratory and wild animals. In the past few years, three independent studies have provided strong evidence for the existence of a distinct Cryptosporidium species affecting tortoises and likely circulating in other reptile species as well. A new Cryptosporidium genotype was firstly detected and genetically characterized in a marginated tortoise in Italy in 2007 and named Cryptosporidium sp. ex Testudo marginata CrIT-20. The phylogenetic analysis of this isolate indicated that this Cryptosporidium was unique and belonged to the intestinal clade. These findings were later on confirmed by the detection of genetic homologies of isolates from a python and a chameleon from Spain and by recent research in the United States. The latter study presented both the occurrence of intestinal lesions in a pancake tortoise and a Russian tortoise and the genetic characterization of the isolates, together with the first pictures of the endogenous stages of Cryptosporidium CrIT-20. Phylogenetic inference based on the sequences representing small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (SSU) of these isolates confirmed the pathological findings because this Cryptosporidium was related to the intestinal group and supported previous results in T. marginata from Italy. The present scientific data on the Cryptosporidium CrIT-20 support its classification as a new species of Cryptosporidium causing intestinal diseases in tortoises. Although further morphological (i.e. exogenous stages) and biological aspects (i.e. complete host range) are yet to be elucidated, it is proposed that this Cryptosporidium is designated Cryptosporidium ducismarci. PMID:20338035

  11. Evaluation of anticoagulant activity of two algal polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Faggio, C; Pagano, M; Dottore, A; Genovese, G; Morabito, M

    2016-09-01

    Marine algae are important sources of phycocolloids like agar, carrageenans and alginates used in industrial applications. Algal polysaccharides have emerged as an important class of bioactive products showing interesting properties. The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential uses as anticoagulant drugs of algal sulphate polysaccharides extracted from Ulva fasciata (Chlorophyta) and Agardhiella subulata (Rhodophyta) collected in Ganzirri Lake (Cape Peloro Lagoon, north-eastern Sicily, Italy). Toxicity of algal extracts through trypan blue test and anticoagulant action measured by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) test has been evaluated. Algal extracts showed to prolong the PT and APTT during the coagulation cascade and to avoid the blood coagulation of samples. Furthermore, the algal extracts lack toxic effects towards cellular metabolism and their productions are relatively at low cost. This permits to consider the algae as the biological source of the future. PMID:26360806

  12. Association of macro- and microfossils in the Vendian (Ediacaran) postglacial successions in Western Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragozina, A. L.; Dorjnamjaa, D.; Serezhnikova, E. A.; Zaitseva, L. V.; Enkhbaatar, B.

    2016-05-01

    The Vendian (Ediacaran) beds of the Zavkhan Basin, in the upper part of the Tsagaanolom Formation (<632 ± 14 Ma), yielded a new "Zavkhan" association of algae, microfossils, and problematic organisms, which is established in the series of alternating chert-carbonate shale with phosphorite interbeds. This association is distinct in the predomination of large (250 μm and over) sphaeromorphic microfossils of the genera Tasmanites, Archaeooides, and Leiosphaeridia, whereas acanthomorph acritarchs are represented by rarely found Cavaspina sp. and Tanarium sp. Multicellular algae included fragments of encrusting or foliate thalli with pseudoparenchymatous structure of polygonal cells characteristic of Rhodophyta algae ( Thallophycoides sp.), and cordlike thalli of Vendotaenid algae Tyrasotaenia podolica. These layers of siltstone contain imprints of the problematic Vendian macrofossil Beltanelliformis brunsae. In their stratigraphic position, chemostratigraphic data, and fossil assemblage, the "Zavkhan" association can be assigned to the Upper Vendian.

  13. The leaves of green plants as well as a cyanobacterium, a red alga, and fungi contain insulin-like antigens.

    PubMed

    Silva, L B; Santos, S S S; Azevedo, C R; Cruz, M A L; Venâncio, T M; Cavalcante, C P; Uchôa, A F; Astolfi Filho, S; Oliveira, A E A; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J

    2002-03-01

    We report the detection of insulin-like antigens in a large range of species utilizing a modified ELISA plate assay and Western blotting. We tested the leaves or aerial parts of species of Rhodophyta (red alga), Bryophyta (mosses), Psilophyta (whisk ferns), Lycopodophyta (club mosses), Sphenopsida (horsetails), gymnosperms, and angiosperms, including monocots and dicots. We also studied species of fungi and a cyanobacterium, Spirulina maxima. The wide distribution of insulin-like antigens, which in some cases present the same electrophoretic mobility as bovine insulin, together with results recently published by us on the amino acid sequence of an insulin isolated from the seed coat of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and from the developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), suggests that pathways depending on this hormone have been conserved through evolution. PMID:11887207

  14. Preliminary observations on the benthic marine algae of the Gorringe seabank (northeast Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tittley, Ian; da Silva Vaz Álvaro, Nuno Miguel; de Melo Azevedo Neto, Ana Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Examination of marine samples collected in 2006 from the Gettysburg and Ormonde seamounts on the Gorringe seabank southwest of Portugal has revealed 29 benthic Chlorophyta, Phaeophyceae (Ochrophyta), and Rhodophyta that were identified provisionally to genus and to species. Combining lists for the present and a previous expedition brings the total of algae thus far recorded to 48. The brown alga Zonaria tournefourtii and the red alga Cryptopleura ramosa were the most abundant species in the present collections. The kelp Laminaria ochroleuca was present only in the Gettysburg samples while Saccorhiza polyschides was observed only on the Ormonde seamount. Comparisons with the benthic marine algae recorded on seamounts in the mid-Atlantic Azores archipelago show features in common, notably kelp forests of L. ochroleuca at depths below 30 m and Z. tournefortii dominance in shallower waters.

  15. Seaweed survival after consumption by the greenbeak parrotfish, Scarus trispinosus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tâmega, F. T. S.; Figueiredo, M. A. O.; Ferreira, C. E. L.; Bonaldo, R. M.

    2016-03-01

    We assessed the survival of seaweed (macroalgae and cyanobacteria) after consumption by the greenbeak parrotfish, Scarus trispinosus, in northeastern Brazil. Samples of S. trispinosus feces were collected, inoculated on filter paper, and kept in the laboratory and field for 60 and 30 d, respectively. Comparisons of samples inoculated with feces to those without (controls) revealed a marked increase in the abundance and diversity of seaweed in samples inoculated with feces in both laboratory and field experiments. These results were consistent between summer and winter, although the seaweed species differed. A total of one cyanobacterium and 16 macroalgal taxa (nine rhodophytes, five heterokontophytes, and two chlorophytes) were recorded in the inoculated samples. Rhodophyta also presented the highest abundance across treatments, possibly because of their higher resistance to parrotfish digestion, greater ingestion, or both. The survival of cyanobacteria and macroalgae after consumption by S. trispinosus suggests that parrotfishes may contribute to seaweed dispersion on tropical reefs.

  16. A vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase in the marine red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty displays clear substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Kamenarska, Zornitsa; Taniguchi, Tomokazu; Ohsawa, Noboru; Hiraoka, Masanori; Itoh, Nobuya

    2007-05-01

    Bromoperoxidase activity was initially detected in marine macroalgae belonging to the Solieriaceae family (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta), including Solieria robusta (Greville) Kylin, Eucheuma serra J. Agardh and Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty, which are important industrial sources of the polysaccharide carrageenan. Notably, the purification of bromoperoxidase was difficult because due to the coexistence of viscoid polysaccharides. The activity of the partially purified enzyme was dependent on the vanadate ion, and displayed a distinct substrate spectrum from that of previously reported vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidases of marine macroalgae. The enzyme was specific for Br- and I- ions and inactive toward F- and Cl-. The K(m) values for Br- and H2O2 were 2.5x10(-3) M and 8.5x10(-5) M, respectively. The halogenated product, dibromoacetaldehyde, that accumulated in K. alvarezii was additionally determined. PMID:17434548

  17. Gamma-rays induction of mutation in conchocelis of Porphyra yezoensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Su-Juan; Zheng, Yuan-Zhu; Ma, Ling-Bo; Xu, Pu; Zhu, Jian-Yi

    2000-03-01

    Free-living conchocelis of Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) were treated with60Co-γ rays of different doses (ranging from 100 Gy to 1000 Gy) to induce mutation. Most of the conchocelis maintained the capability of penetrating into shells, growing and forming colonies in shells, but their vitality was seriously impaired by the irradiation of γ-rays. A few conchocelis pigments were mutagenized directly into different color pigment mutants whose progeny-conchospores and foliose thalli had the same colors. However, some irradiated conchocelis did not show the change in color at the conchocelis stage. The pigment mutation could be observed only after the conchospores of these conchocelis had germinated into young foliose thalli. Irradiation of low dose (100 Gy) promoted the growth of thallus and many with altered morphology were observed. Conchospores of the irradiated conchocelis attached to the culture nets were cultured in the sea, and growth of these progenies was observed and measured.

  18. Gene Expression of Corals in Response to Macroalgal Competitors

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Tonya L.; Snell, Terry W.; Hay, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    As corals decline and macroalgae proliferate on coral reefs, coral-macroalgal competition becomes more frequent and ecologically important. Whether corals are damaged by these interactions depends on susceptibility of the coral and traits of macroalgal competitors. Investigating changes in gene expression of corals and their intracellular symbiotic algae, Symbiodinium, in response to contact with different macroalgae provides insight into the biological processes and cellular pathways affected by competition with macroalgae. We evaluated the gene expression profiles of coral and Symbiodinium genes from two confamilial corals, Acropora millepora and Montipora digitata, after 6 h and 48 h of contact with four common macroalgae that differ in their allelopathic potency to corals. Contacts with macroalgae affected different biological pathways in the more susceptible (A. millepora) versus the more resistant (M. digitata) coral. Genes of coral hosts and of their associated Symbiodinium also responded in species-specific and time-specific ways to each macroalga. Changes in number and expression intensity of affected genes were greater after 6 h compared to 48 h of contact and were greater following contact with Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Amphiroa crassa than following contact with Galaxaura filamentosa or Turbinaria conoides. We documented a divergence in transcriptional responses between two confamilial corals and their associated Symbiodinium, as well as a diversity of dynamic responses within each coral species with respect to the species of macroalgal competitor and the duration of exposure to that competitor. These responses included early initiation of immune processes by Montipora, which is more resistant to damage after long-term macroalgal contact. Activation of the immune response by corals that better resist algal competition is consistent with the hypothesis that some macroalgal effects on corals may be mediated by microbial pathogens. PMID:25500576

  19. Gene expression patterns of the coral Acropora millepora in response to contact with macroalgae

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, TL; Rasher, DB; Snell, TW; Hay, ME

    2013-01-01

    Contact with macroalgae often causes coral mortality, but the roles of abrasion versus shading versus allelopathy in these interactions are rarely clear and effects on gene expression are unknown. Identification of gene expression changes within corals in response to contact with macroalgae can provide insight into the mode of action of allelochemicals, as well as reveal transcriptional strategies of the coral that mitigate damage from this competitive interaction, enabling the coral to survive. Gene expression responses of the coral Acropora millepora after long-term (20 d) direct contact with macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata, Dictyota bartayresiana, Galaxaura filamentosa and Turbinaria conoides) and short-term (1 h and 24 h) exposure to C. fastigiata thalli and their hydrophobic extract were assessed. After 20 d of exposure, T. conoides thalli elicited no significant change in visual bleaching or zooxanthellae PSII quantum yield within A. millepora nubbins, but stimulated the greatest alteration in gene expression of all treatments. Chlorodesmis fastigiata, D. bartayresiana and G. filamentosa caused significant visual bleaching of coral nubbins and reduced the PSII quantum yield of associated zooxanthellae after 20 d, but elicited fewer changes in gene expression relative to T. conoides at day 20. To evaluate initial molecular processes leading to reduction of zooxanthella PSII quantum yield, visual bleaching, and coral death, short-term exposures to C. fastigiata thalli and hydrophobic extracts were conducted; these interactions revealed protein degradation and significant changes in catalytic and metabolic activity within 24 h of contact. These molecular responses are consistent with the hypothesis that allelopathic interactions lead to alteration of signal transduction and an imbalance between reactive oxidant species production and antioxidant capabilities within the coral holobiont. This oxidative imbalance results in rapid protein degradation and

  20. Plant defense associations in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littler, Mark M.; Taylor, Phillip R.; Littler, Diane S.

    1986-10-01

    In contrast to terrestrial systems, few positive plant-plant associations have been recorded in tropical reef environments. This study, conducted at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize during 28 March 10 April 1984, provides the first documentation of herbivore escapes for natural combinations of palatable and unpalatable marine plants. For example, there was a highly significant association of several macrophyte taxa ( Laurencia poitei, Dictyota spp., Amphiroa fragilissima, Cladophoropsis macromeres, Galaxaura cylindrica, rhodophycean turf) within a 2.0-cm radius of the herbivore-resistant brown alga Stypopodium zonale. Almost twice as many taxa occurred within 10 cm of S. zonale as within 10 cm of an equal number of random Stypopodium-free points, and there were no algal species negatively associated with S. zonale. The association of A. tribulus, L. poitei, Digenia simplex, rhodophycean turf, and Jania adherens with S. zonale provided them a fourfold greater survivorship per 48 h in the presence of grazing activity by fishes (mainly Acanthuridae and Scaridae). Reduced herbivory by fishes on macroalgae associated with S. zonale was not solely a consequence of its structural aspect. Losses of the palatable alga Acanthophora spicifera were significantly greater for thalli spatially remote (30 and 60 cm) from either a real or simulated Stypopodium; however, losses of A. spicifera adjacent to actual Stypopodium plants were significantly less than the losses next to models. The inter-relationships studied here, where an abundant and well-defended plant provides a significant refuge habitat for at least five relatively edible macroalgae, clearly facilitates the survival of certain taxa in the reef system and concomitantly enhances the within habitat diversity. Our findings also suggest an interaction counter to the process of competitive exclusion, since the single predominant plant has a positive rather than negative net effect on the abundances of other species that utilize the

  1. Among-habitat algal selectivity by browsing herbivores on an inshore coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loffler, Zoe; Bellwood, David R.; Hoey, Andrew S.

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how the impact of different herbivores varies spatially on coral reefs is important in qualifying the resistance of coral reefs to disturbance events and identifying the processes that structure algal communities. We used assays of six common macroalgae ( Acanthophora spicifera, Caulerpa taxifolia, Galaxaura rugosa, Laurencia sp. Sargassum sp., and Turbinaria ornata) and remote underwater video cameras to quantify herbivory in two habitats (reef crest and slope) across multiple sites on Orpheus Island, Great Barrier Reef. Rates of herbivory varied among macroalgal taxa, habitats, and sites. Reductions in algal biomass were greatest for Sargassum sp. (36 % 4 h-1), intermediate for A. spicifera, Laurencia sp., C. taxifolia, and T. ornata (17-33 % 4 h-1) and lowest for G. rugosa (6 % 4 h-1). Overall, rates of herbivory were generally greater on the reef crest (30 % 4 h-1) than the reef slope (21 % 4 h-1). This difference in rates of herbivory coincided with a marked shift in the dominant herbivores between habitats. Kyphosus vaigiensis, despite only feeding on three species of macroalgae ( Sargassum sp., T. ornata, and A. spicifera), was responsible for 34 % of all bites recorded on the reef crest yet did not take a single bite from algae on the reef slope. In contrast, Siganus doliatus took bites on every species of algae in both habitats, accounting for 40 % of bites on the reef crest and 74 % of all bites recorded on the reef slope. This difference in the number of macroalgal species targeted by herbivores and the habitat/s in which they feed adds another dimension of complexity to our understanding of coral reef herbivore dynamics.

  2. Macroalgal terpenes function as allelopathic agents against reef corals

    PubMed Central

    Rasher, Douglas B.; Stout, E. Paige; Engel, Sebastian; Kubanek, Julia; Hay, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    During recent decades, many tropical reefs have transitioned from coral to macroalgal dominance. These community shifts increase the frequency of algal–coral interactions and may suppress coral recovery following both anthropogenic and natural disturbance. However, the extent to which macroalgae damage corals directly, the mechanisms involved, and the species specificity of algal–coral interactions remain uncertain. Here, we conducted field experiments demonstrating that numerous macroalgae directly damage corals by transfer of hydrophobic allelochemicals present on algal surfaces. These hydrophobic compounds caused bleaching, decreased photosynthesis, and occasionally death of corals in 79% of the 24 interactions assayed (three corals and eight algae). Coral damage generally was limited to sites of algal contact, but algae were unaffected by contact with corals. Artificial mimics for shading and abrasion produced no impact on corals, and effects of hydrophobic surface extracts from macroalgae paralleled effects of whole algae; both findings suggest that local effects are generated by allelochemical rather than physical mechanisms. Rankings of macroalgae from most to least allelopathic were similar across the three coral genera tested. However, corals varied markedly in susceptibility to allelopathic algae, with globally declining corals such as Acropora more strongly affected. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from two allelopathic algae led to identification of two loliolide derivatives from the red alga Galaxaura filamentosa and two acetylated diterpenes from the green alga Chlorodesmis fastigiata as potent allelochemicals. Our results highlight a newly demonstrated but potentially widespread competitive mechanism to help explain the lack of coral recovery on many present-day reefs. PMID:22006333

  3. Gene expression patterns of the coral Acropora millepora in response to contact with macroalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, T. L.; Rasher, D. B.; Snell, T. W.; Hay, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Contact with macroalgae often causes coral mortality, but the roles of abrasion versus shading versus allelopathy in these interactions are rarely clear, and effects on gene expression are unknown. Identification of gene expression changes within corals in response to contact with macroalgae can provide insight into the mode of action of allelochemicals, as well as reveal transcriptional strategies of the coral that mitigate damage from this competitive interaction, enabling the coral to survive. Gene expression responses of the coral Acropora millepora after long-term (20 days) direct contact with macroalgae ( Chlorodesmis fastigiata, Dictyota bartayresiana, Galaxaura filamentosa, and Turbinaria conoides) and short-term (1 and 24 h) exposure to C. fastigiata thalli and their hydrophobic extract were assessed. After 20 days of exposure, T. conoides thalli elicited no significant change in visual bleaching or zooxanthellae PSII quantum yield within A. millepora nubbins, but stimulated the greatest alteration in gene expression of all treatments. Chlorodesmis fastigiata, D. bartayresiana, and G. filamentosa caused significant visual bleaching of coral nubbins and reduced the PSII quantum yield of associated zooxanthellae after 20 days, but elicited fewer changes in gene expression relative to T. conoides at day 20. To evaluate initial molecular processes leading to reduction of zooxanthella PSII quantum yield, visual bleaching, and coral death, short-term exposures to C. fastigiata thalli and hydrophobic extracts were conducted; these interactions revealed protein degradation and significant changes in catalytic and metabolic activity within 24 h of contact. These molecular responses are consistent with the hypothesis that allelopathic interactions lead to alteration of signal transduction and an imbalance between reactive oxidant species production and antioxidant capabilities within the coral holobiont. This oxidative imbalance results in rapid protein degradation

  4. Gene expression of corals in response to macroalgal competitors.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Tonya L; Snell, Terry W; Hay, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    As corals decline and macroalgae proliferate on coral reefs, coral-macroalgal competition becomes more frequent and ecologically important. Whether corals are damaged by these interactions depends on susceptibility of the coral and traits of macroalgal competitors. Investigating changes in gene expression of corals and their intracellular symbiotic algae, Symbiodinium, in response to contact with different macroalgae provides insight into the biological processes and cellular pathways affected by competition with macroalgae. We evaluated the gene expression profiles of coral and Symbiodinium genes from two confamilial corals, Acropora millepora and Montipora digitata, after 6 h and 48 h of contact with four common macroalgae that differ in their allelopathic potency to corals. Contacts with macroalgae affected different biological pathways in the more susceptible (A. millepora) versus the more resistant (M. digitata) coral. Genes of coral hosts and of their associated Symbiodinium also responded in species-specific and time-specific ways to each macroalga. Changes in number and expression intensity of affected genes were greater after 6 h compared to 48 h of contact and were greater following contact with Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Amphiroa crassa than following contact with Galaxaura filamentosa or Turbinaria conoides. We documented a divergence in transcriptional responses between two confamilial corals and their associated Symbiodinium, as well as a diversity of dynamic responses within each coral species with respect to the species of macroalgal competitor and the duration of exposure to that competitor. These responses included early initiation of immune processes by Montipora, which is more resistant to damage after long-term macroalgal contact. Activation of the immune response by corals that better resist algal competition is consistent with the hypothesis that some macroalgal effects on corals may be mediated by microbial pathogens. PMID:25500576

  5. Functional Traits for Carbon Access in Macrophytes

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Catherine A.; Wootton, J. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding functional trait distributions among organisms can inform impacts on and responses to environmental change. In marine systems, only 1% of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater exists as CO2. Thus the majority of marine macrophytes not only passively access CO2 for photosynthesis, but also actively transport CO2 and the more common bicarbonate (HCO3-, 92% of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon) into their cells. Because species with these carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are non-randomly distributed in ecosystems, we ask whether there is a phylogenetic pattern to the distribution of CCMs among algal species. To determine macrophyte traits that influence carbon uptake, we assessed 40 common macrophyte species from the rocky intertidal community of the Northeast Pacific Ocean to a) query whether macrophytes have a CCM and b) determine the evolutionary history of CCMs, using ancestral state reconstructions and stochastic character mapping based on previously published data. Thirty-two species not only depleted CO2, but also concentrated and depleted HCO3-, indicative of a CCM. While analysis of CCMs as a continuous trait in 30 families within Phylum Rhodophyta showed a significant phylogenetic signal under a Brownian motion model, analysis of CCMs as a discrete trait (presence or absence) indicated that red algal families are more divergent than expected in their CCM presence or absence; CCMs are a labile trait within the Rhodophyta. In contrast, CCMs were present in each of 18 Ochrophyta families surveyed, indicating that CCMs are highly conserved in the brown algae. The trait of CCM presence or absence was largely conserved within Families. Fifteen of 23 species tested also changed the seawater buffering capacity, or Total Alkalinity (TA), shifting DIC composition towards increasing concentrations of HCO3- and CO2 for photosynthesis. Manipulating the external TA of the local environment may influence carbon availability in boundary layers and

  6. Functional Traits for Carbon Access in Macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Courtney C; Pfister, Catherine A; Wootton, J Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding functional trait distributions among organisms can inform impacts on and responses to environmental change. In marine systems, only 1% of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater exists as CO2. Thus the majority of marine macrophytes not only passively access CO2 for photosynthesis, but also actively transport CO2 and the more common bicarbonate (HCO3-, 92% of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon) into their cells. Because species with these carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are non-randomly distributed in ecosystems, we ask whether there is a phylogenetic pattern to the distribution of CCMs among algal species. To determine macrophyte traits that influence carbon uptake, we assessed 40 common macrophyte species from the rocky intertidal community of the Northeast Pacific Ocean to a) query whether macrophytes have a CCM and b) determine the evolutionary history of CCMs, using ancestral state reconstructions and stochastic character mapping based on previously published data. Thirty-two species not only depleted CO2, but also concentrated and depleted HCO3-, indicative of a CCM. While analysis of CCMs as a continuous trait in 30 families within Phylum Rhodophyta showed a significant phylogenetic signal under a Brownian motion model, analysis of CCMs as a discrete trait (presence or absence) indicated that red algal families are more divergent than expected in their CCM presence or absence; CCMs are a labile trait within the Rhodophyta. In contrast, CCMs were present in each of 18 Ochrophyta families surveyed, indicating that CCMs are highly conserved in the brown algae. The trait of CCM presence or absence was largely conserved within Families. Fifteen of 23 species tested also changed the seawater buffering capacity, or Total Alkalinity (TA), shifting DIC composition towards increasing concentrations of HCO3- and CO2 for photosynthesis. Manipulating the external TA of the local environment may influence carbon availability in boundary layers and

  7. Coral and macroalgal exudates vary in neutral sugar composition and differentially enrich reef bacterioplankton lineages

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Craig E; Goldberg, Stuart J; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Haas, Andreas F; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest; Carlson, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    Increasing algal cover on tropical reefs worldwide may be maintained through feedbacks whereby algae outcompete coral by altering microbial activity. We hypothesized that algae and coral release compositionally distinct exudates that differentially alter bacterioplankton growth and community structure. We collected exudates from the dominant hermatypic coral holobiont Porites spp. and three dominant macroalgae (one each Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta) from reefs of Mo'orea, French Polynesia. We characterized exudates by measuring dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fractional dissolved combined neutral sugars (DCNSs) and subsequently tracked bacterioplankton responses to each exudate over 48 h, assessing cellular growth, DOC/DCNS utilization and changes in taxonomic composition (via 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing). Fleshy macroalgal exudates were enriched in the DCNS components fucose (Ochrophyta) and galactose (Rhodophyta); coral and calcareous algal exudates were enriched in total DCNS but in the same component proportions as ambient seawater. Rates of bacterioplankton growth and DOC utilization were significantly higher in algal exudate treatments than in coral exudate and control incubations with each community selectively removing different DCNS components. Coral exudates engendered the smallest shift in overall bacterioplankton community structure, maintained high diversity and enriched taxa from Alphaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured representatives with relatively few virulence factors (VFs) (Hyphomonadaceae and Erythrobacteraceae). In contrast, macroalgal exudates selected for less diverse communities heavily enriched in copiotrophic Gammaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured pathogens with increased VFs (Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae). Our results demonstrate that algal exudates are enriched in DCNS components, foster rapid growth of bacterioplankton and select for bacterial populations with more potential VFs than

  8. Biodiversity patterns of macrophyte and macroinvertebrate communities in two lagoons of Western Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyttis, G.; Reizopoulou, S.; Papastergiadou, E.

    2012-04-01

    Aquatic macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates were studied seasonally (Spring, Autumn, Summer) between the years 2009 - 2011 in two coastal lagoons (Kotychi and Prokopos) located in Peloponnese, Greece, in order to investigate spatial and temporal biodiversity trends related to hydrological processes (degree of confinement, nitrates, phosphates, chl-a, total suspended materials, light irradiance, pH, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen). Kotychi lagoon presents a better communication with the sea, while Prokopos has a high degree of confinement. Both ecosystems seasonally receive freshwater input from streams. The submerged aquatic macrophytes constituted a major component of the ecosystems studied. In total, 22 taxa of aquatic macrophytes (angiosperms and macroalgae), 16 taxa for Kotychi (2 Rhodophyta, 8 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 1 Streptophyta) and 14 taxa for Prokopos (1 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 3 Streptophyta) were found. Ruppia cirrhosa, and Potamogeton pectinatus were dominant in both lagoons. Kotychi lagoon was also dominated by Zostera noltii and Prokopos by Zannichellia pallustris ssp. pedicellata, while the biomass of aquatic species peaked during the summer periods, in both lagoons. The total number of macroinvertebrates found in the lagoons was 28 taxa for Kotychi and 19 for Prokopos. Chironomidae were dominant in both lagoons, while Kotychi was also dominated by Lekanesphaera monodi and Monocorophium insidiosum, and Prokopos by Ostracoda and Lekanesphaera monodi. Benthic diversity ranged from 1.33 to 2.57 in Kotychi and from 0.67 to 2.48 in Prokopos. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates were strongly related to aquatic vegetation and to the degree of communication with the marine environment. Moreover, species richness and abundance of both macrophytes and macroinvertebrates were mainly dependent on depth, temperature, pH and concentration of total suspended materials (TSM). Results

  9. Please mind the gap - Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Pearman, John K; Anlauf, Holger; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana

    2016-07-01

    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106-500 μm and 500-2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p < 0.001); revealing that Annelida were generally the dominant phyla (in terms of reads) of all fractions and reefs. Furthermore, metabarcoding detected microbial eukaryotic groups such as Syndiniophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae as relevant components of the sessile fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but

  10. Ecophysiology of photosynthesis in macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Hurd, Catriona L

    2012-09-01

    Macroalgae occur in the marine benthos from the upper intertidal to depths of more than 200 m, contributing up to 1 Pg C per year to global primary productivity. Freshwater macroalgae are mainly green (Chlorophyta) with some red (Rhodophyta) and a small contribution of brown (Phaeophyceae) algae, while in the ocean all three higher taxa are important. Attempts to relate the depth distribution of three higher taxa of marine macroalgae to their photosynthetic light use through their pigmentation in relation to variations in spectral quality of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) with depth (complementary chromatic adaptation) and optical thickness (package effect) have been relatively unsuccessful. The presence (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyceae) or absence (Rhodophyta) of a xanthophyll cycle is also not well correlated with depth distribution of marine algae. The relative absence of freshwater brown algae does not seem to be related to their photosynthetic light use. Photosynthetic inorganic carbon acquisition in some red and a few green macroalgae involves entry of CO(2) by diffusion. Other red and green macroalgae, and brown macroalgae, have CO(2) concentrating mechanisms; these frequently involve acid and alkaline zones on the surface of the alga with CO(2) (produced from HCO(3) (-)) entering in the acid zones, while some macroalgae have CCMs based on active influx of HCO(3) (-). These various mechanisms of carbon acquisition have different responses to the thickness of the diffusion boundary layer, which is determined by macroalgal morphology and water velocity. Energetic predictions that macroalgae growing at or near the lower limit of PAR for growth should rely on diffusive CO(2) entry without acid and alkaline zones, and on NH(4) (+) rather than NO(3) (-) as nitrogen source, are only partially borne out by observation. The impact of global environmental change on marine macroalgae mainly relates to ocean acidification and warming with shoaling of the

  11. Reptile freeze tolerance: metabolism and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Storey, Kenneth B

    2006-02-01

    Terrestrially hibernating reptiles that live in seasonally cold climates need effective strategies of cold hardiness to survive the winter. Use of thermally buffered hibernacula is very important but when exposure to temperatures below 0 degrees C cannot be avoided, either freeze avoidance (supercooling) or freeze tolerance strategies can be employed, sometimes by the same species depending on environmental conditions. Several reptile species display ecologically relevant freeze tolerance, surviving for extended times with 50% or more of their total body water frozen. The use of colligative cryoprotectants by reptiles is poorly developed but metabolic and enzymatic adaptations providing anoxia tolerance and antioxidant defense are important aids to freezing survival. New studies using DNA array screening are examining the role of freeze-responsive gene expression. Three categories of freeze responsive genes have been identified from recent screenings of liver and heart from freeze-exposed (5h post-nucleation at -2.5 degrees C) hatchling painted turtles, Chrysemys picta marginata. These genes encode (a) proteins involved in iron binding, (b) enzymes of antioxidant defense, and (c) serine protease inhibitors. The same genes were up-regulated by anoxia exposure (4 h of N2 gas exposure at 5 degrees C) of the hatchlings which suggests that these defenses for freeze tolerance are aimed at counteracting the injurious effects of the ischemia imposed by plasma freezing. PMID:16321368

  12. Shallow water heterobranch sea slugs (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Araya, Juan Francisco; Valdés, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The coast of northern Chile has been sparsely studied in regards to its invertebrate fauna, with just a few works reviewing the distribution of local mollusks. This work presents a survey of the shallow water heterobranch sea slugs currently occurring around the port of Caldera (27 °S), in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile. Eight species of sea slugs were found in this study: Aplysiopsis cf. brattstroemi (Marcus, 1959), Baptodoris peruviana (d'Orbigny, 1837), Diaulula variolata (d'Orbigny, 1837), Doris fontainii d'Orbigny, 1837, Onchidella marginata (Couthouy in Gould, 1852), Phidiana lottini (Lesson, 1831), Tyrinna delicata (Abraham, 1877) and the new species Berthella schroedli sp. nov., described herein. All of the species found in the area are endemic to South America, having distributions in the southeastern Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans, from Ancash, Perú to Peninsula Valdés, Argentina, and two of them represent species which are endemic to the Chilean coasts (Aplysiopsis cf. brattstroemi and Berthella schroedli). The finding of a previously undescribed species emphasizes the need of further surveys, particularly in subtidal and deeper waters, in order to improve the knowledge on this neglected fauna in Atacama. PMID:27168975

  13. No millipede endemics north of the Alps? DNA-Barcoding reveals Glomeris malmivaga Verhoeff, 1912 as a synonym of G. ornata Koch, 1847 (Diplopoda, Glomerida, Glomeridae).

