Sample records for galaxias maculatus teleostei

  1. Effects of Galaxias maculatus on nutrient dynamics and phytoplankton biomass in a North Patagonian oligotrophic lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana Reissig; Claudia P. Queimali; Esteban G. Balseiro

    2003-01-01

    In this study we analysed the effects of Galaxias maculatus, a landlocked small fish species, on nutrient dynamics, and the consequent effects on phytoplankton biomass of an oligotrophic North Patagonian lake. We performed field and laboratory experiments in order to explore nutrient release by G. maculatus with increasing fish biomass and body size, and the resulting phytoplankton responses. Our results

  2. Effects of Galaxias maculatus on Nutrient Dynamics and Phytoplankton Biomass in a North Patagonian Oligotrophic Lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana Reissig; Claudia P. Queimaliños; Esteban G. Balseiro

    2003-01-01

    In this study we analysed the effects of Galaxias maculatus, a landlocked small fish species, on nutrient dynamics, and the consequent effects on phytoplankton biomass of an oligotrophic North Patagonian lake. We performed field and laboratory experiments in order to explore nutrient release by G. maculatus with increasing fish biomass and body size, and the resulting phytoplankton responses. Our results

  3. Infections by helminth parasites in "puyenes", Galaxias maculatus (Galaxiidae, Salmoniformes), from Southern Argentina with special reference to Tylodelphys barilochensis (Digenea, Platyhelminthes).

    PubMed

    Revenga, J; Scheinert, P

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence of Tylodelphys barilochensis, Acanthostomoides apophalliformis, Contracaecum sp. and Camallanus corderoi infecting Galaxias maculatus ("puyenes") was quantified for the first time in Lake Nahuel Huapi, southern Argentina. T. barilochensis was recorded in this lake for the first time. The role of G. maculatus population in transmission of parasites to the salmonids is more important for Contracaecum sp. (prevalence 14-34%) and A. apophalliformis (prevalence 30-54%) than for C. corderoi (prevalence 6-8%). The absence of Diphyllobothrium spp. in samples shows that the G. maculatus population does not play any role in the life cycles of these important zoonotic parasites. The sex of the host had no effect on T. barilochensis abundance. Statistical differences in T. barilochensis abundance between "puyenes" of the same size class between sampling stations and positive correlation between prevalence of infected snails and T. barilochensis abundance in fish suggest that different stocks have been sampled. Factors influencing T. barilochensis abundance are discussed. PMID:10464401

  4. Fifteen from one: a revision of the Galaxias olidus Günther, 1866 complex (Teleostei, Galaxiidae) in south-eastern Australia recognises three previously described taxa and describes 12 new species.

    PubMed

    Raadik, Tarmo A

    2014-01-01

    The systematics of the Galaxias olidus hyper-species complex from freshwater habitats in south-eastern, mainland Australia is revised. Galaxias olidus Günther 1866 is redescribed, Galaxias fuscus Mack 1936 and Galaxias ornatus Castelnau 1873, previously synonymised with G. olidus (sensu lato), are reinstated as valid taxa and redescribed, and 12 taxa are described as new: Galaxias aequipinnis sp. nov., Galaxias arcanus sp. nov., Galaxias brevissimus sp. nov., Galaxias gunaikurnai sp. nov., Galaxias lanceolatus sp. nov., Galaxias longifundus sp. nov., Galaxias mcdowalli sp. nov., Galaxias mungadhan sp. nov., Galaxias oliros sp. nov., Galaxias supremus sp. nov., Galaxias tantangara sp. nov., and Galaxias terenasus sp. nov. These species are morphologically similar and, whilst there is extensive overlap in meristic counts and morphometric characters, each can be diagnosed by unique combinations of characters, including allozyme loci and colour pattern; morphological diagnosis is improved greatly if based on freshly formalin-fixed material. Galaxias schomburgkii Peters 1868, Galaxias bongbong Macleay 1881, Galaxias kayi Ramsay & Ogilby 1886 and Galaxias oconnori Ogilby 1912 are retained as junior synonyms of G. olidus (sensu stricto). The types for Galaxias findlayi Macleay 1882 are lost and no specimens matching its description were collected or examined from the Mt. Kosciuszko region; it is also currently retained as a junior synonym of Galaxias olidus s.s. The species G. terenasus sp. nov. and G. arcanus sp. nov. are the most morphologically specialised in the complex and G. olidus s.s remains the most morphologically variable species. It also remains the most widespread taxon, though its previously known distribution is reduced, particularly in the south-west of its range. Nine species are narrow-range endemics, known from one, or only a few, locations, and these restricted distributions most probably reflect the fragmentation and reduction of former ranges caused by the effects of alien salmonids. Eleven species are of conservation concern, most are considered critically endangered. PMID:25543673

  5. Modelo de galaxia disco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledesma, M.; Mosconi, M.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la formación de galaxias anillo, a través de simulaciones numéricas. En el estudio numérico es necesario construir el modelo de una galaxia disco normal, en condición de equilibrio estable, que se ajuste a los parámetros observacionales disponibles de estos objetos. En dicho modelo se considera la galaxia constituída por un halo de materia oscura, un bulge y el disco propiamente dicho. A partir de perfiles de densidad obtenidos de las observaciones, se lleva a cabo la distribución espacial de las partículas, a través del ``Método del rechazo". La asignación de velocidades se realiza considerando que las partículas del disco están aproximadamente en equilibrio rotacional, y se agregan dispersiones de velocidad de acuerdo con el parámetro de Toomre Q=1.5.

  6. Galaxias australes con núcleo doble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.

    Se estudia una muestra de galaxias australes con núcleo doble a partir de una búsqueda extensiva en la literatura. Se analizan las características morfológicas, fotométricas y espectroscópicas de la muestra. Para algunas galaxias se han realizado observaciones con el espectrógrafo multifunción (EMF) de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre a partir de las cuales se determinaron parámetros cinemáticos.

  7. Dispersión de velocidades en cúmulos de galaxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muriel, H.; García Lambas, D.; Quintana, H.; Infante, L.

    Se ha estudiado la dinámica de galaxias en cúmulos en base a una muestra de aproximadamente 4000 galaxias con estimas de velocidad radial pertenecientes a 40 cúmulos. Se desarrolló un algoritmo para identificar sub-estructuras del tipo ``grupos de galaxias". Una vez eliminada este tipo de sub-estructura se computaron los perfiles radiales de dispersión de velocidades (VDP) para los 40 cúmulos de galaxias. Dada las características de la muestra, fue posible estimar el VDP hasta grandes distancias del centro del cúmulo llegando en algunos casos hasta 7 Mpc-1. Los resultados indican que el 65% de los cúmulos presentan un VDP plano a grandes radios consistente con el modelo isotermo. Estos resultados son discutidos en el marco de las recientes controversias suscitadas respecto de la dinámica de los cúmulos vía los perfiles de temperaturas de cúmulos derivados de la emisión en rayos-X.

  8. Estudio de la galaxia peculiar NGC 1487

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüero, E. L.; Paolantonio, S.; Gunthardt, G.

    La galaxia peculiar NGC 1487, cuya morfología sugiere un evento de ``merging" o interacción próxima, es estudiada en base a material observacional espectroscópico y fotométrico obtenido en el CASLEO. Mediante técnicas espectrofotométricas standards se determinan las principales características espectrales, los mecanismos de excitación actuantes, las condiciones físicas y las velocidades radiales de las estructuras conspicuas de la galaxia. Por otra parte, usando imágenes directas en las bandas B, V, R e I, se obtienen distribuciones detalladas de los colores B-V, V-R y R-I y detalles de su morfología.

  9. Growth characteristics, pigmentation, and the identificaton of whitebait (galaxias spp., Salmonoidea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Woods

    1968-01-01

    Definitions are given for stages in the development of five species of Galaxias, family Galaxiidae, which have marine larvae.Larvae of Galaxias maculates attenuates and G. brevipinnis are large, and those of G. fasciatus relatively small as they enter fresh water from the sea. Development as whitebait involves shrinkage by about 25% in total length; the head length, considered separately, shrinks

  10. Código árbol paralelizado para simulaciones astrofísicas. Experimentos de encuentros de galaxias compuestas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Viturro; D. D. Carpintero

    1998-01-01

    Se describe la implementación de un código árbol octal paralelizado desarrollado por los autores. Este código permite la integración del problema de N--cuerpos simultáneamente en varias computadoras (``cluster''), lo que permite desarrollar altas velocidades de cálculo. Se muestran los resultados de algunas integraciones de encuentros entre galaxias de disco con bulbo y halo, generadas mediante algoritmos no utilizados hasta el

  11. Código árbol paralelizado para simulaciones astrofísicas. Experimentos de encuentros de galaxias compuestas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viturro, H. R.; Carpintero, D. D.

    Se describe la implementación de un código árbol octal paralelizado desarrollado por los autores. Este código permite la integración del problema de N--cuerpos simultáneamente en varias computadoras (``cluster''), lo que permite desarrollar altas velocidades de cálculo. Se muestran los resultados de algunas integraciones de encuentros entre galaxias de disco con bulbo y halo, generadas mediante algoritmos no utilizados hasta el momento en este campo.

  12. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara J Boeke; Cécile Barnaud; Joop JA van Loon; Dansou K Kossou; Arnold van Huis; Marcel Dicke

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle. Application of volatile oils led in most cases to a reduced number of eggs on treated

  13. POPULATION GENETIC STRUCTURE OF ANOPHELES MACULATUS IN THAILAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anopheles (Cellia) maculatus Theobald is a major malaria vector in southern Thailand and peninsular Malaysia, and previous studies on the population genetics of this mosquito suggested that mountain ranges reduced gene flow among some populations. In this study we examine the genetic variance among...

  14. POPULATION GENETIC STRUCTURE OF ANOPHELES MACULATUS IN THAILAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anopheles (Cellia) maculatus Theobald is major malaria vector in southern Thailand and peninsular Malaysia, and previous studies on the population genetics of this mosquito suggested that mountain ranges reduced gene flow among some populations. In this study we examine the genetic variance among 5...

  15. Chaos formation by sublimation of volatile-rich substrate: Evidence from Galaxias Chaos, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, G. B. M.; Head, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Galaxias Chaos deviates significantly from other chaotic regions due to the lack of associated outflow channels, lack of big elevation differences between the chaos and the surrounding terrain and due to gradual trough formation. A sequence of troughs in different stages is observed, and examples of closed troughs within blocks suggest that the trough formation is governed by a local stress field rather than a regional stress field. Moreover, geomorphic evidence suggests that Galaxias Chaos is capped by Elysium lavas, which superpose an unstable subsurface layer that causes chaotic tilting of blocks and trough formation. Based on regional mapping we suggest a formation model, where Vastitas Borealis Formation embedded between Elysium lavas is the unstable subsurface material, because gradual volatile loss causes shrinkage and differential substrate movement. This process undermines the lava cap, depressions form and gradually troughs develop producing a jigsaw puzzle of blocks due to trough coalescence. Observations of chaos west of Elysium Rise indicate that this process might have been widespread along the contact between Vastitas Borealis Formation and Elysium lavas. However, the chaotic regions have probably been superposed by Elysium/Utopia flows to the NW of Elysium Rise, and partly submerged with younger lavas to the west.

  16. Sperm production in an extremophile fish, the cave molly (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae, Teleostei)

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    Sperm production in an extremophile fish, the cave molly (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae, Teleostei. Here, we investigated male sperm stores in Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) from a sulfidic cave

  17. Phylogenetic Systematics of the Scomberomorus regalis (Teleostei: Scombridae) Species Group: Molecules, Morphology and Biogeography of Spanish Mackerels

    E-print Network

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    : Molecules, Morphology and Biogeography of Spanish Mackerels Heidi M. Banford; Eldredge Bermingham; Bruce B (Teleostei: Scombridae) Species Group: Molecules, Morphology and Biogeography of Spanish Mackerels

  18. Action des huiles essentielles de deux plantes aromatiques de Côte-d'Ivoire sur Callosobruchus maculatus F. du niébé

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Badama Philomène Seri-Kouassi; Coffi Kanko; Louis Roi Nondenot Aboua; Kouassi Alphonse Bekon; Adolé Isabelle Glitho; Gérard Koukoua; Yao Thomas N'Guessan

    2004-01-01

    Action of essential oils from two aromatic plants from Ivory Coast on Callosobruchus maculatus F. of cowpea. The essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation of two aromatic plants from western Africa – Melaleuca quinquenervia (L) et Ocimum gratissimum (L) – have been tested by fumigation with various concentrations on adults of the not-‘voilière’ shape of Callosobruchus maculatus Fab., at a temperature

  19. Influence of substrate and relative humidity on the efficacy of three entomopathogenic fungi for the hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dermestes maculatus is carrion feeder that is also a pest of poultry houses, museums, silkworm culture, and many stored foods. The Hypocreales, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Isaria fumosorosea, were tested for efficacy against D. maculatus larvae on concrete, plastic, leather, and ...

  20. The mimetic repertoire of the spotted bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Laura A; Healy, Susan D

    2011-06-01

    Although vocal mimicry in songbirds is well documented, little is known about the function of such mimicry. One possibility is that the mimic produces the vocalisations of predatory or aggressive species to deter potential predators or competitors. Alternatively, these sounds may be learned in error as a result of their acoustic properties such as structural simplicity. We determined the mimetic repertoires of a population of male spotted bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus maculatus, a species that mimics predatory and aggressive species. Although male mimetic repertoires contained an overabundance of vocalisations produced by species that were generally aggressive, there was also a marked prevalence of mimicry of sounds that are associated with alarm such as predator calls, alarm calls and mobbing calls, irrespective of whether the species being mimicked was aggressive or not. We propose that it may be the alarming context in which these sounds are first heard that may lead both to their acquisition and to their later reproduction. We suggest that enhanced learning capability during acute stress may explain vocal mimicry in many species that mimic sounds associated with alarm. PMID:21494871

  1. The mimetic repertoire of the spotted bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus maculatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Laura A.; Healy, Susan D.

    2011-06-01

    Although vocal mimicry in songbirds is well documented, little is known about the function of such mimicry. One possibility is that the mimic produces the vocalisations of predatory or aggressive species to deter potential predators or competitors. Alternatively, these sounds may be learned in error as a result of their acoustic properties such as structural simplicity. We determined the mimetic repertoires of a population of male spotted bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus maculatus, a species that mimics predatory and aggressive species. Although male mimetic repertoires contained an overabundance of vocalisations produced by species that were generally aggressive, there was also a marked prevalence of mimicry of sounds that are associated with alarm such as predator calls, alarm calls and mobbing calls, irrespective of whether the species being mimicked was aggressive or not. We propose that it may be the alarming context in which these sounds are first heard that may lead both to their acquisition and to their later reproduction. We suggest that enhanced learning capability during acute stress may explain vocal mimicry in many species that mimic sounds associated with alarm.

  2. Why Do Female Callosobruchus maculatus Kick Their Mates?

    PubMed Central

    van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B.; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other’s matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs) was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings. PMID:24752530

  3. Talisia esculenta lectin and larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Ligia R; das Graças Machado Freire, Maria; Novello, José Camillo; Marangoni, Sérgio

    2002-06-01

    Bruchid larvae cause major losses in grain legume crops throughout the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil and the Mexican bean weevil, are pests that damage stored seeds. Plant lectins have been implicated as antibiosis factors against insects, particularly the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. Talisia esculenta lectin (TEL) was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus larvae. TEL produced ca. 90% mortality to these bruchids when incorporated in an artificial diet at a level of 2% (w/w). The LD(50) and ED(50) for TEL was ca. 1% (w/w) for both insects. TEL was not digested by midgut preparations of C. maculatus and Z. subfasciatus. The transformation of the genes coding for this lectin could be useful in the development of insect resistance in important agricultural crops. PMID:12049788

  4. Influence of Some Fatty Acids on Oviposition by the Bruchid Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin J. Parr; Bruno M. D. Tran; Monique S. J. Simmonds; Geoffrey C. Kite; Peter F. Credland

    1998-01-01

    The cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, will lay its eggs on many potential hosts and inert surfaces. Oviposition on glass beads is stimulated by coating them with individual fatty acids. Nevertheless, female beetles reject mung seeds less frequently than beads treated with either an extract of mung seeds or, especially, an extract of mung seeds plus oleic acid. The addition

  5. Insecticidal effect of some spices on Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) in black gram seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shah Hussain Ahmad Mahdi

    2008-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the insecticidal potency of some spices eg. clove (Syzygium aromaticum), black pepper (Piper nigrum), ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), black cardamom (Amomum subulatum), nutmeg (Myristica fragnans), black cumin (Nigella sativa), turmeric (Curcuma longa), red pepper (Capsicum frutescens), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), green cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) and bay leaf (Cinnamomum tamala), against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

  6. Female modulation of reproductive rate and its role in postmating prezygotic isolation in Callosobruchus maculatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. FRICKE; G. ARNQVIST; N. AMARO

    2006-01-01

    Summary 1. Mechanisms that come into play after mating but prior to fertilization can prevent hybrid formation and thus promote reproductive isolation. Recent research indicates that the evolution of such barriers to gene exchange between incipient forms appears to be common and is essential for speciation. 2. We aimed to test if female Bean Weevils ( Callosobruchus maculatus ) modulate

  7. Paternal Investment in the Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): Variation Among Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Udo M. Savalli; Mary Ellen Czesak; Charles W. Fox

    2000-01-01

    Ejaculate size in seed beetles (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is subject to both sexual and fecundity selection. We examined interpopulation variation and inheritance of ejaculate size in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). There was significant variation among three populations in both body mass and the proportion of a male's body mass that was transferred to females during mating. The seed upon

  8. Adaptation to a novel host modifies host discrimination by the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J. Messina; Margaret E. Karren

    2003-01-01

    Females of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus avoid adding eggs to seeds that already bear eggs. Geographical variation in this behaviour has been thought to depend on differences in host size. In populations that attack small-seeded legumes, only one or two larvae can develop within a seed, and females are especially adept at detecting and rejecting occupied (egg-laden) seeds. We

  9. Genetic Modification of Host Acceptance by a Seed Beetle, Callosobruchus Maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J. Messina; Jake C. Jones; Michelle Mendenhall; Amberleigh Muller

    2009-01-01

    Successful host shifts by herbivorous insects may require the modiÞcation of multiple larval and adult traits. The seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) rarely attacks lentil (Lensculinaris Medikus), which is distantly related to its typical hosts. In a previous study, larval survival in lentil seeds increased from 2t o85% in fewer than 20 generations of laboratory selection. However, lentil

  10. Attraction of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to four varieties of Lathyrus sativus L. seed volatiles.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, P; Mukherjee, A; Barik, A

    2015-04-01

    Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is an important stored grain pest of Lathyrus sativus L. (Leguminosae), commonly known as khesari, in India, Bangladesh and Ethiopia. Volatiles were collected from four varieties, i.e., Bio L 212 Ratan, Nirmal B-1, WBK-14-7 and WBK-13-1 of uninfested khesari seeds, and subsequently identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography flame ionization detector analyses, respectively. A total of 23 volatiles were identified in the four varieties of khesari seeds. In Bio L 212 Ratan and WBK-13-1 seeds, nonanal was the most abundant followed by farnesyl acetone; whereas farnesyl acetone was predominant followed by nonanal in Nirmal B-1 and WBK-14-7 khesari seeds. The olfactory responses of female C. maculatus toward volatile blends from four varieties of khesari seeds, and individual synthetic compounds and their combinations were examined through Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays. Callosobruchus maculatus showed significant preference for the whole volatile blends from Bio L 212 Ratan seeds compared to whole volatile blends from other three varieties. The insect exhibited attraction to five individual synthetic compounds, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal. A synthetic blend of 448, 390, 1182, 659 and 8114 ng/20 ?l methylene chloride of 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal, respectively, was most attractive to C. maculatus, and this combination might be used for insect pest management program such as baited traps. PMID:25524148

  11. Genetic architecture of population differences in oviposition behaviour of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

    E-print Network

    Fox, Charles W.