    PubMed

    Wesener, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the status of the only species of pill millipede (Glomerida) endemic to Germany, Glomeris malmivaga Verhoeff, 1912, a DNA barcoding study based on the COI mitochondrial gene was conducted. Sequences of G. malmivaga were compared to those of G. ornata Koch, 1847 from Slovenia, of which the former was previously described as a variety of the latter before being elevated to subspecies- and, recently, species-rank. Included in the analysis were specimens of G. helvetica Verhoeff, 1894, also originally described as a variety of G. ornata, which was supposed to be closely related to G. malmivaga based on its morphology, as well as geographical proximity of occurrence. Additionally, G. valesiaca Rothenbühler, 1899, which occurs in sympatry and looks quite similar to G. helvetica was also sequenced for the first time and included in the study. Sequences of four widespread Glomeris species, all occurring in close proximity to G. malmivaga, G. marginata Villers, 1789, G. connexa Koch, 1847, G. klugii Brandt, 1833 and G. intermedia Latzel, 1884 were downloaded from Genbank and incorporated in the analysis. While G. helvetica and G. valesiaca were found to be clearly separate from G. ornata (11.8-14.6% p-distance), G. malmivaga is almost identical to the latter (0.5% p-distance), despite the large geographical distance between both species. Because of their great morphological and genetical similarity, G. malmivaga n. syn. is synonymised under G. ornata. PMID:26623596

  14. Phlorotannins from Alaskan Seaweed Inhibit Carbolytic Enzyme Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kellogg, Joshua; Grace, Mary H.; Lila, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Global incidence of type 2 diabetes has escalated over the past few decades, necessitating a continued search for natural sources of enzyme inhibitors to offset postprandial hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate coastal Alaskan seaweed inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, two carbolytic enzymes involved in serum glucose regulation. Of the six species initially screened, the brown seaweeds Fucus distichus and Alaria marginata possessed the strongest inhibitory effects. F. distichus fractions were potent mixed-mode inhibitors of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, with IC50 values of 0.89 and 13.9 μg/mL, respectively; significantly more efficacious than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 of 112.0 and 137.8 μg/mL, respectively). The activity of F. distichus fractions was associated with phlorotannin oligomers. Normal-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (NPLC-MS) was employed to characterize individual oligomers. Accurate masses and fragmentation patterns confirmed the presence of fucophloroethol structures with degrees of polymerization from 3 to 18 monomer units. These findings suggest that coastal Alaskan seaweeds are sources of α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory phlorotannins, and thus have potential to limit the release of sugar from carbohydrates and thus alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:25341030

  15. Interrogating an insect society

    PubMed Central

    Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2009-01-01

    Insect societies such as those of ants, bees, and wasps consist of 1 or a small number of fertile queens and a large number of sterile or nearly sterile workers. While the queens engage in laying eggs, workers perform all other tasks such as nest building, acquisition and processing of food, and brood care. How do such societies function in a coordinated and efficient manner? What are the rules that individuals follow? How are these rules made and enforced? These questions are of obvious interest to us as fellow social animals but how do we interrogate an insect society and seek answers to these questions? In this article I will describe my research that was designed to seek answers from an insect society to a series of questions of obvious interest to us. I have chosen the Indian paper wasp Ropalidia marginata for this purpose, a species that is abundantly distributed in peninsular India and serves as an excellent model system. An important feature of this species is that queens and workers are morphologically identical and physiologically nearly so. How then does an individual become a queen? How does the queen suppress worker reproduction? How does the queen regulate the nonreproductive activities of the workers? What is the function of aggression shown by different individuals? How and when is the queen's heir decided? I will show how such questions can indeed be investigated and will emphasize the need for a whole range of different techniques of observation and experimentation. PMID:19487678

  16. Ovarian development in a primitively eusocial wasp: social interactions affect behaviorally dominant and subordinate wasps in opposite directions relative to solitary females.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shantanu; Pareek, Vidhi; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2014-07-01

    In many primitively eusocial wasp species new nests are founded either by a single female or by a small group of females. In the single foundress nests, the lone female develops her ovaries, lays eggs as well as tends her brood. In multiple foundress nests social interactions, especially dominance-subordinate interactions, result in only one 'dominant' female developing her ovaries and laying eggs. Ovaries of the remaining 'subordinate' cofoundresses remain suppressed and these individuals function as workers and tend the dominant's brood. Using the tropical, primitively eusocial polistine wasp Ropalidia marginata and by comparing wasps held in isolation and those kept as pairs in the laboratory, we demonstrate that social interactions affect ovarian development of dominant and subordinate wasps among the pairs in opposite directions, suppressing the ovaries of the subordinate member of the pair below that of solitary wasps and boosting the ovaries of dominant member of the pair above that of solitary females. In addition to being of physiological interest, such mirror image effects of aggression on the ovaries of the aggressors and their victims, suggest yet another mechanism by which subordinates can enhance their indirect fitness and facilitate the evolution of worker behavior by kin selection. PMID:24747068

  17. Shallow water heterobranch sea slugs (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The coast of northern Chile has been sparsely studied in regards to its invertebrate fauna, with just a few works reviewing the distribution of local mollusks. This work presents a survey of the shallow water heterobranch sea slugs currently occurring around the port of Caldera (27 °S), in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile. Eight species of sea slugs were found in this study: Aplysiopsis cf. brattstroemi (Marcus, 1959), Baptodoris peruviana (d’Orbigny, 1837), Diaulula variolata (d’Orbigny, 1837), Doris fontainii d’Orbigny, 1837, Onchidella marginata (Couthouy in Gould, 1852), Phidiana lottini (Lesson, 1831), Tyrinna delicata (Abraham, 1877) and the new species Berthella schroedli sp. nov., described herein. All of the species found in the area are endemic to South America, having distributions in the southeastern Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans, from Ancash, Perú to Peninsula Valdés, Argentina, and two of them represent species which are endemic to the Chilean coasts (Aplysiopsis cf. brattstroemi and Berthella schroedli). The finding of a previously undescribed species emphasizes the need of further surveys, particularly in subtidal and deeper waters, in order to improve the knowledge on this neglected fauna in Atacama. PMID:27168975

  18. Living benthic foraminiferal species as indicators of cold-warm water masses interaction and upwelling areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, Patrícia P. B.; Pimenta, Felipe M.; Eichler, Beatriz B.; Vital, Helenice

    2016-03-01

    The western South Atlantic continental margin, between 27° and 37°S, is dominated by four main water masses: cold-fresh Subantarctic Shelf Water (SASW), warm-salty Subtropical Shelf Water (STSW), cold upwelled South Atlantic Central Water (SACW), and fresh Plata Plume Water (PPW). Despite the large seasonal variability of PPW extension along the shelf, an intense and relatively stable temperature-salinity gradient separates the SASW and the STSW forming the Subtropical Shelf Front (STSF) around 32°S. The two dominant shelf water masses (SASW and STSW) arise from the process of mixing of oceanic waters. The SASW originates from the dilution of Subantarctic Water due to excess precipitation and continental runoff, and the STSW consists of modified warm tropical waters and South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) diluted below PPW. A previous article demonstrates distribution of Bulimina marginata, a shelf environment and deep-sea species of benthic foraminifera, is influenced by the front location and it can be used as a proxy of the STSF in sediment core analysis. Here we show three other infaunal living species inhabiting at the Continental margin: Buccella peruviana, Globocassidulina subglobosa and Uvigerina peregrina and their distribution limits show the interaction of Subantartic Shelf Water, Subtropical Shelf Water, and upwelling of SACW, in the bottom sediment of coastal studied areas.

  19. Taxonomic notes on the genus Baetiella Uéno from China, with the descriptions of three new species (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Weifang; Tong, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Nine Baetiella species, including three new species, are reported from China. Baetiella lanpingensis n. sp. is diagnosed by the 2nd segment of labial palpus without inner-apical lobe, the posteromedian margin of terga I-VI each with a single protuberance, posterior margin of sterna V-IX each with a row of continuous long spatulate setae and median caudal filament with only one segment. Baetiella sexta n. sp. is characterized by the 2nd segment of labial palpus bearing an inner-apical lobe, the posteromedian margins of terga I-VI each with a single protuberance, posterior margins of sterna I-VII smooth and median caudal filament with 3-5 segments. Baetiella spathae n. sp. is distinguished from its congeners by the terminal segment of labial palpus asymmetric coniform, the posteromedian margin of terga I-IX each with a single protuberance and posterior margin of sterna V-IX each with a row of long spatulate setae. Additionally, B. macani (Müller-Liebenau, 1985) is removed from the synonymy with B. bispinosa (Gose, 1980) and considered as a valid species. B. marginata Braasch, 1983 is recorded for the first time from China. A key to fourteen species of Baetiella known from mature nymphal stages in the world is provided. PMID:26623875

  20. Looking for long-term changes in hydroid assemblages (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in Alboran Sea (South-Western Mediterranean): a proposal of a monitoring point for the global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Duarte, Manuel María; Megina, Cesar; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    In the last 20-30 years, the temperature of the Mediterranean Sea has increased and global warming is allowing the establishment of tropical-affinity species into more temperate zones. Sessile communities are particularly useful as a baseline for ecological monitoring; however, a lack of historical data series exists for sessile marine organisms without commercial interest. Hydroids are ubiquitous components of the benthic sessile fauna on rocky shores and have been used as bio-indicators of environmental conditions. In this study on the benthic hydroid assemblages of the Chafarinas Islands (Alboran Sea, South-Western Mediterranean), we characterized the hydroid assemblages, identified the bathymetric gradients, and compared them with a previous study carried out in 1991. Hydroid assemblages showed a significant difference both between year and among depths. Furthermore, eight species not present in 1991 were found, including two possible new species and the tropical and subtropical species Sertularia marginata. Due to its strategic position at the entrance of the Mediterranean and the existence of previous data on hydroid assemblages, the Chafarinas Islands are proposed as a possible monitoring point for entrance of Atlantic tropical species into the Mediterranean Sea.

  1. Induced remanent magnetization of social insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wajnberg, E.; Cernicchiaro, G.; Acosta-Avalos, D.; El-Jaick, L. J.; Esquivel, D. M. S.

    2001-05-01

    The induced remanent magnetization (IRM) of honeybees Apis mellifera and ants as Pachycondyla marginata, a migratory species, and Solenopsis sp., a fire ant, was obtained using a SQUID magnetometer from 10 to 300 K. An anomalous sharp change of the remanent magnetization is observed at 67±0.2 K for migratory ants. The IRM at room temperature indicates the presence of at least 10 times lower concentration of magnetic material in the whole fire ant as compared to the migratory ant abdomen (0.22±0.33×10 -6 emu/ant, and 2.8±1.2×10 -6 emu/abdomen, respectively). Our results in honeybee abdomen (4.6±0.9×10 -6 emu/abdomen) agree with other reported values. IRM at room temperature in ants and honeybees indicates the presence of single domain (SD) or aggregates of magnetite nanoparticles. The loss of remanence from 77 to 300 K can be related to the stable-superparamagnetic (SPM) transition of small particles (less than ca. 30 nm). From these values and considering their estimated volumes an upper limit 10 10 SPM and 10 9 SD or aggregate particles are obtained in these insects.

  2. Chemical and in vitro assessment of Alaskan coastal vegetation antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Joshua; Lila, Mary Ann

    2013-11-20

    Alaska Native (AN) communities have utilized tidal plants and marine seaweeds as food and medicine for generations, yet the bioactive potential of these resources has not been widely examined. This study screened six species of Alaskan seaweed ( Fucus distichus , Saccharina latissima , Saccharina groenlandica , Alaria marginata , Pyropia fallax , and Ulva lactuca ) and one tidal plant ( Plantago maritima ) for antioxidant activity. Total polyphenolic content (TPC) was determined, and chemical antioxidant capacity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelating, and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition assays. In vitro inhibition of radical oxygen species (ROS) generation and NO synthesis was evaluated in a RAW 264.7 macrophage culture. Greatest TPC (557.2 μg phloroglucinol equivalents (PGE)/mg extract) was discovered in the ethyl acetate fraction of F. distichus, and highest DDPH scavenging activity was exhibited by F. distichus and S. groenlandica fractions (IC50 = 4.29-5.12 μg/mL). These results support the potential of Alaskan coastal vegetation, especially the brown algae, as natural sources of antioxidants for preventing oxidative degeneration and maintaining human health. PMID:24147955

  3. Non-indolyl cruciferous phytoalexins: Nasturlexins and tridentatols, a striking convergent evolution of defenses in terrestrial plants and marine animals?

    PubMed

    Pedras, M Soledade C; To, Q Huy

    2015-05-01

    Highly specialized chemical defense pathways are a particularly noteworthy metabolic characteristic of sessile organisms, whether terrestrial or marine, providing protection against pests and diseases. For this reason, knowledge of the metabolites involved in these processes is crucial to producing ecologically fit crops. Toward this end, the elicited chemical defenses of the crucifer watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), i.e. phytoalexins, were investigated and are reported. Almost three decades after publication of cruciferous phytoalexins derived from (S)-Trp, phytoalexins derived from other aromatic amino acids were isolated; their chemical structures were determined by analyses of their spectroscopic data and confirmed by synthesis. Nasturlexin A, nasturlexin B, and tridentatol C are hitherto unknown phenyl containing cruciferous phytoalexins produced by watercress under abiotic stress; tridentatol C is also produced by a marine animal (Tridentata marginata), where it functions in chemical defense against predators. The biosynthesis of these metabolites in both a terrestrial plant and a marine animal suggests a convergent evolution of unique metabolic pathways recruited for defense. PMID:25152450

  4. Effective use of high CO₂ efflux at the soil surface in a tropical understory plant.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Atsushi; Nakano, Takashi; Adachi, Minaco; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Osada, Noriyuki; Ladpala, Phanumard; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Puangchit, Ladawan; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Many terrestrial plants are C3 plants that evolved in the Mesozoic Era when atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) were high. Given current conditions, C3 plants can no longer benefit from high ambient [CO2]. Kaempferia marginata Carey is a unique understory ginger plant in the tropical dry forests of Thailand. The plant has two large flat leaves that spread on the soil surface. We found a large difference in [CO2] between the partly closed space between the soil surface and the leaves (638 µmol mol(-1)) and the atmosphere at 20 cm above ground level (412 µmol mol(-1)). This finding indicates that the plants capture CO2 efflux from the soil. Almost all of the stomata are located on the abaxial leaf surface. When ambient air [CO2] was experimentally increased from 400 to 600 μmol mol(-1), net photosynthetic rates increased by 45 to 48% under near light-saturated conditions. No significant increase was observed under low light conditions. These data demonstrate that the unique leaf structure enhances carbon gain by trapping soil CO2 efflux at stomatal sites under relatively high light conditions, suggesting that ambient air [CO2] can serve as an important selective agent for terrestrial C3 plants. PMID:25758763

  5. [Presence, abundance and reproductive strategies of ferns in disturbed areas of Sierra Nevada, México].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Romero, Ma Lucía; Zavala Hurtado, José Alejandro; Pacheco, Leticia

    2011-03-01

    Diverse reproductive strategies shown by ferns and lycophytes allow them to colonize a variety of habitats, particularly after the incidence of natural or anthropogenic disturbances. This study assessed the presence, abundance and reproductive strategies of ferns growing in soils of temperate forests with different levels of disturbance at the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the State of Mexico. Vegetation, soil and environmental variables were recorded in 200 m2 permanent plots located in four forest stands. One-Way ANOVA and Canonical Correspondence Analysis resulted in the recognition of three landscape types defined by the degree of environmental alteration: low, moderate and severe. Also, from five soil samples collected in each stand, germination of ferns and lycophytes was induced. A positive relationship was found between the alteration degree and Cheilanthes abundance. Under a low landscape alteration regime, species richness is restricted to Cheilanthes bonariensis, C. marginata and Pellaea ternifolia subsp. ternifolia. The soil is a reservoir of spores of Cheilanthes and Pellaea ternifolia subsp. ternifolia because their spores can remain viable for different time intervals. Apogamy is the usual reproductive strategy of Cheilanthes species in disturbed ecosystems, although these species also show sexual reproduction in natural ecosystems with adequate water availability. Apogamy may be related to a shorter generation time in comparison with a low disturbed ecosystem. On the other hand, Pellaea ternifolia subsp. ternifolia only has sexual reproduction. Apogamy might be related to a faster generation in comparison with a low disturbed ecosystem. PMID:21516659

  6. New gammaproteobacteria associated with blood-feeding leeches and a broad phylogenetic analysis of leech endosymbionts.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Susan L; Budinoff, Rebecca B; Siddall, Mark E

    2005-09-01

    Many monophagous animals have coevolutionary relationships with bacteria that provide unavailable nutrients to the host. Frequently, these microbial partners are vertically inherited and reside in specialized structures or tissues. Here we report three new lineages of bacterial symbionts of blood-feeding leeches, one from the giant Amazonian leech, Haementeria ghilianii, and two others from Placobdelloides species. These hosts each possess a different mycetome or esophageal organ morphology where the bacterial cells are located. DNA sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fluorescent in situ hybridization placed these symbionts in two separate clades in the class Gammaproteobacteria. We also conducted a broad phylogenetic analysis of the herein-reported DNA sequences as well as others from bacterial symbionts reported elsewhere in the literature, including alphaproteobacterial symbionts from the leech genus Placobdella as well as Aeromonas veronii from the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, and a Rickettsia sp. detected in Hemiclepsis marginata. Combined, these results indicate that blood-feeding leeches have forged bacterial partnerships at least five times during their evolutionary history. PMID:16151107

  7. Behavioral responses of freshwater mussels to experimental dewatering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Lellis, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of flow alteration on freshwater ecosystems is critical for predicting species responses and restoring appropriate flow regimes. We experimentally evaluated the effects of 3 dewatering rates on behavior of 6 freshwater mussel species in the context of water-removal rates observed in 21 Atlantic Coast rivers. Horizontal movement differed significantly among species and dewatering rates, but a significant species × dewatering interaction suggested that these factors influence movement in complex ways. Species differences in movement were evident only in controls and under slow dewatering rates, but these differences disappeared at moderate and fast dewatering rates. Burrowing behavior did not differ with respect to species identity or dewatering rate. The proportion of individuals that became stranded did not differ among species, but most individuals became stranded under low and moderate dewatering, and all individuals became stranded under fast dewatering. Mortality after stranding differed strongly among species along a gradient from 25% inPyganodon cataracta to 92% in Alasmidonta marginata. Together, these results suggest that species behavior may differ under gradual dewatering, but all species in our study are poorly adapted for rapid dewatering. Most of the 21 rivers we assessed experienced dewatering events comparable to our moderate rate, and several experienced events comparable to our fast rate. Dewatering events that exceed the movement or survival capability of most mussel species can be expected to result in assemblage-wide impacts. Consequently, the rate of water level change may be important in refining target flow conditions for restoration.

  8. Middle Miocene oxygen minimum zone expansion offshore West Africa: Evidence for global cooling precursor events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kender, Sev; Peck, Victoria L.; Jones, Robert W.; Kaminski, Michael A.

    2010-05-01

    Three dissolution events ca. 16 Ma, 15.5 Ma, and 14.3 Ma ago have been identified in sediments from the Congo Fan. Multiproxy benthic foraminiferal and sedimentary records suggest an expanded oxygen minimum zone consistent with enhanced upwelling at these times. Low oxygen species Bulimina elongata, Brizalina alazanensis, Bulimina marginata and Valvulineria pseudotumeyensis begin to dominate from ca. 16 Ma, replacing more oxic indicators such as Oridorsalis umbonatus and Cibicidoides crebbsi. The low oxygen faunas are show reduced diversity and exhibit erratic abundance values from 100 to 2000 specimens per gram. Agglutinated foraminifera Glomospira spp. are also associated with these low oxygen faunas. Benthic isotope records from Cibicidoides spp. show shifts similar to those of the global composite, with marked bottom water cooling from ca. 16 Ma. Total organic carbon values show a general increase over the low oxygen intervals. Marine carbonate records from adjacent North Africa indicate coincident episodes of increased continental weathering (John et al., 2003, Geological Society of America Bulletin), suggesting that an intermittently stronger polar front strengthened west African offshore winds, increasing surface water productivity, and enhanced North African weathering during these events. We propose that Columbia River Flood Basalt volcanism, estimated to have released 106 Tg CO2 and 106 Tg SO2 between 16 and 15.6 Ma ago, may have influenced these climatic changes.

  9. Juvenile morphology: A clue to the origins of the most mysterious of mysticetes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Felix G.; Buono, Mónica R.; Fordyce, R. Ewan; Boessenecker, R. W.

    2013-03-01

    The origin of the pygmy right whale ( Caperea marginata) has long been one of the most vexing conundrums of marine mammal evolution. The extremely disparate skeletal structure of Caperea and a patchy fossil record have left morphology and molecules at odds: whereas most morphological analyses ally Caperea with right whales (Balaenidae), most molecular studies instead suggest a close relationship with rorquals (Balaenopteridae) and grey whales (Eschrichtiidae). The morphological evidence supporting a Caperea-balaenid clade consists of several shared features of the skull and mandible, as traditionally observed in adult individuals. Here, we show that at least two of these features, the ascending process of the maxilla and the coronoid process, arise from substantially different precursors early during ontogeny and therefore likely do not represent genuine synapomorphies. Both of these juvenile morphologies have adult counterparts in the fossil record, thus indicating that the ontogenetic variation in the living species may be a genuine reflection of differing ancestral states. This new evidence contradicts previous morphological hypotheses on the origins of Caperea and may help to reconcile morphological and molecular evidence.

  10. The Antibacterial Activity of Honey Derived from Australian Flora

    PubMed Central

    Irish, Julie; Blair, Shona; Carter, Dee A.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wound infections and antibiotic resistance are driving interest in antimicrobial treatments that have generally been considered complementary, including antimicrobially active honey. Australia has unique native flora and produces honey with a wide range of different physicochemical properties. In this study we surveyed 477 honey samples, derived from native and exotic plants from various regions of Australia, for their antibacterial activity using an established screening protocol. A level of activity considered potentially therapeutically useful was found in 274 (57%) of the honey samples, with exceptional activity seen in samples derived from marri (Corymbia calophylla), jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) and jellybush (Leptospermum polygalifolium). In most cases the antibacterial activity was attributable to hydrogen peroxide produced by the bee-derived enzyme glucose oxidase. Non-hydrogen peroxide activity was detected in 80 (16.8%) samples, and was most consistently seen in honey produced from Leptospermum spp. Testing over time found the hydrogen peroxide-dependent activity in honey decreased, in some cases by 100%, and this activity was more stable at 4°C than at 25°C. In contrast, the non-hydrogen peroxide activity of Leptospermum honey samples increased, and this was greatest in samples stored at 25°C. The stability of non-peroxide activity from other honeys was more variable, suggesting this activity may have a different cause. We conclude that many Australian honeys have clinical potential, and that further studies into the composition and stability of their active constituents are warranted. PMID:21464891

  11. Soil Microbial Community Successional Patterns during Forest Ecosystem Restoration ▿†

    PubMed Central

    Banning, Natasha C.; Gleeson, Deirdre B.; Grigg, Andrew H.; Grant, Carl D.; Andersen, Gary L.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Murphy, D. V.

    2011-01-01

    Soil microbial community characterization is increasingly being used to determine the responses of soils to stress and disturbances and to assess ecosystem sustainability. However, there is little experimental evidence to indicate that predictable patterns in microbial community structure or composition occur during secondary succession or ecosystem restoration. This study utilized a chronosequence of developing jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest ecosystems, rehabilitated after bauxite mining (up to 18 years old), to examine changes in soil bacterial and fungal community structures (by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis [ARISA]) and changes in specific soil bacterial phyla by 16S rRNA gene microarray analysis. This study demonstrated that mining in these ecosystems significantly altered soil bacterial and fungal community structures. The hypothesis that the soil microbial community structures would become more similar to those of the surrounding nonmined forest with rehabilitation age was broadly supported by shifts in the bacterial but not the fungal community. Microarray analysis enabled the identification of clear successional trends in the bacterial community at the phylum level and supported the finding of an increase in similarity to nonmined forest soil with rehabilitation age. Changes in soil microbial community structure were significantly related to the size of the microbial biomass as well as numerous edaphic variables (including pH and C, N, and P nutrient concentrations). These findings suggest that soil bacterial community dynamics follow a pattern in developing ecosystems that may be predictable and can be conceptualized as providing an integrated assessment of numerous edaphic variables. PMID:21724890

  12. Fire regimes and tree growth in low rainfall jarrah forest of south-west Australia.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Neil; Ward, Bruce; Robinson, Alex

    2010-06-01

    Regular fuel reduction burning is an important management strategy for reducing the scale and intensity of wildfires in south-west Australian native forests, but the long term effects of this on tree and stand growth are not well understood. Five fire treatments, including application of frequent and infrequent low intensity burns, and 25 years of fire exclusion, were applied to small (4 ha) experimental plots in a low rainfall mixed jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) and marri (Corymbia calophylla) forest to investigate the effects of these treatments on tree stem diameter growth, stand basal area increment and tree mortality. Mean tree stem growth measured over 20 years was lowest in the long unburnt treatment compared with the burn treatments, although surface soil nutrient levels were generally higher in the unburnt treatment, suggesting these sites may be moisture limited. There was no clear pattern of the effects of the burn treatments, including the number of fires and the interval between fires, on tree stem growth, stand basal area increment, crown health or mortality. These factors were strongly influenced by dominance condition, with dominant and co-dominant trees growing most and suppressed trees growing least and experiencing the highest mortality levels. There was no evidence of deteriorating tree or stand health that could be attributed to either regular low intensity burning or to a long period (25 years) of fire exclusion. PMID:20405126

  13. The antibacterial activity of honey derived from Australian flora.

    PubMed

    Irish, Julie; Blair, Shona; Carter, Dee A

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wound infections and antibiotic resistance are driving interest in antimicrobial treatments that have generally been considered complementary, including antimicrobially active honey. Australia has unique native flora and produces honey with a wide range of different physicochemical properties. In this study we surveyed 477 honey samples, derived from native and exotic plants from various regions of Australia, for their antibacterial activity using an established screening protocol. A level of activity considered potentially therapeutically useful was found in 274 (57%) of the honey samples, with exceptional activity seen in samples derived from marri (Corymbia calophylla), jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) and jellybush (Leptospermum polygalifolium). In most cases the antibacterial activity was attributable to hydrogen peroxide produced by the bee-derived enzyme glucose oxidase. Non-hydrogen peroxide activity was detected in 80 (16.8%) samples, and was most consistently seen in honey produced from Leptospermum spp. Testing over time found the hydrogen peroxide-dependent activity in honey decreased, in some cases by 100%, and this activity was more stable at 4 °C than at 25 °C. In contrast, the non-hydrogen peroxide activity of Leptospermum honey samples increased, and this was greatest in samples stored at 25 °C. The stability of non-peroxide activity from other honeys was more variable, suggesting this activity may have a different cause. We conclude that many Australian honeys have clinical potential, and that further studies into the composition and stability of their active constituents are warranted. PMID:21464891

  14. Bioconversion of Agricultural Waste to Ethanol by SSF Using Recombinant Cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum

    PubMed Central

    Mutreja, Ruchi; Das, Debasish; Goyal, Dinesh; Goyal, Arun

    2011-01-01

    The effect of different pretreatment methods, temperature, and enzyme concentration on ethanol production from 8 lignocellulosic agrowaste by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using recombinant cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. Recombinant cellulase was isolated from E. coli BL21 cells transformed with CtLic26A-Cel5-CBM11 full-length gene from Clostridium thermocellum and produced in both batch and fed-batch processes. The maximum cell OD and specific activity in batch mode were 1.6 and 1.91 U/mg, respectively, whereas in the fed-batch mode, maximum cell OD and specific activity were 3.8 and 3.5 U/mg, respectively, displaying a 2-fold increase. Eight substrates, Syzygium cumini (jamun), Azadirachta indica (neem), Saracens indica (asoka), bambusa dendrocalmus (bamboo), Populas nigra (poplar), Achnatherum hymenoides (wild grass), Eucalyptus marginata (eucalyptus), and Mangifera indica (mango), were subjected to SSF. Of three pretreatments, acid, alkali, and steam explosion, acid pretreatment Syzygium cumini (Jamun) at 30°C gave maximum ethanol yield of 1.42 g/L. PMID:21811671

  15. Ant antennae: are they sites for magnetoreception?

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Jandira Ferreira; Wajnberg, Eliane; de Souza Esquivel, Darci Motta; Weinkauf, Sevil; Winklhofer, Michael; Hanzlik, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Migration of the Pachycondyla marginata ant is significantly oriented at 13° with respect to the geomagnetic north–south axis. On the basis of previous magnetic measurements of individual parts of the body (antennae, head, thorax and abdomen), the antennae were suggested to host a magnetoreceptor. In order to identify Fe3+/Fe2+ sites in antennae tissue, we used light microscopy on Prussian/Turnbull's blue-stained tissue. Further analysis using transmission electron microscopy imaging and diffraction, combined with elemental analysis, revealed the presence of ultra-fine-grained crystals (20–100 nm) of magnetite/maghaemite (Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3), haematite (α-Fe2O3), goethite (α-FeOOH) besides (alumo)silicates and Fe/Ti/O compounds in different parts of the antennae, that is, in the joints between the third segment/pedicel, pedicel/scape and scape/head, respectively. The presence of (alumo)silicates and Fe/Ti/O compounds suggests that most, if not all, of the minerals in the tissue are incorporated soil particles rather than biomineralized by the ants. However, as the particles were observed within the tissue, they do not represent contamination. The amount of magnetic material associated with Johnston's organ and other joints appears to be sufficient to produce a magnetic-field-modulated mechanosensory output, which may therefore underlie the magnetic sense of the migratory ant. PMID:19474081

  16. Study of antioxidant defense in four species of Perloidea (Insecta, Plecoptera).

    PubMed

    Sanz, Ana; Trenzado, Cristina E; López-Rodríguez, Manuel J; Furné, Miriam; de Figueroa, J Manuel Tierno

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present work is to conduct a comparative study of oxidative states in the nymphs of four species of Plecoptera belonging to the superfamily Perloidea: Perla marginata (Panzer, 1799) (family Perlidae), Guadalgenus franzi (Aubert, 1963), Isoperla curtate Navás, 1924, and lsoperla grammatica (Poda, 1761) (family Perlodidae) in relation to their ecological and biological characteristics. For this, the activity of the following antioxidant enzymes was determined: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione transferase (GST), and DT-diaphorase (DTD), together with lipid peroxidation. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was also determined. The four species studied were selected based on significant ecological and biological differences. The results obtained when studying different indicative parameters of the oxidative state of the nymph of different species showed that each has an important enzymatic antioxidant potential, and that differences among species are conditioned by the duration of the nymphal development period more than by whether they come from permanent or temporary habitats. Thus, Plecoptera, although traditionally considered as typical inhabitants of permanent waters, seem to have sufficient variability in physiological mechanisms, together with behavioral and ecological adaptations, to cope with potentially unfavorable conditions that may occur in temporary waters. PMID:21110722

  17. Soil microbial community successional patterns during forest ecosystem restoration.

    PubMed

    Banning, Natasha C; Gleeson, Deirdre B; Grigg, Andrew H; Grant, Carl D; Andersen, Gary L; Brodie, Eoin L; Murphy, D V

    2011-09-01

    Soil microbial community characterization is increasingly being used to determine the responses of soils to stress and disturbances and to assess ecosystem sustainability. However, there is little experimental evidence to indicate that predictable patterns in microbial community structure or composition occur during secondary succession or ecosystem restoration. This study utilized a chronosequence of developing jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest ecosystems, rehabilitated after bauxite mining (up to 18 years old), to examine changes in soil bacterial and fungal community structures (by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis [ARISA]) and changes in specific soil bacterial phyla by 16S rRNA gene microarray analysis. This study demonstrated that mining in these ecosystems significantly altered soil bacterial and fungal community structures. The hypothesis that the soil microbial community structures would become more similar to those of the surrounding nonmined forest with rehabilitation age was broadly supported by shifts in the bacterial but not the fungal community. Microarray analysis enabled the identification of clear successional trends in the bacterial community at the phylum level and supported the finding of an increase in similarity to nonmined forest soil with rehabilitation age. Changes in soil microbial community structure were significantly related to the size of the microbial biomass as well as numerous edaphic variables (including pH and C, N, and P nutrient concentrations). These findings suggest that soil bacterial community dynamics follow a pattern in developing ecosystems that may be predictable and can be conceptualized as providing an integrated assessment of numerous edaphic variables. PMID:21724890

  18. Insects associated with Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in west Niger.

    PubMed

    Habou, Zakari Abdoul; Adam, Toudou; Haubruge, Eric; Mergeai, Guy; Verheggen, François J

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas has been introduced into Niger since 2004 by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). This plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a Biofuel. Through direct and indirect insect collection methods, an inventory of the insect associated with J. curcas has been conducted in Western Niger during two rainy seasons (from June to October) in 2010 and 2011. We have identified insects belonging to the following families: Acrididae (Oedaleus senegalensis Krauss, Oedaleus nigeriensis Uvarov, Heteracris leani Uvarov, Catantops stramineus Walker, Parga cyanoptera Uvarov, and Acanthacris ruficornis citrina Audinet-Serville), Pyrgomorphidae (Poekilocerus bufonius hieroglyphicus Klug), Cetoniidae (Pachnoda interrupta Olivier, Pachnoda marginata aurantia Herbst, Pachnoda sinuata Heinrich and McClain, and Rhabdotis sobrina Gory and Percheron), Meloidae (Decapotoma lunata Pallas), Pentatomidae (Agonoscelis versicoloratus Dallas, Nezara viridula Linn, and Antestia sp. Kirkaldy), Coreidae (Leptoglossus membranaceus Fabricius and Cletus trigonus Thunberg), and Scutelleridae (Calidea panaethiopica Kirkaldy). Origin and potential impact on J. curcas of all these insect species are presented and discussed. The lower insect's diversity indexes are observed in 2010 and 2011 for Niamey, Saga, and Gaya because of semi-arid character of the Sahelian area. PMID:25528746

  19. Effective use of high CO2 efflux at the soil surface in a tropical understory plant

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Atsushi; Nakano, Takashi; Adachi, Minaco; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Osada, Noriyuki; Ladpala, Phanumard; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Puangchit, Ladawan; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Many terrestrial plants are C3 plants that evolved in the Mesozoic Era when atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) were high. Given current conditions, C3 plants can no longer benefit from high ambient [CO2]. Kaempferia marginata Carey is a unique understory ginger plant in the tropical dry forests of Thailand. The plant has two large flat leaves that spread on the soil surface. We found a large difference in [CO2] between the partly closed space between the soil surface and the leaves (638 µmol mol−1) and the atmosphere at 20 cm above ground level (412 µmol mol−1). This finding indicates that the plants capture CO2 efflux from the soil. Almost all of the stomata are located on the abaxial leaf surface. When ambient air [CO2] was experimentally increased from 400 to 600 μmol mol−1, net photosynthetic rates increased by 45 to 48% under near light-saturated conditions. No significant increase was observed under low light conditions. These data demonstrate that the unique leaf structure enhances carbon gain by trapping soil CO2 efflux at stomatal sites under relatively high light conditions, suggesting that ambient air [CO2] can serve as an important selective agent for terrestrial C3 plants. PMID:25758763

  20. Ingested and biomineralized magnetic material in the prey Neocapritermes opacus termite: FMR characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, J. F.; Alves, O. C.; Esquivel, D. M. S.; Wajnberg, E.

    2008-03-01

    The temperature dependence of Ferromagnetic Resonance spectra, from 5 K to 280 K, was used to study the magnetic material present in Neocapritermes opacus termite, the only prey of the Pachycondyla marginata ant. The analysis of the resonant field and peak-to-peak linewidth allowed estimating the particle diameters and the effective anisotropy energy density, KEFF, as a sum of the bulk and surface contributions. It allowed to magnetically distinguish the particles of termites as collected in field from those of termites after 3 days under a cellulose diet, introduced to eliminate ingested/digested material. The data also, suggest the presence of oriented magnetite nanoparticles with diameters of 11.6 ± 0.3 nm in termites as collected in field and (14.0 ± 0.4 nm) in that under a cellulose diet. Differences between their KEFF and its components are also observed. Two transitions are revealed in the resonant field temperature dependence, one at about 50 K that was associated to surface effects and the other at about 100 K attributed to the Verwey transition.

  1. Isolation and characterization of agar-digesting Vibrio species from the rotten thallus of Gracilariopsis heteroclada Zhang et Xia.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Joval N; Padilla, Philip Ian P

    2016-08-01

    Gracilariopsis heteroclada Zhang et Xia (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) is one of the most studied marine seaweeds due to its economic importance. This has been cultivated extensively on commercial scale in the Philippines and other Asian countries. However, sustainable production of G. heteroclada in the Philippines could not be maximized due to the occurrence of rotten thallus disease. Thus, isolation and characterization of agar-digesting bacteria from the rotten thalli of G. heteroclada was conducted. A total of seven representative bacterial isolates were randomly selected based on their ability to digest agar as evidenced by the formation of depressions around the bacterial colonies on nutrient agar plates supplemented with 1.5% NaCl and liquefaction of agar. Gram-staining and biochemical characterization revealed that isolates tested were gram-negative rods and taxonomically identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus (86-99.5%) and Vibrio alginolyticus (94.2-97.7%), respectively. It is yet to be confirmed whether these agar-digesting vibrios are involved in the induction and development of rotten thallus disease in G. heteroclada in concomitance with other opportunistic bacterial pathogens coupled with adverse environmental conditions. PMID:27285614

  2. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  3. Distribution of Sargassum natans and some of its epibionts in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niermann, U.

    1986-12-01

    Sargassum was collected during the Sargasso Sea Eel Expedition in Spring 1979. On average, the morphological form type Sargassum natans (I) made up 85 % of the total wet weight of the samples. South of the thermal front, larger amounts of weeds were observed. Here, the bladder size of S. natans (I) was significantly smaller (surface 47±7 mm2) than in the northern part (surface: 64±15 mm2), while phylloids showed no differences. The composition and density of some epibionts were examined. Membranipora tuberculata (Bryozoa), Clytia noliformis (Hydrozoa) and the calcarious algae “ Melobesia sp.” (Rhodophyta) were studied quantitatively according to different features at 17 stations. M. tuberculata was the most abundant epibiont followed by C. noliformis. Compared with these species, " Melobesia sp." occurred in considerably lower quantities. M. tuberculata showed a preference for bladders rather than phylloids; C. noliformis was found more frequently on phylloids than on bladders. " Melobesia sp." did not show any preference. Frequency and abundance of these epibionts were higher north of the thermal front than south of this front. North of the front S. natans (I) was less abundant but bladders were larger.

  4. Main nutritional contents of 30 Dalian coastal microalgae species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiurong; Liu, Huihui; Chen, Kwan Paul

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports results of study on the contents of proteins, amino acids, polysaccharose and uronic acids in 30 species of macroalgae from Shicao, Heishijiao, Shimiao, and Xiaofujiazhuang in the vicinity of Dalian City, N.E.China. The results showed that the protein contents of the 30 algae from highest (112.55 μ g/ml) to the lowest (0.24 μg/ml) was in the descending order of Dictyopteris ndalata, Gelidium vagum, Gymnogongrus japonican, Ectocarpus confervoides, Tinocladia crassa, Sargassum thunberii. In general, the protein content in red algae was higher than that in brown algae. The content of free amino acids showed no significent differences from 7.44 μg/ml4.96 μg/ml in all these algae, in the descending order of Gymnogongrus japonican, Sargassum confusum, Undoria pinnatifida, Laminaria japonica and Ectocarpus confervoides. The content of polysaccharose varied from 168.2 μ/ml-22.15 μg/ml in the descending order of Symphocladia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Desmarestia viridis., Tinocladia crassa, Gracilaria asiatica and Porphyra yezoensis. The content of uronic acids is from 196.24μg/ml-20.77 μg/ml in the descending order of Ulva lactuca, Symphyoclaldia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Ceramimum kodoi, Gracilaria vemucosa and Porphyra yezoensis. The fatty acids in 30 species of algae belong to Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta. Most phaeophytes have many (4 12) types of fatty acids.

  5. 24-Branched Δ5 sterols from Laurencia papillosa red seaweed with antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kavita, Kumari; Singh, Vijay Kumar; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-04-01

    Methanol extract of thirty-eight seaweeds samples were first screened against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051) and -negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Pseudomonas aerugenosa ATCC 9027) bacteria. Laurencia papillosa (Ceramiales, Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) gave maximum antimicrobial activity against these bacteria. It was finally tested against four clinical Gram-negative isolates (E. coli, P. aerugenosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shigella flexineri) and exhibited antibacterial activity. The extract was fractionated by column chromatography and the active fraction was identified as a cholesterol derivative, 24-propylidene cholest-5-en-3β-ol using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and FT-IR spectroscopic analysis also supported the structure of the compound. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 μg/mL (IC50) against clinical isolates. This is the first report of antibacterial activity of this cholesterol derivative. This compound could be exploited as potential lead molecule against broad spectrum drug development. The results also affirm the potential of seaweeds as an important natural source of antimicrobial compounds for pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23910454

  6. Divergence time estimates and the evolution of major lineages in the florideophyte red algae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Chan; Boo, Sung Min; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Saunders, Gary W; Knoll, Andrew H; Fredericq, Suzanne; Graf, Louis; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2016-01-01

    The Florideophyceae is the most abundant and taxonomically diverse class of red algae (Rhodophyta). However, many aspects of the systematics and divergence times of the group remain unresolved. Using a seven-gene concatenated dataset (nuclear EF2, LSU and SSU rRNAs, mitochondrial cox1, and plastid rbcL, psaA and psbA genes), we generated a robust phylogeny of red algae to provide an evolutionary timeline for florideophyte diversification. Our relaxed molecular clock analysis suggests that the Florideophyceae diverged approximately 943 (817-1,049) million years ago (Ma). The major divergences in this class involved the emergence of Hildenbrandiophycidae [ca. 781 (681-879) Ma], Nemaliophycidae [ca. 661 (597-736) Ma], Corallinophycidae [ca. 579 (543-617) Ma], and the split of Ahnfeltiophycidae and Rhodymeniophycidae [ca. 508 (442-580) Ma]. Within these clades, extant diversity reflects largely Phanerozoic diversification. Divergences within Florideophyceae were accompanied by evolutionary changes in the carposporophyte stage, leading to a successful strategy for maximizing spore production from each fertilization event. Our research provides robust estimates for the divergence times of major lineages within the Florideophyceae. This timeline was used to interpret the emergence of key morphological innovations that characterize these multicellular red algae. PMID:26892537

  7. Elemental uptake by seaweed, Plocamium corallorhirza along the Kwazulu-natal coast of Indian Ocean, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Misheer, Natasha; Kindness, A; Jonnalagadda, S B

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the elemental uptake by Plocamium corallorhiza, a Rhodophyta class of coralline alga grown richly along KwaZulu-Natal coastline. The uptake of seven important elements, namely Fe, Mn, As, B, Ti, Zn and Hg, selected based on their abundance in the samples, were investigated for a one-year cycle, from June 2002 to May 2003, at four chosen sites located along the KwaZulu-Natal coastline. The sites spread over 150 km from North to South Coast are Zinkwasi, Ballito, Treasure Beach and Park Rynie. P. corallorhiza possess good manganese and arsenic-accumulating ability and has potential to be an excellent indicator for most of the metals studied. A typical P. corallorhiza sample at Park Rynie (winter) recorded Mn (14 ppm), Fe (6.02 ppm), As (8.4 ppm), B (1580 ppb), Zn (234 ppb), Ti (751 ppb) and Hg (15.8 ppb). The general trend found at all sites was a large decrease in iron concentration in spring and summer and increase in winter. Mercury uptake was lowest in winter and autumn at all sites. The highest mercury levels in the seaweeds were recorded during spring or summer. PMID:16893787

  8. Marine flora of the Iles Eparses (Scattered Islands): A longitudinal transect through the Mozambique Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattio, L.; Zubia, M.; Maneveldt, G. W.; Anderson, R. J.; Bolton, J. J.; de Gaillande, C.; De Clerck, O.; Payri, C. E.

    2016-04-01

    The diversity of marine macrophytes of small islands in the South Western Indian Ocean region has been poorly documented and little or no information is available for the Iles Eparses (or Scattered Islands) in the Mozambique Channel. We present the first species checklist for the three largest islands of the Iles Eparses: Europa, Juan de Nova and Glorioso. Overall, with a total of 321 marine macrophyte species recorded (incl. 56% Rhodophyta, 27% Chlorophyta, 15% Phaeophyceae and 2% Magnoliophyta; Europa: 134 spp., Juan de Nova: 157 spp. and Glorioso: 170 spp.) these islands harbour 23.5% of the total species recorded for the Mozambique Channel region. We report 36 new records for the Mozambique Channel including 29 undescribed new and cryptic species. Our results highlight a decrease in species richness southward in the Channel. Because of their longitudinal arrangement between the northern and the southern ends of the Channel and their central position, Europa, Juan de Nova and Glorioso Islands represent data points of particular biogeographical interest and could be critical 'stepping stones' for connectivity in the highly dynamic Mozambique Channel region.

  9. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids of Marine Macroalgae: Potential for Nutritional and Pharmaceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Hugo; Barreira, Luísa; Figueiredo, Filipe; Custódio, Luísa; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina; Polo, Cristina; Rešek, Eva; Engelen, Aschwin; Varela, João

    2012-01-01

    As mammals are unable to synthesize essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), these compounds need to be taken in through diet. Nowadays, obtaining essential PUFA in diet is becoming increasingly difficult; therefore this work investigated the suitability of using macroalgae as novel dietary sources of PUFA. Hence, 17 macroalgal species from three different phyla (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta) were analyzed and their fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) profile was assessed. Each phylum presented a characteristic fatty acid signature as evidenced by clustering of PUFA profiles of algae belonging to the same phylum in a Principal Components Analysis. The major PUFA detected in all phyla were C18 and C20, namely linoleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The obtained data showed that rhodophytes and phaeophytes have higher concentrations of PUFA, particularly from the n-3 series, thereby being a better source of these compounds. Moreover, rhodophytes and phaeophytes presented “healthier” ∑n-6/∑n-3 and PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratios than chlorophytes. Ulva was an exception within the Chlorophyta, as it presented high concentrations of n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid in particular. In conclusion, macroalgae can be considered as a potential source for large-scale production of essential PUFA with wide applications in the nutraceutical and pharmacological industries. PMID:23118712

  10. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadolahi-Sohrab, A.; Garavand-Karimi, M.; Riahi, H.; Pashazanoosi, H.

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney`s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m - 2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m - 2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m - 2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m - 2), respectively.

  11. Examination of the structures of several glycerolipids from marine macroalgae by NMR and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Logvinov, Stepan; Gerasimenko, Natalia; Esipov, Andrey; Denisenko, Vladimir A

    2015-12-01

    Several classes of glycerolipids were isolated from the total lipids of the algae Saccharina cichorioides, Eualaria fistulosa, Fucus evanescens, Sargassum pallidum, Silvetia babingtonii (Ochrophyta, Phaeophyceae), Tichocarpus crinitus, and Neorhodomela larix (Rhodophyta, Florideophyceae). The structures of these lipids were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, including 1D ((1) H and (13) C) and 2D (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) experiments. All of the investigated algae included common galactolipids and sulfonoglycolipids as the major glycolipids. Minor glycolipids isolated from S. cichorioides, T. crinitus, and N. laris were identified as lyso-galactolipids with a polar group consisted of the galactose. Comparison of the (1) H NMR data of minor nonpolar lipids isolated from the extracts of the brown algae S. pallidum and F. evanescens with the (1) H NMR data of other lipids allowed them to be identified as diacylglycerols. The structures of betaine lipids isolated from brown algae were confirmed by NMR for the first time. The fatty acid compositions of the isolated lipids were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:26987002

  12. Identification of protein N-termini in Cyanophora paradoxa cyanelles: transit peptide composition and sequence determinants for precursor maturation

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Daniel; Dobritzsch, Dirk; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Helm, Stefan; Steiner, Jürgen M.; Baginsky, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Glaucophyta, rhodophyta, and chloroplastida represent the three main evolutionary lineages that diverged from a common ancestor after primary endosymbiosis. Comparative analyses between members of these three lineages are a rich source of information on ancestral plastid features. We analyzed the composition and the cleavage site of cyanelle transit peptides from the glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa by terminal amine labeling of substrates (TAILS), and compared their characteristics to those of representatives of the chloroplastida. Our data show that transit peptide architecture is similar between members of these two lineages. This entails a comparable modular structure, an overrepresentation of serine or alanine and similarities in the amino acid composition around the processing peptidase cleavage site. The most distinctive difference is the overrepresentation of phenylalanine in the N-terminal 1–10 amino acids of cyanelle transit peptides. A quantitative proteome analysis with periplasm-free cyanelles identified 42 out of 262 proteins without the N-terminal phenylalanine, suggesting that the requirement for phenylalanine in the N-terminal region is not absolute. Proteins in this set are on average of low abundance, suggesting that either alternative import pathways are operating specifically for low abundance proteins or that the gene model annotation is incorrect for proteins with fewer EST sequences. We discuss these two possibilities and provide examples for both interpretations. PMID:26257763

  13. Divergence time estimates and the evolution of major lineages in the florideophyte red algae

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun Chan; Boo, Sung Min; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Saunders, Gary W.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Fredericq, Suzanne; Graf, Louis; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2016-01-01

    The Florideophyceae is the most abundant and taxonomically diverse class of red algae (Rhodophyta). However, many aspects of the systematics and divergence times of the group remain unresolved. Using a seven-gene concatenated dataset (nuclear EF2, LSU and SSU rRNAs, mitochondrial cox1, and plastid rbcL, psaA and psbA genes), we generated a robust phylogeny of red algae to provide an evolutionary timeline for florideophyte diversification. Our relaxed molecular clock analysis suggests that the Florideophyceae diverged approximately 943 (817–1,049) million years ago (Ma). The major divergences in this class involved the emergence of Hildenbrandiophycidae [ca. 781 (681–879) Ma], Nemaliophycidae [ca. 661 (597–736) Ma], Corallinophycidae [ca. 579 (543–617) Ma], and the split of Ahnfeltiophycidae and Rhodymeniophycidae [ca. 508 (442–580) Ma]. Within these clades, extant diversity reflects largely Phanerozoic diversification. Divergences within Florideophyceae were accompanied by evolutionary changes in the carposporophyte stage, leading to a successful strategy for maximizing spore production from each fertilization event. Our research provides robust estimates for the divergence times of major lineages within the Florideophyceae. This timeline was used to interpret the emergence of key morphological innovations that characterize these multicellular red algae. PMID:26892537

  14. Potential and limits of Raman spectroscopy for carotenoid detection in microorganisms: implications for astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Jehlička, Jan; Edwards, Howell G M; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Novotná, Julie; Nedbalová, Linda; Kopecký, Jiří; Němec, Ivan; Oren, Aharon

    2014-12-13

    In this paper, it is demonstrated how Raman spectroscopy can be used to detect different carotenoids as possible biomarkers in various groups of microorganisms. The question which arose from previous studies concerns the level of unambiguity of discriminating carotenoids using common Raman microspectrometers. A series of laboratory-grown microorganisms of different taxonomic affiliation was investigated, such as halophilic heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, the anoxygenic phototrophs, the non-halophilic heterotrophs as well as eukaryotes (Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta). The data presented show that Raman spectroscopy is a suitable tool to assess the presence of carotenoids of these organisms in cultures. Comparison is made with the high-performance liquid chromatography approach of analysing pigments in extracts. Direct measurements on cultures provide fast and reliable identification of the pigments. Some of the carotenoids studied are proposed as tracers for halophiles, in contrast with others which can be considered as biomarkers of other genera. The limits of application of Raman spectroscopy are discussed for a few cases where the current Raman spectroscopic approach does not allow discriminating structurally very similar carotenoids. The database reported can be used for applications in geobiology and exobiology for the detection of pigment signals in natural settings. PMID:25368348

  15. Asparagopsis armata and Sphaerococcus coronopifolius as a natural source of antimicrobial compounds.

    PubMed

    Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Monteiro, Hugo; Araújo, Ernesto; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui

    2015-03-01

    Methanol, n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts of twelve marine macro-algae (Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Heterokontophyta divisions) from Peniche coast (Portugal) were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion method against Bacillus subtilis (gram positive bacteria) and Escherichia coli (gram negative bacteria). Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a model for the antifungal activity by evaluating the growth inhibitory activity of the extracts. The high antibacterial activity was obtained by the Asparagopsis armata methanolic extract (10 mm-0.1 mg/disc), followed by the Sphaerococcus coronopifolius n-hexane extract (8 mm-0.1 mg/disc), and the Asparagopsis armata dichloromethane extract (12 mm-0.3 mg/disc) against Bacillus subtilis. There were no positive results against Escherichia coli. Sphaerococcus coronopifolius revealed high antifungal potential for n-hexane (IC50 = 40.2 µg/ml), dichloromethane (IC50 = 78.9 µg/ml) and methanolic (IC50 = 55.18 µg/ml) extracts against Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth. The antifungal potency of the Sphaerococcus coronopifolius extracts was similar with the standard amphotericin B. Asparagopsis armata and Sphaerococcus coronopifolius reveal to be interesting sources of natural compounds with antimicrobial properties. PMID:25588525

  16. c-AMP dependent protein kinase A inhibitory activity of six algal extracts from southeastern Australia and their fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Zivanovic, Ana; Skropeta, Danielle

    2012-07-01

    c-AMP dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A, PKA) is an important enzyme involved in the regulation of an increasing number of physiological processes including immune function, cardiovascular disease, memory disorders and cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the PKA inhibitory activity of a range of algal extracts, along with their fatty acid composition. Six algal species were investigated including two Chlorophyta (Codium dimorphum and Ulva lactuca), two Phaeophyta (Phyllospora comosa and Sargassum sp.) and two Rhodophyta (Prionitis linearis and Corallina vancouveriensis), with the order of PKA inhibitory activity of their extracts identified as follows: brown seaweeds > red seaweeds > green seaweeds with the brown alga Sargassum sp. exhibiting the highest PKA inhibitory activity (84% at 100 microg/mL). GC/MS analysis identified a total of 18 fatty acids in the six algal extracts accounting for 72-87% of each extract, with hexadecanoic acid and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid as the dominant components. The most active extract (Sargassum sp.) also contained the highest percentage of the saturated C14:0 fatty acid (12.8% of the total extract), which is a known to inhibit PKA. These results provide the first description of the PKA inhibitory activity of marine algae along with the first description of the fatty acid composition of these six algal species from South Eastern Australian waters. Importantly, this study reveals that abundant and readily available marine algae are a new and relatively unexplored source of PKA inhibitory compounds. PMID:22908583

  17. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'ana, Antônio Euzebio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40  μ g·mL(-1) (11.1460  μ g·mL(-1) and 25.8689  μ g·mL(-1), resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40  μ g·mL(-1) (29.018  μ g·mL(-1) and 17.230  μ g·mL(-1), resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277  μ g·mL(-1) and 706.990  μ g·mL(-1)) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

  18. Antiprotozoal Activities of Organic Extracts from French Marine Seaweeds

    PubMed Central

    Vonthron-Sénécheau, Catherine; Kaiser, Marcel; Devambez, Isabelle; Vastel, Antoine; Mussio, Isabelle; Rusig, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Marine macrophytes contain a variety of biologically active compounds, some reported to have antiprotozoal activity in vitro. As a part of a screening program to search for new natural antiprotozoals, we screened hydroalcoholic and ethyl acetate extracts of 20 species of seaweeds from three phyla (Rhodophyta, Heterokontophyta and Chlorophyta), sampled along the Normandy (France) coast. We tested them in vitro against the protozoa responsible for three major endemic parasitic diseases: Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania donovani and Trypanosoma cruzi. The selectivity of the extracts was also evaluated by testing on a mammalian cell line (L6 cells). Ethyl acetate extracts were more active than hydroalcoholic ones. Activity against T. cruzi and L. donovani was non-existent to average, but almost half the extracts showed good activity against P. falciparum. The ethyl acetate extract of Mastocarpus stellatus showed the best antiplasmodial activity as well as the best selectivity index (IC50 = 2.8 μg/mL; SI > 30). Interestingly, a red algae species, which shares phylogenetic origins with P. falciparum, showed the best antiplasmodial activity. This study is the first to report comparative antiprotozoal activity of French marine algae. Some of the species studied here have not previously been biologically evaluated. PMID:21747738

  19. Continuous Measurements of the Free Dissolved CO2 Concentration during Photosynthesis of Marine Plants

    PubMed Central

    Brechignac, François; Andre, Marcel

    1985-01-01

    An experimental system consisting of a gas exchange column linked to an assimilation chamber has been developed to record continuously the free dissolved CO2 concentration in seawater containing marine plants. From experiments performed on the red macroalga Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales), this measurement is in agreement with the free CO2 concentration calculated from the resistance to CO2 exchanges in a biphasic system (gas and liquid) as earlier reported. The response time of this apparatus is short enough to detect, in conditions of constant pH, a photosynthesis-caused gradient between free CO2 and HCO3− pools which half-equilibrates in 25 seconds. Abolished by carbonic anhydrase, the magnitude of this gradient increases with decreasing time of seawater transit from the chamber to the column apparatus. But its maximum magnitude (0.35 micromolar CO2) is negligible compared to the difference between air and free CO2 (11.4 micromolar CO2). This illustrates the extent of the physical limiting-step occurring at the air-water interface when inorganic carbon consumption in seawater is balanced by dissolving gaseous CO2. The direction of this small free CO2/HCO3− gradient indicates that HCO3− is consumed during photosynthesis. PMID:16664281

  20. Genetic affinities between trans-oceanic populations of non-buoyant macroalgae in the high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ceridwen I; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C; Spencer, Hamish G; Salvatore, Laura C; Garcia, Gabriella R; Waters, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Marine biologists and biogeographers have long been puzzled by apparently non-dispersive coastal taxa that nonetheless have extensive transoceanic distributions. We here carried out a broad-scale phylogeographic study to test whether two widespread Southern Hemisphere species of non-buoyant littoral macroalgae are capable of long-distance dispersal. Samples were collected from along the coasts of southern Chile, New Zealand and several subAntarctic islands, with the focus on high latitude populations in the path of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current or West Wind Drift. We targeted two widespread littoral macroalgal species: the brown alga Adenocystisutricularis (Ectocarpales, Heterokontophyta) and the red alga Bostrychiaintricata (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using partial mitochondrial (COI), chloroplast (rbcL) and ribosomal nuclear (LSU / 28S) DNA sequence data. Numerous deeply-divergent clades were resolved across all markers in each of the target species, but close phylogenetic relationships - even shared haplotypes - were observed among some populations separated by large oceanic distances. Despite not being particularly buoyant, both Adenocystisutricularis and Bostrychiaintricata thus show genetic signatures of recent dispersal across vast oceanic distances, presumably by attachment to floating substrata such as wood or buoyant macroalgae. PMID:23894421

  1. Macrophyta as a vector of contemporary and historical mercury from the marine environment to the trophic web.

    PubMed

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Jędruch, Agnieszka; Słupkowska, Joanna; Saniewska, Dominka; Saniewski, Michał

    2015-04-01

    Macrophyta are the initial link introducing toxic mercury to the trophic chain. Research was carried out at 24 stations located within the Polish coastal zone of the Southern Baltic, in the years 2006-2012. Fifteen taxa were collected, belonging to four phyla: green algae (Chlorophyta), brown algae (Phaeophyta), red algae (Rhodophyta) and flowering vascular plants (Angiospermophyta), and total mercury concentrations were ascertained. The urbanisation of the coastal zone has influenced the rise in Hg concentrations in macroalgae, and the inflow of contaminants from the river drainage area has contributed to an increase in metal concentration in vascular plants. At the outlets of rivers possessing the largest drainage areas in the Baltic (the Vistula and the Oder), no increases in mercury concentration were observed in macrophyta. Increase in environmental quality and a prolonged vegetative season results in the growing coverage of algae on the seabed and in consequence leads to rapid introduction of contemporary mercury and Hg deposited to sediments over the past decades into the trophic chain. Thriving phytobenthos was found to affect faster integration of Hg into the trophic web. PMID:25563830

  2. Genetic Affinities between Trans-Oceanic Populations of Non-Buoyant Macroalgae in the High Latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Ceridwen I.; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C.; Spencer, Hamish G.; Salvatore, Laura C.; Garcia, Gabriella R.; Waters, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine biologists and biogeographers have long been puzzled by apparently non-dispersive coastal taxa that nonetheless have extensive transoceanic distributions. We here carried out a broad-scale phylogeographic study to test whether two widespread Southern Hemisphere species of non-buoyant littoral macroalgae are capable of long-distance dispersal. Samples were collected from along the coasts of southern Chile, New Zealand and several subAntarctic islands, with the focus on high latitude populations in the path of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current or West Wind Drift. We targeted two widespread littoral macroalgal species: the brown alga Adenocystisutricularis (Ectocarpales, Heterokontophyta) and the red alga Bostrychiaintricata (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using partial mitochondrial (COI), chloroplast (rbcL) and ribosomal nuclear (LSU / 28S) DNA sequence data. Numerous deeply-divergent clades were resolved across all markers in each of the target species, but close phylogenetic relationships – even shared haplotypes – were observed among some populations separated by large oceanic distances. Despite not being particularly buoyant, both Adenocystisutricularis and Bostrychiaintricata thus show genetic signatures of recent dispersal across vast oceanic distances, presumably by attachment to floating substrata such as wood or buoyant macroalgae. PMID:23894421

  3. Efficient gusA transient expression in Porphyra yezoensis protoplasts mediated by endogenous beta-tubulin flanking sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Qianhong; Yu, Wengong; Dai, Jixun; Liu, Hongquan; Xu, Rifu; Guan, Huashi; Pan, Kehou

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous tubulin promoter has been widely used for expressing foreign genes in green algae, but the efficiency and feasibility of endogenous tubulin promoter in the economically important Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta) are unknown. In this study, the flanking sequences of beta-tubulin gene from P. yezoensis were amplified and two transient expression vectors were constructed to determine their transcription promoting feasibility for foreign gene gusA. The testing vector pATubGUS was constructed by inserting 5'-and 3'-flanking regions ( Tub5' and Tub3') up-and down-stream of β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene ( gusA), respectively, into pA, a derivative of pCAT®3-enhancer vector. The control construct, pAGUSTub3, contains only gusA and Tub3'. These constructs were electroporated into P. yezoensis protoplasts and the GUS activities were quantitatively analyzed by spectrometry. The results demonstrated that gusA gene was efficiently expressed in P. yezoensis protoplasts under the regulation of 5'-flanking sequence of the beta-tubulin gene. More interestingly, the pATubGUS produced stronger GUS activity in P. yezoensis protoplasts when compared to the result from pBI221, in which the gusA gene was directed by a constitutive CaMV 35S promoter. The data suggest that the integration of P. yezoensis protoplast and its endogenous beta-tubulin flanking sequences is a potential novel system for foreign gene expression.