    Genetic architecture of population differences in oviposition behaviour of the seed beetle (BF) populations of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. We reared and tested females on each of two host legumes (cowpea and mung bean). The two populations differed in mean oviposition preference

  12. Direct and admixture toxicity of diatomaceous earth and monoterpenoids against the storage pests Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaoliang Lei; Tanja Mucha-Pelzer; Inga Mewis; Christian Ulrichs

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of two commercial diatomaceous earth based insecticides (DE), Protect-It® and SilicoSec®, the nano-structured silica product AL06, developed by the section for Urban Plant Ecophysiology at Humboldt University Berlin,\\u000a and the monoterpenoids, eugenol, and cinnamaldehyde on two stored product pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus oryzae. Protect-It® was more effective than SilicoSec® against C. maculatus while the reverse was

  13. A cytochemical approach to describe oocyte development in the freshwater ostariophysan, Serrasalmus maculatus (Characiformes).

    PubMed

    Quagio-Grassiotto, Irani; Wildner, Daniel Dantas; Guimarães-Bassoli, Ariene Cristina Dias

    2014-05-01

    With the intent to provide additional information on the reproductive biology of the ostariophysian fish, the oocyte development in Serrasalmus maculatus is here described under light and electron microscopy by using some cytochemical methods. Our results are discussed considering the cellular processes that drive the oocyte development and comparing to the available information on other groups of fish. Despite the oocyte development to be in general a conserved process, some characteristics of the oocytes of this species come to light. Possibly related to the reproductive strategy of S. maculatus are the absence of oil droplets and the presence of well-developed cortical alveoli. Besides this finding, our results suggest the presence of high content of basic residues in yolk proteins, the presence of acidic polysaccharides in the zona pellucida and a possible involvement of the follicular cells in the steroidogenesis process. PMID:24602268

  14. Food of the Black Crappie Pomoxis Nigro-Maculatus (LeSueur), in Orange Lake, Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George K. Reid Jr

    1950-01-01

    Orange Lake in north central Florida has an area of approximately 14,000 acres and is surrounded by extensive marshes. During a 12-month period, stomach contents of 902 black crappie (Pomoxis nigro-maculatus) ranging in size from 31 to 291 millimeters, standard length, were analyzed. The frequency of occurrence of various food organisms, seasonal trends in the consumption of food items, and

  15. [Helminths from the fish Dormitator maculatus (Osteichthyes: Eleotridae) from Alvarado, Veracruz, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Jesús Montoya; Sarabia, David Osorio; López, Rafael Chávez; López, Jonathan Franco

    2004-06-01

    Dormirator maculatus (n=184) was collected in the Alvarado Lagoon, Mexico during a year period (Oct. 1993-1994). In the helminthologic review, the presence of Clinostomum complanatum (82.3%), Neoechinorhynchus golvani (76.1%), Spiroxys sp. (21.3 %), and Camallanus sp. (6.2%) was registered. Reduction of the hematocrit caused by such infection is significant (t, a= 0.05). PMID:17354390

  16. Mating Compatibility between Geographic Populations of the Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J. Messina; Ashley J. Bloxham; Audra J. Seargent

    2007-01-01

    Allopatric populations sometimes display reproductive barriers in incipient form, and may thus reveal potential mechanisms\\u000a of speciation. We conducted mating trials to estimate the degree of precopulatory (behavioral) and postcopulatory (gametic)\\u000a prezygotic isolation between African and Asian populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. The populations differ in several fitness-related traits, and have been associated with different legume hosts. In

  17. Female seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus, remate for male-supplied water rather than ejaculate nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Ursprung; Michelle den Hollander; Darryl T. Gwynne

    2009-01-01

    Female seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus, mate multiply even though association with males and copulations carry costs, such as injury to the genital tract. Multiple\\u000a mating (polyandry) may, however, offset these costs through the acquisition of food and water, two material benefits hypothesized\\u000a to be obtained from the large ejaculates produced by males. The material benefits hypothesis can be tested by

  18. The dynamics of laboratory populations of Callosobruchus chinensis and C. Maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in patchy environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Hassell; V. A. Taylor; P. M. Reader

    1989-01-01

    Summary  Experiments are described showing the long-term dynamics of two species of bruchid beetles (Callosobruchus chinensis andC. maculatus) in arenas in which the resource of 50 black-eyed beans is divided between 5, 10 or 50 ‘patches’. Both species of adult beetles\\u000a exhibit clumped distributions between patches. Within a patch there is a tendency for a density dependent reduction in (1)\\u000a eggs

  19. Evolution of Herbivory in a Carnivorous Clade of Minnows (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): Effects on Gut Size

    E-print Network

    Evans, David H.

    000 Evolution of Herbivory in a Carnivorous Clade of Minnows (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): Effects a total of 11 taxa: four herbivorous species in the genus Campostoma and six largely carnivorous species in the genus Nocomis, including two populations of Nocomis lepto- cephalus, the carnivorous Chattahoochee River

  20. Female choice for large body size in the cave molly, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei): influence of

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    Female choice for large body size in the cave molly, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei) evolve in the permanent absence of light. The cave form of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana 2007) Summary Previous studies revealed that females of a cave form of the livebearing fish Poecilia

  1. Invasive salmonids and lake order interact in the decline of puye grande Galaxias platei in western Patagonia lakes.

    PubMed

    Correa, Cristian; Hendry, Andrew P

    2012-04-01

    Salmonid fishes, native to the northern hemisphere, have become naturalized in many austral countries and appear linked to the decline of native fishes, particularly galaxiids. However, a lack of baseline information and the potential for confounding anthropogenic stressors have led to uncertainty regarding the association between salmonid invasions and galaxiid declines, especially in lakes, as these have been much less studied than streams. We surveyed 25 lakes in the Aysén region of Chilean Patagonia, including both uninvaded and salmonid-invaded lakes. Abundance indices (AI) of Galaxias platei and salmonids (Salmo trutta and Oncorhynchus mykiss) were calculated using capture-per-unit-effort data from gillnets, minnow traps, and electrofishing. We also measured additional environmental variables, including deforestation, lake morphometrics, altitude, and hydrological position (i.e., lake order). An information-theoretic approach to explaining the AI of G. platei revealed that by far the strongest effect was a negative association with the AI of salmonids. Lake order was also important, and using structural equation modeling, we show that this is an indirect effect naturally constraining the salmonid invasion success in Patagonia. Supporting this conclusion, an analysis of an independent data set from 106 mountain lakes in western Canada showed that introduced salmonids are indeed less successful in low-order lakes. Reproductive failure due to insufficient spawning habitat and harsh environmental conditions could be the cause of these limits to salmonid success. The existence of this effect in Chilean Patagonia suggests that low-order lakes are likely to provide natural ecological refugia for G. platei. Finally, pristine, high-order lakes should be actively protected as these have become rare and irreplaceable unspoiled references of the most diverse, natural lake ecosystems in Patagonia. PMID:22645814

  2. Insecticidal activity and chemical composition of the Morinda lucida essential oil against pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, Moses S; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Ogundajo, Akintayo L; Ogunwande, Isiaka A; Flamini, Guido; Yusuff, Olaniyi K; Allen, Kirk; Flores-Fernandez, Karen Isabel; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from Morinda lucida was tested on pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is a pest that causes serious damage to several pulses. The insecticidal activity was compared with two pesticides, Phostoxin and Primo-ban-20. 120 mixed sex adult C. maculatus were introduced, along with 30 g of cowpeas. Four concentrations (0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 ?g/mL) of the M. lucida essential oil, Phostoxin, and Primo-ban-20 were tested. Essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. M. lucida essential oil showed a high toxicological effect, producing 100% mortality after 72 hours at a dose of 0.20 ?g/mL. M. lucida essential oil had a potent insecticidal activity (LC90 = 0.629 ?g/mL) compared to both pesticides, Phostoxin (LC90 = 0.652 ?g/mL) and Primo-ban-20 (LC90 = 0.726 ?g/mL), at 24 h. The main compounds of the essential oil were the oxygenated monoterpenoids, 1,8-cineole (43.4%), and ?-terpinyl acetate (14.5%), and the monoterpene hydrocarbons, mostly sabinene (8.2%) and ?-pinene (4.0%). Results clearly indicate that M. lucida essential oil can be used as an effective alternative for pulse beetle C. maculatus control, and it could be tested against other pulse beetles affecting Asia and Africa and throughout the world, thereby reducing use of synthetic pesticides. PMID:25143991

  3. Insecticidal Activity and Chemical Composition of the Morinda lucida Essential Oil against Pulse Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Moses S.; Ogundajo, Akintayo L.; Ogunwande, Isiaka A.; Yusuff, Olaniyi K.; Flores-Fernandez, Karen Isabel; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from Morinda lucida was tested on pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is a pest that causes serious damage to several pulses. The insecticidal activity was compared with two pesticides, Phostoxin and Primo-ban-20. 120 mixed sex adult C. maculatus were introduced, along with 30?g of cowpeas. Four concentrations (0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05??g/mL) of the M. lucida essential oil, Phostoxin, and Primo-ban-20 were tested. Essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. M. lucida essential oil showed a high toxicological effect, producing 100% mortality after 72 hours at a dose of 0.20??g/mL. M. lucida essential oil had a potent insecticidal activity (LC90 = 0.629??g/mL) compared to both pesticides, Phostoxin (LC90 = 0.652??g/mL) and Primo-ban-20 (LC90 = 0.726??g/mL), at 24?h. The main compounds of the essential oil were the oxygenated monoterpenoids, 1,8-cineole (43.4%), and ?-terpinyl acetate (14.5%), and the monoterpene hydrocarbons, mostly sabinene (8.2%) and ?-pinene (4.0%). Results clearly indicate that M. lucida essential oil can be used as an effective alternative for pulse beetle C. maculatus control, and it could be tested against other pulse beetles affecting Asia and Africa and throughout the world, thereby reducing use of synthetic pesticides. PMID:25143991

  4. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Wang, Mo; Yang, Jun-Xing; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Fierce predatory freshwater fishes, the species of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inhabit large rivers or lakes, and have a specific distribution pattern. Only a single species or subspecies occurs in each large-scale drainage basin of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the molecular phylogenetic relationships for all but one of the described subspecies/species of Percocypris were investigated based on three mitochondrial genes (16S; COI; Cyt b) and one nuclear marker (Rag2). The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax. Combined with analyses of morphological characters, our results suggest that Percocypris needs to be reclassified, and we propose that six species be recognized, with corresponding distributions in five main drainages (including one lake). In addition, based on the results of the estimation of divergence times and ancestral drainages, we hypothesize that Percocypris likely originated in the early Miocene from a paleo-connected drainage system containing the contemporary main drainages of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus. Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake. PMID:23750199

  5. Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mo; Yang, Jun-Xing; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Fierce predatory freshwater fishes, the species of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inhabit large rivers or lakes, and have a specific distribution pattern. Only a single species or subspecies occurs in each large-scale drainage basin of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the molecular phylogenetic relationships for all but one of the described subspecies/species of Percocypris were investigated based on three mitochondrial genes (16S; COI; Cyt b) and one nuclear marker (Rag2). The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax. Combined with analyses of morphological characters, our results suggest that Percocypris needs to be reclassified, and we propose that six species be recognized, with corresponding distributions in five main drainages (including one lake). In addition, based on the results of the estimation of divergence times and ancestral drainages, we hypothesize that Percocypris likely originated in the early Miocene from a paleo-connected drainage system containing the contemporary main drainages of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus. Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake. PMID:23750199

  6. Sex allocation and interactions between relatives in the bean beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Reece, Sarah E; Wherry, Ruth N; Bloor, Juliette M G

    2005-11-01

    When a small number of females contribute offspring to a discrete mating group, sex allocation (Local Mate Competition: LMC) theory predicts that females should bias their offspring sex ratio towards daughters, which avoids the fitness costs of their sons competing with each other. Conversely, when a large number of females contribute offspring to a patch, they are expected to invest equally in sons and daughters. Furthermore, sex ratios of species that regularly experience variable foundress numbers are closer to those predicted by LMC theory than species that encounter less variable foundress number scenarios. Due to their patterns of resource use, female Callosobruchus maculatus are likely to experience a broad range of foundress number scenarios. We carried out three experiments to test whether female C. maculatus adjust their sex ratios in response to foundress number and two other indicators of LMC: ovipositing on pre-parasitised patches and ovipositing with sisters. We did not find any evidence of the predicted sex ratio adjustment, but we did find evidence of kin biased behaviour. PMID:16150553

  7. Effect of diet and refugia on development of Dermestes maculatus DeGeer reared in a laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hide beetle (Dermestes maculatus DeGeer) is a Dermestid beetle that can infest a wide variety of stored products, including pet foods and animal feeds, dried foods, and grains products with high protein content. Although there is published information concerning the biology and habits of D. macu...

  8. Intraspecific and interspecific competition in Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic) on stored bambara groundnut, Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. S. Lale; S. Vidal

    2001-01-01

    Intraspecific competition was studied in Callosobruchus maculatus and Callosobruchus subinnotatus. Interspecific competition between the two bruchids was also studied to determine which of these species is likely to cause more damage to stored bambara groundnuts, Vigna subterranea in cases of joint infestation. Results showed that increasing the adult density up to 8 females per 10g of bambara groundnut seeds did

  9. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Heracleum persicum Against the Adults of Callosobruchus Maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Izakmehri, Khadijeh; Saber, Moosa; Mehrvar, Ali; Hassanpouraghdam, Mohammad Bagher; Vojoudi, Samad

    2013-01-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), is an important pest of stored cowpea, Vigna ungiculata (L.) Walpers (Fabales: Fabaceae), with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. Many plant essential oils have a broad-spectrum activity against pest insects, and these oils traditionally have been used in the protection of stored products. In this study, the lethal and sublethal effects of essential oils from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) and Heracleum persicum Desf. (Apiales: Apiaceae) were evaluated on the adults of C. maculatus at 26 ± 1° C, 70 ± 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 L:D. The LC50 values of E. camaldulensis and H. persicum were 56.7 and 219.4 µL/L air after 12 hr and 26.1 and 136.4 µL/L air after 24 hr of exposure, respectively. The LT50 values of E. camaldulensis and H.persicum were 6.3 and 10.9 hr, respectively. The results showed that low lethal concentration (LC20) of essential oils negatively affected the longevity, fecundity, and fertility of female adults. The sex ratio of C. maculatus offspring was not significantly affected by essential oils. Therefore, these essential oils can be suggested for controlling C. maculatus in storage systems. The introduction of essential oils into storage systems could potentially decrease seed losses. PMID:24773362

  10. Cost of reproduction in Callosobruchus maculatus: effects of mating on male longevity and the effect of male mating status on female longevity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satu Paukku; Janne S. Kotiaho

    2005-01-01

    One of the most studied life-history trade-offs is that resulting from the cost of reproduction: a trade-off arises when reproduction diverts limited resources from other life-history traits. We examine the cost of reproduction in male, and the effect of male mating status on female Callosobruchus maculatus seed beetles. Cost of reproduction for male C. maculatus was manifested as reduced longevity.

  11. Larval Competition Reduces Body Condition in the Female Seed Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Schade, Daynika J.; Vamosi, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Early body condition may be important for adult behavior and fitness, and is impacted by a number of environmental conditions and biotic interactions. Reduced fecundity of adult females exposed to larval competition may be caused by reduced body condition or shifts in relative body composition, yet these mechanisms have not been well researched. Here, body mass, body size, scaled body mass index, and two body components (water content and lean dry mass) of adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) females exposed to larval competition or reared alone were examined. Experimental females emerged at significantly smaller body mass and body size than control females. Additionally, scaled body mass index and water content, but not lean dry mass, were significantly reduced in experimental females. To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate a potential mechanism for previously documented direct effects of competition on fecundity in female bruchine beetles. PMID:22954282

  12. The genome of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, provides insights into evolutionary adaptation and several complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B.; Shen, Yingjia; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Catchen, Julian; Amores, Angel; Braasch, Ingo; Chalopin, Domitille; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Bisazza, Angelo; Minx, Pat; Hillier, LaDeana; Wilson, Richard K.; Fuerstenberg, Susan; Boore, Jeffrey; Searle, Steve; Postlethwait, John H.; Warren, Wesley C.