  4. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzebio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (11.1460 μg·mL−1 and 25.8689 μg·mL−1, resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (29.018 μg·mL−1 and 17.230 μg·mL−1, resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μg·mL−1 and 706.990 μg·mL−1) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

  5. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  6. Macroalgal Introductions by Hull Fouling on Recreational Vessels: Seaweeds and Sailors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineur, Frédéric; Johnson, Mark P.; Maggs, Christine A.

    2008-10-01

    Macroalgal invasions in coastal areas have been a growing concern during the past decade. The present study aimed to assess the role of hull fouling on recreational yachts as a vector for macroalgal introductions. Questionnaire and hull surveys were carried out in marinas in France and Spain. The questionnaires revealed that the majority of yacht owners are aware of seaweed introductions, usually undertake short range journeys, dry dock their boat at least once a year, and use antifouling paints. The hull survey showed that many in-service yachts were completely free of macroalgae. When present, fouling assemblages consisted mainly of one to two macroalgal species. The most commonly found species was the tolerant green seaweed Ulva flexuosa. Most of the other species found are also cosmopolitan and opportunistic. A few nonnative and potentially invasive Ceramiales (Rhodophyta) were found occasionally on in-service yachts. On the basis of the information gathered during interviews of yacht owners in the surveyed area, these occurrences are likely to be uncommon. However they can pose a significant risk of primary or secondary introductions of alien macroalgal species, especially in the light of the increase in yachting activities. With large numbers of recreational yachts and relatively rare occurrences of nonnative species on hulls, comprehensive screening programs do not seem justified or practical. The risks of transferring nonnative species may, however, be minimized by encouraging the behaviors that prevent fouling on hulls and by taking action against neglected boats before they can act as vectors.

  7. Macroalgal introductions by hull fouling on recreational vessels: seaweeds and sailors.

    PubMed

    Mineur, Frédéric; Johnson, Mark P; Maggs, Christine A

    2008-10-01

    Macroalgal invasions in coastal areas have been a growing concern during the past decade. The present study aimed to assess the role of hull fouling on recreational yachts as a vector for macroalgal introductions. Questionnaire and hull surveys were carried out in marinas in France and Spain. The questionnaires revealed that the majority of yacht owners are aware of seaweed introductions, usually undertake short range journeys, dry dock their boat at least once a year, and use antifouling paints. The hull survey showed that many in-service yachts were completely free of macroalgae. When present, fouling assemblages consisted mainly of one to two macroalgal species. The most commonly found species was the tolerant green seaweed Ulva flexuosa. Most of the other species found are also cosmopolitan and opportunistic. A few nonnative and potentially invasive Ceramiales (Rhodophyta) were found occasionally on in-service yachts. On the basis of the information gathered during interviews of yacht owners in the surveyed area, these occurrences are likely to be uncommon. However they can pose a significant risk of primary or secondary introductions of alien macroalgal species, especially in the light of the increase in yachting activities. With large numbers of recreational yachts and relatively rare occurrences of nonnative species on hulls, comprehensive screening programs do not seem justified or practical. The risks of transferring nonnative species may, however, be minimized by encouraging the behaviors that prevent fouling on hulls and by taking action against neglected boats before they can act as vectors. PMID:18704562

  8. dEMBF: A Comprehensive Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae have attracted wide attention as one of the most versatile renewable feedstocks for production of biofuel. To develop genetically engineered high lipid yielding algal strains, a thorough understanding of the lipid biosynthetic pathway and the underpinning enzymes is essential. In this work, we have systematically mined the genomes of fifteen diverse algal species belonging to Chlorophyta, Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Haptophyta, to identify and annotate the putative enzymes of lipid metabolic pathway. Consequently, we have also developed a database, dEMBF (Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock), which catalogues the complete list of identified enzymes along with their computed annotation details including length, hydrophobicity, amino acid composition, subcellular location, gene ontology, KEGG pathway, orthologous group, Pfam domain, intron-exon organization, transmembrane topology, and secondary/tertiary structural data. Furthermore, to facilitate functional and evolutionary study of these enzymes, a collection of built-in applications for BLAST search, motif identification, sequence and phylogenetic analysis have been seamlessly integrated into the database. dEMBF is the first database that brings together all enzymes responsible for lipid synthesis from available algal genomes, and provides an integrative platform for enzyme inquiry and analysis. This database will be extremely useful for algal biofuel research. It can be accessed at http://bbprof.immt.res.in/embf. PMID:26727469

  9. Macroalgal assemblages of disturbed coastal detritic bottoms subject to invasive species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Judith C.; Verlaque, Marc

    2009-04-01

    Characteristic flora and fauna that are highly sensitive to disturbances colonize coastal detritic bottoms in the Mediterranean Sea. In the present study, a comparison of the assemblage composition and colonization by invasive macroalgae was made between two coastal detritic macrophyte assemblages, one dominated by rhodoliths (free-living non-geniculate Corallinales) and the other dominated by fleshy algae, in an area that has been exposed to important levels of anthropogenic disturbance, mainly pollution (including changed sedimentation regimes) in the recent past (bay of Marseilles, France). In comparison with less strongly impacted Mediterranean regions, the macrophyte assemblages in the bay of Marseilles were characteristic in terms of species identity and richness of coastal detritic macrophyte assemblages. However, extremely low species abundance (cover) was observed. As far as invasive species were concerned, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea was only abundant in the rhodolith assemblage whereas the two invasive Rhodophyta Asparagopsis armata and Womersleyella setacea were mainly found in the fleshy algae assemblage. The seasonality observed in the Rhodolith assemblage seemed to be related to the development of C. racemosa var. cylindracea and did not follow the typical pattern of other Mediterranean assemblages. This study represents the first study of coastal detritic assemblages invaded by C. racemosa var. cylindracea.

  10. Decadal changes in the distribution of common intertidal seaweeds in Galicia (NW Iberia).

    PubMed

    Piñeiro-Corbeira, Cristina; Barreiro, Rodolfo; Cremades, Javier

    2016-02-01

    Seaweed assemblages in Atlantic Europe are been distorted by global change, but the intricate coastal profile of the area suggests that susceptibility may differ between regions. In particular, NW Iberia is an important omission because no study has systematically assessed long-term changes in a large number of species. Using intertidal surveys for 33 common perennial seaweeds, we show that the average number of species per site declined significantly from 1998-99 to 2014 in NW Iberia. The largest drops in site occupancy were detected in kelps, fucoids, and carrageenan-producing Rhodophyta. Parallel analyses revealed significant upward trends in SST, air temperature, and strong waves; meanwhile, nutrients decreased slightly except in areas affected by local inputs. Similar changes reported for subtidal assemblages in other parts of Atlantic Europe suggest that the drivers may be ubiquitous. Nonetheless, a more proper assessment of both global and local impacts, will require further surveys, and the regular monitoring of intertidal perennial seaweeds appears as a cost-effective alternative to discriminate genuine long-term trends from transitory fluctuations. PMID:26707882

  11. Palmyramide A, a Cyclic Depsipeptide from a Palmyra Atoll Collection of the Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Masatoshi; Nunnery, Joshawna K.; Engene, Niclas; Esquenazi, Eduardo; Byrum, Tara; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Gerwick, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract of a consortium of a marine cyanobacterium and a red alga (Rhodophyta) led to the discovery of a novel compound, palmyramide A, along with the known compounds curacin D and malyngamide C. The planar structure of palmyramide A was determined by one- and two-dimensional NMR studies and mass spectrometry. Palmyramide A is a cyclic depsipeptide which features an unusual arrangement of three amino acids and three hydroxy acids; one of the hydroxy acids is the rare 2,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxyhexanoic acid unit (Dmhha). The absolute configurations of the six residues were determined by Marfey’s analysis, chiral HPLC analysis and GC/MS analysis of the hydrolysate. Morphological and phylogenetic studies revealed the sample to be composed of a Lyngbya majuscula-Centroceras sp. association. MALDI-imaging analysis of the cultured L. majuscula indicated that it was the true producer of this new depsipeptide. Pure palmyramide A showed sodium channel blocking activity in neuro-2a cells and cytotoxic activity in H-460 human lung carcinoma cells. PMID:19839606

  12. On reproduction in red algae: further research needed at the molecular level.

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, Pilar; Robaina, Rafael R

    2015-01-01

    Multicellular red algae (Rhodophyta) have some of the most complex life cycles known in living organisms. Economically valuable seaweeds, such as phycocolloid producers, have a triphasic (gametophyte, carposporophyte, and tetrasporophyte) life cycle, not to mention the intricate alternation of generations in the edible "sushi-alga" nori. It is a well-known fact that reproductive processes are controlled by one or more abiotic factor(s), including day length, light quality, temperature, and nutrients. Likewise, endogenous chemical factors such as plant growth regulators have been reported to affect reproductive events in some red seaweeds. Still, in the genomic era and given the high throughput techniques at our disposal, our knowledge about the endogenous molecular machinery lags far behind that of higher plants. Any potential effective control of the reproductive process will entail revisiting most of these results and facts to answer basic biological questions as yet unresolved. Recent results have shed light on the involvement of several genes in red alga reproductive events. In addition, a working species characterized by a simple filamentous architecture, easy cultivation, and accessible genomes may also facilitate our task. PMID:25755663

  13. On reproduction in red algae: further research needed at the molecular level

    PubMed Central

    García-Jiménez, Pilar; Robaina, Rafael R.

    2015-01-01

    Multicellular red algae (Rhodophyta) have some of the most complex life cycles known in living organisms. Economically valuable seaweeds, such as phycocolloid producers, have a triphasic (gametophyte, carposporophyte, and tetrasporophyte) life cycle, not to mention the intricate alternation of generations in the edible “sushi-alga” nori. It is a well-known fact that reproductive processes are controlled by one or more abiotic factor(s), including day length, light quality, temperature, and nutrients. Likewise, endogenous chemical factors such as plant growth regulators have been reported to affect reproductive events in some red seaweeds. Still, in the genomic era and given the high throughput techniques at our disposal, our knowledge about the endogenous molecular machinery lags far behind that of higher plants. Any potential effective control of the reproductive process will entail revisiting most of these results and facts to answer basic biological questions as yet unresolved. Recent results have shed light on the involvement of several genes in red alga reproductive events. In addition, a working species characterized by a simple filamentous architecture, easy cultivation, and accessible genomes may also facilitate our task. PMID:25755663

  14. Characterization and Comparison of the Structural Features, Immune-Modulatory and Anti-Avian Influenza Virus Activities Conferred by Three Algal Sulfated Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lin; Chen, Xiaolin; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Fubo; Hu, Linfeng; Yue, Yang; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Three marine macroalgae, i.e., Grateloupia filicina, Ulva pertusa and Sargassum qingdaoense, were selected as the deputies of Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Ochrophyta for comparative analysis of the molecular structures and biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides (SP). The ratio of water-soluble polysaccharides, the monosaccharide composition and the sulfated contents of three extracted SPs were determined, and their structures were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. In addition, biological activity analysis showed that all three SPs had immune-modulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo, and SPs from S. qingdaoense had the best effect. Further bioassays showed that three SPs could not only enhance the immunity level stimulated by inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) in vivo but also significantly inhibited the activity of activated AIV (H9N2 subtype) in vitro. G. filicina SP exhibited the strongest anti-AIV activity. These results revealed the variations in structural features and bioactivities among three SPs and indicated the potential adjuvants for immune-enhancement and anti-AIV. PMID:26729137

  15. Analysis of Porphyra Membrane Transporters Demonstrates Gene Transfer among Photosynthetic Eukaryotes and Numerous Sodium-Coupled Transport Systems1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cheong Xin; Zäuner, Simone; Wheeler, Glen; Grossman, Arthur R.; Prochnik, Simon E.; Blouin, Nicolas A.; Zhuang, Yunyun; Benning, Christoph; Berg, Gry Mine; Yarish, Charles; Eriksen, Renée L.; Klein, Anita S.; Lin, Senjie; Levine, Ira; Brawley, Susan H.; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2012-01-01

    Membrane transporters play a central role in many cellular processes that rely on the movement of ions and organic molecules between the environment and the cell, and between cellular compartments. Transporters have been well characterized in plants and green algae, but little is known about transporters or their evolutionary histories in the red algae. Here we examined 482 expressed sequence tag contigs that encode putative membrane transporters in the economically important red seaweed Porphyra (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta). These contigs are part of a comprehensive transcriptome dataset from Porphyra umbilicalis and Porphyra purpurea. Using phylogenomics, we identified 30 trees that support the expected monophyly of red and green algae/plants (i.e. the Plantae hypothesis) and 19 expressed sequence tag contigs that show evidence of endosymbiotic/horizontal gene transfer involving stramenopiles. The majority (77%) of analyzed contigs encode transporters with unresolved phylogenies, demonstrating the difficulty in resolving the evolutionary history of genes. We observed molecular features of many sodium-coupled transport systems in marine algae, and the potential for coregulation of Porphyra transporter genes that are associated with fatty acid biosynthesis and intracellular lipid trafficking. Although both the tissue-specific and subcellular locations of the encoded proteins require further investigation, our study provides red algal gene candidates associated with transport functions and novel insights into the biology and evolution of these transporters. PMID:22337920

  16. Characterization and Comparison of the Structural Features, Immune-Modulatory and Anti-Avian Influenza Virus Activities Conferred by Three Algal Sulfated Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Song, Lin; Chen, Xiaolin; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Fubo; Hu, Linfeng; Yue, Yang; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-01-01

    Three marine macroalgae, i.e., Grateloupia filicina, Ulva pertusa and Sargassum qingdaoense, were selected as the deputies of Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Ochrophyta for comparative analysis of the molecular structures and biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides (SP). The ratio of water-soluble polysaccharides, the monosaccharide composition and the sulfated contents of three extracted SPs were determined, and their structures were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. In addition, biological activity analysis showed that all three SPs had immune-modulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo, and SPs from S. qingdaoense had the best effect. Further bioassays showed that three SPs could not only enhance the immunity level stimulated by inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) in vivo but also significantly inhibited the activity of activated AIV (H9N2 subtype) in vitro. G. filicina SP exhibited the strongest anti-AIV activity. These results revealed the variations in structural features and bioactivities among three SPs and indicated the potential adjuvants for immune-enhancement and anti-AIV. PMID:26729137

  17. Potential and limits of Raman spectroscopy for carotenoid detection in microorganisms: implications for astrobiology

    PubMed Central

    Jehlička, Jan; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Novotná, Julie; Nedbalová, Linda; Kopecký, Jiří; Němec, Ivan; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, it is demonstrated how Raman spectroscopy can be used to detect different carotenoids as possible biomarkers in various groups of microorganisms. The question which arose from previous studies concerns the level of unambiguity of discriminating carotenoids using common Raman microspectrometers. A series of laboratory-grown microorganisms of different taxonomic affiliation was investigated, such as halophilic heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, the anoxygenic phototrophs, the non-halophilic heterotrophs as well as eukaryotes (Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta). The data presented show that Raman spectroscopy is a suitable tool to assess the presence of carotenoids of these organisms in cultures. Comparison is made with the high-performance liquid chromatography approach of analysing pigments in extracts. Direct measurements on cultures provide fast and reliable identification of the pigments. Some of the carotenoids studied are proposed as tracers for halophiles, in contrast with others which can be considered as biomarkers of other genera. The limits of application of Raman spectroscopy are discussed for a few cases where the current Raman spectroscopic approach does not allow discriminating structurally very similar carotenoids. The database reported can be used for applications in geobiology and exobiology for the detection of pigment signals in natural settings. PMID:25368348

  18. Macroalgae in a spring stream in Shanxi Province: composition and relation to physical and chemical variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bianfang; Xie, Shulian

    2007-07-01

    Fourteen stream segments were investigated throughout the Xin’an Spring in Shanxi Province, China in 2004. The variation ranges in stream size, current velocity, discharge, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance were large. Twenty-two macroalgae species were found in the stream. Major divisions in terms of species numbers were Chlorophyta (59.1%), Cyanophyta (22.8%), Xanthophyta (9.1%), Rhodophyta (4.5%) and Charophyta (4.5%). The most widespread species, Cladophora rivularis (50.0%), also Oedogonium sp. (42.9%) and Spirogyra sp. (42.9%) were well represented throughout the stream, whereas another 10 species were found in only one sampling site. Total percentage cover varied from <1% to 90%. Red algae Batrachospermum acuatum and the charophytes Chara vulgaris have the highest percentage cover. Among the parameters analyzed, the stream width, specific conductance and dissolved oxygen were the ones that more closely related to the species number and percentage cover of macroalgal communities. The species number of each site was negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen content. The total percentage cover of the macroalgae was negatively correlated with the stream width and the specific conductance.

  19. Plant and animal glycolate oxidases have a common eukaryotic ancestor and convergently duplicated to evolve long-chain 2-hydroxy acid oxidases.

    PubMed

    Esser, Christian; Kuhn, Anke; Groth, Georg; Lercher, Martin J; Maurino, Veronica G

    2014-05-01

    Glycolate oxidase (GOX) is a crucial enzyme of plant photorespiration. The encoding gene is thought to have originated from endosymbiotic gene transfer between the eukaryotic host and the cyanobacterial endosymbiont at the base of plantae. However, animals also possess GOX activities. Plant and animal GOX belong to the gene family of (L)-2-hydroxyacid-oxidases ((L)-2-HAOX). We find that all (L)-2-HAOX proteins in animals and archaeplastida go back to one ancestral eukaryotic sequence; the sole exceptions are green algae of the chlorophyta lineage. Chlorophyta replaced the ancestral eukaryotic (L)-2-HAOX with a bacterial ortholog, a lactate oxidase that may have been obtained through the primary endosymbiosis at the base of plantae; independent losses of this gene may explain its absence in other algal lineages (glaucophyta, rhodophyta, and charophyta). We also show that in addition to GOX, plants possess (L)-2-HAOX proteins with different specificities for medium- and long-chain hydroxyacids (lHAOX), likely involved in fatty acid and protein catabolism. Vertebrates possess lHAOX proteins acting on similar substrates as plant lHAOX; however, the existence of GOX and lHAOX subfamilies in both plants and animals is not due to shared ancestry but is the result of convergent evolution in the two most complex eukaryotic lineages. On the basis of targeting sequences and predicted substrate specificities, we conclude that the biological role of plantae (L)-2-HAOX in photorespiration evolved by co-opting an existing peroxisomal protein. PMID:24408912

  20. Selection of effective macroalgal species and tracing nitrogen sources on the different part of Yantai coast, China indicated by macroalgal δ(15)N values.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujue; Liu, Dongyan; Richard, Pierre; Di, Baoping

    2016-01-15

    To determine the dominant nitrogen sources and select effective macroalgal species for monitoring eutrophication along the Yantai coast, the total carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ(15)N) in macroalgal tissue were analyzed in conjunction with environmental variables in seawater along the Yantai coastline. The ranges of macroalgal tissue δ(15)N values together with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) composition indicated that except for the atmospheric deposition, there were three dominant types of nitrogen sources along the Yantai coast, with the agricultural fertilizer usage and factorial wastewater input at the S1 (Zhifu Island coast), the sewage discharge at S2 (the Moon Bay coast), the sewage discharge together with aquaculture impacts at S3 (Fisherman Wharf coast) and S4 (the Horse Island coast). Macroalgal growth were not limited by DIN but limited by P at S2, S3 and S4. Macroalgal species suitable or not for DIN source tracing along the Yantai coast were discussed. For sites with low DIN concentration, many species of three phyla could be used for DIN sources tracing with Laurencia okamurai, Gloiopeltis furcata and Ulva pertusa being ideal species. For site with high DIN concentration, however, species of Rhodophyta were not suitable and only Scytosiphon lomentaria and Monostroma nitidium were chosen. PMID:26519590

  1. The effect of nutrient enrichment on the growth, nucleic acid concentrations, and elemental stoichiometry of coral reef macroalgae

    PubMed Central

    Reef, Ruth; Pandolfi, John M; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2012-01-01

    The growth rate hypothesis (GRH) links growth rates with organism elemental stoichiometry. Support for the GRH was found for many animal species, but less so for plants. This is the first study to test the GRH in macroalgae. Tropical coral reef macroalgae from three lineages, Caulerpa serrulata (Chlorophyta), Laurencia intricata (Rhodophyta), and Sargassum polyphyllum (Phaeophyceae) were grown enriched with nitrogen or phosphorous and under control conditions at Heron Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Growth rate, photosynthesis, nucleic acid composition, and elemental stoichiometry were measured. Nutrient enrichment had positive effects on photosynthetic rates and on investment in RNA. However, growth rate was not correlated with either photosynthetic rates or RNA content; thus, we did not find support for the GRH in tropical macroalgae. Macroalgae, especially L. intricata, accumulated P to very high levels (>0.6% of dry weight). The growth rate response to tissue P concentrations was unimodal. Above 0.21%, P accumulation had negative effects on growth. Nitrogen was not stored, but evidence of futile cycling was observed. The capacity to store large amounts of P is probably an adaptation to the low and patchy nutrient environment of the tropical oceans. PMID:22957199

  2. Isolation, expression and characterization of rbcL gene from Ulva prolifera J. Agardh (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhanru; Li, Wei; Guo, Hui; Duan, Delin

    2015-12-01

    Ulva prolifera is a typical green alga in subtidal areas and can grow tremendously fast. A highly efficient Rubisco enzyme which is encoded by UpRbcL gene may contribute to the rapid growth. In this study, the full-length UpRbcL open reading frame (ORF) was identified, which encoded a protein of 474 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of UpRbcL sequences revealed that Chlorophyta had a closer genetic relationship with higher plants than with Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta. The two distinct residues (aa11 and aa91) were presumed to be unique for Rubisco catalytic activity. The predicted three-dimensional structure showed that one α/β-barrel existed in the C-terminal region, and the sites for Mg2+ coordination and CO2 fixation were also located in this region. Gene expression profile indicated that UpRbcL was expressed at a higher level under light exposure than in darkness. When the culture temperature reached 35°C, the expression level of UpRbcL was 2.5-fold lower than at 15°C, and the carboxylase activity exhibited 13.8-fold decrease. UpRbcL was heterologously expressed in E. coli and was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The physiological and biochemical characterization of recombinant Rubisco will be explored in the future.

  3. Effects of different light conditions on repair of UV-B-induced damage in carpospores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Qing; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and different light conditions on the repair of UV-B-induced damage in carpospores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Rhodophyta) in laboratory experiments. Carpospores were treated daily with different doses of UV-B radiation for 48 days, when vertical branches had formed in all treatments; after each daily treatment, the carpospores were subjected to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), darkness, red light, or blue light during a 2-h repair stage. Carpospore diameters were measured every 4 days. We measured the growth and cellular contents of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, and UV-B-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in carpospores on Day 48. Low doses of UV-B radiation (36 and 72 J/m2) accelerated the growth of C. ocellatus. However, as the amount of UV-B radiation increased, the growth rate decreased and morphological changes occurred. UV-B radiation significant damaged DNA and photosynthetic pigments and induced three kind of MAAs, palythine, asterina-330, and shinorine. PAR conditions were best for repairing UV-B-induced damage. Darkness promoted the activity of the DNA darkrepair mechanism. Red light enhanced phycoerythrin synthesis but inhibited light repair of DNA. Although blue light, increased the activity of DNA photolyase, greatly improving remediation efficiency, the growth and development of C. ocellatus carpospores were slower than in other light treatments.

  4. Atmospheric Dispersal of Bioactive Streptomyces albidoflavus Strains Among Terrestrial and Marine Environments.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Braña, Alfredo F; González, Verónica; Nava, Herminio; Molina, Axayacatl; Llera, Eva; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Rico, José M; García-Flórez, Lucía; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2016-02-01

    Members of the Streptomyces albidoflavus clade, identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, are widespread among predominant terrestrial lichens (Flavoparmelia caperata and Xanthoria parietina) and diverse intertidal and subtidal marine macroalgae, brown red and green (Phylum Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Chlorophyta) from the Cantabrian Cornice. In addition to these terrestrial and coastal temperate habitats, similar strains were also found to colonize deep-sea ecosystems and were isolated mainly from gorgonian and solitary corals and other invertebrates (Phylum Cnidaria, Annelida, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Porifera) living up to 4700-m depth and at a temperature of 2-4 °C in the submarine Avilés Canyon. Similar strains have been also repeatedly isolated from atmospheric precipitations (rain drops, snow, and hailstone) collected in the same area throughout a year observation time. These ubiquitous strains were found to be halotolerant, psychrotolerant, and barotolerant. Bioactive compounds with diverse antibiotic and cytotoxic activities produced by these strains were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and database comparison. These include antibacterials (paulomycins A and B), antifungals (maltophilins), antifungals displaying also cytotoxic activities (antimycins and 6-epialteramides), and the antitumor compound fredericamycin. A hypothetical dispersion model is here proposed to explain the biogeographical distribution of S. albidoflavus strains in terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric environments. PMID:26224165

  5. A Novel Antifouling Defense Strategy from Red Seaweed: Exocytosis and Deposition of Fatty Acid Derivatives at the Cell Wall Surface.

    PubMed

    Paradas, Wladimir Costa; Tavares Salgado, Leonardo; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Hellio, Claire; Atella, Georgia Correa; de Lima Moreira, Davyson; do Carmo, Ana Paula Barbosa; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Menezes Amado-Filho, Gilberto

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the organelles involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acid (FA) derivatives in the cortical cells of Laurencia translucida (Rhodophyta) and the effect of these compounds as antifouling (AF) agents. A bluish autofluorescence (with emission at 500 nm) within L. translucida cortical cells was observed above the thallus surface via laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). A hexanic extract (HE) from L. translucida was split into two isolated fractions called hydrocarbon (HC) and lipid (LI), which were subjected to HPLC coupled to a fluorescence detector, and the same autofluorescence pattern as observed by LSCM analyses (emission at 500 nm) was revealed in the LI fraction. These fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which revealed that docosane is the primary constituent of HC, and hexadecanoic acid and cholesterol trimethylsilyl ether are the primary components of LI. Nile red (NR) labeling (lipid fluorochrome) presented a similar cellular localization to that of the autofluorescent molecules. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM) revealed vesicle transport processes involving small electron-lucent vesicles, from vacuoles to the inner cell wall. Both fractions (HC and LI) inhibited micro-fouling [HC, lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.1 µg ml(-1); LI, lower MIC value of 10 µg ml(-1)]. The results suggested that L. translucida cortical cells can produce FA derivatives (e.g. HCs and FAs) and secrete them to the thallus surface, providing a unique and novel protective mechanism against microfouling colonization in red algae. PMID:26936789

  6. Hydrodynamic transport of drifting macroalgae through a tidal cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biber, Patrick D.

    2007-09-01

    Drifting macroalgae are unattached seaweeds that are commonly found in many South Florida and Gulf of Mexico shallow-water seagrass habitats. They are primarily comprised of species of red algae (Rhodophyta) and some brown algae (Phaeophyta). Because of the unattached nature of these species, drift algae have the ability to be moved around the landscape primarily by tidal, as well as wind-driven and alongshore currents. Numerous invertebrates and some fish species are typically found associated with drift algal clumps and aggregations. Transport of drift algae is an important dispersal mechanism for both the plants and their associated fauna. Dispersal distances have been studied in numerous locations over a range of spatial scales. However, little is known about quantities of algal material that are involved. In this study I report on composition and biomass of drifting algae that are transported through a tidal inlet in Biscayne Bay, Florida. Sargassum (a brown alga) and about 12 genera of red algae were found in three seasonal collections (Aug., Dec., May). Total biomass collected varied among seasons, with larger average amounts of drift algae collected in May than the other two months sampled. From this data, I calculate the approximate quantities of drift algae that are potentially moving in, or out of, Biscayne Bay, about a half to one ton of biomass per day.

  7. Last glacial to Holocene productivity and oxygen changes based on benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the western Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Asensio, José N.; Cacho, Isabel; Frigola, Jaime; Pena, Leopoldo D.; Asioli, Alessandra; Kuhlmann, Jannis; Huhn, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    and the additional taxa of the assemblage (Bolivina spathulata, Bolivina subspinescens, Bulimina marginata, Bolivina variabilis and Uvigerina peregrina) also thrive in mesotrophic environments with fresh organic matter supply and moderate oxygen content. The lower part of the early Holocene (10.5-7.3 ka) is dominated by the Cassidulina obtusa assemblage including Bolivina subspinescens, Bolivina variabilis, Bulimina marginata, Gyroidina altiformis, Nonionella iridea and Quinqueloculina sp. as associated taxa. A highly diverse mesotrophic setting with slightly higher oxygenation can be inferred for this assemblage. This is supported by the higher abundance of epifaunal-shallow infaunal taxa and the presence of G. altiformis and Quinqueloculina sp. Finally, the highly diverse Alabaminella weddellensis assemblage occurs along the upper part of the core (7.3-0 ka) encompassing the upper early Holocene and late Holocene. Additional species of this assemblages are Uvigerina mediterranea, Melonis barleeanus, Cassidulina laevigata, Cassidulina obtusa and Uvigerina peregrina. This assemblage suggests mesotrophic conditions with a more continuous organic matter supply as pointed out by the occurrence of U. mediterranea and the intermediate infaunal M. barleeanus that can feed from more degraded organic matter. The onset of this assemblage around 7.3 ka might be related to the establishment of the semi-permanent productive 'Malaga cell" dated at 7.7 ka.

  8. rbcL and matK Earn Two Thumbs Up as the Core DNA Barcode for Ferns

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fay-Wei; Kuo, Li-Yaung; Rothfels, Carl J.; Ebihara, Atsushi; Chiou, Wen-Liang; Windham, Michael D.; Pryer, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding will revolutionize our understanding of fern ecology, most especially because the accurate identification of the independent but cryptic gametophyte phase of the fern's life history—an endeavor previously impossible—will finally be feasible. In this study, we assess the discriminatory power of the core plant DNA barcode (rbcL and matK), as well as alternatively proposed fern barcodes (trnH-psbA and trnL-F), across all major fern lineages. We also present plastid barcode data for two genera in the hyperdiverse polypod clade—Deparia (Woodsiaceae) and the Cheilanthes marginata group (currently being segregated as a new genus of Pteridaceae)—to further evaluate the resolving power of these loci. Principal Findings Our results clearly demonstrate the value of matK data, previously unavailable in ferns because of difficulties in amplification due to a major rearrangement of the plastid genome. With its high sequence variation, matK complements rbcL to provide a two-locus barcode with strong resolving power. With sequence variation comparable to matK, trnL-F appears to be a suitable alternative barcode region in ferns, and perhaps should be added to the core barcode region if universal primer development for matK fails. In contrast, trnH-psbA shows dramatically reduced sequence variation for the majority of ferns. This is likely due to the translocation of this segment of the plastid genome into the inverted repeat regions, which are known to have a highly constrained substitution rate. Conclusions Our study provides the first endorsement of the two-locus barcode (rbcL+matK) in ferns, and favors trnL-F over trnH-psbA as a potential back-up locus. Future work should focus on gathering more fern matK sequence data to facilitate universal primer development. PMID:22028918

  9. DNA characterization and karyotypic evolution in the bee genus Melipona (Hymenoptera, Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Rocha, Marla Piumbini; Pompolo, Silvia Das Graças; Dergam, Jorge Abdala; Fernandes, Anderson; Campos, Lucio Antonio De Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed patterns of heterochromatic bands in the Neotropical stingless bee genus Melipona (Hymenoptera, Meliponini). Group I species (Melipona bicolor bicolor, Melipona quadrifasciata, Melipona asilvae, Melipona marginata, Melipona subnitida) were characterized by low heterochromatic content. Group II species (Melipona capixaba, Melipona compressipes, Melipona crinita, Melipona seminigra fuscopilosa e Melipona scutellaris) had high heterochromatic content. All species had 2n = 18 and n = 9. In species of Group I heterochromatin was pericentromeric and located on the short arm of acrocentric chromosomes, while in Group II species heterochromatin was distributed along most of the chromosome length. The most effective sequential staining was quinacrine mustard (QM)/distamycin (DA)/chromomycin A3(CMA3)/4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Heterochromatic and euchromatic bands varied extensively within Group I. In Group II species euchromatin was restricted to the chromosome tips and it was uniformly GC+. Patterns of restriction enzymes (EcoRI, DraI, HindIII) showed that heterochromatin was heterogeneous. In all species the first pair of homologues was of unequal size and showed heteromorphism of a GC+ pericentromeric heterochromatin. In M. asilvae (Group I) this pair bore NOR and in M. compressipes (Group II) it hybridized with a rDNA FISH probe. As for Group I species the second pair was AT+ in M. subnitida and neutral for AT and GC in the remaining species of this group. Outgroup comparison indicates that high levels of heterochromatin represent a derived condition within Melipona. The pattern of karyotypic evolution sets Melipona in an isolated position within the Meliponini. PMID:12184485

  10. Tracing latitudinal gradient, river discharge and water masses along the subtropical South American coast using benthic Foraminifera assemblages.

    PubMed

    Eichler, P P B; Rodrigues, A R; Eichler, B B; Braga, E S; Campos, E J D

    2012-08-01

    More than 30% of Buccella peruviana (D'Orbigny), Globocassidulina crassa porrecta (Earland & Heron-Allen), Cibicides mackannai (Galloway & Wissler) and C. refulgens (Montfort) indicate the presence of cold Sub Antarctic Shelf Water in winter, from 33.5 to 38.3º S, deeper than 100 m, in the southern part of the study area. In summer, the abundance of this association decreases to less than 15% around 37.5-38.9º S where two species (Globocassidulina subglobosa (Brady), Uvigerina peregrina (Cushman) take over. G. subglobosa, U. peregrina, and Hanzawaia boueana (D'Orbigny) are found at 27-33º S in both seasons in less than 55 m deep in the northern part, and are linked with warm Subtropical Shelf Water and Tropical Water. Freshwater influence was signalized by high silicate concentration and by the presence of Pseudononion atlanticum (Cushman), Bolivina striatula (Cushman), Buliminella elegantissima (D'Orbigny), Bulimina elongata (D'Orbigny), Elphidium excavatum (Terquem), E. poeyanum (D'Orbigny), Ammobaculites exiguus (Cushman & Brönnimann), Arenoparrella mexicana (Kornfeld), Gaudryina exillis (Cushman & Brönnimann), Textularia earlandi (Parker) and thecamoebians in four sectors of the shelf. The presence of Bulimina marginata (D'Orbigny) between 34.1-32.8º S in the winter and 34.2-32.7º S in the summer indicates that the influence of the Subtropical Shelf Front on the sediment does not change seasonally, otherwise, the presence of Angulogerina angulosa (Williamson) in the winter, only in Mar del Plata (38.9º S), show that Malvinas currents are not influencing the sediment in the summer. PMID:23011301

  11. Photosynthesis, photoprotection, and growth of shade-tolerant tropical tree seedlings under full sunlight.

    PubMed

    Krause, G Heinrich; Winter, Klaus; Matsubara, Shizue; Krause, Barbara; Jahns, Peter; Virgo, Aurelio; Aranda, Jorge; García, Milton

    2012-09-01

    High solar radiation in the tropics is known to cause transient reduction in photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and CO(2) assimilation in sun-exposed leaves, but little is known how these responses affect the actual growth performance of tropical plants. The present study addresses this question. Seedlings of five woody neotropical forest species were cultivated under full sunlight and shaded conditions. In full sunlight, strong photoinhibition of PSII at midday was documented for the late-successional tree species Ormosia macrocalyx and Tetragastris panamensis and the understory/forest gap species, Piper reticulatum. In leaves of O. macrocalyx, PSII inhibition was accompanied by substantial midday depression of net CO(2) assimilation. Leaves of all species had increased pools of violaxanthin-cycle pigments. Other features of photoacclimation, such as increased Chl a/b ratio and contents of lutein, β-carotene and tocopherol varied. High light caused strong increase of tocopherol in leaves of T. panamensis and another late-successional species, Virola surinamensis. O. macrocalyx had low contents of tocopherol and UV-absorbing substances. Under full sunlight, biomass accumulation was not reduced in seedlings of T. panamensis, P. reticulatum, and V. surinamensis, but O. macrocalyx exhibited substantial growth inhibition. In the highly shade-tolerant understory species Psychotria marginata, full sunlight caused strongly reduced growth of most individuals. However, some plants showed relatively high growth rates under full sun approaching those of seedlings at 40 % ambient irradiance. It is concluded that shade-tolerant tropical tree seedlings can achieve efficient photoacclimation and high growth rates in full sunlight. PMID:22466529

  12. The phylogeny of Mediterranean tortoises and their close relativesbased on complete mitochondrial genome sequences from museumspecimens

    SciTech Connect

    Parham, James F.; Macey, J. Robert; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Feldman, Chris R.; Turkozan, Oguz; Polymeni, Rosa; Boore, Jeffrey

    2005-04-29

    As part of an ongoing project to generate a mitochondrial database for terrestrial tortoises based on museum specimens, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of 10 species and a {approx}14 kb sequence from an eleventh species are reported. The sampling of the present study emphasizes Mediterranean tortoises (genus Testudo and their close relatives). Our new sequences are aligned, along with those of two testudinoid turtles from GenBank, Chrysemys picta and Mauremys reevesii, yielding an alignment of 14,858 positions, of which 3,238 are parsimony informative. We develop a phylogenetic taxonomy for Testudo and related species based on well-supported, diagnosable clades. Several well-supported nodes are recovered, including the monophyly of a restricted Testudo, T. kleinmanni + T. marginata (the Chersus clade), and the placement of the enigmatic African pancake tortoise (Malacochersustornieri) within the predominantly Palearctic greater Testudo group (Testudona tax. nov.). Despite the large amount of sequence reported, there is low statistical support for some nodes within Testudona and Sowe do not propose names for those groups. A preliminary and conservative estimation of divergence times implies a late Miocene diversification for the testudonan clade (6-12 million years ago), matching their first appearance in the fossil record. The multi-continental distribution of testudonan turtles can be explained by the establishment of permanent connections between Europe, Africa, and Asia at this time. The arrival of testudonan turtles to Africa occurred after one or more initial tortoise invasions gave rise to the diverse (>25 species) 'Geochelone complex.'Two unusual genomic features are reported for the mtDNA of one tortoise, M. tornieri: (1) nad4 has a shift of reading frame that we suggest is resolved by translational frameshifting of the mRNA on the ribosome during protein synthesis and (2) there are two copies of the control region and trnF, with the latter

  13. Interpopulation differences in exudate feeding of pygmy marmosets in Ecuadorian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Yépez, Pablo; de la Torre, Stella; Snowdon, Charles T

    2005-06-01

    Local variations in fruit- and leaf-eating have been reported for some primate species; however, similar variations in exudate-feeding of pygmy marmosets, one of the most specialized neotropical primate species, have not been studied. In our 3-year study of four populations of pygmy marmosets in northeastern Ecuador, we characterized their exudate-feeding behavior by describing the use of exudate sources. We tested whether the use of exudate species was related to ecological factors such as the availability of exudate species in an area. We estimated the daily activity budgets of the groups with 1-hr scan samples and found significant interpopulation differences in the time spent on exudate feeding. We recorded a total of 18 exudate species used in the four populations; however, the populations differed in the total number of species used and in the preferred species. The most commonly used plant species were Sterculia apetala at San Pablo, Cedrela odorata at Sacha, Inga marginata at Amazoonico, and Parkia balslevii at Zancudo. We recorded the presence and abundance of the 18 exudate species in 90-m transects in the home range of each group and in one additional control area that contained no marmosets, for each population. Differences in the most-used exudate species among populations did not appear to be related to the availability of these species in each population, i.e., the marmosets did not use at random the exudate species available within their range, nor did they use more often the exudate species that were more abundant in their home ranges. One implication of our results for conservation is that protecting exudate resources based on data from only one area will not be sufficient to preserve pygmy marmosets in all populations. PMID:15940711

  14. Expression of pair rule gene orthologs in the blastoderm of a myriapod: evidence for pair rule-like mechanisms?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A hallmark of Drosophila segmentation is the stepwise subdivision of the body into smaller and smaller units, and finally into the segments. This is achieved by the function of the well-understood segmentation gene cascade. The first molecular sign of a segmented body appears with the action of the pair rule genes, which are expressed as transversal stripes in alternating segments. Drosophila development, however, is derived, and in most other arthropods only the anterior body is patterned (almost) simultaneously from a pre-existing field of cells; posterior segments are added sequentially from a posterior segment addition zone. A long-standing question is to what extent segmentation mechanisms known from Drosophila may be conserved in short-germ arthropods. Despite the derived developmental modes, it appears more likely that conserved mechanisms can be found in anterior patterning. Results Expression analysis of pair rule gene orthologs in the blastoderm of the pill millipede Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda) suggests that these genes are generally involved in segmenting the anterior embryo. We find that the Glomeris pairberry-1 ( pby-1) gene is expressed in a pair rule pattern that is also found in insects and a chelicerate, the mite Tetraynchus urticae. Other Glomeris pair rule gene orthologs are expressed in double segment wide domains in the blastoderm, which at subsequent stages split into two stripes in adjacent segments. Conclusions The expression patterns of the millipede pair rule gene orthologs resemble pair rule patterning in Drosophila and other insects, and thus represent evidence for the presence of an ancestral pair rule-like mechanism in myriapods. We discuss the possibilities that blastoderm patterning may be conserved in long-germ and short-germ arthropods, and that a posterior double segmental mechanism may be present in short-germ arthropods. PMID:22595029

  15. Anatomy of nasal complex in the southern right whale, Eubalaena australis (Cetacea, Mysticeti).

    PubMed

    Buono, Mónica R; Fernández, Marta S; Fordyce, R Ewan; Reidenberg, Joy S

    2015-01-01

    The nasal region of the skull has undergone dramatic changes during the course of cetacean evolution. In particular, mysticetes (baleen whales) conserve the nasal mammalian pattern associated with the secondary function of olfaction, and lack the sound-producing specializations present in odontocetes (toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises). To improve our understanding of the morphology of the nasal region of mysticetes, we investigate the nasal anatomy, osteology and myology of the southern right whale, Eubalaena australis, and make comparisons with other mysticetes. In E. australis external deflection surfaces around the blowholes appear to divert water off the head, and differ in appearance from those observed in balaenopterids, eschrichtiids and cetotherids. In E. australis the blowholes are placed above hypertrophied nasal soft tissues formed by fat and nasal muscles, a pattern also observed in balaenopterids (rorqual mysticetes) and a cetotherid (pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata). Blowhole movements are due to the action of five nasofacial muscles: dilator naris superficialis, dilator naris profundus, depressor alae nasi, constrictor naris, and retractor alae nasi. The dilator naris profundus found in E. australis has not been previously reported in balaenopterids. The other nasofacial muscles have a similar arrangement in balaenopterids, with minor differences. A novel structure, not reported previously in any mysticete, is the presence of a vascular tissue (rete mirabile) covering the lower nasal passage. This vascular tissue could play a role in warming inspired air, or may engorge to accommodate loss of respiratory space volume due to gas compression from increased pressure during diving. PMID:25440939

  16. An Exploration on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Production by Insect Species Suitable for Animal or Human Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Itterbeeck, Joost; Heetkamp, Marcel J. W.; van den Brand, Henry; van Loon, Joop J. A.; van Huis, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Background Greenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH3), leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. Methodology/Principal Findings An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and average daily gain (ADG) as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) as well as NH3 by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO2 and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO2 production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH3 by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. Conclusions/Significance This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH3 emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis. PMID:21206900

  17. Chemical speciation of dissolved Cu, Ni, and Co in a contaminated estuary in southwest Spain and its influence on plankton communities.

    PubMed

    Braungardt, Charlotte B; Achterberg, Eric P; Gledhill, Martha; Nimmo, Malcolm; Elbaz-Poulichet, Francoise; Cruzado, Antonio; Velasquez, Zoila

    2007-06-15

    Four surveys of the Huelva Estuary in southwest Spain and its sources, the Tinto and the Odiel Rivers, were carried out between 1996 and 1998. The surveys investigated the impact of metalliferous mining of sulfide-rich ores in the catchment area on metal speciation, metal concentrations in a macrophyte, and phytoplankton diversity and abundance. Chemical speciation measurements in the lower Tinto Estuary showed that metals were predominantly electrochemically labile (> 99% of total dissolved Cu, Co, and Ni at 10 microM Cu, 424 nM Co, and 500 nM Ni, S = 28). Concentrations of Cu complexing ligands and free cupric ions [Cu2+] in the Gulf of Cádiz ranged between 5.3 and 38 nM and 0.2-7.9 pM, respectively, with conditional stability constants of the ligands of log K'(CuL) = 11.7-12.6. At enhanced dissolved Cu concentrations in the lower Huelva Estuary, Cu complexing ligands were saturated with Cu, resulting in nanomolar [Cu2+], which increased upstream. Metal tissue concentrations of the macrophyte Blindingia marginata were high, and a clear relationship between dissolved labile Cu and macrophyte tissue Cu concentrations was observed. A low biodiversity was observed in the Huelva system (Shannon-Wiener indices (H) typically < 0.2). Nevertheless, the maximum biomass was observed in the lower Tinto Estuary, which showed high labile metal and nutrient concentrations and a low biodiversity (H < 0.02), thereby suggesting adaptation through evolutionary processes of the phytoplankton community to the harsh conditions. PMID:17626415

  18. Regional primary productivity differences off Morocco (NW-Africa) recorded by modern benthic foraminifera and their stable carbon isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberwein, A.; Mackensen, A.

    2006-08-01

    The influence of different primary productivity regimes on live (Rose Bengal stained) and dead benthic foraminiferal distribution, as well as on the stable carbon isotopic composition of foraminiferal tests, was investigated in sediment surface samples (0-1 cm) from the upwelling region off Morocco between Cape Ghir (31°N) and Cape Yubi (27°N). A combination of factor analysis, detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was applied to the benthic foraminiferal data sets. Five major assemblages for both the live and dead fauna were revealed by factor analysis. In the cape regions organic matter fluxes are enhanced by high chlorophyll- α concentrations in the overlying surface waters. Here, benthic foraminiferal faunas are characterized by identical live and dead assemblages, high standing stocks, and low species δ13C values, indicating constant year-round high productivity. Bulimina marginata dominates the unique fauna at the shallowest station off Cape Ghir indicating highest chlorophyll- a concentrations. Off both capes, the succession of the Bulimina aculeata/ Uvigerina mediterranea assemblage, the Sphaeroidina bulloides/ Gavelinopsis translucens assemblage, and the Hoeglundina elegans assemblage from the shelf to the deep sea reflects the decrease in chlorophyll- a concentrations, hence the export flux. In contrast, the area between the capes is characterized by differently composed live and dead assemblages, low standing stocks, and less depleted δ13C values, thus reflecting low primary productivity. High foraminiferal numbers of Epistominella exigua, Eponides pusillus, and Globocassidulina subglobosa in the dead fauna indicate a seasonally varying primary productivity signal. Significantly lower mean δ13C values were recorded in Bulimina mexicana, Cibicidoides kullenbergi, H. elegans, U. mediterranea and Uvigerina peregrina. Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi is a faithful recorder of bottom water δ13C in the Canary

  19. Fungal Planet description sheets: 320-370.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Sutton, D A; Acharya, K; Barber, P A; Boekhout, T; Dimitrov, R A; Dueñas, M; Dutta, A K; Gené, J; Gouliamova, D E; Groenewald, M; Lombard, L; Morozova, O V; Sarkar, J; Smith, M Th; Stchigel, A M; Wiederhold, N P; Alexandrova, A V; Antelmi, I; Armengol, J; Barnes, I; Cano-Lira, J F; Castañeda Ruiz, R F; Contu, M; Courtecuisse, Pr R; da Silveira, A L; Decock, C A; de Goes, A; Edathodu, J; Ercole, E; Firmino, A C; Fourie, A; Fournier, J; Furtado, E L; Geering, A D W; Gershenzon, J; Giraldo, A; Gramaje, D; Hammerbacher, A; He, X-L; Haryadi, D; Khemmuk, W; Kovalenko, A E; Krawczynski, R; Laich, F; Lechat, C; Lopes, U P; Madrid, H; Malysheva, E F; Marín-Felix, Y; Martín, M P; Mostert, L; Nigro, F; Pereira, O L; Picillo, B; Pinho, D B; Popov, E S; Rodas Peláez, C A; Rooney-Latham, S; Sandoval-Denis, M; Shivas, R G; Silva, V; Stoilova-Disheva, M M; Telleria, M T; Ullah, C; Unsicker, S B; van der Merwe, N A; Vizzini, A; Wagner, H-G; Wong, P T W; Wood, A R; Groenewald, J Z

    2015-06-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Malaysia: Castanediella eucalypti from Eucalyptus pellita, Codinaea acacia from Acacia mangium, Emarcea eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus brassiana, Myrtapenidiella eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus pellita, Pilidiella eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus brassiana and Strelitziana malaysiana from Acacia mangium. Furthermore, Stachybotrys sansevieriicola is described from Sansevieria ehrenbergii (Tanzania), Phacidium grevilleae from Grevillea robusta (Uganda), Graphium jumulu from Adansonia gregorii and Ophiostoma eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus marginata (Australia), Pleurophoma ossicola from bone and Plectosphaerella populi from Populus nigra (Germany), Colletotrichum neosansevieriae from Sansevieria trifasciata, Elsinoë othonnae from Othonna quinquedentata and Zeloasperisporium cliviae (Zeloasperisporiaceae fam. nov.) from Clivia sp. (South Africa), Neodevriesia pakbiae, Phaeophleospora hymenocallidis and Phaeophleospora hymenocallidicola on leaves of a fern (Thailand), Melanconium elaeidicola from Elaeis guineensis (Indonesia), Hormonema viticola from Vitis vinifera (Canary Islands), Chlorophyllum pseudoglobossum from a grassland (India), Triadelphia disseminata from an immunocompromised patient (Saudi Arabia), Colletotrichum abscissum from Citrus (Brazil), Polyschema sclerotigenum and Phialemonium limoniforme from human patients (USA), Cadophora vitícola from Vitis vinifera (Spain), Entoloma flavovelutinum and Bolbitius aurantiorugosus from soil (Vietnam), Rhizopogon granuloflavus from soil (Cape Verde Islands), Tulasnella eremophila from Euphorbia officinarum subsp. echinus (Morocco), Verrucostoma martinicensis from Danaea elliptica (French West Indies), Metschnikowia colchici from Colchicum autumnale (Bulgaria), Thelebolus microcarpus from soil (Argentina) and Ceratocystis adelpha from Theobroma cacao (Ecuador). Myrmecridium iridis (Myrmecridiales ord. nov., Myrmecridiaceae fam. nov.) is also

  20. Genetic variation of Kaempferia (Zingiberaceae) in Thailand based on chloroplast DNA (psbA-trnH and petA-psbJ) sequences.

    PubMed

    Techaprasan, J; Klinbunga, S; Ngamriabsakul, C; Jenjittikul, T

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variation and species authentication of 71 Kaempferia accessions (representing 15 recognized, six new, and four unidentified species) found indigenously in Thailand were examined by determining chloroplast psbA-trnH and partial petA-psbJ spacer sequences. Ten closely related species (Boesenbergia rotunda, Gagnepainia godefroyi, G. thoreliana, Globba substrigosa, Smithatris myanmarensis, S. supraneanae, Scaphochlamys biloba, S. minutiflora, S. rubescens, and Stahlianthus sp) were also included. After sequence alignments, 1010 and 865 bp in length were obtained for the respective chloroplast DNA sequences. Intraspecific sequence variation was not observed in Kaempferia candida, K. angustifolia, K. laotica, K. galanga, K. pardi sp nov., K. bambusetorum sp nov., K. albomaculata sp nov., K. minuta sp nov., Kaempferia sp nov. 1, and G. thoreliana, for which more than one specimen was available. In contrast, intraspecific sequence polymorphisms were observed in various populations of K. fallax, K. filifolia, K. elegans, K. pulchra, K. rotunda, K. marginata, K. parviflora, K. larsenii, K. roscoeana, K. siamensis, and G. godefroyi. A strict consensus tree based on combined psbA-trnH and partial petA-psbJ sequences revealed four major groups of Kaempferia species. We suggest that the genus Kaempferia is a polyphyletic group, as K. candida was distantly related and did not group with other Kaempferia species. Polymorphic sites and indels of psbA-trnH and petA-psbJ can be used as DNA barcodes for species diagnosis of most Kaempferia and outgroup species. Nuclear DNA polymorphism should be examined to determine if there has been interspecific hybridization and chloroplast DNA introgression in these taxa. PMID:20927714

  1. Social insect colony as a biological regulatory system: modelling information flow in dominance networks

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Anjan K.; Sumana, Annagiri; Bhattacharya, Kunal

    2014-01-01

    Social insects provide an excellent platform to investigate flow of information in regulatory systems since their successful social organization is essentially achieved by effective information transfer through complex connectivity patterns among the colony members. Network representation of such behavioural interactions offers a powerful tool for structural as well as dynamical analysis of the underlying regulatory systems. In this paper, we focus on the dominance interaction networks in the tropical social wasp Ropalidia marginata—a species where behavioural observations indicate that such interactions are principally responsible for the transfer of information between individuals about their colony needs, resulting in a regulation of their own activities. Our research reveals that the dominance networks of R. marginata are structurally similar to a class of naturally evolved information processing networks, a fact confirmed also by the predominance of a specific substructure—the ‘feed-forward loop’—a key functional component in many other information transfer networks. The dynamical analysis through Boolean modelling confirms that the networks are sufficiently stable under small fluctuations and yet capable of more efficient information transfer compared to their randomized counterparts. Our results suggest the involvement of a common structural design principle in different biological regulatory systems and a possible similarity with respect to the effect of selection on the organization levels of such systems. The findings are also consistent with the hypothesis that dominance behaviour has been shaped by natural selection to co-opt the information transfer process in such social insect species, in addition to its primal function of mediation of reproductive competition in the colony. PMID:25320069

  2. Initial growth of leguminous trees and shrubs in a cut gold mined area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, L.E.; Campello, E.F.C.; Ribeiro, E.S. Jr.; Mello, J.W.V.

    1999-07-01

    In an opencast gold mining in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, leguminous trees and shrubs were used to revegetate an acid cut mined area. the substrate was high in pyrite content (3%) and received 50 cm of covered material in two layers: (1) insulating layer of 20 cm where clay or a mining refuse (MR) was used to prevent the pyrite oxidation, and (2) an upper layer with 30 cm formed by topsoil or topsoil + urban compost (3:1 v/v). After the application of the cover materials, planting holes were manually made spaced by 1 x 1 m. Each hole received limestone (100 g), rock phosphate (150 g), potassium chloride (45 g) and cattle manure (2 L). Fifteen leguminous species were planted an each plot (15 x 8 m), spaced by 1.0 x 1.0 m (one specie per row). Sixteen months after the planting the plants were evaluated and the results showed an effect of substrate on the plants survival, height, and diameter. The use of clay as insulating layer was better than mining refuse and the plants did not respond to the addition of urban compost to the topsoil. Among the evaluated species, Thephrosia sinapau, Erytrina verna, Dipterix alata and Stryphnodenadrum guyanensis showed a mortality rate of 100% after 16 months while Sesbania marginata, Acacaia holosericea, Mimosa pellita, Acacia crassicarpa, Acacia mangium and Acacia angustissima exhibited more adaptation capacity to the acid substrate. Analyses from the substrate showed higher exchangeable acidity (Al{sup 3+}) for the plots receiving MR as insulating layer. This study has applications for the acid mine drainage from coal mines of Brazil.

  3. Living (stained) benthic foraminifera from the Mozambique Channel (eastern Africa): Exploring ecology of deep-sea unicellular meiofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanier, C.; Garnier, E.; Brandily, C.; Dennielou, B.; Bichon, S.; Gayet, N.; Eugene, T.; Rovere, M.; Grémare, A.; Deflandre, B.

    2016-09-01

    Live (Rose-Bengal stained) deep-sea foraminiferal faunas have been studied at four stations between 530 and 3200-m depth in the Mozambique Channel (eastern Africa) to understand how complex environmental conditions (e.g., organic matter, oxygenation) control their ecological structure (i.e., diversity, density, and microhabitats). Two upper-slope stations, located at 530- and 780-m depth off Madagascar, are bathed by well-oxygenated bottom waters. They are characterized by fine sediments enriched in highly degraded organic matter (low amino-acid bio-availability and reduced chlorophyllic freshness). Mineralization of organic compounds results in relatively moderate oxygen penetration depth (i.e., 15 and 30 mm) in sediment. Interestingly, foraminiferal species richness (S) is exceptionally high at both sites. The highest densities are observed in the 780-m deep station, where peculiar sedimentary facies of organic matter are recorded (OC >2.0% DW). Redox conditions and sedimentary organic matter control the composition and the vertical distribution (i.e. microhabitat) of benthic faunas at both upper-slope sites. Bolivina alata, Bulimina marginata, Haplophragmoides bradyi and Nouria compressa are relevant bio-indicators of enhanced burial of organic matter prevailing at the 780-m deep station (i.e., eutrophic conditions), whereas Uvigerina hispida and Uvigerina semiornata are dominant at the 530-m deep station (i.e., relatively mesotrophic conditions). Two other stations are located on well-ventilated terraces from the deep-sea canyons of Tsiribihina and Zambezi (>3000-m depth). They are characterized by carbonate ooze, which is depleted in degraded organic matter and, where oxygen penetration depth is relatively deep (i.e.,>80 mm). Because of food scarcity, S and densities are relatively low, and agglutinated and organic-walled taxa dominate foraminiferal faunas. Hospitella fulva, a foraminiferal species belonging to Allogromiida, occupies very deep infaunal

  4. Macrofauna assemblage composition and soil moisture interact to affect soil ecosystem functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collison, E. J.; Riutta, T.; Slade, E. M.

    2013-02-01

    Changing climatic conditions and habitat fragmentation are predicted to alter the soil moisture conditions of temperate forests. It is not well understood how the soil macrofauna community will respond to changes in soil moisture, and how changes to species diversity and community composition may affect ecosystem functions, such as litter decomposition and soil fluxes. Moreover, few studies have considered the interactions between the abiotic and biotic factors that regulate soil processes. Here we attempt to disentangle the interactive effects of two of the main factors that regulate soil processes at small scales - moisture and macrofauna assemblage composition. The response of assemblages of three common temperate soil invertebrates (Glomeris marginata Villers, Porcellio scaber Latreille and Philoscia muscorum Scopoli) to two contrasting soil moisture levels was examined in a series of laboratory mesocosm experiments. The contribution of the invertebrates to the leaf litter mass loss of two common temperate tree species of contrasting litter quality (easily decomposing Fraxinus excelsior L. and recalcitrant Quercus robur L.) and to soil CO2 fluxes were measured. Both moisture conditions and litter type influenced the functioning of the invertebrate assemblages, which was greater in high moisture conditions compared with low moisture conditions and on good quality vs. recalcitrant litter. In high moisture conditions, all macrofauna assemblages functioned at equal rates, whereas in low moisture conditions there were pronounced differences in litter mass loss among the assemblages. This indicates that species identity and assemblage composition are more important when moisture is limited. We suggest that complementarity between macrofauna species may mitigate the reduced functioning of some species, highlighting the importance of maintaining macrofauna species richness.

  5. Using mushroom farm and anaerobic digestion wastewaters as supplemental fertilizer sources for growing container nursery stock in a closed system.

    PubMed

    Chong, C; Purvis, P; Lumis, G; Holbein, B E; Voroney, R P; Zhou, H; Liu, H-W; Alam, M Z

    2008-04-01

    Wastewaters from farm and composting operations are often rich in select nutrients that potentially can be reutilized in crop production. Liners of silverleaf dogwood (Cornus alba L. 'Argenteo-marginata'), common ninebark [Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim.], and Anthony Waterer spirea (Spiraeaxbumalda Burvénich 'Anthony Waterer') were grown in 6L containers filled with a bark-based commercial mix. Plants were fertigated daily via a computer-controlled multi-fertilizer injector with three recirculated fertilizer treatments: (1) a stock (control) solution with complete macro- and micro-nutrients, electrical conductivity (EC) 2.2 dS m(-1); (2) wastewater from a mushroom farm; and (3) process wastewater from anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. The wastewaters used in both treatments 2 and 3 were diluted with tap water, and the computer was programmed to amend, dispense and recirculate nutrients based on the same target EC as in treatment 1. For comparison, there was a traditional controlled-release fertilizer treatment [Nutryon 17-5-12 (17N-2P-10K) plus micro-nutrients topdressed at a rate of 39 g/plant, nutrients not recirculated]. All three species responded similarly to the three recirculated fertilizer treatments. Growth with the recirculated treatments was similar and significantly higher than that obtained with controlled-release fertilizer. Throughout the study, the EC measured in wastewater-derived nutrient solutions, and also in the container substrate, were similar or close to those of the control treatment, although there were small to large differences among individual major nutrients. There was no sign of nutrient deficiency or toxicity symptoms to the plants. Small to moderate excesses in concentrations of SO(4), Na, and/or Cl were physiologically tolerable to the species. PMID:17481890

  6. Cultivation and conversion of marine macroalgae. [Gracilaria and Ulva

    SciTech Connect

    Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Blakeslee, M.