    2013-01-01

    Several attributes intuitively considered to be typical mammalian features, such as complex behavior, live birth, and malignant diseases like cancer, also appeared several times independently in so-called “lower” vertebrates. The genetic mechanisms underlying the evolution of these elaborate traits are poorly understood. The platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, offers a unique model to better understand the molecular biology of such traits. Herein we detail sequencing of the platyfish genome. Integrating genome assembly with extensive genetic maps uncovered that fish, in contrast to mammals, exhibit an unexpected evolutionary stability of chromosomes. Genes associated with viviparity show signatures of positive selection identifying new putative functional domains and rare cases of parallel evolution. We also discovered that genes implicated in cognition possess an unexpected high rate of duplicate gene retention after the teleost genome duplication suggesting a hypothesis for the evolution of the great behavioral complexity in fish, which exceeds that in amphibians and reptiles. PMID:23542700

  13. Tibet Orbivirus, a Novel Orbivirus Species Isolated from Anopheles maculatus Mosquitoes in Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoyan; Fu, Shihong; Wang, David; Wang, Zhiyu; Liang, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Orbivirus includes a number of important pathogenic viruses, including Bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus (AHSV), and Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV). In this study we describe the isolation and characterization of an Orbivirus strain isolated from Anopheles maculatus mosquitoes collected in Tibet, China. Methods and Results Initial viral screening identified a viral strain (XZ0906) that caused significant cytopathic effect (CPE) in BHK-21 cells, including rounding, cell rupture, and floating. Although CPE was not observed in insect cells (C6/36), these cells supported viral replication. Polyacrylamide gel analysis revealed a genome consisting of 10 segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), with a distribution pattern of 3-3-3-1. 454 high throughput sequencing of culture supernatant was used for viral identification. Complete genome sequencing was performed by Sanger sequencing in combination with 5?-RACE and 3?-RACE. Sequence analysis demonstrated that all 5?- and 3?- untranslated regions (UTRs) for each of the 10 genome segments contained a series of six highly conserved nucleotides. In addition, homology analysis and phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequence was completed, and all results show that virus XZ0906 was not a member of any known species or serotype of Orbivirus, indicating it to be a new species within the genus Orbivirus. Conclusions The isolated Orbivirus strain was designated Tibet Orbivirus, TIBOV to denote the location from which it was isolated. TIBOV is a novel orbivirus species which is isolated from Anopheles maculatus mosquitoes collected in Tibet, China. PMID:24533145

  14. Variation in lipid composition of some deep-sea fish (Teleostei: Oreosomatidae and Trachichthyidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Bakes; Nicholas G. Elliott; Graham J. Green; Peter D. Nichols

    1995-01-01

    The lipid, fatty acid and fatty alcohol compositions were determined for muscle samples from six species of deep-sea oreo collected from Australian waters; namely Neocyttus rhomboidalis, Neocyttus sp., Allocyttus verrucosus, Allocyttus niger, Pseudocyttus maculatus, and Oreosoma atlanticum. Neocyttus helgae, landed in North Atlantic waters, was also analysed. Similar analyses were also carried out on the muscle and swim bladder of

  15. Fumigant toxicity of Carum copticum and Vitex pseudo-negundo essential oils against eggs, larvae and adults of Callosobruchus maculatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bibi Zahra Sahaf; Saeid Moharramipour

    2008-01-01

    Fumigant activity of essential oil vapors distilled from Carum copticum C. B. Clarke and Vitex pseudo-negundo Hand I. MZT. was tested against eggs, larvae and adults of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 60 ± 5% RH, in dark condition. The influence of different concentrations of\\u000a the essential oil vapors on egg hatchability, larval and adult mortality was

  16. Morphological and molecular data reveal a new species of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from Dormitator maculatus in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Sereno-Uribe, Ana L; García-Varela, Martín

    2014-12-01

    Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) mexicoensis sp. n. is described from the intestine of Dormitator maculatus (Bloch 1792) collected in 5 coastal localities from the Gulf of Mexico. The new species is mainly distinguished from the other 33 described species of Neoechinorhynchus from the Americas associated with freshwater, marine and brackish fishes by having smaller middle and posterior hooks and possessing a small proboscis with three rows of six hooks each, apical hooks longer than other hooks and extending to the same level as the posterior hooks, 1 giant nucleus in the ventral body wall and females with eggs longer than other congeneric species. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal DNA including the domain D2+D3 were used independently to corroborate the morphological distinction among the new species and other congeneric species associated with freshwater and brackish water fish from Mexico. The genetic divergence estimated among congeneric species ranged from 7.34 to 44% for ITS and from 1.65 to 32.9% for LSU. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses with each dataset showed that the 25 specimens analyzed from 5 localities of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico parasitizing D. maculatus represent an independent clade with strong bootstrap support and posterior probabilities. The morphological evidence, plus the monophyly in the phylogenetic analyses, indicates that the acanthocephalans collected from intestine of D. maculatus from the Gulf of Mexico represent a new species, herein named N. (N.) mexicoensis sp. n. PMID:25064596

  17. A Kunitz-type inhibitor of coleopteran proteases, isolated from Adenanthera pavonina L. seeds and its effect on Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; de Sá, Claudia Mara; Freire, Maria Das Graças Machado; Parra, José Roberto Postali

    2004-05-01

    The cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus is one of the major pests of Vigna unguiculata cowpea. Digestion in the cowpea weevil is facilitated by high levels of cysteine and aspartic acid proteinases. Plants synthesize a variety of molecules, including proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors, to defend themselves against attack by insects. In this work, a trypsin inhibitor (ApTI) isolated from Adenanthera pavonina seeds showed activity against papain. The inhibition of papain by ApTI was of the noncompetitive type, with a K(i) of 1 microM. ApTI was highly effective against digestive proteinases from C. maculatus, Acanthoscelides obtectus (bean weevil), and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Mexican bean weevil) and was moderately active against midgut proteinases from the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis and the mealworm Tenebrio molitor. In C. maculates fed an artificial diet containing 0.25% and 0.5% ApTI (w/w), the latter concentration caused 50% mortality and reduced larval weight gain by approximately 40%. The action of ApTI on C. maculatus larvae may involve the inhibition of ApTI-sensitive cysteine proteinases and binding to chitin components of the peritrophic membrane (or equivalent structures) in the weevil midgut. PMID:15113152

  18. Intron-loss evolution of hatching enzyme genes in Teleostei

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hatching enzyme, belonging to the astacin metallo-protease family, digests egg envelope at embryo hatching. Orthologous genes of the enzyme are found in all vertebrate genomes. Recently, we found that exon-intron structures of the genes were conserved among tetrapods, while the genes of teleosts frequently lost their introns. Occurrence of such intron losses in teleostean hatching enzyme genes is an uncommon evolutionary event, as most eukaryotic genes are generally known to be interrupted by introns and the intron insertion sites are conserved from species to species. Here, we report on extensive studies of the exon-intron structures of teleostean hatching enzyme genes for insight into how and why introns were lost during evolution. Results We investigated the evolutionary pathway of intron-losses in hatching enzyme genes of 27 species of Teleostei. Hatching enzyme genes of basal teleosts are of only one type, which conserves the 9-exon-8-intron structure of an assumed ancestor. On the other hand, otocephalans and euteleosts possess two types of hatching enzyme genes, suggesting a gene duplication event in the common ancestor of otocephalans and euteleosts. The duplicated genes were classified into two clades, clades I and II, based on phylogenetic analysis. In otocephalans and euteleosts, clade I genes developed a phylogeny-specific structure, such as an 8-exon-7-intron, 5-exon-4-intron, 4-exon-3-intron or intron-less structure. In contrast to the clade I genes, the structures of clade II genes were relatively stable in their configuration, and were similar to that of the ancestral genes. Expression analyses revealed that hatching enzyme genes were high-expression genes, when compared to that of housekeeping genes. When expression levels were compared between clade I and II genes, clade I genes tends to be expressed more highly than clade II genes. Conclusions Hatching enzyme genes evolved to lose their introns, and the intron-loss events occurred at the specific points of teleostean phylogeny. We propose that the high-expression hatching enzyme genes frequently lost their introns during the evolution of teleosts, while the low-expression genes maintained the exon-intron structure of the ancestral gene. PMID:20796321

  19. Subzero water permeability parameters and optimal freezing rates for sperm cells of the southern platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Pinisetty, D; Huang, C; Dong, Q; Tiersch, T R; Devireddy, R V

    2005-06-01

    This study reports the subzero water transport characteristics (and empirically determined optimal rates for freezing) of sperm cells of live-bearing fishes of the genus Xiphophorus, specifically those of the southern platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus. These fishes are valuable models for biomedical research and are commercially raised as ornamental fish for use in aquariums. Water transport during freezing of X. maculatus sperm cell suspensions was obtained using a shape-independent differential scanning calorimeter technique in the presence of extracellular ice at a cooling rate of 20 degrees C/min in three different media: (1) Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) without cryoprotective agents (CPAs); (2) HBSS with 14% (v/v) glycerol, and (3) HBSS with 10% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The sperm cell was modeled as a cylinder with a length of 52.35 microm and a diameter of 0.66 microm with an osmotically inactive cell volume (Vb) of 0.6 V0, where V0 is the isotonic or initial cell volume. This translates to a surface area, SA to initial water volume, WV ratio of 15.15 microm(-1). By fitting a model of water transport to the experimentally determined volumetric shrinkage data, the best fit membrane permeability parameters (reference membrane permeability to water at 0 degrees C, Lpg or Lpg [cpa] and the activation energy, E(Lp) or E(Lp) [cpa]) were found to range from: Lpg or Lpg [cpa] = 0.0053-0.0093 microm/minatm; E(Lp) or E(Lp) [cpa] = 9.79-29.00 kcal/mol. By incorporating these membrane permeability parameters in a recently developed generic optimal cooling rate equation (optimal cooling rate, [Formula: see text] where the units of B(opt) are degrees C/min, E(Lp) or E(Lp) [cpa] are kcal/mol, L(pg) or L(pg) [cpa] are microm/minatm and SA/WV are microm(-1)), we determined the optimal rates of freezing X. maculatus sperm cells to be 28 degrees C/min (in HBSS), 47 degrees C/min (in HBSS+14% glycerol) and 36 degrees C/min (in HBSS+10% DMSO). Preliminary empirical experiments suggest that the optimal rate of freezing X. maculatus sperm in the presence of 14% glycerol to be approximately 25 degrees C/min. Possible reasons for the observed discrepancy between the theoretically predicted and experimentally determined optimal rates of freezing X. maculatus sperm cells are discussed. PMID:15925577

  20. Insecticidal action of Bauhinia monandra leaf lectin (BmoLL) against Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Zabrotes subfasciatus and Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; das Graças Machado Freire, Maria; da Silva, Maria Barbosa Reis; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso

    2007-04-01

    Bruchid beetle larvae cause major losses in grain legume crops throughout the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) and the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus), are pests that damage stored seeds. The Mediterranean flour moth (Anagasta kuehniella) is of major economic importance as a flour and grain feeder; it is often a severe pest in flour mills. Plant lectins have been implicated as antibiosis factors against insects. Bauhinia monandra leaf lectin (BmoLL) was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus, Z. subfasciatus and A. kuehniella larvae. BmoLL produced ca. 50% mortality to Z. subfaciatus and C. maculatus when incorporated into an artificial diet at a level of 0.5% and 0.3% (w/w), respectively. BmoLL up to 1% did not significantly decrease the survival of A. kuehniella larvae, but produced a decrease of 40% in weight. Affinity chromatography showed that BmoLL bound to midgut proteins of the insect C. maculatus. 33 kDa subunit BmoLL was not digested by midgut preparations of these bruchids. BmoLL-fed C. maculatus larvae increased the digestion of potato starch by 25% compared with the control. The transformation of the genes coding for this lectin could be useful in the development of insect resistance in important agricultural crops. PMID:16488638

  1. The toxicity of a lipid transfer protein (Cc-LTP1) from Coffea canephora Seeds on the larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Zottich, Umberto; Da Cunha, Maura; Dias, Germana B; Rabelo, Guilherme R; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir A; Carvalho, André O; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski S; do Nascimento, Viviane V; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we analyzed the effects of coffee seed proteins, especially Cc-LTP1 on the larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), a bruchid pest of beans and the most important insect pest of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Artificial seed assay, which incorporated the F/0-90 fraction from Coffea canephora seeds, resulted in the reduction of oviposition and caused an inhibition of C. maculatus larval development in a dose-dependent manner. The F/0-90 fraction used at a 4 % concentration resulted in the survival of no larvae. The purified Cc-LTP1, at a concentration of 0.5 %, also demonstrated effective inhibition of larval development, reducing both females oviposition and the weight and number of larvae. Cc-LTP1 was also able to inhibit the C. maculatus gut ?-amylase activity, and immunolabeling by an anti-LTP serum was observed in the midgut tissues of the C. maculatus larvae. Cc-LTP1 has shown binding affinity towards microvillar cells, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, as demonstrated by micrographic images taken by a transmission electron microscope. The results from this study indicate that Cc-LTP1 has insecticidal actions toward C. maculatus and exerts anti-nutritional effects with direct actions on intestinal tissues. PMID:25097041

  2. Can Preference for Oviposition Sites Initiate Reproductive Isolation in Callosobruchus maculatus?

    PubMed Central

    Rova, Emma; Björklund, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Theory has identified a variety of evolutionary processes that may lead to speciation. Our study includes selection experiments using different host plants and test key predictions concerning models of speciation based on host plant choice, such as the evolution of host use (preference and performance) and assortative mating. This study shows that after only ten generations of selection on different resources/hosts in allopatry, strains of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus develop new resource preferences and show resource-dependent assortative mating when given the possibility to choose mates and resources during secondary contact. The resulting reduced gene flow between the different strains remained for two generations after contact before being overrun by disassortative mating. We show that reduced gene flow can evolve in a population due to a link between host preference and assortative mating, although this result was not found in all lines. However, consistent with models of speciation, assortative mating alone is not sufficient to maintain reproductive isolation when individuals disperse freely between hosts. We conclude that the evolution of reproductive isolation in this system cannot proceed without selection against hybrids. Other possible factors facilitating the evolution of isolation would be longer periods of allopatry, the build up of local adaptation or reduced migration upon secondary contact. PMID:21297947

  3. Use of commercial freezers to control cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), in organic garbanzo beans.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A; Valero, K A

    2003-12-01

    One California processor of organic garbanzo beans (Cicer arietinum L.), unable to use chemical fumigants, relies on 30-d storage at -18 degrees C to disinfest product of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F). To determine whether the storage period may be shortened, the most cold-tolerant life stage of the cowpea weevil was identified. Laboratory studies showed that the egg stage was most tolerant to -18 degrees C and that adults were most susceptible. To examine the efficacy of cold storage disinfestation, bags of black-eyed peas, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., infested with cowpea weevil eggs were buried within garbanzo bean bins placed in a commercial cold storage facility kept at approximately -18 degrees C and removed after 7, 14, and 21 d. Survival was highest in eggs located at the center of the bins and coincided with the slowest cooling rate. Although temperatures within the bins did not reach -18 degrees C until after 14-19 d, egg mortality was estimated to be >98% after just 7 d of exposure. Complete mortality of eggs occurred after 14 d of cold storage. A 2-wk treatment regimen may be sufficient for control of cowpea weevil in organic legumes. PMID:14977138

  4. Lipid Status of the Two High Latitude Fish Species, Leptoclinus maculatus and Lumpenus fabricii

    PubMed Central

    Murzina, Svetlana A.; Nefedova, Zinaida A.; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Ripatti, Pauli O.; Ruokolainen, Tatiana R.; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N.; Nemova, Nina N.

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of the lipid status (i.e., the total lipid and phospholipid concentrations and the percentage of fatty acids of the total lipids) of adult specimens of daubed shanny (Leptoclinus maculatus) from Svalbard waters (Isfjord) and slender eel blenny (Lumpenus fabricii) from the White Sea (Onega Bay and Tersky shore) was performed to study the metabolism and functions of lipids of these fishes in ontogeny and under various ecological conditions. Slender eel blenny from both areas of the White Sea were distinguished by a high level of sphingomyelin compared with the daubed shanny from Svalbard, and the amount of total phospholipids was higher in slender eel blenny from Onega Bay than in slender eel blenny from the Tersky shore. The extent of saturation and the signature of polyenic fatty acids varied according to the specific species of the Stichaeidae family under study. These results demonstrate the differences in the trophoecological and hydrobiological conditions of habitations of these species and highlighted the importance of considering certain trends in the lipid profiles of these fishes as specific features of the organization of the ecological and biochemical mechanisms of adaptation. PMID:23535338

  5. Heat stress but not inbreeding affects offensive sperm competitiveness in Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Lieshout, Emile; Tomkins, Joseph L; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Environmental and genetic stress have well-known detrimental effects on ejaculate quality, but their concomitant effect on male fitness remains poorly understood. We used competitive fertilization assays to expose the effects of stress on offensive sperm competitive ability in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a species where ejaculates make up more than 5% of male body mass. To examine the effects of environmental and genetic stress, males derived from outcrosses or sib matings were heat shocked at 50°C for 50 min during the pupal stage, while their siblings were maintained at a standard rearing temperature of 28°C. Heat-shocked males achieved only half the offensive paternity success of their siblings. While this population exhibited inbreeding depression in body size, sperm competitiveness was unaffected by inbreeding, nor did the effect of heat shock stress on sperm competitiveness depend on inbreeding status. In contrast, pupal emergence success was increased by 34% among heat-stressed individuals, regardless of their inbreeding status. Heat-shocked males' ejaculate size was 19% reduced, but they exhibited 25% increased mating duration in single mating trials. Our results highlight both the importance of stress in postcopulatory sexual selection, and the variability among stressors in affecting male fitness. PMID:24101978

  6. Genetic architecture of population differences in oviposition behaviour of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Fox, C W; Stillwell, R C; Amarillo-S, A R; Czesak, M E; Messina, F J

    2004-09-01

    Few studies have examined the genetic architecture of population differences in behaviour and its implications for population differentiation and adaptation. Even fewer have examined whether differences in genetic architecture depend on the environment in which organisms are reared or tested. We examined the genetic basis of differences in oviposition preference and egg dispersion between Asian (SI) and African (BF) populations of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. We reared and tested females on each of two host legumes (cowpea and mung bean). The two populations differed in mean oviposition preference (BF females preferred cowpea seeds more strongly than did SI females) and egg dispersion (SI females distributed eggs more uniformly among seeds than did BF females). Observations of hybrid and backcross individuals indicated that only the population difference in oviposition preference could be explained by complete additivity, whereas substantial dominance and epistasis contributed to the differences in egg dispersion. Both rearing host and test host affected the relative magnitude of population differences in egg dispersion and the composite genetic effects. Our results thus demonstrate that the relative influence of epistasis and dominance on the behaviour of hybrids depends on the behaviour measured and that different aspects of insect oviposition are under different genetic control. In addition, the observed effect of rearing host and oviposition host on the relative importance of dominance and epistasis indicates that the genetic basis of population differences depends on the environment in which genes are expressed. PMID:15312086

  7. Evaluation of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus zeamais (Mots).

    PubMed

    Ogunleye, R F; Adefemi, S O

    2007-12-01

    Insecticidal effects of different doses of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae on Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais were tested. The dust had no significant effect on the two insects; none of them died even at 3 d after treatment. The methanol extracts, however, had rapid lethal effects on both C. maculatus and S. zeamais. The mortality of C. maculatus by the lowest concentration of methanol extracts ranged from 95%~100% whereas in S. zeamais, the mortality ranged from 87.5% to approximately 100% and 70% to approximately 100% in concentrations of 1 g extract+3 ml methanol and 1 g extract+5 ml methanol, respectively, from 24 to 48 h. The least concentration of 1 g extract+15 ml methanol had no significant lethal effect on Sitophilus zeamais. PMID:18257127

  8. The immature stages of Dermestes maculatus, Sarcophaga sp. and Phaenicia sericata as potential paratenic hosts for Trichinella spiralis in nature.