    1984-05-01

    Research was conducted on the development of an alternative ocean energy farm concept that would not be dependent upon deep ocean water or other extraneous sources for its nutrient supply and that could be located in shallow, near shore, and protected coastal ocean areas. There are five tasks reported in this document: determination of the annual yield of Ulva in non-intensive cultures; evaluation of the effect of carbon concentration on Gracilaria and Ulva yields; evaluation of spray/mist culture of Ulva and Gracilaria; species screening for the production of petroleum replacement products; and synthesis analysis, and economic energy evaluation of culture data. An alternative concept to open ocean culture is a land-based energy production system utilizing saline waters from underground aquifers or enclosed coastal areas. Research was performed to evaluate growth and biomass production of all macroscopic algal species that could be obtained in adequate quantity in the central Florida area. A total of 42 species were grown in specially adapted burial vaults. These included 16 green algae (Garcilaria 4 weekshlorophyta), 2 brown algae (Phaeophyta), and 18 red algae (Rhodophyta). Of these, the most successful and suitable species were a strain of Gracilaria (a red seaweed) and Ulva (a green seaweed). These two species have a high carbohydrate content that may be anaerobically digested to methane gas. Well-nourished Gracilaria will double its biomass in 1 to 4 weeks, depending on the season, water flow, and other variables. After its biomass has doubled (i.e., from 2 to 4 kg/m/sup 2/) the incremental growth is harvested to return the crop to a starting density. Enrichment of the new starting crop following harvest could conceivably be accomplished onsite at the seaweed farm, but the rapid uptake and storage of nutrients by depleted seaweeds makes possible a simpler process, known as pulse fertilization.

  7. NADPH from the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway drives the operation of cyclic electron flow around photosystem I in high-intertidal macroalgae under severe salt stress.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoping; Huan, Li; Gao, Shan; He, Linwen; Wang, Guangce

    2016-04-01

    Pyropia yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) is a representative species of high-intertidal macroalgae, whose blades can tolerate extreme stresses, such as salt stress and desiccation. In this study, the photosystem (PS) responses of P. yezoensis blades under salt stress were studied. Our results showed that when the effective photochemical quantum yield of PS (Y) II decreased to almost zero under high salt stress, YI still had a relatively high activity rate. PSII was therefore more sensitive to salt stress than PSI. Furthermore, in the presence of 3-(3', 4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), YI rose as salinity increased. The YI values for DCMU-treated thalli decreased in the presence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49, G6PDH) inhibitor (glucosamine, Glucm). The YI values were ∼0.09 in the presence of methyl viologen (MV) and almost zero in the presence of dibromothymoquinone (DBMIB). These results demonstrated that under severe salt stress (120‰ salinity) PSI activity was driven from a source other than PSII, and that stromal reductants probably supported the operation of PSI. Under salt stress, the starch content decreased and soluble sugar levels increased. The G6PDH and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.44) activities increased, but cytosolic glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.12) activity decreased. Furthermore, the NADPH content increased, but NADH decreased, which suggested that soluble sugar entered the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP). All these results suggested that NADPH from OPPP increases the cyclic electron flow around PSI in high-intertidal macroalgae under severe salt stress. PMID:26337725

  8. Applying DNA barcoding to red macroalgae: a preliminary appraisal holds promise for future applications

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Gary W

    2005-01-01

    Marine macroalgae, especially the Rhodophyta, can be notoriously difficult to identify owing to their relatively simple morphology and anatomy, convergence, rampant phenotypic plasticity, and alternation of heteromorphic generations. It is thus not surprising that algal systematists have come to rely heavily on genetic tools for molecular assisted alpha taxonomy. Unfortunately the number of suitable marker systems in the three available genomes is enormous and, although most workers have settled on one of three or four models, the lack of an accepted standard hinders the comparison of results between laboratories. The advantages of a standard system are obvious for practical purposes of species discovery and identification; as well, compliance with a universal marker, such as cox1 being developed under the label ‘DNA barcode’, would allow algal systematists to benefit from the rapidly emerging technologies. Novel primers were developed for red algae to PCR amplify and sequence the 5′ cox1 ‘barcode’ region and were used to assess three known species-complex questions: (i) Mazzaella species in the Northeast Pacific; (ii) species of the genera Dilsea and Neodilsea in the Northeast Pacific; and (iii) Asteromenia peltata from three oceans. These models were selected because they have all caused confusion with regards to species number, distribution, and identification in the field, and because they have all been studied with molecular tools. In all cases the DNA barcode resolved accurately and unequivocally species identities and, with the enhanced sampling here, turned up a variety of novel observations in need of further taxonomic investigation. PMID:16214745

  9. Metabolically Active Eukaryotic Communities in Extremely Acidic Mine Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Brett J.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Dawson, Scott C.; Bond, Philip L.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2004-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities contain microbial eukaryotes (both fungi and protists) that confer a biofilm structure and impact the abundance of bacteria and archaea and the community composition via grazing and other mechanisms. Since prokaryotes impact iron oxidation rates and thus regulate AMD generation rates, it is important to analyze the fungal and protistan populations. We utilized 18S rRNA and beta-tubulin gene phylogenies and fluorescent rRNA-specific probes to characterize the eukaryotic diversity and distribution in extremely acidic (pHs 0.8 to 1.38), warm (30 to 50°C), metal-rich (up to 269 mM Fe2+, 16.8 mM Zn, 8.5 mM As, and 4.1 mM Cu) AMD solutions from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, Calif. A Rhodophyta (red algae) lineage and organisms from the Vahlkampfiidae family were identified. The fungal 18S rRNA and tubulin gene sequences formed two distinct phylogenetic groups associated with the classes Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes. Three fungal isolates that were closely related to the Dothideomycetes clones were obtained. We suggest the name “Acidomyces richmondensis” for these isolates. Since these ascomycete fungi were morphologically indistinguishable, rRNA-specific oligonucleotide probes were designed to target the Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes via fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH analyses indicated that Eurotiomycetes are generally more abundant than Dothideomycetes in all of the seven locations studied within the Richmond Mine system. This is the first study to combine the culture-independent detection of fungi with in situ detection and a demonstration of activity in an acidic environment. The results expand our understanding of the subsurface AMD microbial community structure. PMID:15466574

  10. XET Activity is Found Near Sites of Growth and Cell Elongation in Bryophytes and Some Green Algae: New Insights into the Evolution of Primary Cell Wall Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Van Sandt, Vicky S. T.; Stieperaere, Herman; Guisez, Yves; Verbelen, Jean-Pierre; Vissenberg, Kris

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims In angiosperms xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET)/hydrolase (XTH) is involved in reorganization of the cell wall during growth and development. The location of oligo-xyloglucan transglucosylation activity and the presence of XTH expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the earliest diverging extant plants, i.e. in bryophytes and algae, down to the Phaeophyta was examined. The results provide information on the presence of an XET growth mechanism in bryophytes and algae and contribute to the understanding of the evolution of cell wall elongation in general. Methods Representatives of the different plant lineages were pressed onto an XET test paper and assayed. XET or XET-related activity was visualized as the incorporation of fluorescent signal. The Physcomitrella genome database was screened for the presence of XTHs. In addition, using the 3′ RACE technique searches were made for the presence of possible XTH ESTs in the Charophyta. Key Results XET activity was found in the three major divisions of bryophytes at sites corresponding to growing regions. In the Physcomitrella genome two putative XTH-encoding cDNA sequences were identified that contain all domains crucial for XET activity. Furthermore, XET activity was located at the sites of growth in Chara (Charophyta) and Ulva (Chlorophyta) and a putative XTH ancestral enzyme in Chara was identified. No XET activity was identified in the Rhodophyta or Phaeophyta. Conclusions XET activity was shown to be present in all major groups of green plants. These data suggest that an XET-related growth mechanism originated before the evolutionary divergence of the Chlorobionta and open new insights in the evolution of the mechanisms of primary cell wall expansion. PMID:17098750

  11. Seaweeds in Cold Seas: Evolution and Carbon Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    RAVEN, JOHN A.; JOHNSTON, ANDREW M.; KÜBLER, JANET E.; KORB, REBECCA; MCINROY, SHONA G.; HANDLEY, LINDA L.; SCRIMGEOUR, CHARLIE M.; WALKER, DIANA I.; BEARDALL, JOHN; CLAYTON, MARGARET N.; VANDERKLIFT, MATHEW; FREDRIKSEN, STEIN; DUNTON, KENNETH H.

    2002-01-01

    Much evidence suggests that life originated in hydrothermal habitats, and for much of the time since the origin of cyanobacteria (at least 2·5 Ga ago) and of eukaryotic algae (at least 2·1 Ga ago) the average sea surface and land surface temperatures were higher than they are today. However, there have been at least four significant glacial episodes prior to the Pleistocene glaciations. Two of these (approx. 2·1 and 0·7 Ga ago) may have involved a ‘Snowball Earth’ with a very great impact on the algae (sensu lato) of the time (cyanobacteria, Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta) and especially those that were adapted to warm habitats. By contrast, it is possible that heterokont, dinophyte and haptophyte phototrophs only evolved after the Carboniferous–Permian ice age (approx. 250 Ma ago) and so did not encounter low (≤5 °C) sea surface temperatures until the Antarctic cooled some 15 Ma ago. Despite this, many of the dominant macroalgae in cooler seas today are (heterokont) brown algae, and many laminarians cannot reproduce at temperatures above 18–25 °C. By contrast to plants in the aerial environment, photosynthetic structures in water are at essentially the same temperature as the fluid medium. The impact of low temperatures on photosynthesis by marine macrophytes is predicted to favour diffusive CO2 entry rather than a CO2‐concentrating mechanism. Some evidence favours this suggestion, but more data are needed. PMID:12324277

  12. Multigene phylogeny of the red algal subclass Nemaliophycidae.

    PubMed

    Lam, Daryl W; Verbruggen, Heroen; Saunders, Gary W; Vis, Morgan L

    2016-01-01

    The red algae (Rhodophyta) are a lineage of primary endosymbionts whose ancestors represent some of the first photosynthetic eukaryotes on the planet. They primarily inhabit marine ecosystems, with only ∼5% of species found in freshwater systems. The subclass Nemaliophycidae is very diverse in ecological and life history features and therefore a useful model to study these traits, but the phylogenetic relationships among the orders are, for the most part, poorly resolved. To elucidate the phylogeny of the Nemaliophycidae, we constructed a nine-gene dataset comprised of nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial markers for 67 red algal specimens. The resulting maximum likelihood (ML) phylogeny confirmed the monophyly of all orders. The sister relationship of the Acrochaetiales and Palmariales received high support and the relationship of the Balliales with Balbianiales and Entwisleiales with Colaconematales was moderately supported. The Nemaliales, Entwisleiales, Colaconematales, Palmariales and Acrochaetiales formed a highly supported clade. Unfortunately, all other relationships among the orders had low bootstrap support. Although the ML analysis did not resolve many of the relationships, further analyses suggested that a resolution is possible. A Phycas analysis supported a dichotomously branching tree and Bayesian analysis showed a similar topology with all relationships highly supported. Simulations extrapolating the number of nucleotide characters beyond the current size of the dataset suggested that most nodes in the phylogeny would be resolved if more data become available. Phylogenomic approaches will be necessary to provide a well-supported phylogeny of this subclass with all relationships resolved such that the evolution of freshwater species from marine ancestors as well as reproductive traits can be explored. PMID:26518739

  13. The mineralogical responses of marine calcifiers to CO2-induced ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. B.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.

    2008-12-01

    We have conducted 6-month laboratory experiments to investigate the effect of pCO2-induced reductions in seawater CaCO3 saturation state on biocalcification by 18 aragonitic and calcitic (low-high Mg) taxa representing eight of the major marine calcifying groups: Chlorophyta; Rhodophyta; Crustacea; Bivalvia; Gastropoda; Annelida; Cnidaria; and Echinodermata. The CaCO3 saturation states of the experimental seawaters, constrained by intercalibrated determinations of pH, alkalinity, and DIC, were attained with bubbled air-CO2 mixtures of 400 (ambient), 600, 900, and 2850 ppm pCO2, yielding Ωarag of 2.5 (ambient), 2.0, 1.5, 0.7, respectively. We previously showed that while rates of net calcification obtained from buoyant weighing declined with increasing pCO2 for nearly half of the species investigated, a nearly equal number exhibited constant or, in some cases, increased calcification under moderately (600 ppm) or extremely (900 or 2850 ppm) elevated pCO2. The organisms' investigated in this study secrete various forms of CaCO3, which differ in crystallographic structure and therefore solubility: aragonite and high-Mg are generally more soluble than low-Mg calcite. We have employed powder x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy to quantify changes in the organisms' skeletal mineralogy (aragonite:calcite ratio) and Mg-content (MgCO3:CaCO3 ratio) that occurred in response to the prescribed reductions in seawater CaCO3 saturation state. We will compare calcification and mineralogical response patterns amongst the organisms to elucidate the role of mineral lability in driving species-specific responses to CO2-induced ocean acidification.

  14. Physiologic and metagenomic attributes of the rhodoliths forming the largest CaCO3 bed in the South Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Giselle S; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; dos Santos, Eidy O; Silveira, Cynthia B; Meirelles, Pedro M; Longo, Leila; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Shota; Iida, Tetsuya; Sawabe, Tomoo; Rezende, Carlos E; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Moura, Rodrigo L; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2014-01-01

    Rhodoliths are free-living coralline algae (Rhodophyta, Corallinales) that are ecologically important for the functioning of marine environments. They form extensive beds distributed worldwide, providing a habitat and nursery for benthic organisms and space for fisheries, and are an important source of calcium carbonate. The Abrolhos Bank, off eastern Brazil, harbors the world's largest continuous rhodolith bed (of ∼21 000 km2) and has one of the largest marine CaCO3 deposits (producing 25 megatons of CaCO3 per year). Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about the microbial diversity, photosynthetic potential and ecological interactions within the rhodolith holobiont. Herein, we performed an ecophysiologic and metagenomic analysis of the Abrolhos rhodoliths to understand their microbial composition and functional components. Rhodoliths contained a specific microbiome that displayed a significant enrichment in aerobic ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria and dissimilative sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacteria. We also observed a significant contribution of bacterial guilds (that is, photolithoautotrophs, anaerobic heterotrophs, sulfide oxidizers, anoxygenic phototrophs and methanogens) in the rhodolith metagenome, suggested to have important roles in biomineralization. The increased hits in aromatic compounds, fatty acid and secondary metabolism subsystems hint at an important chemically mediated interaction in which a functional job partition among eukaryal, archaeal and bacterial groups allows the rhodolith holobiont to thrive in the global ocean. High rates of photosynthesis were measured for Abrolhos rhodoliths (52.16 μmol carbon m−2 s−1), allowing the entire Abrolhos rhodolith bed to produce 5.65 × 105 tons C per day. This estimate illustrates the great importance of the Abrolhos rhodolith beds for dissolved carbon production in the South Atlantic Ocean. PMID:23985749

  15. Antioxidant activity and mineral composition of three Mediterranean common seaweeds from Abu-Qir Bay, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Hanan M; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A

    2015-09-01

    Antioxidant activity and mineral composition were evaluated seasonally from spring to autumn 2010 in the three common seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta), Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet (Rhodophyta). The antioxidant activity was measured with β-carotene, total phenol content and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Seaweeds were collected from the rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya Abu-Qir Bay of Alexandria, Egypt. The results showed maximum increase of β-carotene in P. capillacea during summer. A significant increase in total phenolic content at P ⩽ 0.05 was found in the red alga (J. rubens) during summer. Also, U. lactuca showed the maximum antioxidant scavenging activity especially during summer. Minerals in all investigated samples were higher than those in conventional edible vegetables. Na/K ratio ranged between 0.78 and 2.4 mg/100 g, which is a favorable value. All trace metals exceeded the recommended doses by Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI). During summer season, it was found that Cu = 2.02 ± 0.13 and Cr = 0.46 ± 0.14 mg/100 g in U. lactuca and Fe had a suitable concentration (18.37 ± 0.5 mg/100 g) in P. capillacea. The studied species were rich in carotenoids, phenolic compounds, DPPH free radicals and minerals, therefore, they can be used as potential source of health food in human diets and may be of use to food industry. PMID:26288568

  16. Shining Light on Benthic Macroalgae: Mechanisms of Complementarity in Layered Macroalgal Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Leigh W.; Hawes, Ian; Schiel, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Phototrophs underpin most ecosystem processes, but to do this they need sufficient light. This critical resource, however, is compromised along many marine shores by increased loads of sediments and nutrients from degraded inland habitats. Increased attenuation of total irradiance within coastal water columns due to turbidity is known to reduce species' depth limits and affect the taxonomic structure and architecture of algal-dominated assemblages, but virtually no attention has been paid to the potential for changes in spectral quality of light energy to impact production dynamics. Pioneering studies over 70 years ago showed how different pigmentation of red, green and brown algae affected absorption spectra, action spectra, and photosynthetic efficiency across the PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) spectrum. Little of this, however, has found its way into ecological syntheses of the impacts of optically active contaminants on coastal macroalgal communities. Here we test the ability of macroalgal assemblages composed of multiple functional groups (including representatives from the chlorophyta, rhodophyta and phaeophyta) to use the total light resource, including different light wavelengths and examine the effects of suspended sediments on the penetration and spectral quality of light in coastal waters. We show that assemblages composed of multiple functional groups are better able to use light throughout the PAR spectrum. Macroalgal assemblages with four sub-canopy species were between 50–75% more productive than assemblages with only one or two sub-canopy species. Furthermore, attenuation of the PAR spectrum showed both a loss of quanta and a shift in spectral distribution with depth across coastal waters of different clarity, with consequences to productivity dynamics of diverse layered assemblages. The processes of light complementarity may help provide a mechanistic understanding of how altered turbidity affects macroalgal assemblages in coastal

  17. Physiologic and metagenomic attributes of the rhodoliths forming the largest CaCO3 bed in the South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Giselle S; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; dos Santos, Eidy O; Silveira, Cynthia B; Meirelles, Pedro M; Longo, Leila; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Shota; Iida, Tetsuya; Sawabe, Tomoo; Rezende, Carlos E; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Moura, Rodrigo L; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2014-01-01

    Rhodoliths are free-living coralline algae (Rhodophyta, Corallinales) that are ecologically important for the functioning of marine environments. They form extensive beds distributed worldwide, providing a habitat and nursery for benthic organisms and space for fisheries, and are an important source of calcium carbonate. The Abrolhos Bank, off eastern Brazil, harbors the world's largest continuous rhodolith bed (of ∼21,000 km(2)) and has one of the largest marine CaCO3 deposits (producing 25 megatons of CaCO3 per year). Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about the microbial diversity, photosynthetic potential and ecological interactions within the rhodolith holobiont. Herein, we performed an ecophysiologic and metagenomic analysis of the Abrolhos rhodoliths to understand their microbial composition and functional components. Rhodoliths contained a specific microbiome that displayed a significant enrichment in aerobic ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria and dissimilative sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacteria. We also observed a significant contribution of bacterial guilds (that is, photolithoautotrophs, anaerobic heterotrophs, sulfide oxidizers, anoxygenic phototrophs and methanogens) in the rhodolith metagenome, suggested to have important roles in biomineralization. The increased hits in aromatic compounds, fatty acid and secondary metabolism subsystems hint at an important chemically mediated interaction in which a functional job partition among eukaryal, archaeal and bacterial groups allows the rhodolith holobiont to thrive in the global ocean. High rates of photosynthesis were measured for Abrolhos rhodoliths (52.16 μmol carbon m(-2 )s(-1)), allowing the entire Abrolhos rhodolith bed to produce 5.65 × 10(5) tons C per day. This estimate illustrates the great importance of the Abrolhos rhodolith beds for dissolved carbon production in the South Atlantic Ocean. PMID:23985749

  18. Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel, a harmful microalga, and its production of dimethylsulfoniopropionate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Pingping; Qi, Yuzao; Wang, Yan; Huang, Liangmin

    2011-07-01

    The production of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and its cleavage products (DMS) are well studied in phytoplankton worldwide. However, less is known about their sources, distributions, and impacts in the coast of China. We examined the production of DMSP and DMS in Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel and other benthic macroalgae from the South China coast in relation to environmental conditions. P. globosa was a harmful marine microalgal species and its bloom took place in the eutrophic waters along the South China Sea frequently. It also produced high content of DMSP at different growth stages, with the highest concentration usually observed in the stationary period. Moreover, the production of DMSP in P. globosa was significantly affected by salinity and temperature with the highest contents associated with high salinity (e.g. 40) and low temperature (e.g. 20°C). In field benthic macroalgae, there was also a marked difference in the DMSP of various species or different samples of the same species. Chlorophyll a contents were also determined for each macroalgal species. The highest chlorophyll a (238.7 ng/g fresh weight) was recorded in Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca at Guishan Island (Zhuhai), while the lowest value (1.5 ng/g fresh weight) was found in Rhodophyta Gracilaria tenuistipitata in Zhanjiang. Further correlation analysis indicated that there was no significant relationship between the content of DMSP and chl- a in macroalgae samples ( P > 0.05). All the results suggested that the production of DMSP in marine algae was not only species- and stage-related, but also greatly affected by various environmental factors.

  19. The Complete Chloroplast and Mitochondrial Genomes of the Green Macroalga Ulva sp. UNA00071828 (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Melton, James T.; Leliaert, Frederik; Tronholm, Ana; Lopez-Bautista, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes has become an integral part in understanding the genomic machinery and the phylogenetic histories of green algae. Previously, only three chloroplast genomes (Oltmannsiellopsis viridis, Pseudendoclonium akinetum, and Bryopsis hypnoides) and two mitochondrial genomes (O. viridis and P. akinetum) from the class Ulvophyceae have been published. Here, we present the first chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes from the ecologically and economically important marine, green algal genus Ulva. The chloroplast genome of Ulva sp. was 99,983 bp in a circular-mapping molecule that lacked inverted repeats, and thus far, was the smallest ulvophycean plastid genome. This cpDNA was a highly compact, AT-rich genome that contained a total of 102 identified genes (71 protein-coding genes, 28 tRNA genes, and three ribosomal RNA genes). Additionally, five introns were annotated in four genes: atpA (1), petB (1), psbB (2), and rrl (1). The circular-mapping mitochondrial genome of Ulva sp. was 73,493 bp and follows the expanded pattern also seen in other ulvophyceans and trebouxiophyceans. The Ulva sp. mtDNA contained 29 protein-coding genes, 25 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes for a total of 56 identifiable genes. Ten introns were annotated in this mtDNA: cox1 (4), atp1 (1), nad3 (1), nad5 (1), and rrs (3). Double-cut-and-join (DCJ) values showed that organellar genomes across Chlorophyta are highly rearranged, in contrast to the highly conserved organellar genomes of the red algae (Rhodophyta). A phylogenomic investigation of 51 plastid protein-coding genes showed that Ulvophyceae is not monophyletic, and also placed Oltmannsiellopsis (Oltmannsiellopsidales) and Tetraselmis (Chlorodendrophyceae) closely to Ulva (Ulvales) and Pseudendoclonium (Ulothrichales). PMID:25849557

  20. Effects of coral reef benthic primary producers on dissolved organic carbon and microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andreas F; Nelson, Craig E; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Carlson, Craig A; Rohwer, Forest; Leichter, James J; Wyatt, Alex; Smith, Jennifer E

    2011-01-01

    Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat. We assessed microbial community response to dissolved exudates of each benthic producer by measuring bacterioplankton growth, respiration, and DOC drawdown in two-day dark dilution culture incubations. Experiments were conducted for six benthic producers: three species of macroalgae (each representing a different algal phylum: Turbinaria ornata--Ochrophyta; Amansia rhodantha--Rhodophyta; Halimeda opuntia--Chlorophyta), a mixed assemblage of turf algae, a species of crustose coralline algae (Hydrolithon reinboldii) and a dominant hermatypic coral (Porites lobata). Our results show that all five types of algae, but not the coral, exuded significant amounts of labile DOC into their surrounding environment. In general, primary producers with the highest rates of photosynthesis released the most DOC and yielded the greatest bacterioplankton growth; turf algae produced nearly twice as much DOC per unit surface area than the other benthic producers (14.0±2.8 µmol h⁻¹ dm⁻²), stimulating rapid bacterioplankton growth (0.044±0.002 log10 cells h⁻¹) and concomitant oxygen drawdown (0.16±0.05 µmol L⁻¹ h⁻¹ dm⁻²). Our results demonstrate that benthic reef algae can release a significant fraction of their photosynthetically-fixed carbon as DOC, these release rates vary by species, and this DOC is available to and consumed by reef associated microbes. These data provide compelling evidence that benthic primary producers differentially influence reef microbial

  1. From cyanobacteria to plants: conservation of PII functions during plastid evolution.

    PubMed

    Chellamuthu, Vasuki Ranjani; Alva, Vikram; Forchhammer, Karl

    2013-02-01

    This article reviews the current state-of-the-art concerning the functions of the signal processing protein PII in cyanobacteria and plants, with a special focus on evolutionary aspects. We start out with a general introduction to PII proteins, their distribution, and their evolution. We also discuss PII-like proteins and domains, in particular, the similarity between ATP-phosphoribosyltransferase (ATP-PRT) and its PII-like domain and the complex between N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK) and its PII activator protein from oxygenic phototrophs. The structural basis of the function of PII as an ATP/ADP/2-oxoglutarate signal processor is described for Synechococcus elongatus PII. In both cyanobacteria and plants, a major target of PII regulation is NAGK, which catalyzes the committed step of arginine biosynthesis. The common principles of NAGK regulation by PII are outlined. Based on the observation that PII proteins from cyanobacteria and plants can functionally replace each other, the hypothesis that PII-dependent NAGK control was under selective pressure during the evolution of plastids of Chloroplastida and Rhodophyta is tested by bioinformatics approaches. It is noteworthy that two lineages of heterokont algae, diatoms and brown algae, also possess NAGK, albeit lacking PII; their NAGK however appears to have descended from an alphaproteobacterium and not from a cyanobacterium as in plants. We end this article by coming to the conclusion that during the evolution of plastids, PII lost its function in coordinating gene expression through the PipX-NtcA network but preserved its role in nitrogen (arginine) storage metabolism, and subsequently took over the fine-tuned regulation of carbon (fatty acid) storage metabolism, which is important in certain developmental stages of plants. PMID:23192387

  2. Effects of Coral Reef Benthic Primary Producers on Dissolved Organic Carbon and Microbial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Andreas F.; Nelson, Craig E.; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Carlson, Craig A.; Rohwer, Forest; Leichter, James J.; Wyatt, Alex; Smith, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat. We assessed microbial community response to dissolved exudates of each benthic producer by measuring bacterioplankton growth, respiration, and DOC drawdown in two-day dark dilution culture incubations. Experiments were conducted for six benthic producers: three species of macroalgae (each representing a different algal phylum: Turbinaria ornata – Ochrophyta; Amansia rhodantha – Rhodophyta; Halimeda opuntia – Chlorophyta), a mixed assemblage of turf algae, a species of crustose coralline algae (Hydrolithon reinboldii) and a dominant hermatypic coral (Porites lobata). Our results show that all five types of algae, but not the coral, exuded significant amounts of labile DOC into their surrounding environment. In general, primary producers with the highest rates of photosynthesis released the most DOC and yielded the greatest bacterioplankton growth; turf algae produced nearly twice as much DOC per unit surface area than the other benthic producers (14.0±2.8 µmol h−1 dm−2), stimulating rapid bacterioplankton growth (0.044±0.002 log10 cells h−1) and concomitant oxygen drawdown (0.16±0.05 µmol L−1 h−1 dm−2). Our results demonstrate that benthic reef algae can release a significant fraction of their photosynthetically-fixed carbon as DOC, these release rates vary by species, and this DOC is available to and consumed by reef associated microbes. These data provide compelling evidence that benthic primary producers differentially influence reef

  3. Lipid Composition, Fatty Acids and Sterols in the Seaweeds Ulva armoricana, and Solieria chordalis from Brittany (France): An Analysis from Nutritional, Chemotaxonomic, and Antiproliferative Activity Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kendel, Melha; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane; Bertrand, Samuel; Roussakis, Christos; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Bedoux, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Lipids from the proliferative macroalgae Ulva armoricana (Chlorophyta) and Solieria chordalis (Rhodophyta) from Brittany, France, were investigated. The total content of lipids was 2.6% and 3.0% dry weight for U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The main fractions of S. chordalis were neutral lipids (37%) and glycolipids (38%), whereas U. armoricana contained mostly neutral lipids (55%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) represented 29% and 15% of the total lipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. In both studied algae, the phospholipids were composed of PUFA for 18%. In addition, PUFA were shown to represent 9% and 4.5% of glycolipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The essential PUFA were 16:4n-3, 18:4n-3, 18:2n-3, 18:2n-6, and 22:6n-3 in U. armoricana, and 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 in S. chordalis. It is important to notice that six 2-hydroxy-, three 3-hydroxy-, and two monounsaturated hydroxy fatty acids were also identified and may provide a chemotaxonomic basis for algae. These seaweeds contained interesting compounds such as squalene, α-tocopherol, cholest-4-en-3-one and phytosterols. The antiproliferative effect was evaluated in vitro on human non-small-cell bronchopulmonary carcinoma line (NSCLC-N6) with an IC50 of 23 μg/mL for monogalactosyldiacylglycerols isolated from S. chordalis and 24 μg/mL for digalactosyldiacylglycerols from U. armoricana. These results confirm the potentialities of valorization of these two species in the fields of health, nutrition and chemotaxonomy. PMID:26404323

  4. Development of a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy for analysis of the marine phytoplankton community.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tae-Ho; Kang, Hye-Eun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Sang Heon; Ahn, Do-Hwan; Park, Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We developed a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy to analyze phytoplankton community structure using the Illumina MiSeq system. The amplicons (404-411 bp) obtained by end-pairing of two reads were sufficiently long to distinguish algal species and provided barcode data equivalent to those generated with the Roche 454 system, but at less than 1/20th of the cost. The original universal primer sequences targeting the 23S rDNA region and the PCR strategy were both modified, and this resulted in higher numbers of eukaryotic algal sequences by excluding non-photosynthetic proteobacterial sequences supporting effectiveness of this strategy. The novel strategy was used to analyze the phytoplankton community structure of six water samples from the East/Japan Sea: surface and 50 m depths at coastal and open-sea sites, with collections in May and July 2014. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, which covered most of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic algal phyla, including Dinophyta, Rhodophyta, Ochrophyta, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta, Cryptophyta, Haptophyta, and Cyanophyta. This highlights the importance of plastid 23S primers, which perform better than the currently used 16S primers for phytoplankton community surveys. The findings also revealed that more efforts should be made to update 23S rDNA sequences as well as those of 16S in the databases. Analysis of algal proportions in the six samples showed that community structure differed depending on location, depth and season. Across the six samples evaluated, the numbers of OTUs in each phylum were similar but their relative proportions varied. This novel strategy would allow laboratories to analyze large numbers of samples at reasonable expense, whereas this has not been possible to date due to cost and time. In addition, we expect that this strategy will generate a large amount of novel data that could potentially change established methods and tools that are currently used in the realms of