    PubMed

    Riva, Eliana; Fiel, César; Steffan, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The role of some insect populations in the transmission of Trichinella sp. has been demonstrated. However, most of the studies have been conducted under controlled conditions which may influence the real role that they could play as a paratenic host in nature. To enlight this issue, a series of studies to determine the infective capability of the muscle larva of Trichinella spiralis recovered from immature stages of insect populations that fed on infected tissues exposed to natural conditions were carried out. Mice harbouring T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) were sacrificed and deposited on a pitfall trap which was established in an open and safe area through 25 days in summer. Necrophilous and necrophagous insects that fed on corpses were recovered, identified and processed to search for live ML of T. spiralis. A complementary study in which maggots of Dermestes maculatus recovered from nature were induced to feed on muscle tissues harbouring T. spiralis larvae was also performed. The muscle larvae recovered from insects at different times of exposition were counted and inoculated to mice to determine the reproductive capability index (RCI). At day 3 of exposition, 29 live ML of T. spiralis were recovered from maggots of Phaenicia sericata. The RCI for these larvae was 133.6. On day 5 of exposition, maggots of Sarcophaga sp. were identified and 17 live T. spiralis larvae were recovered; the RCI of these larvae was 43.4. The T. spiralis ML recovered from maggots of D. maculatus obtained after 2 days of feeding on experimentally infected tissue showed a RCI of 24. The results suggest that larval stages of P. sericata, Sarcophaga sp. and D. maculatus might have an important role as a paratenic host of T. spiralis, which, in terms, may influence the epidemiology of this nematode in endemic areas of trichinellosis. PMID:25346194

  9. Effects of a chitin binding vicilin from Erythrina velutina seeds on bean bruchid pests (Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Fabiano M; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Santos, Elizeu A; de Sales, Mauricio P

    2008-01-01

    Erythrina velutina vicilin, EvV, is a dimeric glycoprotein with Mr of 124.6 kDa. EvV was tested for anti-insect activity against bean bruchid larvae. EvV had LD(50) of 0.10% and ED(50) of 0.14% for Z. subfasciatus and LD(50) of 0.26% and ED(50) of 0.19% for C. maculatus. EvV was not digested by bean larvae enzymes until 12 h of incubation, and at 24 h EvV was more resistant to Z. subfasciatus enzymes. PMID:18336356

  10. Effect of plant volatile oils in protecting stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation.

    PubMed

    Raja; Albert; Ignacimuthu; Dorn

    2001-04-01

    Adult Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were introduced into cowpea seeds which were stored in containers with volatile oils derived from Mentha arvensis, M. piperata, M. spicata and Cymbopogon nardus. The numbers of eggs laid, adult mortality, adult emergence and subsequent seed damage were studied for four months. All oils significantly influenced all parameters (P<0.05) and results with different parameters were generally parallel. Significant differences for at least some time/parameters combinations indicated an order of potency of M. spicata>M. piperata>M. arvensis>C. nardus. PMID:11124376

  11. Ecological comments on the intestinal helminths of the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei, Siganidae) from the northern Red Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reda M. El-S. Hassanine; Mohammed O. Al-Jahdali

    2007-01-01

    Between May and September 2006, 640 specimens of the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus Forsskål (Teleostei, Siganidae) were examined for infections with intestinal helminths. These fishes were caught in the Red\\u000a Sea off the coast of Sharm El-Sheikh, South Sinai, Egypt, examined in a field laboratory and separated into three size groups\\u000a of regular length intervals. Only three species of helminths were

  12. Genetic architecture of differences between populations of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) evolved in the same environment.

    PubMed

    Bieri, Jonas; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

    2003-02-01

    We investigated the genetic architecture underlying differentiation in fitness-related traits between two pairs of populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). These populations had geographically distant (> 2000 km) origins but evolved in a uniform laboratory environment for 120 generations. For each pair of populations (Nigeria x Yemen and Cameroon x Uganda) we estimated the means of five fitness-related characters and a measure of fitness (net reproductive rate R0) in each of the parental populations and 12 types of hybrids (two F1 and two F2 lines and eight backcrosses). Models containing up to nine composite genetic parameters were fitted to the means of the 14 lines. The patterns of line means for all traits in the Nigeria x Yemen cross and for four traits (larval survival, developmental rate, female body weight, and fecundity) in the Cameroon x Uganda cross were best explained by models including additive, dominance, and maternal effects, but excluding epistasis. We did not find any evidence for outbreeding depression for any trait. An epistatic component of divergence was detected for egg hatching success and R0 in the Cameroon x Uganda cross, but its sign was opposite to that expected under outbreeding depression, that is, additive x additive epistasis had a positive effect on the performance of F2 hybrids. All traits except fecundity showed a pattern of heterosis. A large difference of egg-hatching success between the two reciprocal F1 lines in that cross was best explained as fertilization incompatibility between Cameroon females and sperm carrying Uganda genes. The results suggest that these populations have not converged to the same life-history phenotype and genetic architecture, despite 120 generations of uniform natural selection. However, the absence of outbreeding depression implies that they did not evolve toward different adaptive peaks. PMID:12683524

  13. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Coriandrum sativum Seeds against Tribolium confusum and Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere

    2012-01-01

    The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1–7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357??L/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24?h. In the probit analysis, LC50 values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC50 = 1.34??L/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC50 = 318.02??L/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides. PMID:23227365

  14. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Coriandrum sativum Seeds against Tribolium confusum and Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere

    2012-01-01

    The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1-7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357??L/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24?h. In the probit analysis, LC(50) values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC(50) = 1.34??L/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC(50) = 318.02??L/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides. PMID:23227365

  15. Host preference of Callosobruchus maculatus: a comparison of life history characteristics for three strains of beetles on two varieties of cowpea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Boeke; Loon van J. J. A; A. van Huis; M. Dicke

    2004-01-01

    The reproductive success of Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius, the main insect pest of stored cowpea, may vary between strains of this beetle and between varieties of the host seeds. Life history parameters of beetle strains from three different origins in West Africa were compared on two susceptible varieties of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. All beetle strains were assayed in a

  16. Does rapid adaptation to a poor-quality host by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) cause cross-adaptation to other legume hosts?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J. Messina; Jake C. Jones

    2009-01-01

    Initial assays indicated that lentil is a very poor host for an Asian population of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Larval survival was near zero, and females laid few or no eggs on lentil seeds. However, mass selection in the laboratory consistently produced a rapid increase in survival (from 80% in <20 generations) as well as a moderate increase

  17. Insecticidal action of Bauhinia monandra leaf lectin (BmoLL) against Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Zabrotes subfasciatus and Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Lígia Rodrigues Macedo; Maria das Graças Machado Freire; Maria Barbosa Reis da Silva; Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho

    2007-01-01

    Bruchid beetle larvae cause major losses in grain legume crops throughout the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) and the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus), are pests that damage stored seeds. The Mediterranean flour moth (Anagasta kuehniella) is of major economic importance as a flour and grain feeder; it is often a severe pest in

  18. Insecticidal activity of the aqueous extracts of four under-utilized tropical plants as protectant of cowpea seeds from Callosobruchus maculatus infestation.

    PubMed

    Obembe, O M; Kayode, J

    2013-02-15

    The test plants species, namely Crotaria retusa, Hyptis suaveolens, Ricinus communis and Tithonia diversifolia were extracted with water. The extracts were evaluated on Callosobruchus maculatus for mortality, oviposition and adult emergence effects. The long-term protectant ability and viability were also investigated. The results showed that the aqueous extracts from T. diversifolia were most effective on C. maculatus, followed by extract from Ricinus communis. The least potent extracts were those extracted from Crotalaria retusa and Hyptis suaveolens. Also, the extracts considerably reduced oviposition by C. maculatus. Extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis drastically reduced infestation and subsequence damage of the treated cowpea seeds for a period of three months. Most of the treated seeds germinated after 90 days storage period. The results from this study revealed that aqueous extracts from all the four plants species were effective in controlling cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for protection of stored cowpea seeds against bruchids. PMID:24171265

  19. COWPEA WEEVIL (CALLOSOBRUCHUS MACULATUS) FLIGHTS TO A POINT SOURCE OF FEMALE SEX PHEROMONE: ANALYSES OF FLIGHT TRACKS AT THREE WIND SPEEDS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-day-old male cowpea weevils, Callosobruchus maculatus, were released individually and flew upwind to a point source of female sex pheromone at three wind speeds. All beetles initiating flight along the pheromone plumes made contact with the pheromone source. Analysis of digitized flight tracks i...

  20. Ultrastructure and potential role of integumentary glandular cells in adult male and female Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic) and C. maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera : Bruchidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonny B. Ramaswamy; Shengqiang Shu; William A. Monroe; George N. Mbata

    1995-01-01

    Transmission and scanning electron microscopy methods were used to study the ultrastructure of integumentary glandular cells that may be involved in the production of sex pheromones and other semiochemicals in Callosobruchus subinnotatus and C. maculatus (Coleoptera : Bruchidae). Additionally, we measured electroantennogram (EAG) responses of male and female antennae to solvent extracts and glassadsorbed volatiles from both sexes of C.

  1. Response of Catolaccus grandis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to its Natural Host After Ten Generations of Rearing on a Factitious Host, Callosobrucus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. ROJAS; J. A. MORALES-RAMOS; E. G. KING

    Catolaccus grandis (Burks), an ectoparasitoid of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, grandis (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was reared in laboratory conditions on the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), as a factitious host to reduce costs on a mass propagation system. Total fecundity, daily oviposition, net reproductive rate, and sex ratio were evaluated and compared among females reared on A. grandis and

  2. Differential population structuring and demographic history of two closely related fish species, Japanese sea bass ( Lateolabrax japonicus) and spotted sea bass ( Lateolabrax maculatus) in Northwestern Pacific

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Xian Liu; Tian-Xiang Gao; Koji Yokogawa; Ya-Ping Zhang

    2006-01-01

    The Quaternary cold periods in the Northwestern Pacific are thought to have heavily influenced the amount and distribution of intraspecific genetic variation in marine fishes. To estimate the demographic history and genetic structure of Lateolabrax maculatus and L. japonicus in the Northwestern Pacific, 256 individuals were sampled from 19 localities throughout the distribution range of the two species. Mitochondrial DNA

  3. Dinámica global en galaxias elípticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M. J.; Cincotta, P. M.; Giordano, C. M.

    Con el propósito de determinar propiedades dinámicas globales en sistemas triaxiales no integrables, utilizamos una nueva herramienta conocida como ``Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits'' (MEGNO), introducida por Cincotta y Simó (2000). Esta técnica no sólo resulta eficiente para investigar ambas componentes del espacio fase, regular y caótica, sino que también, provee una medida de la hiperbolicidad en el dominio caótico que coincide con la dada por el Lyapunov Characteristic Number (LCN). Previamente este método ha sido aplicado al estudio de modelos simples, y últimamente en el campo de la Mecánica Celeste, al estudio de sistemas planetarios extrasolares. En esta presentación, ilustraremos algunas de las propiedades más importantes del MEGNO, aplic& acute;andolo al potencial tridimensional de Stäckel perturbado.

  4. Potential of combining neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with varietal resistance for the management of the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. S. Lale; A. Mustapha

    2000-01-01

    The efficacy of different rates (25, 50, 75 and 100 mg\\/5 g seed) of application of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil (NSO) was assessed on four cowpea varieties (Kanannado, IT89KD-391, Borno brown and IT89KD-374) with differing susceptibilities to Callosobruchus maculatus. The different rates of NSO significantly interacted with cowpea varietal resistance and reduced oviposition and percentage adult emergence of C.

  5. Phylogenetic relationships of Goneaperca and the evolution of parental care in darters (Teleostei: Percidae).

    PubMed

    Harrington, Richard C; Near, Thomas J

    2015-03-01

    Inference of evolutionary relationships among closely related darter species (Teleostei: Percidae) has traditionally proven challenging due to a lack of sufficient numbers of informative morphological characters or reliance on mtDNA sequences. These factors have contributed to longstanding uncertainty of the monophyly of many described taxonomic groups. Although multi-locus data are now available for most darter species, uncertainty has persisted regarding the relationships of some major lineages. Here, we investigate the relationships of darters classified in Goneaperca, a clade of 46 species, many of which are characterized by distinct nuptial displays and male-only parental care. Previous phylogenetic analyses of morphological and molecular data have failed to provide strong resolution of relationships among major Goneaperca subclades, and especially the monophyly of Catonotus. We apply coalescent and phylogenetic analyses to a dataset that includes intraspecific sampling for nearly all species of Goneaperca for 13 nuclear genes. Our coalescent species tree analyses resolved a strongly supported sister relationship between Boleosoma and a monophyletic Catonotus. Ancestor state reconstructions using the posterior distribution of these newly inferred phylogenies support a single origin of male-only parental care in the most recent common ancestor of Boleosoma and Catonotus. PMID:25615427

  6. Metazoan parasite communities of catfishes (Teleostei: Siluridae) in Benin (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Tossavi, Nounagnon Darius; Gbankoto, Adam; Adité, Alphonse; Ibikounlé, Moudachirou; Grunau, Christoph; Sakiti, Gilbert Nestor

    2014-11-01

    The need for more precise information on the effect of dry season on fish parasite communities in Benin lead us to undergo a focus during this season in one of the major sites of collection fry by fish farmers.Metazoan parasites were then inventoried in 166 specimens of catfishes which constituted of C larias gariepinus, Clarias ebriensis, Synodontis schall, Synodontis nigrita, and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Teleostei: Siluridae). Those fishes were collected from fishermen of Agonlin-Lowé at the side of Oueme River in south Benin from November 2011 to March 2012. In total, 12 parasite species were listed comprising three Monogena (Gyrodactylus sp., Synodontella sp., and Protoancylodiscoides chrysichthes), three Cestoda (Stoeksia pujehuni, Lytocestus sp., and Cestode indeterminate), five Nematoda (Paracamallanus cyathopharynx, Procamallanus laevionchus, Cithariniella petterae, Synodontisia thelastomoides, and nematode indeterminate), and one indeterminated Copepod species. Total infestation rate varied between 83.87 and 100% for the different fish species. This was high but independent of fish sex (?(2)?=?1.669, df?=?4, nonsignificant). The highest mean intensity and mean abundance were, respectively, 44 and 13.33. Monogenea and Nematoda have elevated frequency of dominance, and their presence in the host is significantly correlated (r?=?-0.999; p?

  7. A RAD-tag genetic map for the platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) reveals mechanisms of karyotype evolution among teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Amores, Angel; Catchen, Julian; Nanda, Indrajit; Warren, Wesley; Walter, Ron; Schartl, Manfred; Postlethwait, John H

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian genomes can vary substantially in haploid chromosome number even within a small taxon (e.g., 3-40 among deer alone); in contrast, teleost fish genomes are stable (24-25 in 58% of teleosts), but we do not yet understand the mechanisms that account for differences in karyotype stability. Among perciform teleosts, platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) both have 24 chromosome pairs, but threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and green pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) have just 21 pairs. To understand the evolution of teleost genomes, we made a platyfish meiotic map containing 16,114 mapped markers scored on 267 backcross fish. We tiled genomic contigs along the map to create chromosome-length genome assemblies. Genome-wide comparisons of conserved synteny showed that platyfish and medaka karyotypes remained remarkably similar with few interchromosomal translocations but with numerous intrachromosomal rearrangements (transpositions and inversions) since their lineages diverged ?120 million years ago. Comparative genomics with platyfish shows how reduced chromosome numbers in stickleback and green pufferfish arose by fusion of pairs of ancestral chromosomes after their lineages diverged from platyfish ?195 million years ago. Zebrafish and human genomes provide outgroups to root observed changes. These studies identify likely genome assembly errors, characterize chromosome fusion events, distinguish lineage-independent chromosome fusions, show that the teleost genome duplication does not appear to have accelerated the rate of translocations, and reveal the stability of syntenies and gene orders in teleost chromosomes over hundreds of millions of years. PMID:24700104

  8. A screen for bacterial endosymbionts in the model organisms Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum, Callosobruchus maculatus, and related species.

    PubMed

    Goodacre, Sara L; Fricke, Claudia; Martin, Oliver Y

    2015-04-01

    Reproductive parasites such as Wolbachia are extremely widespread amongst the arthropods and can have a large influence over the reproduction and fitness of their hosts. Undetected infections could thus confound the results of a wide range of studies that focus on aspects of host behavior, reproduction, fitness, and degrees of reproductive isolation. This potential problem has already been underlined by work investigating the incidence of Wolbachia infections in stocks of the model system Drosophila melanogaster. Here we survey a range of lab stocks of further commonly used model arthropods, focusing especially on the flour beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum, the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus and related species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and Bruchidae). These species are widespread stored product pests so knowledge of infections with symbionts further has potential use in informing biocontrol measures. Beetles were assessed for infection with 3 known microbial reproductive parasites: Wolbachia, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma. Infections with some of these microbes were found in some of the lab stocks studied, although overall infections were relatively rare. The consequences of finding infections in these or other species and the type of previous studies likely to be affected most are discussed. PMID:24347564

  9. Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).

    PubMed

    Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

    2014-01-01

    The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively. PMID:24737480

  10. Effect of diatomaceous earths Fossil Shield and Silico-Sec on the egg laying behaviour of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Prasantha, B D Rohitha; Reichmuth, Ch; Büttner, C

    2002-01-01

    The pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) is a destructive pest of pulses in both storage and field. It is well known that diatomaceous earth (DE) kill the insects by locally absorbing the epicuticular lipid layers leading to high rate of water loss through the cuticle. However, the effectiveness of DE depends on its ability to kill the adults before copulation and egg-laying. Newly emerged virgin males and females of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were exposed to the DEs, Fossil-Shield and Silico-Sec on 30 treated mungbeans (Vigna radita (L)). Fecundity, number of beans used for egg-laying and beans without eggs were evaluated after four days; the number of unhatched eggs was evaluated after ten days. It was determined, that the fecundity of female insects decreased sigmoidely with increasing rate of DE content. Percentages of unhatched eggs and seeds without eggs increased with increasing DE dosages. However, the maximum egg densities (eggs per used secd) occurred at 1200 mg DE/kg for Fossil-Shield and Silico-Sec. The reason for such DE-stimulated behaviour of egg laying expressed as a number of seeds with eggs of C. maculatus is not known, but it may be related to the stress caused by the inert dusts or to the reduction of both chemical and physical (tactile) stimuli. Treatment with DEs altered the surface texture of the beans and caused less cohesion between eggs and the seed surface. Only few larvae managed to penetrate into the grains, possibly due to increased grain roughness and repellent effect of DE. A relatively high number of eggs were laid on the surface of those beans where the amount of dust had been locally reduced by adults' movement and their pick up of DE. Therefore, several larvae tried to penetrate into these treated beans, causing a high larval density per partially cleaned bean. All these reasons lead to a progeny decline. PMID:12703482

  11. Effects of a chitin-binding vicilin from Enterolobium contortisiliquum seeds on bean bruchid pests (Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus) and phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium solani and Colletrichum lindemuntianum).

    PubMed

    Moura, Fabiano T; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Vianna, André L B R; Andrade, Lucia B S; Martins-Miranda, A S; Oliveira, Jose T A; Santos, Elizeu A; de Sales, Mauricio P

    2007-01-24

    Chitin-binding vicilin from Enterolobium contortisiliquum seeds was purified by ammonium sulfate followed by gel filtration on Sephacryl 300-SH and on Sephacryl 200-SH. The vicilin, called EcV, is a dimeric glycoprotein composed of 1.03% carbohydrates and a Mr of 151 kDa, consisting of two subunits of Mr of 66.2 and 63.8 kDa. The EcV homogeneity was confirmed in a PAGE where it was observed to be a unique acid protein band with slow mobility in this native gel. E. contortisiliquum vicilin (EcV) was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus larvae and for phytopathogenic fungi, F. solani and C. lindemuntianum. EcV was very effective against both bruchids, producing 50% mortality for Z. subfasciatus at an LD50 of 0.43% and affected 50% of the larvae mass with an ED50 of 0.65%. In artificial diets given to C. maculatus, 50% of the larvae mass was affected with an ED50 of 1.03%, and larva mortality was 50% at LD50 of 1.11%. EcV was not digested by midgut homogenates of C. maculatus and Z. Subfasciatus until 12 h of incubation, and at 24 h EcV was more resistant to Z. subfasciatus larval proteases. The binding to chitin present in larvae gut associated to low EcV digestibility could explain its lethal effects. EcV also exerted an inhibitory effect on the germination of F. solani at concentrations of 10 and 20 microg mL-1. The effect of EcV on fungi is possibly due to binding to chitin-containing structures of the fungal cell wall. PMID:17227051

  12. Isolation and purification of a papain inhibitor from Egyptian genotypes of barley seeds and its in vitro and in vivo effects on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.).