  5. Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis Sheds Light on the Diversity and Origin of the MLO Family of Integral Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Stefan; Pesch, Lina; Panstruga, Ralph

    2016-03-01

    Mildew resistanceLocusO(MLO) proteins are polytopic integral membrane proteins that have long been considered as plant-specific and being primarily involved in plant-powdery mildew interactions. However, research in the past decade has revealed that MLO proteins diverged into a family with several clades whose members are associated with different physiological processes. We provide a largely increased dataset of MLO amino acid sequences, comprising nearly all major land plant lineages. Based on this comprehensive dataset, we defined seven phylogenetic clades and reconstructed the likely evolution of the MLO family in embryophytes. We further identified several MLO peptide motifs that are either conserved in all MLO proteins or confined to one or several clades, supporting the notion that clade-specific diversification of MLO functions is associated with particular sequence motifs. In baker's yeast, some of these motifs are functionally linked to transmembrane (TM) transport of organic molecules and ions. In addition, we attempted to define the evolutionary origin of the MLO family and found that MLO-like proteins with highly diverse membrane topologies are present in green algae, but also in the distinctly related red algae (Rhodophyta), Amoebozoa, and Chromalveolata. Finally, we discovered several instances of putative fusion events between MLO proteins and different kinds of proteins. Such Rosetta stone-type hybrid proteins might be instructive for future analysis of potential MLO functions. Our findings suggest that MLO is an ancient protein that possibly evolved in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes, and consolidated in land plants with a conserved topology, comprising seven TM domains and an intrinsically unstructured C-terminus. PMID:26893454

  6. The response of nutrient assimilation and biochemical composition of Arctic seaweeds to a nutrient input in summer.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Francisco J L; Aguilera, José; Jiménez, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-one species of macroalgae (four Chlorophyta, eight Rhodophyta, and nine Phaeophyta) from the Kongsfjord (Norwegian Arctic) were examined for their response to nutrient enrichment (nitrate and phosphate) in the summer period. The enzymatic activities related to nutrient assimilation, external carbonic anhydrase (CAext, EC 4.2.1.1), nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1), and alkaline phosphatase (AP, EC 3.1.3.1), as well as the biochemical composition (total C and N, soluble carbohydrates, soluble proteins, and pigments) were measured. CAext activity was present in all species, and showed a general decrease after nutrient enrichment. Inversely, NR activity increased in most of the species examined. Changes in pigment ratios pointed to the implication of light harvesting system in the acclimation strategy. Despite enzymatic and pigmentary response, the Arctic seaweeds can be regarded as not being N-limited even in summer, as shown by the slight effect of nutrient enrichment on biochemical composition. The exception being the nitrophilic species Monostroma arcticum and, to a lesser extent, Acrosiphonia sp. For the rest of the species studied, changes in total internal C and N, soluble proteins, soluble carbohydrates, pigment content, and the internal pool of inorganic N were recorded only for particular species and no general pattern was shown. Acclimation to unexpected nutrient input seemed to ensure the maintenance of a stable biomass composition, rather than an optimized use of the newly available resource (except for the nitrophilic species). This indicates a high degree of resilience of the algal community to a disruption in the natural nutrient availability pattern. PMID:16829547

  7. Development of a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy for analysis of the marine phytoplankton community

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Tae-Ho; Kang, Hye-Eun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Sang Heon; Ahn, Do-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    We developed a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy to analyze phytoplankton community structure using the Illumina MiSeq system. The amplicons (404–411 bp) obtained by end-pairing of two reads were sufficiently long to distinguish algal species and provided barcode data equivalent to those generated with the Roche 454 system, but at less than 1/20th of the cost. The original universal primer sequences targeting the 23S rDNA region and the PCR strategy were both modified, and this resulted in higher numbers of eukaryotic algal sequences by excluding non-photosynthetic proteobacterial sequences supporting effectiveness of this strategy. The novel strategy was used to analyze the phytoplankton community structure of six water samples from the East/Japan Sea: surface and 50 m depths at coastal and open-sea sites, with collections in May and July 2014. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, which covered most of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic algal phyla, including Dinophyta, Rhodophyta, Ochrophyta, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta, Cryptophyta, Haptophyta, and Cyanophyta. This highlights the importance of plastid 23S primers, which perform better than the currently used 16S primers for phytoplankton community surveys. The findings also revealed that more efforts should be made to update 23S rDNA sequences as well as those of 16S in the databases. Analysis of algal proportions in the six samples showed that community structure differed depending on location, depth and season. Across the six samples evaluated, the numbers of OTUs in each phylum were similar but their relative proportions varied. This novel strategy would allow laboratories to analyze large numbers of samples at reasonable expense, whereas this has not been possible to date due to cost and time. In addition, we expect that this strategy will generate a large amount of novel data that could potentially change established methods and tools that are currently used in the realms of

  8. Antioxidant activity and mineral composition of three Mediterranean common seaweeds from Abu-Qir Bay, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Khairy, Hanan M.; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activity and mineral composition were evaluated seasonally from spring to autumn 2010 in the three common seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta), Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet (Rhodophyta). The antioxidant activity was measured with β-carotene, total phenol content and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Seaweeds were collected from the rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya Abu-Qir Bay of Alexandria, Egypt. The results showed maximum increase of β-carotene in P. capillacea during summer. A significant increase in total phenolic content at P ⩽ 0.05 was found in the red alga (J. rubens) during summer. Also, U. lactuca showed the maximum antioxidant scavenging activity especially during summer. Minerals in all investigated samples were higher than those in conventional edible vegetables. Na/K ratio ranged between 0.78 and 2.4 mg/100 g, which is a favorable value. All trace metals exceeded the recommended doses by Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI). During summer season, it was found that Cu = 2.02 ± 0.13 and Cr = 0.46 ± 0.14 mg/100 g in U. lactuca and Fe had a suitable concentration (18.37 ± 0.5 mg/100 g) in P. capillacea. The studied species were rich in carotenoids, phenolic compounds, DPPH free radicals and minerals, therefore, they can be used as potential source of health food in human diets and may be of use to food industry. PMID:26288568

  9. Molecular and Ecological Evidence for Species Specificity and Coevolution in a Group of Marine Algal-Bacterial Symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Ashen, Jon B.; Goff, Lynda J.

    2000-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of bacterial symbionts from three gall-bearing species in the marine red algal genus Prionitis (Rhodophyta) were inferred from 16S rDNA sequence analysis and compared to host phylogeny also inferred from sequence comparisons (nuclear ribosomal internal-transcribed-spacer region). Gall formation has been described previously on two species of Prionitis, P. lanceolata (from central California) and P. decipiens (from Peru). This investigation reports gall formation on a third related host, Prionitis filiformis. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequence comparisons place the bacteria as a single lineage within the Roseobacter grouping of the α subclass of the division Proteobacteria (99.4 to 98.25% sequence identity among phylotypes). Comparison of symbiont and host molecular phylogenies confirms the presence of three gall-bearing algal lineages and is consistent with the hypothesis that these red seaweeds and their bacterial symbionts are coevolving. The species specificity of these associations was investigated in nature by whole-cell hybridization of gall bacteria and in the laboratory by using cross-inoculation trials. Whole-cell in situ hybridization confirmed that a single bacterial symbiont phylotype is present in galls on each host. In laboratory trials, bacterial symbionts were incapable of inducing galls on alternate hosts (including two non-gall-bearing species). Symbiont-host specificity in Prionitis gall formation indicates an effective ecological separation between these closely related symbiont phylotypes and provides an example of a biological context in which to consider the organismic significance of 16S rDNA sequence variation. PMID:10877801

  10. YCF1: A Green TIC?

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Jan; Sousa, Filipa L.; Bölter, Bettina; Soll, Jürgen; Gould, Sven B.

    2015-01-01

    A pivotal step in the transformation of an endosymbiotic cyanobacterium to a plastid some 1.5 billion years ago was the evolution of a protein import apparatus, the TOC/TIC machinery, in the common ancestor of Archaeplastida. Recently, a putative new TIC member was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana: TIC214. This finding is remarkable for a number of reasons: (1) TIC214 is encoded by ycf1, so it would be the first plastid-encoded protein of this apparatus; (2) ycf1 is unique to the green lineage (Chloroplastida) but entirely lacking in glaucophytes (Glaucophyta) and the red lineage (Rhodophyta) of the Archaeplastida; (3) ycf1 has been shown to be one of the few indispensable plastid genes (aside from the ribosomal machinery), yet it is missing in the grasses; and (4) 30 years of previous TOC/TIC research missed it. These observations prompted us to survey the evolution of ycf1. We found that ycf1 is not only lacking in grasses and some parasitic plants, but also for instance in cranberry (Ericaceae). The encoded YCF proteins are highly variable, both in sequence length and in the predicted number of N-terminal transmembrane domains. The evolution of the TOC/TIC machinery in the green lineage experienced specific modifications, but our analysis does not support YCF1 to be a general green TIC. It remains to be explained how the apparent complete loss of YCF1 can be tolerated by some embryophytes and whether what is observed for YCF1 function in a member of the Brassicaceae is also true for, e.g., algal and noncanonical YCF1 homologs. PMID:25818624

  11. Centrohelida is still searching for a phylogenetic home: analyses of seven Raphidiophrys contractilis genes.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Miako; Inagaki, Yuji; Hashimoto, Tetsuo

    2007-12-15

    By recent advance in evolutionary biology, the majority of eukaryotes are classified into six eukaryotic assemblages called as "supergroups". However, several eukaryotic groups show no clear evolutionary affinity to any of the six supergroups. Centrohelida, one of major heliozoan groups, are such an unresolved lineage. In this study, we newly determined the genes encoding translation elongation factor 2 (EF2), cytosolic heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and cytosolic heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) from the centroheliozoan Raphidiophrys contractilis. The three Raphidiophrys genes were then combined with previously determined actin, alpha-tubulin, beta-tubulin, and SSU rRNA sequences to phylogenetically analyze the position of Centrohelida in global eukaryotic phylogeny. Although the multi-gene data sets examined in this study are the largest ones including the centroheliozoan sequences, the relationships between Centrohelida and the eukaryotic groups considered were unresolved. Our careful investigation revealed that the phylogenetic estimates were highly sensitive to genes included in the multi-gene alignment. The signal of SSU rRNA and that of alpha-tubulin appeared to conflict with one another: the former strongly prefers a monophyly of Diplomonadida (e.g., Giardia), Parabasalia (e.g., Trichomonas), Heterolobosea (e.g., Naegleria), and Euglenozoa (e.g., Trypanosoma), while the latter unites Diplomonadida, Parabasalia, Metazoa, and Fungi. In addition, EF2 robustly unites Rhodophyta and Viridiplantae, while the remaining genes considered in this study do not positively support the particular relationship. Thus, it is difficult to identify the phylogenetic relatives of Centrohelida in the present study, since strong (and some are conflicting) gene-specific "signals" are predominant in the current multi-gene data. We concluded that larger scale multi-gene phylogenies are necessary to elucidate the origin and evolution of Centrohelida. PMID:17931802

  12. Marine Invasion in the Mediterranean Sea: The Role of Abiotic Factors When There Is No Biological Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The tropical red alga Womersleyella setacea (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) is causing increasing concern in the Mediterranean Sea because of its invasive behavior. After its introduction it has colonized most Mediterranean areas, but the mechanism underlying its acclimatization and invasion process remains unknown. To understand this process, we decided i) to assess in situ the seasonal biomass and phenological patterns of populations inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea in relation to the main environmental factors, and ii) to experimentally determine if the tolerance of W. setacea to different light and temperature conditions can explain its colonization success, as well as its bathymetric distribution range. The bathymetric distribution, biomass, and phenology of W. setacea were studied at two localities, and related to irradiance and temperature values recorded in situ. Laboratory experiments were set up to study survival, growth and reproduction under contrasting light and temperature conditions in the short, mid, and long term.Results showed that, in the studied area, the bathymetric distribution of W. setacea is restricted to a depth belt between 25 and 40 m deep, reaching maximum biomass values (126 g dw m−2) at 30 m depth. In concordance, although in the short term W. setacea survived and grew in a large range of environmental conditions, its life requirements for the mid and long term were dim light levels and low temperatures. Biomass of Womersleyella setacea did not show any clear seasonal pattern, though minimum values were reported in spring. Reproductive structures were always absent. Bearing in mind that no herbivores feed on Womersleyella setacea and that its thermal preferences are more characteristic of temperate than of tropical seaweeds, low light (50 µmol photon m−2 s−1) and low temperature (12°C) levels are critical for W. setacea survival and growth, thus probably determining its spread and bathymetric distribution across the Mediterranean

  13. Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis Sheds Light on the Diversity and Origin of the MLO Family of Integral Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kusch, Stefan; Pesch, Lina; Panstruga, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Mildew resistance Locus O (MLO) proteins are polytopic integral membrane proteins that have long been considered as plant-specific and being primarily involved in plant–powdery mildew interactions. However, research in the past decade has revealed that MLO proteins diverged into a family with several clades whose members are associated with different physiological processes. We provide a largely increased dataset of MLO amino acid sequences, comprising nearly all major land plant lineages. Based on this comprehensive dataset, we defined seven phylogenetic clades and reconstructed the likely evolution of the MLO family in embryophytes. We further identified several MLO peptide motifs that are either conserved in all MLO proteins or confined to one or several clades, supporting the notion that clade-specific diversification of MLO functions is associated with particular sequence motifs. In baker’s yeast, some of these motifs are functionally linked to transmembrane (TM) transport of organic molecules and ions. In addition, we attempted to define the evolutionary origin of the MLO family and found that MLO-like proteins with highly diverse membrane topologies are present in green algae, but also in the distinctly related red algae (Rhodophyta), Amoebozoa, and Chromalveolata. Finally, we discovered several instances of putative fusion events between MLO proteins and different kinds of proteins. Such Rosetta stone-type hybrid proteins might be instructive for future analysis of potential MLO functions. Our findings suggest that MLO is an ancient protein that possibly evolved in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes, and consolidated in land plants with a conserved topology, comprising seven TM domains and an intrinsically unstructured C-terminus. PMID:26893454

  14. Two Streptomyces species producing antibiotic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory compounds are widespread among intertidal macroalgae and deep-sea coral reef invertebrates from the central Cantabrian Sea.

    PubMed

    Braña, Alfredo F; Braña, Afredo F; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Nava, Herminio; González, Verónica; Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Molina, Axayacatl; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    Streptomycetes are widely distributed in the marine environment, although only a few studies on their associations to algae and coral ecosystems have been reported. Using a culture-dependent approach, we have isolated antibiotic-active Streptomyces species associated to diverse intertidal marine macroalgae (Phyllum Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Chlorophyta), from the central Cantabrian Sea. Two strains, with diverse antibiotic and cytotoxic activities, were found to inhabit these coastal environments, being widespread and persistent over a 3-year observation time frame. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the strains were identified as Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus M-27 and Streptomyces carnosus M-40. Similar isolates to these two strains were also associated to corals and other invertebrates from deep-sea coral reef ecosystem (Phyllum Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, Sipuncula, and Anelida) living up to 4.700-m depth in the submarine Avilés Canyon, thus revealing their barotolerant feature. These two strains were also found to colonize terrestrial lichens and have been repeatedly isolated from precipitations from tropospheric clouds. Compounds with antibiotic and cytotoxic activities produced by these strains were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and database comparison. Antitumor compounds with antibacterial activities and members of the anthracycline family (daunomycin, cosmomycin B, galtamycin B), antifungals (maltophilins), anti-inflamatory molecules also with antituberculosis properties (lobophorins) were identified in this work. Many other compounds produced by the studied strains still remain unidentified, suggesting that Streptomyces associated to algae and coral ecosystems might represent an underexplored promising source for pharmaceutical drug discovery. PMID:25319239

  15. Lipid Composition, Fatty Acids and Sterols in the Seaweeds Ulva armoricana, and Solieria chordalis from Brittany (France): An Analysis from Nutritional, Chemotaxonomic, and Antiproliferative Activity Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kendel, Melha; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane; Bertrand, Samuel; Roussakis, Christos; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Bedoux, Gilles

    2015-09-01

    Lipids from the proliferative macroalgae Ulva armoricana (Chlorophyta) and Solieria chordalis (Rhodophyta) from Brittany, France, were investigated. The total content of lipids was 2.6% and 3.0% dry weight for U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The main fractions of S. chordalis were neutral lipids (37%) and glycolipids (38%), whereas U. armoricana contained mostly neutral lipids (55%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) represented 29% and 15% of the total lipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. In both studied algae, the phospholipids were composed of PUFA for 18%. In addition, PUFA were shown to represent 9% and 4.5% of glycolipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The essential PUFA were 16:4n-3, 18:4n-3, 18:2n-3, 18:2n-6, and 22:6n-3 in U. armoricana, and 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 in S. chordalis. It is important to notice that six 2-hydroxy-, three 3-hydroxy-, and two monounsaturated hydroxy fatty acids were also identified and may provide a chemotaxonomic basis for algae. These seaweeds contained interesting compounds such as squalene, α-tocopherol, cholest-4-en-3-one and phytosterols. The antiproliferative effect was evaluated in vitro on human non-small-cell bronchopulmonary carcinoma line (NSCLC-N6) with an IC50 of 23 μg/mL for monogalactosyldiacylglycerols isolated from S. chordalis and 24 μg/mL for digalactosyldiacylglycerols from U. armoricana. These results confirm the potentialities of valorization of these two species in the fields of health, nutrition and chemotaxonomy. PMID:26404323

  16. The complete chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of the green macroalga Ulva sp. UNA00071828 (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Melton, James T; Leliaert, Frederik; Tronholm, Ana; Lopez-Bautista, Juan M

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes has become an integral part in understanding the genomic machinery and the phylogenetic histories of green algae. Previously, only three chloroplast genomes (Oltmannsiellopsis viridis, Pseudendoclonium akinetum, and Bryopsis hypnoides) and two mitochondrial genomes (O. viridis and P. akinetum) from the class Ulvophyceae have been published. Here, we present the first chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes from the ecologically and economically important marine, green algal genus Ulva. The chloroplast genome of Ulva sp. was 99,983 bp in a circular-mapping molecule that lacked inverted repeats, and thus far, was the smallest ulvophycean plastid genome. This cpDNA was a highly compact, AT-rich genome that contained a total of 102 identified genes (71 protein-coding genes, 28 tRNA genes, and three ribosomal RNA genes). Additionally, five introns were annotated in four genes: atpA (1), petB (1), psbB (2), and rrl (1). The circular-mapping mitochondrial genome of Ulva sp. was 73,493 bp and follows the expanded pattern also seen in other ulvophyceans and trebouxiophyceans. The Ulva sp. mtDNA contained 29 protein-coding genes, 25 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes for a total of 56 identifiable genes. Ten introns were annotated in this mtDNA: cox1 (4), atp1 (1), nad3 (1), nad5 (1), and rrs (3). Double-cut-and-join (DCJ) values showed that organellar genomes across Chlorophyta are highly rearranged, in contrast to the highly conserved organellar genomes of the red algae (Rhodophyta). A phylogenomic investigation of 51 plastid protein-coding genes showed that Ulvophyceae is not monophyletic, and also placed Oltmannsiellopsis (Oltmannsiellopsidales) and Tetraselmis (Chlorodendrophyceae) closely to Ulva (Ulvales) and Pseudendoclonium (Ulothrichales). PMID:25849557

  17. Implementation of a ground truth process for development of a submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) mapping protocol using hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Carlton R.; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Virnstein, Robert W.

    2006-09-01

    Protocol development for science based mapping of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) requires comprehensive ground truth data describing the full range of variability observed in the target. The Indian River Lagoon, Florida, extends along 250 km of the east central Florida coast adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. The lagoon crosses the transition zone between the Caribbean and Carolinian zoogeographic provinces making it highly diverse. For large scale mapping and management of SAV four common and three uncommon species of seagrass (Tracheophyta) and three broad groups of macroalgae; red algae (Rhodophyta), green algae (Chlorophyta), and brown algae (Phaeophyta) are recognized. Based on technical and cost limitations we established twenty, 7-10 km long flight transects for collection of 1.2 m2 spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery covering the length of the lagoon. Emphasis was placed on the area near the Sebastian River and adjacent Sebastian Inlet. Twenty six 40 m long ground truth transects were established in the lagoon using 1 m2 white panels to mark each transect end. Each transect target was located in the field using high precision GPS. Transects were positioned to cover a range of depths, SAV densities, mixed and monotypic species beds, water quality conditions and general sediment types. A 3 m wide by 30 m long grid was centered on each transect to avoid spectral influences of the white targets. Water depth, species of seagrasses, estimates of vegetation cover percentage, estimates of epiphytic density, and measured canopy height were made for each 1 m2 (n=90). This target based grid arrangement allows for identification and extraction of pixel based hyperspectral signatures corresponding to individual ground truth grid cells without significant concern for rectification and registration error.

  18. Activated chemical defenses suppress herbivory on freshwater red algae.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Keri M; Hay, Mark E

    2013-04-01

    The rapid life cycles of freshwater algae are hypothesized to suppress selection for chemical defenses against herbivores, but this notion remains untested. Investigations of chemical defenses are rare for freshwater macrophytes and absent for freshwater red algae. We used crayfish to assess the palatability of five freshwater red algae relative to a palatable green alga and a chemically defended aquatic moss. We then assessed the roles of structural, nutritional, and chemical traits in reducing palatability. Both native and non-native crayfish preferred the green alga Cladophora glomerata to four of the five red algae. Batrachospermum helminthosum, Kumanoa holtonii, and Tuomeya americana employed activated chemical defenses that suppressed feeding by 30-60 % following damage to algal tissues. Paralemanea annulata was defended by its cartilaginous structure, while Boldia erythrosiphon was palatable. Activated defenses are thought to reduce ecological costs by expressing potent defenses only when actually needed; thus, activation might be favored in freshwater red algae whose short-lived gametophytes must grow and reproduce rapidly over a brief growing season. The frequency of activated chemical defenses found here (three of five species) is 3-20× higher than for surveys of marine algae or aquatic vascular plants. If typical for freshwater red algae, this suggests that (1) their chemical defenses may go undetected if chemical activation is not considered and (2) herbivory has been an important selective force in the evolution of freshwater Rhodophyta. Investigations of defenses in freshwater rhodophytes contribute to among-system comparisons and provide insights into the generality of plant-herbivore interactions and their evolution. PMID:23011851

  19. THE BIOGEOGRAPHIC ORIGIN OF ARCTIC ENDEMIC SEAWEEDS: A THERMOGEOGRAPHIC VIEW(1).

    PubMed

    Adey, Walter H; Lindstrom, Sandra C; Hommersand, Max H; Müller, Kirsten M

    2008-12-01

    The Arctic is geologically and biogeographically young, and the origin of its seaweed flora has been widely debated. The Arctic littoral biogeographic region dates from the latest Tertiary and Pleistocene. Following the opening of Bering Strait, about 3.5 mya, the "Great Trans-Arctic Biotic Interchange" populated the Arctic with a fauna strongly dominated by species of North Pacific origin. The Thermogeographic Model (TM) demonstrates why climate and geography continued to support this pattern in the Pleistocene. Thus, Arctic and Atlantic subarctic species of seaweeds are likely to be evolutionarily "based" in the North Pacific, subarctic species are likely to be widespread in the warmer Arctic, and species of Atlantic Boreal or warmer origin are unlikely in the Arctic and Subarctic. Although Arctic seaweeds have been thought to have a greater affinity with the North Atlantic, we have reanalyzed the Arctic endemic algal flora, using the Thermogeographic Model and evolutionary trees based on molecular data, to demonstrate otherwise. There are 35 congeneric species of the six, abundant Arctic Rhodophyta that we treat in this paper; 32 of these species (91%) occur in the North Pacific, two species (6%) occur in the Boreal or warmer Atlantic Ocean, and a single species is panoceanic, but restricted to the Subarctic. Laminaria solidungula J. Agardh, a kelp Arctic "endemic" species, has 18 sister species. While only eleven (61%) occur in the North Pacific, this rapidly dispersing and evolving genus is a terminal member of a diverse family and order (Laminariales) widely accepted to have evolved in the North Pacific. Thus, both the physical/time-based TM and the dominant biogeographic pattern of relatives of Arctic macrophytes suggest strong compliance with the evidence of zoology, geology, and paleoclimatology that the Arctic marine flora is largely of Pacific origin. PMID:27039853

  20. Trace metal/Ca ratios in benthic foraminifera: the potential to reconstruct past variations in temperature and hypoxia in shelf regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneveld, J.; Filipsson, H. L.

    2013-03-01

    Shelf and coastal regions are exceptionally important for many countries as they provide the main habitat for many economically important fish and shellfish species. With ongoing global warming and human-induced eutrophication the shelf regions are especially affected, resulting in increased temperatures and stratification as well as oxygen depletion of the bottom waters. In order to be able to predict the magnitude of these changes in the future it is necessary to study how they varied in the past. Commonly used foraminiferal climate and environmental proxies, e.g. stable isotopes and trace metal/Ca ratios, which are applied in open-ocean settings are not necessarily applicable in shelf regions, either as faunas are completely different or as conditions change a-typical compared to the open-ocean. In this study we explore the use of Mg/Ca as paleothermometer and Mn/Ca as a potential proxy for changing dissolved oxygen conditions on the benthic foraminifera Bulimina marginata and Globobulimina turgida. Living specimens were collected from the Skagerrak and the Gullmar Fjord (SW-Sweden); the latter is hypoxic for several months a year. As the specimens were alive when collected it can be excluded that any diagenetic coatings have affected the trace metal/Ca ratios. The Mg/Ca ratios are similar to previously published values from the literature but display much larger variation than would be expected from the annual temperature change of less than 2 °C. An additional impact of the difference in the carbonate ion saturation state between the Skagerrak and the Gullmar Fjord could explain the results. Mn/Ca ratios on Globobulimina turgida potentially record variations in dissolved oxygen of the habitat where the foraminifera calcify. Samples from the Skagerrak display increased Mn/Ca in specimens which lived deeper in the sediment than those that lived near the surface. Globobulimina turgida samples from the lower oxygen Gullmar Fjord showed significantly increased Mn

  1. Mg/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios in benthic foraminifera: the potential to reconstruct past variations in temperature and hypoxia in shelf regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneveld, J.; Filipsson, H. L.

    2013-07-01

    Shelf and coastal regions are exceptionally important for many countries as they provide the main habitat for many economically important fish and shellfish species. With ongoing climate change and human-induced eutrophication the shelf regions are especially affected, resulting in increased temperatures and stratification as well as oxygen depletion of the bottom waters. In order to be able to predict the magnitude of these changes in the future, it is necessary to study how they varied in the past. Commonly used foraminiferal climate and environmental proxies, e.g., stable isotopes and trace metal/Ca ratios, that are applied in open-ocean settings are not necessarily applicable in shelf regions, either as faunas are significantly different or as conditions can change much faster compared to the open ocean. In this study we explore the use of Mg/Ca as paleothermometer and Mn/Ca as a potential proxy for changing dissolved oxygen conditions in bottom water on the benthic foraminifera Bulimina marginata and Globobulimina turgida. Living specimens were collected from the Skagerrak and the Gullmar Fjord (SW Sweden); the latter is hypoxic for several months a year. As the specimens were alive when collected, we assume it unlikely that any diagenetic coatings have already significantly affected the trace metal/Ca ratios. The Mg/Ca ratios are similar to previously published values but display much larger variation than would be expected from the annual temperature change of less than 2 °C. An additional impact of the difference in the calcite saturation state between the Skagerrak and the Gullmar Fjord could explain the results. Mn/Ca ratios from G. turgida can potentially be related to variations in dissolved oxygen of the habitat where the foraminifera calcify. Samples from the Skagerrak display increased Mn/Ca in specimens that lived deeper in the sediment than those that lived near the surface. G. turgida samples from the low-oxygen Gullmar Fjord showed significantly

  2. Physiological ecology of overwintering in the hatchling painted turtle: multiple-scale variation in response to environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Jon P; Dinkelacker, Stephen A; Iverson, John B; Lee, Richard E

    2004-01-01

    We integrated field and laboratory studies in an investigation of water balance, energy use, and mechanisms of cold-hardiness in hatchling painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) indigenous to west-central Nebraska (Chrysemys picta bellii) and northern Indiana (Chrysemys picta marginata) during the winters of 1999-2000 and 2000-2001. We examined 184 nests, 80 of which provided the hatchlings (n=580) and/or samples of soil used in laboratory analyses. Whereas winter 1999-2000 was relatively dry and mild, the following winter was wet and cold; serendipitously, the contrast illuminated a marked plasticity in physiological response to environmental stress. Physiological and cold-hardiness responses of turtles also varied between study locales, largely owing to differences in precipitation and edaphics and the lower prevailing and minimum nest temperatures (to -13.2 degrees C) encountered by Nebraska turtles. In Nebraska, winter mortality occurred within 12.5% (1999-2000) and 42.3% (2000-2001) of the sampled nests; no turtles died in the Indiana nests. Laboratory studies of the mechanisms of cold-hardiness used by hatchling C. picta showed that resistance to inoculative freezing and capacity for freeze tolerance increased as winter approached. However, the level of inoculation resistance strongly depended on the physical characteristics of nest soil, as well as its moisture content, which varied seasonally. Risk of inoculative freezing (and mortality) was greatest in midwinter when nest temperatures were lowest and soil moisture and activity of constituent organic ice nuclei were highest. Water balance in overwintering hatchlings was closely linked to dynamics of precipitation and soil moisture, whereas energy use and the size of the energy reserve available to hatchlings in spring depended on the winter thermal regime. Acute chilling resulted in hyperglycemia and hyperlactemia, which persisted throughout winter; this response may be cryoprotective. Some physiological

  3. Molecular systematics and biogeography of the southern South american freshwater "crabs" Aegla (decapoda: Anomura: Aeglidae) using multiple heuristic tree search approaches.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Bond-Buckup, Georgina; Jara, Carlos G; Crandall, Keith A

    2004-10-01

    Recently new heuristic genetic algorithms such as Treefinder and MetaGA have been developed to search for optimal trees in a maximum likelihood (ML) framework. In this study we combined these methods with other standard heuristic approaches such as ML and maximum parsimony hill-climbing searches and Bayesian inference coupled with Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques under homogeneous and mixed models of evolution to conduct an extensive phylogenetic analysis of the most abundant and widely distributed southern South American freshwater"crab,"the Aegla(Anomura: Aeglidae). A total of 167 samples representing 64 Aegla species and subspecies were sequenced for one nuclear (28S rDNA) and four mitochondrial (12S and 16S rDNA, COI, and COII) genes (5352 bp total). Additionally, six other anomuran species from the genera Munida,Pachycheles, and Uroptychus(Galatheoidea), Lithodes(Paguroidea), and Lomis(Lomisoidea) and the nuclear 18S rDNA gene (1964 bp) were included in preliminary analyses for rooting the Aegla tree. Nonsignificantly different phylogenetic hypotheses resulted from all the different heuristic methods used here, although the best scored topologies found under the ML hill-climbing, Bayesian, and MetaGA approaches showed considerably better likelihood scores (Delta> 54) than those found under the MP and Treefinder approaches. Our trees provided strong support for most of the recognized Aegla species except for A. cholchol,A. jarai,A. parana,A. marginata, A. platensis, and A. franciscana, which may actually represent multiple species. Geographically, the Aegla group was divided into a basal western clade (21 species and subspecies) composed of two subclades with overlapping distributions, and a more recent central-eastern clade (43 species) composed of three subclades with fairly well-recognized distributions. This result supports the Pacific-Origin Hypothesis postulated for the group; alternative hypotheses of Atlantic or multiple origins were significantly

  4. Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-01-01

    ; Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Oliver, 1984) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata; Pseudorhabdosynochus mizellei n. sp. from red hind Epinephelus guttatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus williamsi n. sp. from rock hind Epinephelus adscensionis; Pseudorhabdosynochus bunkleywilliamsae n. sp. from Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mycteropercae n. sp. from tiger grouper Mycteroperca tigris; and Pseudorhabdosynochus tumeovagina n. sp. from speckled hind Epinephelus drummondhayi. Pseudorhabdosynochus woodi n. sp. from red hind Epinephelus guttatus is described based on specimens from the US National Parasite Collection (USNPC). Drawings of the haptoral and copulatory sclerites of the type specimens in the USNPC of Pseudorhabdosynochus monaensis Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1994 from rock hind Epinephelus adscensionis are presented. Finally, a note confirming Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli Yamaguti, 1958 rather than its senior synonym Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli (Yamaguti, 1938) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 as the type species of Pseudorhabdosynochus is provided. PMID:26272242

  5. Characterization of bottom hydrodynamic conditions on the central western Portuguese continental shelf based on benthic foraminifera and sedimentary parameters.