    PubMed

    Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-02-01

    The cysteine inhibitors that are known as cystatin have been identified and characterized from several plant species. In the current study, 44 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes including 3 varieties and 41 promising lines were screened for their potential as protease inhibitors. The barley genotypes showed low inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes with a mean of 4.15 TIU/mg protein and 4.40 CIU/mg protein. The barley variety, Giza 123, showed strong papain inhibitory activity of 97.09 PIU/mg proteins and was subjected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Barley purified proteins showed two bands on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 12.4-54.8?kDa. The purified barley PI was found to be stable at a temperature below 80?°C and at a wide range of pH from 2 to 12. Barley PI was found to have higher potential inhibitory activity against papain enzyme compared to the standard papain inhibitor, E-64 with an IC50 value of 21.04?µg/ml and 25.62?µg/ml for barley PI and E-64, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition with a Ki value of 1.95?×?10(-3?)µM. The antimetabolic effect of barley PI was evaluated against C. maculatus by incorporating the F30-60 protein of the purified inhibitor into the artificial diet using artificial seeds. Barley PI significantly prolonged the development of C. maculatus in proportion to PI concentration. Barley PI significantly increased the mortality of C. maculatus and caused a significant reduction in its fecundity. On the other hand, barley PI seemed to have non-significant effects on the adult longevity and the adult dry weight. The in vitro and in vivo results proved the efficiency of the papain inhibitory protein isolated from barley as a tool for managing the cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus. PMID:25752426

  13. The distribution of neuropeptide Y and dynorphin immunoreactivity in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, from birth to sexual maturity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepriano, L. M.; Schreibman, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y and dynorphin have been localized in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, at different ages and stages of development from birth to sexual maturity. Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y was found in perikarya and tracts of the nucleus olfactoretinalis, telencephalon, ventral tegmentum and in the neurohypophysis and in the three regions of the adenohypophysis. Immunoreactive dynorphin was found in nerve tracts in the olfactory bulb and in cells of the pars intermedia and the rostral pars distalis of the pituitary gland.

  14. Fine structure of the retina and pigment epithelium in the creek chub, Semotilus atromaculatus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Collin, S P; Collin, H B; Ali, M A

    1996-01-01

    The structure of the light- and dark-adapted retina, the pigment epithelium and the choroid of the creek chub, Semotilus atromaculatus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) is examined by light and electron microscopy. An extensive network of vitreal blood vessels emanating from the hyaloid artery enters the eye with the optic nerve and overlies the inner limiting membrane. This membrane closely apposes the fine protrusions of the Müller cell processes which traverse the entire retina, dividing the inner retina into alternating fascicles of ganglion cells and optic axons. The inner nuclear layer consists of bipolar, amacrine, Müller cell soma and two layers of horizontal cells. The outer plexiform layer possesses both rod spherules and cone pedicles. Each rod spherule consists of a single synaptic ribbon in either a triad or quadrad junctional arrangement within the invaginating terminal endings of the bipolar and horizontal cell processes. In contrast, cone pedicles possess multiple synaptic ribbons within their junctional complexes and, in the light-adapted state, the horizontal cell processes show spinule formation. Four photoreceptor types are identified on morphological criteria; unequal double cones, large single cones, small single cones and rods. All but the small single cones are capable of retinomotor responses. The rod to cone ratio is approximately 5:1 and the rods form two ill-defined rows in the light-adapted condition. The retinal pigment epithelium possesses two types of osmiophilic granules. These are bound within slender microvilli and migrate vitread to surround the photoreceptors in response to light. Bruch's membrane is trilaminar and the vascularised choroid consists of up to three layers of melanocytes. The endothelial borders of the choroidal blood vessels abutting the outer lamina of Bruch's membrane are fenestrated. PMID:8720447

  15. The importance of gobies (Gobiidae, Teleostei) as hosts and transmitters of parasites in the SW Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, C. D.; Strohbach, U.; Groenewold, S.

    1993-02-01

    The parasite fauna of five goby species (Gobiidae, Teleostei) was investigated in the Baltic Sea during the period 1987 to 1990. 13 parasite species were found in samples from the Lübeck Bight: Bothriocephalus scorpii, Schistocephalus sp. (Cestoda); Cryptocotyle concavum, Cryptocotyle lingua, Podocotyle atomon, Derogenes varicus (Digenea); Hysterothylacium sp. (cf. auctum), Contracaecum sp., Anisakis simplex (Nematoda); Corynosoma sp., Echinorhynchus gadi, Neoechinorhynchus rutili, Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala). The number of parasite species were: 10 in the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, 8 in the black goby Gobius niger, 7 in the two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens, 6 in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and 5 in the painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus. Neoechinorhynchus rutili occurred only in P. minutus, and Corynosoma sp. only in G. niger. The extent to which the gobies were parasitized clearly depended on the respective ways of life and, moreover, on the kind of prey ingested by the hosts. Additionally, the age of the hosts might be important. The highest rate of parasitism, more than 60%, was reached by Hysterothylacium sp. in G. niger and by Cryptocotyle concavum in P. microps. Infestation incidence lay mostly below 40% which means a satellite species status (Holmes, 1991). The number of parasite species was highest in summer; the highest intensities of single parasites occurred in spring ( Podocotyle atomon) or autumn ( Crytocotyle concavum). Bothriocephalus scorpii, Hysterothylacium sp. and Podocotyle infested their juvenile hosts very early, but only Hysterothylacium was accumulated by G. niger during its whole life span, whereas Bothriocephalus persisted also in older gobies in low intensities. The cercariae of Cryptocotyle spp. penetrate actively into their hosts; all the other parasites named were transmitted in larval form by prey organisms which consisted mainly of planktonic and benthic crustaceans. The gobies were final hosts for only 5 parasites; but two species may be transmitted to larger fish, and 6 species to sea birds or mammals. The parasite community of the five gobies may possibly be taken to characterize the ecological quality of the environment of the Lübeck Bight.

  16. Import of exotic and zoonotic trematodes (Heterophyidae: Centrocestus sp.) in Xiphophorus maculatus: implications for ornamental fish import control in Europe.

    PubMed

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Jensen, Hannah M; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt

    2014-06-01

    Ornamental fish, Xiphophorus maculatus, were imported from Singapore to Denmark for distribution to local aquarists. Importers observed lethargic and erratic swimming patterns among fish and forwarded a total of 30 fish for pathological examination to a university diagnostic service. All fish were diagnosed infected with encysted Centrocestus sp. metacercariae in gills (prevalence of 100% and mean intensity of 454.5 ± 161.9 parasites per fish). Metacercariae were identified by morphological and molecular methods. Cysts (mean length 163.3 ± 13.7 ?m and mean width 113.3 ± 10.6 ?m) contained a bent metacercaria with an X-shaped excretory bladder. PCR amplification of a rDNA region (5.8S rRNA gene, ITS-2, 28S rRNA gene) and subsequent sequencing confirmed the diagnosis. Metacercariae were found in gill filaments adjacent to the cartilage associated with cartilage hypertrophy, epithelial and mucous cell hyperplasia, clubbing and lamellar fusion. Host cell encapsulation of cysts comprised several layers of leucocytes, chondroblast-like and fibroblast-like cells. The observations raise concerns with regard to veterinary inspection and quarantine procedures. The zoonotic potential of these trematodes and a possible spread of the parasites in natural habitats in Europe should be regarded as a public health issue. So far, several cases of human infections have been reported only in Asia, but the potential intermediate host snail, Melanoides tuberculata, has been recorded in Germany. Accordingly, establishment of the parasite in Europe with climate changes should be considered a risk. PMID:24827099

  17. Scanning electron microscopy of photoreceptor cells in the light- and dark-adapted retina of Haplochromis burtoni (Cichlidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Pietzsch-Rohrschneider, I

    1976-11-24

    The photoreceptor layer in the retina of Haplochromis burtoni (Cichlidae, Teleostei) was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Three types of receptors were identified: rods, single-cones and double-cones. The three-dimensional arrangement of these photoreceptors is described in the light- and dark-adapted retina. The surface of the inner segment of the photo-receptor cells displays fine vertical fissures which give rise to slender processes. These so called calycal processes which are of different lengths in rods and cones, surround the beginning of the smooth-surfaced outer segment. The myoid, the contractile part of the receptor, which is located beneath the ellipsoid, was examined in the single-cones of the dark-adapted retina. It is a slender structure with surface infoldings. The myoid, studied by transmission electron microscopy, contains bundles of parallel myofilaments, which are thought to be contractile. PMID:1000593

  18. Next generation sequencing yields the complete mitochondrial genome of the flathead mullet, Mugil cephalus cryptic species NWP2 (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    PubMed

    Shen, Kang-Ning; Yen, Ta-Chi; Chen, Ching-Hung; Li, Huei-Ying; Chen, Pei-Lung; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2014-09-26

    Abstract In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of Northwestern Pacific 2 (NWP2) cryptic species of flathead mullet, Mugil cephalus (Teleostei: Mugilidae) has been amplified by long-range PCR and sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome, consisting of 16,686?bp, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes and a non-coding control region of D-loop. D-loop was 909?bp length and was located between tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe. The overall base composition of NWP2 M. cephalus was 28.4% for A, 29.8% for C, 26.5% for T and 15.3% for G. The complete mitogenome may provide essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis for flathead mullet species complex. PMID:25259447

  19. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins) with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Souza, A J; Ferreira, A T S; Perales, J; Beghini, D G; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J; Venancio, T M; Oliveira, A E A

    2012-02-01

    Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitin-binding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation. PMID:22267002

  20. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins) with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Souza, A.J.; Ferreira, A.T.S.; Perales, J.; Beghini, D.G.; Fernandes, K.V.S.; Xavier-Filho, J.; Venancio, T.M.; Oliveira, A.E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitinbinding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5?mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation. PMID:22267002

  1. Suppression of seed bruchid ( Callosobruchus maculatus F.) development and damage on cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) with Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Waterm. (Rutaceae) root bark powder when compared to neem seed powder and pirimiphos-methyl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. O. Ogunwolu; A. T. Odunlami

    1996-01-01

    Reproduction suppression properties in Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Waterm. (Rutaceae) root bark powder (ZRBP) against the cowpea seed bruchid (CSB), Callosobruchus maculatus F., were evaluated against neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) seed powder (NSP) and pirimiphos-methyl (PM) (Actellic 2% Dust, ICI). At application rates ranging from 0.125 to 3 g per 20 g seed, ZRBP was as effective an oviposition suppressant

  2. A new variant of antimetabolic protein, arcelin from an Indian bean, Lablab purpureus (Linn.) and its effect on the stored product pest, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Janarthanan, Sundaram; Sakthivelkumar, Shanmugavel; Veeramani, Velayutham; Radhika, Dixit; Muthukrishanan, Subbaratnam

    2012-12-15

    The anti-metabolic or insecticidal gene, arcelin (Arl) was isolated, cloned and sequenced using sequence specific degenerate primers from the seeds of Lablab purpureus collected from the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The L. purpureus arcelin nucleotide sequence was homologous to Arl-3 and Arl-4 alleles from Phaseolus spp. The protein it encodes has 70% amino acid identity with the amino acid sequences of Arl-3I, Arl-3III, Arl-4 precursor, Arl-4 and Arl-4I. The partially purified arcelin from the seeds of L. purpureus using an artificial diet confirmed the complete retardation of development of the stored product pest Callosobruchus maculatus at 0.2% w/w arcelin-incorporated artificial seeds. PMID:22980880

  3. The effect of novel environment and sex on the additive genetic variation and covariation in and between emergence body weight and development period in the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera, Bruchidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Guntrip; Richard M Sibly; Graham J Holloway

    1997-01-01

    Progeny from full-sib\\/half-sib families of a population of Callosobruchus maculatus near genetic equilibrium were reared either in an ancestral (30°C, 70 per cent relative humidity) or in a novel (25°C, 45 per cent relative humidity) environment. The life history traits, emergence body weight and development period were measured in both sexes. Insects developed faster and emerged heavier at a higher

  4. New Sicydiinae phylogeny (Teleostei: Gobioidei) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes: insights on systematics and ancestral areas.

    PubMed

    Taillebois, Laura; Castelin, Magalie; Lord, Clara; Chabarria, Ryan; Dettaï, Agnès; Keith, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The Sicydiinae subfamily (Teleostei: Gobioidei) is the biggest contributor to the diversity of fish communities in river systems of tropical islands. These species are found in the Indo-Pacific area, the Caribbean region and West Africa. They spawn in freshwater, their planktotrophic larvae drift downstream to the sea where they develop, before returning to the rivers to grow and reproduce. Hence, they are called amphidromous. Their phylogeny has been explored using a total of 3545 sites from 5 molecular markers (mitochondrial DNA: 16S rDNA, cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome b; nuclear DNA: rhodopsin gene and a nuclear marker specially developed for this study, the interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 1-IRF2PB1). Sequences were obtained for 59 Sicydiinae specimens of 9 known genera. The Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses support the monophyly of the subfamily as well as the monophylyof all genera except Sicydium, which is paraphyletic. Five major clades were identified within this subfamily. One clade contained the genus Stiphodon. Another clade contained Sicyopterus, Sicydium and Parasicydium with Sicyopterus as sister genus of Sicydium. The non-monophyly of Sicydium subclade, because it includes the monotypic genus Parasicydium, challenged the validity of Parasicydium genus. Ancestral area reconstruction showed that the subfamily emerged in the Central West Pacific region implying that previous hypotheses proposing a dispersal route for Sicydiinae into the Atlantic Ocean are unsupported by the present analysis. Our results suggest that the hypotheses for the dispersal route of the genus Sicydium should be reconsidered. PMID:24125831

  5. Molecular taxonomy and identification within the Antarctic genus Trematomus (Notothenioidei, Teleostei): How valuable is barcoding with COI?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautredou, A.-C.; Bonillo, C.; Denys, G.; Cruaud, C.; Ozouf-Costaz, C.; Lecointre, G.; Dettai, A.

    2010-08-01

    The Trematominae are a particularly interesting subfamily within the antarctic suborder Notothenioidei (Teleostei). The 14 closely related species occupy a large range of ecological of niches, extremely useful for evolutionary and biogeography studies in the Antarctic Ocean. But some Trematomus species can be difficult to identify by using morphological criteria, specially young stages and damaged specimens. Molecular identification would therefore be highly useful, however the suitability of the cytochrome oxidase I gene in a barcoding approach needs to be assessed. We evaluated species delineation within the genus Trematomus comparing morphological identification, nuclear markers (the rhodopsin retrogene and a new nuclear marker pkd1: polycystic kidney disease 1) and COI. We show that Trematomus vicarius is not distinguishable from Trematomus bernacchii with the molecular markers used, and neither is Trematomus loennbergii from Trematomus lepidorhinus. We suggest that until this is investigated further, studies including these species list them as T. loennbergii/ T. lepidorhinus group, and keep voucher samples and specimens. Generally, COI gives a congruent result with the rhodopsin retrogene, and except for the previously cited species pairs, COI barcoding is efficient for identification in this group. Moreover pkd1 might not be suitable for a phylogenetic study at this scale for this group.

  6. Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), ?-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

  7. Effects of insecticide formulations used in cotton cultivation in West Africa on the development of flat-backed toad tadpoles (Amietophrynus maculatus).

    PubMed

    Stechert, Christin; Kolb, Marit; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Bahadir, Müfit

    2015-02-01

    In the West African savanna zone, traditional subsistence farming increasingly shifts to cash crop farming and in particular to cotton cultivation, which is accompanied by application of pesticides. Increasing use of pesticides by smallholder farmers is suspected to have negative effects on non-target organisms. In this study, possible pesticide impact on the development of tadpoles was investigated. Two insecticide formulations used in cotton cultivation in Benin were compared: Cotofan® (active ingredient (a.i.): ?- and ?-endosulfan) and Tihan® (a.i.: spirotetramat and flubendiamide). Tadpoles of the widespread species Amietophrynus maculatus were kept in small water basins with increasing insecticide concentrations (1, 10 and 100 ?g a.i./L) over a period of 28?days. Tadpoles showed reduced survival at the highest endosulfan concentrations (100 ?g/L). Survival of tadpoles undergoing metamorphosis was not influenced by Tihan®. Endosulfan in concentrations of 10 and 100 ?g/L negatively impacted the movement of the tadpoles which was not the case for the mixture of spirotetramat and flubendiamide. Time to metamorphosis was not significantly different in the various treatments. Tail length of tadpoles was significantly shorter in Cotofan® treatments compared to controls. Pesticide residues in the tadpoles were relatively low after keeping them in concentrations of 1 and 10 ?g a.i./L (25 and 26 ?g/kg wet weight (w/w) for the sum of ?-endosulfan, ?-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate and below the detection limits for flubendiamide and spirotetramat). For the 100 ?g a.i./L treatments, 1,600 ?g/kg w/w was found of ?-endosulfan, ?-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate together in the survived tadpoles and 21 ?g/kg w/w of flubendiamide. PMID:25192667

  8. Protecting embryos from stress: Corticosterone effects and the corticosterone response to capture and confinement during pregnancy in a live-bearing lizard (Hoplodactylus maculatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cree, A.; Tyrrell, C.L.; Preest, M.R.; Thorburn, D.; Guillette, L.J., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Hormones in the embryonic environment, including those of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, have profound effects on development in eutherian mammals. However, little is known about their effects in reptiles that have independently evolved viviparity. We investigated whether exogenous corticosterone affected embryonic development in the viviparous gecko Hoplodactylus maculatus, and whether pregnant geckos have a corticosterone response to capture and confinement that is suppressed relative to that in non-pregnant (vitellogenic) females and males. Corticosterone implants (5 mg, slow-release) administered to females in mid-pregnancy caused a large elevation of corticosterone in maternal plasma (P<0.001), probable reductions in embryonic growth and development (P=0.069-0.073), developmental abnormalities and eventual abortions. Cool temperature produced similar reductions in embryonic growth and development (P???0.036 cf. warm controls), but pregnancies were eventually successful. Despite the potentially harmful effects of elevated plasma corticosterone, pregnant females did not suppress their corticosterone response to capture and confinement relative to vitellogenic females, and both groups of females had higher responses than males. Future research should address whether lower maternal doses of corticosterone produce non-lethal effects on development that could contribute to phenotypic plasticity. Corticosterone implants also led to increased basking in pregnant females (P<0.001), and basal corticosterone in wild geckos (independent of reproductive condition) was positively correlated with body temperature (P<0.001). Interactions between temperature and corticosterone may have broad significance to other terrestrial ectotherms, and body temperature should be considered as a variable influencing plasma corticosterone concentrations in all future studies on reptiles. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Synergistic Interactions within Disturbed Habitats between Temperature, Relative Humidity and UVB Radiation on Egg Survival in a Diadromous Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. H. Hickford; David R. Schiel; Simon Thrush

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic impacts, including urbanization, deforestation, farming, and livestock grazing have altered riparian margins worldwide. One effect of changes to riparian vegetation is that the ground-level light, temperature, and humidity environment has also been altered. Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widely distributed fishes of the southern hemisphere, lays eggs almost exclusively beneath riparian vegetation in tidally influenced reaches of rivers.