    PubMed

    Martins, Maria Virgínia Alves; Quintino, Victor; Tentúgal, Rita Marques; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Miranda, Paulo; Mattos Laut, Lazaro Luiz; Martins, Roberto; Rodrigues, Ana Maria

    2015-08-01

    Dead benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the central western Portuguese continental shelf have been studied to identify the prevalent oceanographic processes in the study area. Sediment samples collected at 46 stations along transepts perpendicular to the coastal line, between the latitudes of 38-40 °N and 17-190 m water depth, in April/May 2008, were analysed for selected physicochemical parameters (temperature, redox potential), grain size, organic matter content, and benthic foraminifera. Statistical analysis identified two main groups of stations, the Inshore/Offshore groups, which are not only defined by their geographical positions, but easily distinguishable by different hydrodynamic conditions. The Offshore Group is mainly represented by deeper stations characterized by a higher percentage of fines and TOM, negative values of redox potential and by the higher foraminiferal density and species diversity than the Inshore one. Foraminiferal assemblages of the Offshore Group are dominated/represented by species (such as Cassidulina laevigata/Cassidulina carinata, Bolivina spathulata, Bolivina ordinaria, Globocassidulina minuta, Bulimina elongata/Bulimina gibba and Bulimina marginata) common in areas with significant concentrations of organic matter. The benthic foraminiferal assemblages of the Inshore Group are instead characterized by epifaunal species such as Lobatula lobatula, Cibicides ungerianus, Planorbulina mediterranensis, Gavelinopsis praegeri and Quinqueloculina seminula. Both the sedimentary and foraminiferal results suggest that this group of stations is subjected to stronger bottom hydrodynamic conditions, caused by waves and swell activity and coastal currents, than the Offshore Group. Bray-Curtis similarity comparison between the stations of both groups reveals that the Offshore Group has a higher internal similarity than the Inshore Group. These differences seem to stem from topographic forcing, from the presence of rocky outcrops, from

  6. Investigation of the calcification response of foraminifera and pteropods to high CO2 environments in the Pleistocene, Paleogene and Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, M.; Pettit, L.; Wall-Palmer, D.; Smart, C.; Hall-Spencer, J.; Medina-Sanchez, A.; Prol Ledesma, R. M.; Rodolfo-Metalpa, R.; Collins, P.

    2012-04-01

    Ocean acidification is regarded as a current problem and there is an extensive literature on how various organisms are responding to changes in oceanic pH: the result of increasing atmospheric pCO2. Acidification is, however, not just a recent phenomenon and there are times in the geological record where pCO2 has been higher than present day levels (especially in the Cretaceous and Paleogene). Understanding the response of various microfossil groups to the changes in oceanic pH is on-going as part of a major investigation of ocean acidification in both modern and 'fossil' environments. Extensive carbon dioxide vents have recently been described in the Wagner Basin (northern Gulf of California, Mexico), which cause dramatic changes in carbonate chemistry. The pHT decreased from 7.88 to 7.55 near the most active vents where the lowest saturation states of aragonite (ΩArag) and calcite (ΩCalc) were 0.95 and 1.47 respectively. Foraminifera (unicellular protists) present in the top 2 cm of the sediment (both living and dead individuals) had a range of mainly calcareous taxa (including Bolivina acuminata, B. acutula, Bulimina marginata and Nonionella basispinata). This is a normal composition for these water depths. The lack of dissolution features and the generally good preservation of the tests, even when viewed under a scanning electron microscope, were striking. With no evidence of breakage caused by transportation, it is assumed that this composition is representative in terms of numbers of individuals and taxa represented. Benthic foraminifera from CO2 vents around the island of Ischia (Italy) have shown dramatic long-term effects of ocean acidification. The foraminifera of the Wagner Basin appear to be surviving in high CO2 environments comparable to those that occurred during the Cretaceous-Paleogene "greenhouse" world where atmospheric pCO2 was much higher, but with calcareous foraminifera apparently thriving. In the Pleistocene, pCO2 levels are known to have

  7. Does leaf water efficiency vary among eucalypts in water-limited environments?

    PubMed

    Hatton, Tom; Reece, Peter; Taylor, Peter; McEwan, Kerryn

    1998-01-01

    There is a need to generalize water use behavior of eucalypts to facilitate bioengineering and landscape remediation programs in a wide range of Australian environments. A critical question can be stated as a null hypothesis: tree water use per unit leaf area (leaf efficiency) is independent of eucalypt species. This is implicitly equivalent to the hydrological equilibrium hypothesis that states that leaf area is a function of climate, at least in cases where transpiration and growth are limited by soil water. Failure to reject this null hypothesis simplifies (a) the selection of tree species for water balance management, (b) the generation of regional-scale expectations of leaf area index, and (c) the estimation (monitoring) of the effectiveness of plantations in controlling site water balance. The hypothesis was tested with tree water use data collected in natural multi-species stands across Australia, including sites in the wet-dry season tropical woodlands of the Northern Territory, the Mediterranean climate forests of Western Australia, and a woodland system in southern New South Wales receiving an even distribution of rainfall throughout the year. We also tested the hypothesis in a multi-species tree plantation growing on a saline gradient. In each case, we could not reject the hypothesis of constant leaf efficiency among eucalypts. In every case there was a common, strong, linear relationship among tree leaf area and mean daily water use by all tree species in a sample. Single factor (species) analysis of variance did not detect significant differences between leaf water efficiencies of species. For the jarrah forest (Eucalyptus marginata J. Donn ex Sm., E. calophylla R. Br. ex Lindl.), the null hypothesis held in both spring (wet) and autumn (dry) conditions. The null hypothesis held in the mixed species woodland of New South Wales (E. macrorhynca F.J. Muell. ex Benth., E. blakelyi Maiden., E. polyanthemos Schauer.) under summer and autumn conditions, and

  8. Benthic foraminifera as tools in interpretation of subsurface hydrocarbon fluid flow at Veslemøy High and Hola-Vesterålen areas of the Barents Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranwal, Soma; Sauer, Simone; Knies, Jochen; Chand, Shyam; Jensen, Henning; Klug, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Trifarina. Discanomalina coronata is an indicator species to identify active cold-water coral mounds. A negative carbon isotopic signal is recorded by D. coronata in all samples. Seep samples with low diversities also contain deformed individuals of Cibicides lobatulus (3.4-6.5 %), similar to those reported for a gigantic oil spill from a tanker or for environments polluted with heavy metals. However, it is an attached form and thus its test shape is affected by the nature of the substratum. Carbon isotopic signature of the deformed specimens reveal slightly lower values than their undeformed counterparts. One sample from Ullsfjorden was also studied where the assemblage is represented by Bulimina, Cassidulina, Globobulimina, Melonis, Nonionella and Reophax. Infaunal fauna B. marginata, M. barleeanum, and N. labradorica prefer muddy/silty to sandy substrata and high organic matter input, and thrive under suboxic-dysoxic conditions. All species in this assemblage have recorded negative carbon isotopic signal.

  9. Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species

    PubMed Central

    Kritsky, Delane C.; Bakenhaster, Micah D.; Adams, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    ; Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Oliver, 1984) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata; Pseudorhabdosynochus mizellei n. sp. from red hind Epinephelus guttatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus williamsi n. sp. from rock hind Epinephelus adscensionis; Pseudorhabdosynochus bunkleywilliamsae n. sp. from Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mycteropercae n. sp. from tiger grouper Mycteroperca tigris; and Pseudorhabdosynochus tumeovagina n. sp. from speckled hind Epinephelus drummondhayi. Pseudorhabdosynochus woodi n. sp. from red hind Epinephelus guttatus is described based on specimens from the US National Parasite Collection (USNPC). Drawings of the haptoral and copulatory sclerites of the type specimens in the USNPC of Pseudorhabdosynochus monaensis Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1994 from rock hind Epinephelus adscensionis are presented. Finally, a note confirming Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli Yamaguti, 1958 rather than its senior synonym Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli (Yamaguti, 1938) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 as the type species of Pseudorhabdosynochus is provided. PMID:26272242

  10. Penultimate and last glacial cycles in the western Bering Sea: evidence from micropaleontological and sedimentary records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsepyan, Ekaterina; Ivanova, Elena; Murdmaa, Ivar

    2014-05-01

    lling/Allerød and Early Holocene with the corresponding weakening of the bottom water oxygenation are well-pronounced in the studied record. We argue that the peaks of PF and BF abundance, as well as high percentages of the high-productivity species Bulimina marginata and Bolivina seminuda reflecting an increase in bioproductivity during the Bølling/Allerød and Early Holocene, were mainly related to an intensified advection of nutrients by the surface currents from the gradually flooded northeastern Bering Sea shelf during the glacioeustatic sea level rise.

  11. Structure and evolution of the plant cation diffusion facilitator family of ion transporters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Members of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family are integral membrane divalent cation transporters that transport metal ions out of the cytoplasm either into the extracellular space or into internal compartments such as the vacuole. The spectrum of cations known to be transported by proteins of the CDF family include Zn, Fe, Co, Cd, and Mn. Members of this family have been identified in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and archaea, and in sequenced plant genomes. CDF families range in size from nine members in Selaginella moellendorffii to 19 members in Populus trichocarpa. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the CDF family has expanded within plants, but a definitive plant CDF family phylogeny has not been constructed. Results Representative CDF members were annotated from diverse genomes across the Viridiplantae and Rhodophyta lineages and used to identify phylogenetic relationships within the CDF family. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of CDF amino acid sequence data supports organizing land plant CDF family sequences into 7 groups. The origin of the 7 groups predates the emergence of land plants. Among these, 5 of the 7 groups are likely to have originated at the base of the tree of life, and 2 of 7 groups appear to be derived from a duplication event prior to or coincident with land plant evolution. Within land plants, local expansion continues within select groups, while several groups are strictly maintained as one gene copy per genome. Conclusions Defining the CDF gene family phylogeny contributes to our understanding of this family in several ways. First, when embarking upon functional studies of the members, defining primary groups improves the predictive power of functional assignment of orthologous/paralogous genes and aids in hypothesis generation. Second, defining groups will allow a group-specific sequence motif to be generated that will help define future CDF family sequences and aid in functional motif identification, which currently is

  12. The kingdom Protista and its 45 phyla.

    PubMed

    Corliss, J O

    1984-01-01

    . Chytridiomycota Sparrow, 1959). III. The chlorobionts (Chlorophyta Pascher, 1914; Prasinophyta Christensen, 1962; Conjugatophyta Engler, 1892; Charophyta Rabenhorst, 1863; incert. sed. Glaucophyta Bohlin, 1901). IV. The euglenozoa (Euglenophyta Pascher, 1931; Kinetoplastidea Honigberg, 1963; incert. sed. Pseudociliata Corliss & Lipscomb, 1982). V. The rhodophytes (Rhodophyta Rabenhorst, 1863). VI. The cryptomonads (Cryptophyta Pascher, 1914). VII. The choanoflagellates (Choanoflagellata Kent, 1880).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6395918

  13. Trace Elements in Calcifying Marine Invertebrates Indicate Diverse Sensitivities to the Seawater Carbonate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Surface ocean absorption of anthropogenic CO2 emissions resulting in ocean acidification may interfere with the ability of calcifying marine organisms to biomineralize, since the drop in pH is accompanied by reductions in CaCO3 saturation state. However, recent experiments show that net calcification rates of cultured benthic invertebrate taxa exhibit diverse responses to pCO2-induced changes in saturation state (Ries et al., 2009). Advancement of geochemical tools as biomineralization indicators will enable us to better understand these results and therefore help predict the impacts of ongoing and future decrease in seawater pH on marine organisms. Here we build upon previous work on these specimens by measuring the elemental composition of biogenic calcite and aragonite precipitated in four pCO2 treatments (400; 600; 900; and 2850 ppm). Element ratios (including Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, Li/Ca, B/Ca, U/Ca, Ba/Ca, Cd/Ca, and Zn/Ca) were analyzed in 18 macro-invertebrate species representing seven phyla (crustacea, cnidaria, echinoidea, rhodophyta, chlorophyta, gastropoda, bivalvia, annelida), then compared to growth rate data and experimental seawater carbonate system parameters: [CO32-], [HCO3-], pH, saturation state, and DIC. Correlations between calcite or aragonite composition and seawater carbonate chemistry are highly taxa-specific, but do not resemble trends observed in growth rate for all species. Apparent carbonate system sensitivities vary widely by element, ranging from strongly correlated to no significant response. Interpretation of these results is guided by mounting evidence for the capacity of individual species to modulate pH and/or saturation state at the site of calcification in response to ambient seawater chemistry. Such biomineralization pathways and strategies in turn likely influence elemental fractionation during CaCO3 precipitation. Ries, J.B., A.L. Cohen, A.L., and D.C. McCorkle (2009), Marine calcifiers exhibit mixed responses to CO2-induced ocean

  14. The use of macroalgal species richness and composition on intertidal rocky seashores in the assessment of ecological quality under the European Water Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Wells, Emma; Wilkinson, Martin; Wood, Paul; Scanlan, Clare

    2007-01-01

    The EC Water Framework Directive (WFD) suggests using abundance and species composition of intertidal seaweed communities for ecological quality classification of rocky seashores. There are two difficulties with this. According to WFD all sensitive species should be present on a shore. There is no accepted list of sensitive seaweed species and those which may be sensitive in one location may not be so in another. Second, natural successions can result in very large abundance changes of common species, e.g. from almost completely fucoid-dominated shores to almost totally barnacle-dominated shores, without any change in ecological quality. Studies have shown that numerical species richness, not the list of actual species present, is broadly constant in the absence of disturbance. The ephemeral species, possibly the sensitive members of the community, change regularly in such a way as to conserve species richness. It is proposed that species richness on a defined length of shore be used as a criterion of ecological quality. A database of species found on over 300 shores in the British Isles, under strictly controlled sampling conditions, has given ranges of values of species richness to be expected and has allowed for variations in these values due to sub-habitat variability, wave exposure and turbidity to be factored in. A major problem in applying such a tool is the lack of expertise of many workers in critical identification of seaweed species. A reduced species list has been extracted from the database using species commonly present and identifiable with reasonable certainty. A numerical index of ecological quality is proposed based on scores for various aspects of the physical nature of the habitat combined with a score for species richness which may be based on the reduced species list. The scoring system also uses further aspects of community structure, such as ecological status groups and the proportions of rhodophyta, chlorophyta and opportunist species. For

  15. A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedges, S. Blair; Blair, Jaime E.; Venturi, Maria L.; Shoe, Jason L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated by molecular clocks, especially for plants, animals, fungi, and the deepest branches of the eukaryote tree. Here, we used all available protein sequence data and molecular clock methods to place constraints on the increase in complexity through time. RESULTS: Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that (i) animals are more closely related to fungi than to plants, (ii) red algae are closer to plants than to animals or fungi, (iii) choanoflagellates are closer to animals than to fungi or plants, (iv) diplomonads, euglenozoans, and alveolates each are basal to plants+animals+fungi, and (v) diplomonads are basal to other eukaryotes (including alveolates and euglenozoans). Divergence times were estimated from global and local clock methods using 20-188 proteins per node, with data treated separately (multigene) and concatenated (supergene). Different time estimation methods yielded similar results (within 5%): vertebrate-arthropod (964 million years ago, Ma), Cnidaria-Bilateria (1,298 Ma), Porifera-Eumetozoa (1,351 Ma), Pyrenomycetes-Plectomycetes (551 Ma), Candida-Saccharomyces (723 Ma), Hemiascomycetes-filamentous Ascomycota (982 Ma), Basidiomycota-Ascomycota (968 Ma), Mucorales-Basidiomycota (947 Ma), Fungi-Animalia (1,513 Ma), mosses-vascular plants (707 Ma), Chlorophyta-Tracheophyta (968 Ma), Rhodophyta-Chlorophyta+Embryophyta (1,428 Ma), Plantae-Animalia (1,609 Ma), Alveolata-plants+animals+fungi (1,973 Ma), Euglenozoa-plants+animals+fungi (1,961 Ma), and Giardia-plants+animals+fungi (2,309 Ma). By extrapolation, mitochondria arose approximately 2300-1800 Ma and plastids arose 1600-1500 Ma. Estimates of the maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, combined with divergence times, showed an increase from two cell types at 2500 Ma to

  16. Benthic faunal assemblages from the Holocene middle shelf of the South Evoikos Gulf, central Greece, and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimina Louvari, Markella; Tsourou, Theodora; Drinia, Hara; Anastasakis, George

    2013-04-01

    South Evoikos Gulf is an elongate, WNW - ESE trending basin, 60 km long and 15 km wide. Its floor slopes towards the south-east where the basin connects with the Aegean Sea across a 55 m deep sill. The hydrographic network of the area is characterized by Asopos river the small Lilas River and some other ephemeral streams. A sedimentary record spanning the last 13000 calyr BP was recovered at N 38°12'23.1228" E 24°8'14.2404", water depth 70 m, in this gulf. A total of 52 samples from the lower half of the core were quantitatively analyzed for micropalaeontological (benthic foraminifera and ostracods) study in order to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental conditions. This work contributes to the evaluation of the modern environmental problems in South Evoikos Gulf (hypoxia, ecosystem changes, subaquatic vegetation die-off, metal pollution) within the context of the palaeoenvironmental record. In the investigated core, the benthic microfaunal assemblages indicate a marine coastal environment with a gradual transition from a circalittoral to an infralittoral restricted environment. The basal part of the record is characterized by Haynesina depressula Assemblage, which is composed of Haynesina depressula, Textularia agglutinans and Bulimina aculeata.The abundance of Haynesina depressula could be associated with normal marine conditions, but always with periodic brackish water influence. The species composed this assemblage, which are almost all typically infaunal, characterize sediments with a high or medium-high muddy fraction, rich in organic matter available for the organisms that live within the sediment, and low salinity bottom water. Samples from the upper unit of the core indicate a nearshore, inner-shelf facies less than 50 m deep. Common inner-shelf species in these samples include Ammonia beccarii together with Bulimina marginata (Sgarrella & Moncharmont Zei, 1993). The highest abundance of A. beccarii is found between 15 and 20 m water-depth in samples with

  17. Living and dead benthic foraminiferal assemblages from bathyal environment in the Pontine Archipelago (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bella, Letizia; Frezza, Virgilio; Ingrassia, Michela; Latino Chiocci, Francesco; Martorelli, Eleonora

    2016-04-01

    (0-66.7%), whereas agglutinated foraminifera are substantially absent. Biloculinella depressa, Biloculinella labiata, Miliolinella subrotunda and Quinqueloculina pygmaea are the more abundant species. As regard the dead assemblages, the Faunal Density is really high (1733-6273 specimens/gr). A total of 89 species were classified, with a range of 42-52 species in each core-interval. The α-Fisher index shows values from 14.21 to 22.06 while Shannon index ranges between 2.92-3.31. In the dead assemblage, perforate taxa are very abundant, with percentages between 74.0 and 85.5%. In this case, imperforate (12.3-18.6%) and agglutinated (1.0-7.4%) tests are accessories. Bulimina marginata, Cassidulina carinata, Cassidulina crassa, Globocassidulina subglobosa and Uvigerina mediterranea are the main constituent of benthic assemblage. In conclusion, miliolids dominate in the living assemblages while calcareous perforate taxa are more abundant in the dead assemblages.

  18. Uplift of the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP): age constraints from the youngest marine deposits capping the central Tauride Units in the Gülnar district (Mersin, southern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogretmen, Nazik; Cipollari, Paola; Frezza, Virgilio; Faranda, Costanza; Gliozzi, Elsa; Yıldırım, Cengiz; Radeff, Giuditta; Cosentino, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    concomitant occurrence of Globorotalia crassaformis and Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (left coiling) since the base of the section points to consider these marine deposits younger than 1.76 Ma. Among the calcareous nannofossils, the first common occurrence of medium Gephyrocapsa from samples below the first sapropel allows to constrain this anoxic event to an age younger than 1.73 Ma. In addition, the occurrence of large Gephyrocapsa within the fifth sapropel points to consider this anoxic event younger than 1.617 Ma. The presence of the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides tenellus and Tenuitellinata iota and of the benthic foraminifer Bulimina marginata are in agreement with a Calabrian age for the lower and middle part of the Gülnar E section. Moreover, for the occurrence of Globigerinella calida, the upper portion of the section is well constrained to the latest Calabrian, close to the Brunhes/Matuyama transition (0.781 Ma). The presence of shallow-water carbonates at the top of the study section, which points to a maximum paleodepth of 200 m, reveals an average uplift rate of 1.5 mm/yr, higher than previously estimated values based on an early Calabrian age (1.6 Ma) for the youngest marine deposits of the CAP southern margin.

  19. Carbon isotopic fractionation in macroalgae from Cádiz Bay (Southern Spain): Comparison with other bio-geographic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, Jesús M.; de los Santos, Carmen B.; Lucas Pérez-Lloréns, J.; Vergara, Juan J.

    2009-11-01

    The 13C signature of forty-five macroalgal species from intertidal zones at Cádiz Bay was analysed in order to research the extension of diffusive vs. non-diffusive utilisation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and to perform a comparison with data published for other bio-geographic regions. The ∂ 13C values ranged from -6.8‰ to -33‰, although the span of variation was different depending on the taxa. Thus, ∂ 13C for Chlorophyta varied from -7‰ ( Codium adhaerens) to -29.6‰ ( Flabellia petiolata), while all the Phaeophyceae (excepting Padina pavonica with ∂ 13C higher than -10‰) had values between -10‰, and -20‰. The widest variation range was recorded in Rhodophyta, from values above -10‰ ( Liagora viscida) to values lower than -30‰ obtained in three species belonging to the subclass Rhodymeniophycidae. Accordingly, the mean ∂ 13C value calculated for red algae (-20.2‰) was significantly lower than that for brown (-15.9‰) and green algae (-15.6‰). Most of the analysed red algae were species inhabiting crevices and the low intertidal fringe which explains that, on average, the shaded-habitat species had a ∂ 13C value lower than those growing fully exposed to sun (i.e. in rockpools or at the upper intertidal zone). The comparison between the capacity for non-diffusive use of DIC (i.e. active or facilitated transport of HCO 3- and/or CO 2) and the ∂ 13C values reveals that values more negative than -30‰ indicate that photosynthesis is dependent on CO 2 diffusive entry, whereas values above this threshold would not indicate necessary the operation of a non-diffusive DIC transport mechanism. Furthermore, external carbonic anhydrase activity ( extCA) and ∂ 13C values were negatively correlated indicating that the higher the dependence of the photosynthesis on the CO 2 supplied from HCO 3- via extCA, the lower the ∂ 13C in the algal material. The comparison between the ∂ 13C values obtained for the analysed species and those

  20. Biological and remote sensing perspectives of pigmentation in coral reef organisms.

    PubMed

    Hedley, John D; Mumby, Peter J

    2002-01-01

    categories. The basis of reflectance is considered as the sum of pigmented components, such as zooxanthellae, host tissues and skeletons of corals. Problems in the empirical in situ measurement of reflectance are identified, such as the differing types of reflectance which can be measured, the interaction of the light field with morphology, and depth-dependent variability of measured reflectance due to fluorescence. The latter is estimated in some cases to introduce an error of up to 20% when depth differs by 8 m. Spectral features useful in discriminating reef benthos are identified and related to pigmentation. The slope in the reflectance spectra between 650 and 690 nm is dependent on chlorophyll-a concentration and can be used to discriminate bare sand with no algal component from chlorophyll-a containing benthos (algae, corals). The slope in reflectance at various locations between 500 and 560 nm can be useful in discriminating bleached and unbleached corals, possibly due to reduced peridinin concentration. Rhodophyta may be discernible by the presence of a dip in reflectance at 570 nm, due to a phycoerythrin absorption peak. However, the utility of some discriminatory criteria in deeper waters is mitigated by the relatively poor transmission of light through water at longer wavelengths (especially > 600 nm). Contrary to suggested categorizations of fluorescent pigments in coral host tissues, it is shown that these pigments form an almost continuous distribution with respect to their excitation and emission peaks. Remote sensing by induced fluorescence is a promising approach, but further details about the variation and distribution of these pigments are required. It is hoped that this review will promote cross-disciplinary collaboration between pigment biologists and the reef remote sensing community. Where possible, the discriminative criteria adopted in remote sensing should be related to biological phenomena, thus lending an intuitive, process-orientated basis for

  1. Evaluation of biological data, Guanella Pass Area, Clear Creek and Park counties, Colorado, water years 1995-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox-Lillis, Jennifer R.

    2000-01-01

    density, were Cyanophyta (blue-green algae), Chrysophyta (diatoms), Chlorophyta (green algae), Rhodophyta (red algae), and Euglenophyta (euglenoids). In general, diatom biovolumes dominated the algal assemblage, followed by blue-green algae, green algae, red algae, and euglenoids. Algal densities ranged from 3.1 X 102 to more than 4.7 X 106 cells per square centimeter, and algal biovolume ranged from 2.3 X 104 to 4.6 X 109 cells per cubic centimeter. Diversity values for diatoms ranged from 1.5 to 4.9. The pollution tolerance index (PTI) for diatoms ranged from 1.8 to 3.0. Sensitive diatoms were present at each site and ranged from 21 to 97 percent. The percentage of motile diatoms ranged from 0 to 13 percent. The presence of acid-tolerant diatoms ranged from less than 0.5 to greater than 20 percent. The percentage of community similarity between site pairs ranged from 1 to 97 percent. Overall, the biotic metrics that were evaluated during this study indicate that the macroinvertebrate and algal communities in the streams on Guanella Pass are not degraded by the existing road. Erosion may cause some localized effects but may not affect the overall health of the whole stream system. The degraded condition of Geneva Creek probably is due to natural effects as opposed to road effects. Although upper South Clear Creek, upstream from Naylor Creek, is located downstream from several sources of road runoff, the biological community at this site does not seem to be negatively affected.

  2. GENPLAT: an automated platform for biomass enzyme discovery and cocktail optimization.

    PubMed

    Walton, Jonathan; Banerjee, Goutami; Car, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    The high cost of enzymes for biomass deconstruction is a major impediment to the economic conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to liquid transportation fuels such as ethanol. We have developed an integrated high throughput platform, called GENPLAT, for the discovery and development of novel enzymes and enzyme cocktails for the release of sugars from diverse pretreatment/biomass combinations. GENPLAT comprises four elements: individual pure enzymes, statistical design of experiments, robotic pipeting of biomass slurries and enzymes, and automated colorimeteric determination of released Glc and Xyl. Individual enzymes are produced by expression in Pichia pastoris or Trichoderma reesei, or by chromatographic purification from commercial cocktails or from extracts of novel microorganisms. Simplex lattice (fractional factorial) mixture models are designed using commercial Design of Experiment statistical software. Enzyme mixtures of high complexity are constructed using robotic pipeting into a 96-well format. The measurement of released Glc and Xyl is automated using enzyme-linked colorimetric assays. Optimized enzyme mixtures containing as many as 16 components have been tested on a variety of feedstock and pretreatment combinations. GENPLAT is adaptable to mixtures of pure enzymes, mixtures of commercial products (e.g., Accellerase 1000 and Novozyme 188), extracts of novel microbes, or combinations thereof. To make and test mixtures of ˜10 pure enzymes requires less than 100 μg of each protein and fewer than 100 total reactions, when operated at a final total loading of 15 mg protein/g glucan. We use enzymes from several sources. Enzymes can be purified from natural sources such as fungal cultures (e.g., Aspergillus niger, Cochliobolus carbonum, and Galerina marginata), or they can be made by expression of the encoding genes (obtained from the increasing number of microbial genome sequences) in hosts such as E. coli, Pichia pastoris, or a filamentous fungus such

  3. The extreme environments and their microbes as models for extraterrestrial life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seckbach, J.; Oren, A.; Chela-Flores, J.

    2008-09-01

    British Penetrator Consortium (Smith et al., 2008), a modest penetration depth of penetrators (instruments in the process of development to be deployed on planetary bodies such as the Moon to bury themselves into the surface) into the icy surface of Europa would be sufficient to obtain samples that can be used to correctly interpret isotopic abundances of sulfur. When derived from the activity of putative S-reducing microbes, the sulfur can be used as a biomarker, based on its characteristic isotopic composition, not influenced by radiation interference. References Blanc, M. and the LAPLACE consortium (2008). LAPLACE: a mission to Europa and the Jupiter System, Astrophysical Instruments and Methods, in press. (The LAPLACE Consortium: http://www.ictp.it/~chelaf/ss164.html). Chela-Flores, J. (2006). The sulphur dilemma: Are there biosignatures on Europa's icy and patchy surface? International Journal of Astrobiology 5: 17-22. Chela-Flores, J. and Kumar, N. (2008). Returning to Europa: Can traces of surficial life be detected? International Journal of Astrobiology, in press. Dudeja, S., Bhattacherjee, A.B. and Chela-Flores, J. (2008). Manuscript in preparation. Greenberg, R. (2005). Europa - The Ocean Moon. Springer and Praxia Publishing, Chichester, 328 pp. Oren, A. (2002). Halophilic Microorganisms and their Environments. Kluwer Scientific Publishers, Dordrecht, 575 pp. Oren, A. (2008). Life at low water activity. Halophilic micro-organisms and their adaptations. The Biochemist, in press. Seckbach, J. (1994). The natural history of Cyanidium (Geitler 1933): past and present perspectives. in: Seckbach, J. (ed.), Evolutionary Pathways and Enigmatic Algae: Cyanidium caldarium (Rhodophyta) and Related Cells, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 99-112. Seckbach, J., Baker, F.A. and Shugarman, P.M. (1970). Algae thrive under pure CO2. Nature 227: 744-745. Seckbach, J. and Chela-Flores, J. (2007). Extremophiles and chemotrophs as contributors to astrobiological signatures