  10. Integrative taxonomy identifies a new species of Phyllodistomum (Digenea: Gorgoderidae) from the twospot livebearer, Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae), in Central Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Phyllodistomum inecoli n. sp. is described from the twospot livebearer, Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae), collected in the Río La Antigua basin, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is described and characterised by using a combination of morphology, scanning electron microscopy, and sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Diagnostic characters of the new species of Phyllodistomum include a genital pore opening at the level of the caecal bifurcation; oval vitellarium, situated just posterior to the ventral sucker and not extended laterally and anterior extracaecal uterine loops variable in extension (reaching the anterior, median or posterior margin of the ventral sucker). P. inecoli n. sp. most closely resembles P. brevicecum, a species described as a parasite of the central mudminnow, Umbra limi, in other parts of North America; however, the genital pore in P. brevicecum is situated between the caecal bifurcation and the ventral sucker, the ovary is larger, the vitellarium is lobed and extended laterally and the anterior portion of the uterus extends to the posterior margin of the ventral sucker. Comparison of about 1,500–2,200 nucleotides of cox1 and 28S rDNA and ITS1 strongly supports the status of P. inecoli as a new species. Bayesian inference analysis of combined datasets of 28S rDNA and cox1 sequences showed that P. inecoli n. sp. and the other species found in freshwater fishes of Mexico, including the species complex of P. lacustri, are not sister species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 28S rDNA sequences of several gorgoderid taxa revealed the close relationship of P. inecoli n. sp. with several species of Phyllodistomum, Gorgodera and Gorgoderina with cystocercous cercariae developing in sphaeriid bivalves. Dot-plot analysis of ITS1 sequences of P. inecoli n. sp. revealed the presence of eight repetitive elements with different length, which together represent almost half the length of ITS1. PMID:24022129

  11. Simultaneous analysis of five molecular markers provides a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the living bony-tongue fishes (Osteoglossomorpha: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Sullivan, John P

    2004-10-01

    Fishes of the Superorder Osteoglossomorpha (the "bonytongues") constitute a morphologically heterogeneous group of basal teleosts, including highly derived subgroups such as African electric fishes, the African butterfly fish, and Old World knifefishes. Lack of consensus among hypotheses of osteoglossomorph relationships advanced during the past 30 years may be due in part to the difficulty of identifying shared derived characters among the morphologically differentiated extant families of this group. In this study, we present a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for this group, based on the analysis of more than 4000 characters from five molecular markers (the mitochondrial cytochrome b, 12S and 16S rRNA genes, and the nuclear genes RAG2 and MLL). Our taxonomic sampling includes one representative of each extant non-mormyrid osteoglossomorph genus, one representative for the monophyletic family Mormyridae, and four outgroup taxa within the basal Teleostei. Maximum parsimony analysis of combined and equally weighted characters from the five molecular markers and Bayesian analysis provide a single, well-supported, hypothesis of osteoglossomorph interrelationships and show the group to be monophyletic. The tree topology is the following: (Hiodon alosoides, (Pantodon buchholzi, (((Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Scleropages sp.), (Arapaima gigas, Heterotis niloticus)), ((Gymnarchus niloticus, Ivindomyrus opdenboschi), ((Notopterus notopterus, Chitala ornata), (Xenomystus nigri, Papyrocranus afer)))))). We compare our results with previously published phylogenetic hypotheses based on morpho-anatomical data. Additionally, we explore the consequences of the long terminal branch length for the taxon Pantodon buchholzi in our phylogenetic reconstruction and we use the obtained phylogenetic tree to reconstruct the evolutionary history of electroreception in the Notopteroidei. PMID:15324846

  12. Ultrastructure and development of Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia), a hyperparasite of Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda), a parasite of Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) is described from Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda: Opecoelidae), a parasite of the fish Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei) in the Atlantic Ocean. Electron microscopy reveals that all the stages of the cycle (merogony and sporogony) are diplokaryotic and in direct contact with the cytoplasm of host cells. There is no sporophorous vesicle (pansporoblast). The earliest stages observed are meronts, which have a simple plasmic membrane. Their cytoplasm is granular, rich in ribosomes and contains some sacculi of endoplasmic reticulum. They divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporonts. The sporonts have a thick electron-dense wall. Their diplokaryon is slightly less electron-dense than the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of more advanced sporonts has numerous electron-lucent vesicles. Sporonts with two diplokarya divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporoblasts. The older sporoblasts are irregular or elongate and the polar filament is in formation. Their cytoplasm is denser, with ribosomes and lamellae of granular endoplasmic reticulum. The sporoblasts evolve into spores. The mature spores are broadly oval and measure 3.6 (3.1–4.0) × 2.58 (1.8–3.3) ?m. Their wall is 100–300 nm thick. The polar tube is isofilar with 11–16 coils, 130–155 nm in diameter and arranged in many layers in the centre of the spore. The polaroplast is divided into two regions: an outer electron-dense cup with granular content and lacking lamellae and an internal region, less electron-dense, composed of irregularly arranged sacs. The posterior vacuole, with an amorphous electron-dense content, is present. The new species is compared with other species of Nosema from trematodes. PMID:25174849

  13. Ultrastructure and development of Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia), a hyperparasite of Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda), a parasite of Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Toguebaye, Bhen Sikina; Quilichini, Yann; Diagne, Papa Mbagnick; Marchand, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) is described from Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda: Opecoelidae), a parasite of the fish Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei) in the Atlantic Ocean. Electron microscopy reveals that all the stages of the cycle (merogony and sporogony) are diplokaryotic and in direct contact with the cytoplasm of host cells. There is no sporophorous vesicle (pansporoblast). The earliest stages observed are meronts, which have a simple plasmic membrane. Their cytoplasm is granular, rich in ribosomes and contains some sacculi of endoplasmic reticulum. They divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporonts. The sporonts have a thick electron-dense wall. Their diplokaryon is slightly less electron-dense than the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of more advanced sporonts has numerous electron-lucent vesicles. Sporonts with two diplokarya divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporoblasts. The older sporoblasts are irregular or elongate and the polar filament is in formation. Their cytoplasm is denser, with ribosomes and lamellae of granular endoplasmic reticulum. The sporoblasts evolve into spores. The mature spores are broadly oval and measure 3.6 (3.1-4.0) × 2.58 (1.8-3.3) ?m. Their wall is 100-300 nm thick. The polar tube is isofilar with 11-16 coils, 130-155 nm in diameter and arranged in many layers in the centre of the spore. The polaroplast is divided into two regions: an outer electron-dense cup with granular content and lacking lamellae and an internal region, less electron-dense, composed of irregularly arranged sacs. The posterior vacuole, with an amorphous electron-dense content, is present. The new species is compared with other species of Nosema from trematodes. PMID:25174849

  14. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) infecting the south European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae) from a hypersaline environment in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Historically, non-native species of Gambusia (Poeciliidae) have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, 2004 throughout Italy. The potential utility of indigenous populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A sub-sample of ten fish collected from Cervia Saline, Italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°C) to assess their reproductive capability in captivity, harboured a moderate infection of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea). A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Results Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. is described from the skin, fins and gills of A. fasciatus. Light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM) examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, 2002 from Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas). Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G. rugiensoides. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene and a comparison with all species listed in GenBank confirmed they are unique and represent a new species (most similar to Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960, 8.3% pair-wise distance based on 5.8S+ITS2). This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 (774 bp) sequenced from any Gyrodactylus. Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, found G. salinae n. sp. to persist in conditions ranging from 35 ppt and 5°C in December to 65 ppt and 30°C in July, while in captivity a low level of infection was present, even in freshwater conditions (0 ppt). Conclusions The ability of G. salinae n. sp. to tolerate a wide range of salinities and temperatures shows its potential to readily adapt to several environmental conditions. These findings, together with the fact that A. fasciatus is a protected species and is considered as a biological control organism, necessitate further studies on the ecology and virulence of G. salinae n. sp. PMID:21658217

  15. Sistemas de galaxias luminosas rojas: Supercúmulos a partir de sobredensidades de galaxias en el catálogo fotométrico del SDSS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Luparello; M. Lares; D. García Lambas

    2008-01-01

    We identify luminous red galaxy (LRG) systems in the Sloan Survey, using a percolation algorithm. We find 737 systems with at least 4 members, on a total of 17977 LRGs in the range 0.30

  16. A specimen of Paralycoptera Chang & Chou 1977 (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei) from Hong Kong (China) with a potential Late Jurassic age that extends the temporal and geographical range of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Tze-Kei; Chang, Mee-mann

    2015-01-01

    We describe a Mesozoic fish Paralycoptera sp. (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei), on the basis of a postcranial skeleton collected from the volcaniclastic mudstones of the Lai Chi Chong Formation of Hong Kong, China. The new finding—representing the city’s first Mesozoic fish—extends the geographical distribution of Paralycoptera from eastern mainland China into Hong Kong, demonstrating a wider distribution than previously appreciated for this genus. A radiometric age for the Lai Chi Chong Formation of 146.6 ± 0.2 Ma implies a temporal range expansion for Paralycoptera of approximately 40 million years back from the Early Cretaceous (?110 Ma). However, spores found in the Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age that is consistent with the existing age assignment to Paralycoptera. We argue that the proposed temporal range extension is genuine because it is based on recent high precision radiometric age data, but given the discrepancies with the biostratigraphic ages further investigation is needed to confirm this. This study provides an important step towards revealing Hong Kong’s Mesozoic vertebrate fauna and understanding its relationship to well-studied mainland Chinese ones. PMID:25834774

  17. Life-cycle stages of a Posthodiplostomum species (Digenea: Diplostomidae) from Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ritossa, Luciano; Flores, Verónica; Viozzi, Gustavo

    2013-10-01

    In Patagonia, populations of the galaxiid fish Galaxias maculatus are parasitized by metacercariae of a species of Posthodiplostomum (Digenea: Diplostomidae). The aim of this work was to describe larval and adult stages of this species in experimental and natural hosts from an Andean Patagonian lake. Specimens of G. maculatus and the pulmonate snail, Anisancylus obliquus, were collected in Patagua Lake. The snails were isolated in individual containers to observe emergence of cercariae, dissected, and examined under a stereoscopic microscope to record sporocysts and cercariae. Fish were examined to obtain metacercariae, and uninfected fish from Gutiérrez Lake were exposed to cercariae from A. obliquus to obtain experimental metacercariae. Chicks and mice were infected with metacercariae from naturally infected G. maculatus to obtain experimental adults. Specimens recovered belong to Posthodiplostomum sp. on the basis of morphological features. This is the first description of sporocysts, cercariae, metacercariae, and adults stages of a Posthodiplostomum species in Patagonia, including data about its natural intermediate hosts. PMID:23628085

  18. Ligophorus spp. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) occurring in the fresh and brackish waters of the Shatt Al-Arab River and Estuary in southern Iraq, with the description of Ligophorus sagmarius sp. n. from the greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes).

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Khamees, Najim R; Ali, Atheer H

    2013-12-01

    The gills of three of five species of mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) collected from the brackish and fresh waters of southern Iraq were infected with species of Ligophorus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) as follows: greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes) infected with Ligophorus lebedevi Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina and Galli, 2012, Ligophorus bantingensis Soo and Lim, 2012, Ligophorus sagmarius n. sp., and Ligophorus fluviatilis (Bychowsky, 1949) Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina, and Galli, 2012; Klunzinger’s mullet Liza klunzingeri (Day) with L. bantingensis, L. fluviatilis, and an apparently undescribed species of Ligophorus; and abu mullet Liza abu (Heckel) with L. bantingensis and L. fluviatilis. The keeled mullet Liza carinata (Valenciennes) and Speigler’s mullet Valamugil speigleri (Bleeker) were uninfected. L. sagmarius n. sp. is described, and L. lebedevi and L. bantingensis are redescribed. Available specimens of L. fluviatilis and the undescribed species of Ligophorus from Klunzinger’s mullet were insufficient for description. PMID:24022128

  19. Estudio de Evolución de los Núcleos Activos de Galaxias y QSOs: II. Búsqueda de Supernovas en Galaxias Pr'oximas con AGNs y Starburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, D.; Lípari, S.; Moyano, M.

    Several lines of observational evidences suggesting that supernovae and hypernovae events play a main role in evolution of galaxies, AGNs and QSOs. In order to search more detailed information, we have started a study and detection of supernovae and hypernovae in the nuclei of nearby active galaxies obtaining high-resolution spectra and images in the standard UBVRI filters mainly from CASLEO, Bosque Alegre and data from archive of HST, ESO and La Palma observatories. In this paper we present the first preliminary results obtained in this program. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  20. Cinematica del gas ionizado y perfiles de luminosidad de las Galaxias Porotos Verdes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, R. J.; Aguero, M.; Schirmer, M.; Holheim, K.; Levenson, N.; Winge, C.

    We present preliminary spectroscopic results of a sample of green bean galaxies (GBG); known to show ultra-luminous; galaxy-wide; narrow-line regions. We analyze Gemini GMOS-S;N spectra of a sample of 12 GBG in order to obtain emission line ratios; gas kinematics and luminosity profiles in some continuous bands. We report here new results that confirm that the 5008 emission extends from 5 to 17 kpc; in all cases scales similar or larger than the stellar continuums at the spectra. In the extreme case of J145533.6+044643 the emission reaches a diameter of 17.51.6kpc. We find that the continuum half light radii extend from 3 to 7 kpc; the largest scale radius at shortest wavelengths; which is consistent with the scale lengths of large spiral galaxies or merging systems. Another new result is that the spatial variation of the continuum color profiles indicate the presence of extinction and possibly star formation. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  1. La distribución multimodal de cúmulos globulares en la galaxia NGC 1399

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J. C.; Ostrov, P. G.

    Se presenta una discusión de las características del diagrama de dos colores para un muestreo de 400 cúmulos globulares asociados con NGC 1399. Los resultados indican la presencia de, por lo menos, tres familias de cúmulos. La naturaleza de una cuarta componente, muy azul, no es clara aunque podría tratarse de cúmulos ``sueltos" asociados con el sistema de Fornax.

  2. Contagem de fontes de radio na direção de aglomerados ricos de galaxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreazza, C. M.; Andernach, H.

    A contagem de fontes de rádio, na direção de aglomerados ricos de galáxias, deve fornecer uma distribuçãto acima da média do campo devido aos efeitos do meio. No entanto, a distribução de radiofontes de alguns aglomerados, investigada por vários autores no passado, mostrou, em alguns casos, uma deficência de fontes fracas. Neste trabalho, analisamos os levantamentos em 2.7 GHz (Reuter e Andernach 1990, 1990A&AS...82..279R; Loiseau et al. 1988, 1988A&AS...75...67L) e o catálogo 6CII em 151 MHz (Hales et al. 1988, 1988MNRAS.234..919H). Nosso estudio da distribução de radiofontes, na direção de aglomerados ricos de galáxias, nestas duas frequências, mostra um excesso de fontes fortes somente nas regiões centrais dos aglomerados. Este resultado pode ser explicado devido à evidência de confinamento das radiofontes pelo gás, do meio intra-aglomerado, e devido aos processos de colisão, coalescência e canibalismo de galáxias.

  3. Canibalismo Extremo y Lente Gravitacional Intensa en el Cúmulo de Galaxias Abell 3827

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. J.; West, M.; Bergmann, M.; Carrasco, E. R.; Gomez, P.; Lee, H.; Miller, B.; Turner, J.

    Abell 3827 is one of the most massive known clusters and at its center we observe an extreme example of galactic canibalism: a super giant elliptical galaxy in its formation process, devoring five massive galaxies at the same time. Using high spatial resolution Gemini+GMOS imagery and multi-object spectroscopy, we derived the redshift (z=0.099) and the radial velocity dispersion of the 55 brightest galaxies in the cluster central region (1134 +- 125 km/s). The estimated virial mass is ~ 1E14 M(sun) inside a radius of 300 kpc of the cluster center. We have also found features corresponding to a strong gravitational lense, four anular features arranged in an Einstein Ring from a galaxy (z=0.2) at double redshift than the cluster, and a fifth arclet feature corresponding to the lensed light of a farther galaxy (z=0.4). The possible Einstein Ring is of small angular size and the gravitational lense morphology would confirm that the cluster is indeed very massive and dense. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH.

  4. ORIGINAL PAPER Female seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus, remate

    E-print Network

    Gwynne, Darryl T.

    as copulation is no longer required to derive these materials. Females were given water, 5% sugar­water or baker with water and sugar­water decreased mating frequency. Thus, water, rather than nutrients in the ejaculate extended for females in the sugar­water and water treatments. Since water is scarce in the arid environment

  5. Extensive genetic divergence among Diptychus maculatus populations in northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Wei; Yang, Tianyan; Hai, Sa; Ma, Yanwu; Cai, Lingang; Ma, Xufa; Gao, Tianxiang; Guo, Yan

    2015-01-01

    D. maculates is a kind of specialized Schizothoracinae fish has been locally listed as a protected animal in Xinjiang Province, China. Ili River located in north of Tianshan Mountain and Tarim River located in north of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were two main distribution areas of this fish. To investigate the genetic diversity and genetic structure of D. maculates, four populations from Tarim River system and two populations from Ili River system were collected in this study. A 570-bp sequence of the control region was obtained for 105 specimens. Twenty-four haplotypes were detected from six populations, only Kunes River population and Kashi River population shared haplotypes with each other. For all the populations examined, the haplotype diversity (h) was 0.904 8±0.012 6, nucleotide diversity (?) was 0.027 9±0.013 9, and the average number of pairwise nucleotide differences (k) was 15.878 3±7.139 1. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 86.31% of the total genetic variation was apportioned among populations, and the variation within sampled populations was 13.69%. Genetic differences among sampled populations were highly significant. F st statistical test indicated that all populations were significantly divergent from each other (P<0.01). The largest F st value was between Yurungkash River population and Muzat River population, while the smallest F st value was between Kunes River population and Kashi River population. NJ phylogenetic tree of D-loop haplotypes revealed two main clades. The neutrality test and mismatch distribution analysis suggested that the fish had went through a recent population expansion. The uplift of Tianshan Mountain and movement of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau might contribute to the wide genetic divergence of D. maculates in northwest China.

  6. La conexión rayos-X -- óptico en la NLR de la galaxia Mrk 573. Mecanismos de ionización.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaldi, V.; Guainazzi, M.; Feinstein, C.; Combi, J. A.

    We analyze the ionizing mechanisms for the narrow-line region (NLR) of Mrk 573. The alignment of radio, optical and X-ray features suggest that some interaction may be taking place in this region. We investigate if the optical and X-ray emission are being generated in shock waves triggered by the interaction between the radio jet and the intergalactic medium. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  7. Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of the Australian freshwater fish genus Galaxiella, with an emphasis on dwarf galaxias (G. pusilla).

    PubMed

    Unmack, Peter J; Bagley, Justin C; Adams, Mark; Hammer, Michael P; Johnson, Jerald B

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater fauna of Southern Australia is primarily restricted to the southwestern and southeastern corners of the continent, and is separated by a large, arid region that is inhospitable to this biota. This geographic phenomenon has attracted considerable interest from biogeographers looking to explain evolutionary diversification in this region. Here, we employed phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches to evaluate the effect of this barrier on a group of four galaxiid fish species (Galaxiella) endemic to temperate Southern Australia. We also tested if continental shelf width has influenced connectivity among populations during low sea levels when rivers, now isolated, could have been connected. We addressed these questions by sampling each species across its range using multiple molecular markers (mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences, nuclear S7 intron sequences, and 49 allozyme loci). These data also allowed us to assess species boundaries, to refine phylogenetic affinities, and to estimate species ages. Interestingly, we found compelling evidence for cryptic species in G. pusilla, manifesting as allopatric eastern and western taxa. Our combined phylogeny and dating analysis point to an origin for the genus dating to the early Cenozoic, with three of the four species originating during the Oligocene-Miocene. Each Galaxiella species showed high levels of genetic divergences between all but the most proximate populations. Despite extensive drainage connections during recent low sea levels in southeastern Australia, populations of both species within G. pusilla maintained high levels of genetic structure. All populations experienced Late Pleistocene-Holocene population growth, possibly in response to the relaxation of arid conditions after the last glacial maximum. High levels of genetic divergence and the discovery of new cryptic species have important implications for the conservation of this already threatened group of freshwater species. PMID:22693638

  8. [Parasitism in fishes and human riverside communities of the Huillinco and Natri lakes (Great Island of Chiloé), Chile].

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Ruíz, E; Rebolledo, C; Mira, A; Cubillos, V; Navarrete, N; Gesche, W; Montefusco, A; Valdés, L; Alberdi, A

    1990-01-01

    In April and December 1989, 35 fish from Lake Huillinco (42 degrees 48'S, 74 degrees 02'W) and 36 fish from Lake Natri (42 degrees 48'S, 73 degrees 50'W), in the Great Island of Chiloé (Chile) were examined. Coprological samples from 159 persons, 17 dogs, 19 pigs and 4 cats from around both lakes were examined for Diphyllobothrium spp. infection. In the Lake Huillinco the following helminths of fishes were determined: Contracaecum sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. in Salmo trutta, Cauque mauleanum and Eleginops maclovinus; Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) dichelyneformis in S. trutta and E. maclovinus and Scolex pleuronectis in S. trutta. One specimen of Mugil cephalus did not show helminth parasites. Prevalence of infection were greater for Contracaecum sp. in S. trutta (75.0%) and C. mauleanum (76.0%); and Hysterothylacium sp. in E. maclovinus (75.0%). Mean intensity was higher for D. (C.) dichelyneformis in E. maclovinus. Contracaecum sp. in S. trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Oncorhynchus kisutch and Galaxias maculatus; Acanthocephalus sp. in S. trutta and G. maculatus, S. pleuronectis in O. mykiss and Cystidicoloides sp. in G. maculatus were determined at Lake Natri. Prevalence and intensity of infection were higher for Contracaecum sp. in S. trutta and O. kisutch. Infection by Diphyllobothrium sp. was determined in one domestic cat. Prevalence of infection by intestinal protozoan and helminths in human population only showed significative differences for Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura that were higher in the Lake Huillinco. Importance of natural infection by helminth parasites for fish in cultured condition and possible mechanisms of infections in relation to the diet of fishes are discussed. PMID:2152358

  9. Source and trophic transfer of mercury in plankton from an ultraoligotrophic lacustrine system (Lake Nahuel Huapi, North Patagonia).

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Andrea; Arcagni, Marina; Campbell, Linda; Koron, Neža; Pavlin, Majda; Arribére, María A; Horvat, Milena; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro

    2014-09-01

    The incorporation and trophic transfer of total and methyl mercury (THg, MeHg) were examined in three size classes of plankton (10-53, 53-200, and >200 ?m size range) and a small planktivorous fish, Galaxias maculatus, from the large multi-branched Lake Nahuel Huapi (North Patagonia, Argentina). Three sites representing a large range of lake benthic-pelagic structures (based on depth and shoreline characteristics) and precipitation regimes were sampled. Nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes (?(15)N, ?(13)C) were analyzed to assess Hg trophodynamics. Selenium concentrations were determined together with THg in order to consider its potential effect on Hg trophodynamics. High THg concentrations (0.1-255 µg g(-1) dry weight (DW)) were measured in plankton, largely in inorganic form (MeHg: 3-29 ng g(-1) DW, 0.02-7% of THg, in the two larger size classes). A trend of increasing THg concentrations, varying in two to three orders of magnitude, with decreasing plankton size was associated with precipitation measured prior to each sampling event. Passive adsorption of dissolved Hg(2+) from wet deposition and runoff is considered to be the principal Hg uptake mechanism at the base of the pelagic food web. Despite the initially high THg uptake in the smaller plankton classes, the transfer to G. maculatus, and consequently to the entire food web, is likely limited due to low proportion of MeHg to THg in plankton. Furthermore, evidence of G. maculatus with benthic feeding habits having higher impact on MeHg trophic transfer compared to the same species with more pelagic (e.g., zooplankton) feeding habits, was observed. Although there is a high THg uptake in plankton, limited amounts are incorporated in the entire food web from the pelagic compartment. PMID:24844168

  10. Evolutionary origin and early biogeography of otophysan fishes (Ostariophysi: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Lavoué, Sébastien; Mayden, Richard L

    2013-08-01

    The biogeography of the mega-diverse, freshwater, and globally distributed Otophysi has received considerable attention. This attraction largely stems from assumptions as to their ancient origin, the clade being almost exclusively freshwater, and their suitability as to explanations of trans-oceanic distributions. Despite multiple hypotheses explaining present-day distributions, problems remain, precluding more parsimonious explanations. Underlying previous hypotheses are alternative phylogenies for Otophysi, uncertainties as to temporal diversification and assumptions integral to various explanations. We reexamine the origin and early diversification of this clade based on a comprehensive time-calibrated, molecular-based phylogenetic analysis and event-based approaches for ancestral range inference of lineages. Our results do not corroborate current phylogenetic classifications of otophysans. We demonstrate Siluriformes are never sister to Gymnotiformes and Characiformes are most likely nonmonophyletic. Divergence time estimates specify a split between Cypriniformes and Characiphysi with the fragmentation of Pangea. The early diversification of characiphysans either predated, or was contemporary with, the separation of Africa and South America, and involved a combination of within- and between-continental divergence events for these lineages. The intercontinental diversification of siluroids and characoids postdated major intercontinental tectonic fragmentations (<90 Mya). Post-tectonic drift dispersal events are hypothesized to account for their current distribution patterns. PMID:23888847

  11. Pituitary cysts and concretions in the gasterosteidae (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Benjamin, M; Moodie, G E; Cone, D

    1987-03-01

    Pituitary cysts in the nine-spined stickleback, Pungitius pungitius, were found in the prolactin zone of the rostral pars distalis in 22 per cent of fish caught in May from freshwater, field-drainage ditches near Cardiff, Wales. They were not associated solely with some special environmental or hereditary factor in the Welsh population, for they were also present in 6 per cent of fish caught at a similar time of year in a freshwater lake at Manitoba, Canada. Although the pituitaries of other sticklebacks (Culaea inconstans, Apeltes quadracus and Gasterosteus wheatlandi) are similar to that of P. pungitius, they did not develop large cysts. There were no cysts at all in A. quadracus, and none greater than 50 microns in diameter in C. inconstans and G. wheatlandi. A minority of P. pungitius (less than 1 per cent) develop concretions either within the pituitary ("intraglandular") or in the surrounding capsule ("capsular"). Most of the concretions are filled with a strongly staining and laminated colloid. They are present in males and females, adults and juveniles, in fish killed soon after capture and in animals adapted to laboratory conditions. As far as we are aware, this is the first record of such structures in lower vertebrates. PMID:3597848

  12. Evolutionary history of anglerfishes (Teleostei: Lophiiformes): a mitogenomic perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The teleost order Lophiiformes, commonly known as the anglerfishes, contains a diverse array of marine fishes, ranging from benthic shallow-water dwellers to highly modified deep-sea midwater species. They comprise 321 living species placed in 68 genera, 18 families and 5 suborders, but approximately half of the species diversity is occupied by deep-sea ceratioids distributed among 11 families. The evolutionary origins of such remarkable habitat and species diversity, however, remain elusive because of the lack of fresh material for a majority of the deep-sea ceratioids and incompleteness of the fossil record across all of the Lophiiformes. To obtain a comprehensive picture of the phylogeny and evolutionary history of the anglerfishes, we assembled whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 39 lophiiforms (33 newly determined during this study) representing all five suborders and 17 of the 18 families. Sequences of 77 higher teleosts including the 39 lophiiform sequences were unambiguously aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimation. Results Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis confidently recovered monophyly for all of the higher taxa (including the order itself) with the exception of the Thaumatichthyidae (Lasiognathus was deeply nested within the Oneirodidae). The mitogenomic trees strongly support the most basal and an apical position of the Lophioidei and a clade comprising Chaunacoidei + Ceratioidei, respectively, although alternative phylogenetic positions of the remaining two suborders (Antennarioidei and Ogcocephaloidei) with respect to the above two lineages are statistically indistinguishable. While morphology-based intra-subordinal relationships for relatively shallow, benthic dwellers (Lophioidei, Antennarioidei, Ogcocephaloidei, Chaunacoidei) are either congruent with or statistically indistinguishable from the present mitogenomic tree, those of the principally deep-sea midwater dwellers (Ceratioidei) cannot be reconciled with the molecular phylogeny. A relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian analysis of the divergence times suggests that all of the subordinal diversifications have occurred during a relatively short time period between 100 and 130 Myr ago (early to mid Cretaceous). Conclusions The mitogenomic analyses revealed previously unappreciated phylogenetic relationships among the lophiiform suborders and ceratioid familes. Although the latter relationships cannot be reconciled with the earlier hypotheses based on morphology, we found that simple exclusion of the reductive or simplified characters can alleviate some of the conflict. The acquisition of novel features, such as male dwarfism, bioluminescent lures, and unique reproductive modes allowed the deep-sea ceratioids to diversify rapidly in a largely unexploited, food-poor bathypelagic zone (200-2000 m depth) relative to the other lophiiforms occurring in shallow coastal areas. PMID:20178642

  13. Rhodeus albomarginatus, a new bitterling (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Acheilognathinae) from China.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Arai, Ryoichi

    2014-01-01

    Rhodeus albomarginatus, new species, is described from the Lvjiang River, a tributary flowing into Poyang Lake of Yangtze River basin, in Anhui Province, China. It is distinguished from all congeneric species by unique combination of characters: branched dorsal-fin rays 10; branched anal-fin rays 10-11; longest simple rays of dorsal and anal fins strong and stiff, distally segmented; pelvic fin rays i 6; longitudinal scale series 34-36; transverse scale series 11; pored scales 4-7; vertebrae 33-34; colour pattern of adult males (iris black, belly reddish-orange, central part of caudal fin red, dorsal and anal fins of males edged with white margin). PMID:24869865

  14. Morphology of the ovotestis of Serranus atricauda (Teleostei, Serranidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Mercedes García-Díaz; María José Lorente; José Antonio González; Víctor Manuel Tuset

    2002-01-01

    .   Analysis of gonad organization and development revealed that Serranus atricauda is a functional simultaneous hermaphrodite. The ovary is classified as asynchronous. Oocyte growth is divided into five stages:\\u000a stage I (primary growth stage), stage II (yolk vesicle formation), stage III (vitellogenesis), stage IV (oocyte maturation)\\u000a and stage V (mature egg). The testis is of the unrestricted or lobular spermatogonial

  15. Retinal organisation in goldeye and mooneye (Teleostei: hiodontidae).

    PubMed

    Wagner, H J; Ali, M A

    1978-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparative investigation of the retinas of two Hiodontids, the goldeye (Hiodon alosoides) and the Mooneye (H. tergisus) employing light and electron microscopy, cell isolation techniques as well as microspectrophotometry. Contrary to the observations of previous workers these species possess a duplex retina. The photoreceptors are bundled in groups of 20 rods and 20 cones. They exhibit features which have hitherto not been observed in vertebrates. These are a) an ellipsoid divided in two parts by the myoid: b) tubules in cone outer segments and, c) large "lateral sacs" (accessory outer segments). Cones are immobile but the rods and epithelial pigment are capable of movement (retinomotor responses). The prominent reflecting layer consists of cuboid and rod-like crystals composed of uric acid. The inner layers are made up of three tiers of large horizontal cells, one of amacrine cells and scarce bipolar and ganglion cells. Bundle density is 1 700 per sq. mm. Roughly, one receptor bundle projects onto one bipolar and one ganglion cell suggesting that each bundle acts as a functional unit. The visual pigment of the mooneye absorbs maximally at 535 +/- 2 nm, and is based on vitamin A2 (porphyropsin). We suggest that all non deep-sea fishes with bundled receptors have duplex retinas and the adaptive mechanisms for vision in turbid waters are based on different morphological means as illustrated by the comparison with Stizostedion. PMID:704982

  16. Evolution of the light organ system in ponyfishes (Teleostei: Leiognathidae).

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Davis, Matthew P; Smith, Wm Leo; Berquist, Rachel; Gledhill, Kristen M; Frank, Larry R; Sparks, John S

    2011-06-01

    Members of the leiognathid subfamily Gazzinae, comprising approximately two-thirds of ponyfish species, are sexually dimorphic with regard to features of the light organ system (LOS). In Gazzinae, the circumesophageal light organ (LO) of males is enlarged and varies in shape compared with similarly sized conspecific females. In association with male species-specific translucent external patches on the head and flank, these sexually dimorphic LO features are hypothesized to be correlated with species-specific luminescence displays. Anatomical differences in LO shape, volume, and orientation, and its association with the gas bladder and other internal structures that function in light emission, are compared to observations of luminescence displays for every major lineage within Leiognathidae. We reconstruct the character evolution of both internal and external morphological features of the LOS to investigate the evolution of LO sexual dimorphism and morphology. Both internal and external sexual dimorphism in the ponyfish LOs were recovered as most likely to have evolved in the common ancestor of Leiognathidae, and likelihood-based correlation analyses indicate that the evolution of internal and external dimorphism in males is statistically correlated. Magnetic resonance imaging technology was applied to examine the unique internal LOs of ponyfishes in situ, which provides a new metric (LO index) for comparison of LO structure across lineages. PMID:21433053

  17. Systematics of the subfamily Danioninae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Tang, Kevin L; Agnew, Mary K; Hirt, M Vincent; Sado, Tetsuya; Schneider, Leah M; Freyhof, Jörg; Sulaiman, Zohrah; Swartz, Ernst; Vidthayanon, Chavalit; Miya, Masaki; Saitoh, Kenji; Simons, Andrew M; Wood, Robert M; Mayden, Richard L

    2010-10-01

    The members of the cyprinid subfamily Danioninae form a diverse and scientifically important group of fishes, which includes the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The diversity of this assemblage has attracted much scientific interest but its monophyly and the relationships among its members are poorly understood. The phylogenetic relationships of the Danioninae are examined herein using sequence data from mitochondrial cytochrome b, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I, nuclear opsin, and nuclear recombination activating gene 1. A combined data matrix of 4117 bp for 270 taxa was compiled and analyzed. The resulting topology supports some conclusions drawn by recent studies on the group and certain portions of the traditional classification, but our results also contradict key aspects of the traditional classification. The subfamily Danioninae is not monophyletic, with putative members scattered throughout Cyprinidae. Therefore, we restrict Danioninae to the monophyletic group that includes the following genera: Amblypharyngodon, Barilius, Cabdio, Chela, Chelaethiops, Danio, Danionella, Devario (including Inlecypris), Esomus, Horadandia, Laubuca, Leptocypris, Luciosoma, Malayochela, Microdevario, Microrasbora, Nematabramis, Neobola, Opsaridium, Opsarius, Paedocypris, Pectenocypris, Raiamas, Rasbora (including Boraras and Trigonostigma), Rasboroides, Salmostoma, Securicula, and Sundadanio. This Danioninae sensu stricto is divided into three major lineages, the tribes Chedrini, Danionini, and Rasborini, where Chedrini is sister to a Danionini-Rasborini clade. Each of these tribes is monophyletic, following the restriction of Danioninae. The tribe Chedrini includes a clade of exclusively African species and contains several genera of uncertain monophyly (Opsarius, Raiamas, Salmostoma). Within the tribe Rasborini, the species-rich genus Rasbora is rendered non-monophyletic by the placement of two monophyletic genera, Boraras and Trigonostigma, hence we synonymize those two genera with Rasbora. In the tribe Danionini, the miniature genus Danionella is recovered as the sister group of Danio, with D. nigrofasciatus sister to D. rerio. PMID:20553898

  18. A new Haptoclinus blenny (Teleostei, Labrisomidae) from deep reefs off Curaao... 71 A new Haptoclinus blenny (Teleostei, Labrisomidae)

    E-print Network

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    Observation Project (DROP). Keywords Blenniiformes, submersible, Substation Curaçao, Haptoclinus apectolophus using Substation Curaçao's (http://www.substation-Curacao.com) manned submersible Curasub is expanding

  19. The genetic control of sexual maturation in the teleost, Xiphophorus maculatus (Poeciliidae) ; a review

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Summary. A sex-linked gene which controls the age at which the gonadotropic zone of the pituitary gland?) and late (PI) differentiation are linked to pigment genes that serve as genetic markers. The average age correlated with the differentiation of the gonad. However, even in the absence of a gonadotropic zone oocytes

  20. Can Preference for Oviposition Sites Initiate Reproductive Isolation in Callosobruchus maculatus?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Rova; Mats Björklund; Trine Bilde

    2011-01-01

    Theory has identified a variety of evolutionary processes that may lead to speciation. Our study includes selection experiments using different host plants and test key predictions concerning models of speciation based on host plant choice, such as the evolution of host use (preference and performance) and assortative mating. This study shows that after only ten generations of selection on different

  1. Intraspecific variation in the egg-spacing behavior of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J. Messina; Rodger Mitchell

    1989-01-01

    Females of Callosobruchus maculatustend to distribute their eggs uniformly among host seeds and, thereby, reduce competition among larvae within seeds. We investigated variability in this behavior by assaying beetles from seven geographic strains on each of three host species. To quantify egg-spacing behavior,we devised an index (U)that estimates the uniformity of the egg distribution but is independent of the number

  2. Eugregarines reduce susceptibility of the hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus, to apicomplexan pathogens and retard larval development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eugregarines are abundant in a great diversity of invertebrates, and yet their relationships with their hosts are subject to controversy and confusion. We tested the effect of the eugregarine, Pyxinia crystalligera, on growth, development, and susceptibility to two Apicomplexa pathogens of the hide ...

  3. Constraints upon the response of fish and crayfish to environmental flow releases in a regulated headwater stream network.

    PubMed

    Chester, Edwin T; Matthews, Ty G; Howson, Travis J; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Mackie, Jonathon K; Strachan, Scott R; Robson, Belinda J

    2014-01-01

    In dry climate zones, headwater streams are often regulated for water extraction causing intermittency in perennial streams and prolonged drying in intermittent streams. Regulation thereby reduces aquatic habitat downstream of weirs that also form barriers to migration by stream fauna. Environmental flow releases may restore streamflow in rivers, but are rarely applied to headwaters. We sampled fish and crayfish in four regulated headwater streams before and after the release of summer-autumn environmental flows, and in four nearby unregulated streams, to determine whether their abundances increased in response to flow releases. Historical data of fish and crayfish occurrence spanning a 30 year period was compared with contemporary data (electrofishing surveys, Victoria Range, Australia; summer 2008 to summer 2010) to assess the longer-term effects of regulation and drought. Although fish were recorded in regulated streams before 1996, they were not recorded in the present study upstream or downstream of weirs despite recent flow releases. Crayfish (Geocharax sp. nov. 1) remained in the regulated streams throughout the study, but did not become more abundant in response to flow releases. In contrast, native fish (Gadopsis marmoratus, Galaxias oliros, Galaxias maculatus) and crayfish remained present in unregulated streams, despite prolonged drought conditions during 2006-2010, and the assemblages of each of these streams remained essentially unchanged over the 30 year period. Flow release volumes may have been too small or have operated for an insufficient time to allow fish to recolonise regulated streams. Barriers to dispersal may also be preventing recolonisation. Indefinite continuation of annual flow releases, that prevent the unnatural cessation of flow caused by weirs, may eventually facilitate upstream movement of fish and crayfish in regulated channels; but other human-made dispersal barriers downstream need to be identified and ameliorated, to allow native fish to fulfil their life cycles in these headwater streams. PMID:24647407

  4. Constraints upon the Response of Fish and Crayfish to Environmental Flow Releases in a Regulated Headwater Stream Network

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Edwin T.; Matthews, Ty G.; Howson, Travis J.; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Mackie, Jonathon K.; Strachan, Scott R.; Robson, Belinda J.

    2014-01-01

    In dry climate zones, headwater streams are often regulated for water extraction causing intermittency in perennial streams and prolonged drying in intermittent streams. Regulation thereby reduces aquatic habitat downstream of weirs that also form barriers to migration by stream fauna. Environmental flow releases may restore streamflow in rivers, but are rarely applied to headwaters. We sampled fish and crayfish in four regulated headwater streams before and after the release of summer-autumn environmental flows, and in four nearby unregulated streams, to determine whether their abundances increased in response to flow releases. Historical data of fish and crayfish occurrence spanning a 30 year period was compared with contemporary data (electrofishing surveys, Victoria Range, Australia; summer 2008 to summer 2010) to assess the longer–term effects of regulation and drought. Although fish were recorded in regulated streams before 1996, they were not recorded in the present study upstream or downstream of weirs despite recent flow releases. Crayfish (Geocharax sp. nov. 1) remained in the regulated streams throughout the study, but did not become more abundant in response to flow releases. In contrast, native fish (Gadopsis marmoratus, Galaxias oliros, Galaxias maculatus) and crayfish remained present in unregulated streams, despite prolonged drought conditions during 2006–2010, and the assemblages of each of these streams remained essentially unchanged over the 30 year period. Flow release volumes may have been too small or have operated for an insufficient time to allow fish to recolonise regulated streams. Barriers to dispersal may also be preventing recolonisation. Indefinite continuation of annual flow releases, that prevent the unnatural cessation of flow caused by weirs, may eventually facilitate upstream movement of fish and crayfish in regulated channels; but other human–made dispersal barriers downstream need to be identified and ameliorated, to allow native fish to fulfil their life cycles in these headwater streams. PMID:24647407

  5. Estimación de la incerteza cinemática de los espectros obtenidos con REOSC (CAsLeo), Flamingos-2 y PHOENIX (Gemini) para observaciones de gas ionizado en galaxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar, G.; Díaz, R. J.; Güunthardt, G.; Agüuero, M. P.; Camperi, J. A.; Gimeno, G.

    The determination of the radial velocity curves of ionized gas in galaxies requires knowing the value of the internal kinematic uncertainly along the slit for the used spectrographs. We present preliminary results of the study of the variation of the measured radial velocity of both the telluric and comparison emission lines in the spatial direction. This was done for the spectrographs REOSC, Flamingos-2 (F2) and Phoenix. In particular we are interested in using this data to homogenize the rotation curves of nearby galaxies in large-scale ranges. These results will be also useful as references for those works that measure radial velocities of extended objects using only one emission line of ionized gas. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  6. Is the habitation of acidic-water sanctuaries by galaxiid fish facilitated by natural organic matter modification of sodium metabolism?

    PubMed

    Glover, Chris N; Donovan, Katherine A; Hill, Jonathan V

    2012-01-01

    Acidic waters of New Zealand's West Coast are hypothesized to be a refuge for native galaxiid fish, allowing them to escape predation from acid-sensitive invasive salmonid species. To determine the mechanisms by which galaxiids tolerate low pH, we investigated sodium metabolism in inanga Galaxias maculatus in response to water pH, short-term acclimation to acidic waters, the presence and source of natural organic matter (NOM), and fish life history. Contrary to expectation, inanga were physiologically sensitive to acid exposure, displaying inhibited sodium influx and exacerbated sodium efflux. Short-term (144 h) acclimation to acid did not modify this effect, and NOM did not exert a protective effect on sodium metabolism at low pH. Inanga sourced from naturally acidic West Coast waters did, however, display a sodium influx capacity (J(max)) that was significantly elevated when compared with that of fish collected from neutral waters. All inanga, independent of source, exhibited exceptionally high sodium uptake affinities (18-40 ?M) relative to previously studied freshwater teleosts. Although inanga displayed relatively poor physiological tolerance to acidic waters, their high sodium influx affinity coupled with their occupation of near-coastal waters with elevated sodium levels may permit habitation of low-pH freshwaters. PMID:22902374

  7. Leap of faith: voluntary emersion behaviour and physiological adaptations to aerial exposure in a non-aestivating freshwater fish in response to aquatic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Mauricio A; Forster, Malcolm E; Glover, Chris N

    2011-05-01

    Lowland stream fauna in areas of intensive agriculture are increasingly under threat from anthropogenic activities leading to eutrophication and subsequent hypoxia. Survival of hypoxic episodes depends upon a combination of behavioural and physiological adaptations. Responses of inanga (Galaxias maculatus: Galaxiidae) to aquatic hypoxia were investigated in the laboratory. Contrary to expectation inanga did not display behaviour that might reduce energy expenditure during oxygen limitation, with swimming activity slightly, but significantly elevated relative to normoxia. Instead, as dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased, the fish moved higher in the water column, increased their swimming speed and exhibited aquatic surface respiration. Physiological changes such as enhanced opercular frequency were also noted. As hypoxia deepened inanga started to leap out of the water, emersing themselves on a floating platform. Once emersed, fish exhibited an enhanced oxygen consumption rate compared to hypoxic fish. Thus inanga appear better adapted to escape hypoxia (a behavioural adaptation) rather than tolerate it (physiological adaptation). The emersion strategy used for inanga in response to severe hypoxia is in agreement with their ability to take up more oxygen from the air than from hypoxic water and therefore may justify the potentially increased risks of desiccation and predation associated with leaving the water. PMID:21316378

  8. Antagonistic Regulation, Yet Synergistic Defense: Effect of Bergapten and Protease Inhibitor on Development of Cowpea Bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yucheng; Chi, Yong Hun; Ge, Feng; Patil, Bhimanagouda S.; Koiwa, Hisashi; Zeng, Rensen; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2012-01-01

    The furanocoumarin compound bergapten is a plant secondary metabolite that has anti-insect function. When incorporated into artificial diet, it retarded cowpea bruchid development, decreased fecundity, and caused mortality at a sufficient dose. cDNA microarray analysis indicated that cowpea bruchid altered expression of 543 midgut genes in response to dietary bergapten. Among these bergapten-regulated genes, 225 have known functions; for instance, those encoding proteins related to nutrient transport and metabolism, development, detoxification, defense and various cellular functions. Such differential gene regulation presumably facilitates the bruchids' countering the negative effect of dietary bergapten. Many genes did not have homology (E-value cutoff 10?6) with known genes in a BlastX search (206), or had homology only with genes of unknown function (112). Interestingly, when compared with the transcriptomic profile of cowpea bruchids treated with dietary soybean cysteine protease inhibitor N (scN), 195 out of 200 coregulated midgut genes are oppositely regulated by the two compounds. Simultaneous administration of bergapten and scN attenuated magnitude of change in selected oppositely-regulated genes, as well as led to synergistic delay in insect development. Therefore, targeting insect vulnerable sites that may compromise each other's counter-defensive response has the potential to increase the efficacy of the anti-insect molecules. PMID:22927917

  9. Antagonistic regulation, yet synergistic defense: effect of bergapten and protease inhibitor on development of cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fengguang; Lei, Jiaxin; Sun, Yucheng; Chi, Yong Hun; Ge, Feng; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Koiwa, Hisashi; Zeng, Rensen; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2012-01-01

    The furanocoumarin compound bergapten is a plant secondary metabolite that has anti-insect function. When incorporated into artificial diet, it retarded cowpea bruchid development, decreased fecundity, and caused mortality at a sufficient dose. cDNA microarray analysis indicated that cowpea bruchid altered expression of 543 midgut genes in response to dietary bergapten. Among these bergapten-regulated genes, 225 have known functions; for instance, those encoding proteins related to nutrient transport and metabolism, development, detoxification, defense and various cellular functions. Such differential gene regulation presumably facilitates the bruchids' countering the negative effect of dietary bergapten. Many genes did not have homology (E-value cutoff 10(-6)) with known genes in a BlastX search (206), or had homology only with genes of unknown function (112). Interestingly, when compared with the transcriptomic profile of cowpea bruchids treated with dietary soybean cysteine protease inhibitor N (scN), 195 out of 200 coregulated midgut genes are oppositely regulated by the two compounds. Simultaneous administration of bergapten and scN attenuated magnitude of change in selected oppositely-regulated genes, as well as led to synergistic delay in insect development. Therefore, targeting insect vulnerable sites that may compromise each other's counter-defensive response has the potential to increase the efficacy of the anti-insect molecules. PMID:22927917

  10. Combined effect of three insect growth regulators on the digestive enzymatic profiles of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Khatter, Najat Aly; Abuldahb, Faten Farid

    2011-12-01

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are insecticides that mimic insect produced hormones by regulatingdevelopmental process. Theyhave little or no mammalian toxicity, and are considered reduced-risk insecticides that are often exempt from tolerance requirements of regulatory agencies. IGRs, especially, chlorfluazuron, hydroprene and hexaflumuron (benzoylphenylurea) are currently studied because of possibility of using in stored products protection. Many of IGRs compounds usedin insect pests control are known to affect digestive enzymes. Chlorfluazuron, hydroprene and hexaflumuronwere tested topically at doses of 0.25%, 0.5%&1% for chlorfluazuron and hydroprene and 0.5, 1 & 2 microg/ml of hexaflumuron to investigate its effects on the activities of the digestive enzymes protease, amylase and lipase in Callosobruchusmaculatus larvae, which were affected by IGRs individually and in combination. When combined, the effect was more sever at low concentration. There were statistically significant differences (P < or = 0.05) in enzyme activities in combined and individual treatments. Combination three IGRs caused a two-fold decrease in enzyme activity even at reduced concentration. Clear dose-response relationships were established with respect to enzyme activity. A synergistic effect of IGRs was found by combination of low doses. These effects are most pronounced in early instars. PMID:22435168

  11. Abundance of Spanish Mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, in the Southeastern United States Based on Charterboat CPUE Data, 1982-85

    E-print Network

    on Charterboat CPUE Data, 1982-85 BARBARA JAYNE PALKO, LEE TRENT, and HAROLD A. BRUSHER Introduction The Spanish commercial and recreational fisheries in the U.S. south Atlantic and Gulf of Mex ico (Trent and Anthony, 1979 Fishery Management Councils (1983, 1985). Basic to the formulation and use of the mackerel FMP are various

  12. Strong Reproductive Skew Among Males in the Multiply Mated Swordtail Xiphophorus multilineatus (Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Luo; M. SANETRA; M. SCHARTL; A. MEYER

    2005-01-01

    Male swordtails in the genus Xiphophorus display a conspicuous ventral elongation of the caudal fin, the sword, which arose through sexual selection due to female preference. Females mate regularly and are able to store sperm for at least 6 months. If multiplemating isfrequent,this wouldraise theintriguing question abouttherole offemalechoice andmale-malecompetition inshapingthematingsystemofthesefishes.Size-dependentalternatematingstrategiesoccurin Xiphophorus;onesuchstrategyis courtship with a sigmoid display by large dominant males,

  13. Mitogenomic Evidence for an Indo-West Pacific Origin of the Clupeoidei (Teleostei: Clupeiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Miya, Masaki; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Chen, Wei-Jen; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2013-01-01

    The clupeoid fishes are distributed worldwide, with marine, freshwater and euryhaline species living in either tropical or temperate environments. Regional endemism is important at the species and genus levels, and the highest species diversity is found in the tropical marine Indo-West Pacific region. The clupeoid distribution follows two general pattern of species richness, the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients. To test historical hypotheses explaining the formation of these two gradients, we have examined the early biogeography of the Clupeoidei in reconstructing the evolution of their habitat preferences along with their ancestral range distributions on a time-calibrated mitogenomic phylogeny. The phylogenetic results support the distinction of nine main lineages within the Clupeoidei, five of them new. We infer several independent transitions from a marine to freshwater environment and from a tropical to temperate environment that occurred after the initial diversification period of the Clupeoidei. These results combined with our ancestral range reconstruction hypothesis suggest that the probable region of origin and diversification of the Clupeoidei during the Cretaceous period was the tropical marine precursor to the present Indo-West Pacific region. Thus, our study favors the hypotheses of “Region of origin” and “Tropical conservatism” to explain the origins of the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients of clupeoid species richness, respectively. Additional geological and paleontological evidence further define the tropical marine paleo-region of origin as the eastern Tethys Sea region. The Cretaceous fossil record of the Clupeoidei is partially incongruent with the results here as it contains taxa found outside this region. We discuss three possible causes of conflict between our biogeographical hypothesis and the distributions of the Cretaceous clupeoid fossils: regional extinction, incomplete taxonomic sampling and incorrect timescale estimation. PMID:23431379

  14. Sexual Ornaments, Body Morphology, and Swimming Performance in Naturally Hybridizing Swordtails (Teleostei: Xiphophorus)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, James B.; Macedo, Danielle C.; Passow, Courtney N.; Rosenthal, Gil G.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the costs of sexual ornaments is complicated by the fact that ornaments are often integrated with other, non-sexual traits, making it difficult to dissect the effect of ornaments independent of other aspects of the phenotype. Hybridization can produce reduced phenotypic integration, allowing one to evaluate performance across a broad range of multivariate trait values. Here we assess the relationship between morphology and performance in the swordtails Xiphophorus malinche and X. birchmanni, two naturally-hybridizing fish species that differ extensively in non-sexual as well as sexual traits. We took advantage of novel trait variation in hybrids to determine if sexual ornaments incur a cost in terms of locomotor ability. For both fast-start and endurance swimming, hybrids performed at least as well as the two parental species. The sexually-dimorphic sword did not impair swimming performance per se. Rather, the sword negatively affected performance only when paired with a sub-optimal body shape. Studies seeking to quantify the costs of ornaments should consider that covariance with non-sexual traits may create the spurious appearance of costs. PMID:25329558

  15. Developmental stages until hatching of the Lake Victoria cichlid Haplochromis piceatus (Teleostei: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    de Jong, Ilse M L; Witte, Frans; Richardson, Michael K

    2009-05-01

    Because little is known about embryonic developmental stages in any haplochromine cichlid, we describe here a series of normal stages of the Lake Victoria cichlid Haplochromis piceatus. We collected 273 embryos and scored them for 47 morphological characters. The result was an illustrated series of 12 stages from embryonic shield until hatching based on live, fixed, and histological material. We defined each stage according to a single "key" character that applied to all embryos of that stage. Other characters forming part of the stage descriptions were not necessarily present in all embryos of a stage. We compare our findings with published studies of other freshwater teleosts and find wide variation in staging systems. Our data will form a baseline for further research on cichlid development. PMID:19123243

  16. Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia: status and threats.

    PubMed

    Anteneh, W; Getahun, A; Dejen, E; Sibbing, F A; Nagelkerke, L A J; De Graaf, M; Wudneh, T; Vijverberg, J; Palstra, A P

    2012-07-01

    The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning during the rainy season (July to October), whereas eight other species are absent from these rivers and probably developed a new strategy of lacustrine spawning (macro-spatial segregation). One species (L. intermedius) probably spawns in the lake as well as in the rivers. Between the early 1990s and 2000s, the riverine spawners showed a decline of 75% in both biomass and number in both fishery independent surveys and in commercial catches. Reproductive migration makes fishes vulnerable to fisheries and other threats like habitat modifications. Lacustrine spawners are probably more resilient as they are not known to form spawning aggregations that can easily be exploited by fishermen. In addition, upstream rivers and catchments around Lake Tana are highly degraded by erosion and recently subjected to intensive habitat modification for irrigation and hydroelectric power generation. This article reviews results of field studies on the Labeobarbus spawning migration from Lake Tana to spawning rivers, giving emphasis on segregation and homing. It also summarizes existing and emerging threats which form potential causes for the decline of the migratory Labeobarbus species. Knowledge gaps on the reproductive biology are identified for further investigation. PMID:22803734

  17. Otolith shape analysis for three Sicyopterus (Teleostei: Gobioidei: Sicydiinae) species from New Caledonia and Vanuatu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clara Lord; Fabien Morat; Raymonde Lecomte-Finiger; Philippe Keith

    Otolith shape analysis has been used in a number of studies as an inexpensive and powerful method for categorising fish in\\u000a individual stocks. Elliptical Fourier analysis was used on three different amphidromous Sicyopterus species. Sicyopterus lagocephalus is a widespread species while the other two have a limited distribution area, Sicyopterus aiensis being endemic to Vanuatu, and Sicyopterus sarasini to New

  18. Population structure in the Gulf Killifish Fundulus grandis (Teleostei : Cyprinodontidae) inferred from allozymes and mitochondrial DNA

    E-print Network

    Gricius, Eric Edward

    1994-01-01

    Aconitase (~CO) Acid phosphatase (ACP) Adenosine deaminase (A~)' Adenylate kinase (AK)' Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)' Creatine kinase (CK) Fructose-bisphosphatase (FBP)' Esterase (ES) Glucose dehydrogenase (~GD ) Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase..., deviations from equilibrium expectations appeared to stem from a deficiency of heterozygotes. At SOS-1 at CTX and MDH-2 at CTX and GAL, a single rare homozygote was the probable cause of the significant deviation from equilibrium expectations. With three...

  19. Microdissection and whole chromosome painting. Improving sex chromosome analysis in Triportheus (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Laudicina, A; Cioffi, M B; Bertollo, L A C

    2008-01-01

    Triportheus fish species present 2n = 52 chromosomes. The karyotypes show similar macrostructure and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system, which probably represents synapomorphy for the genus. A probe of the Z chromosome was obtained from T. nematurus through microdissection, followed by unspecific amplification via DOP-PCR. This probe was used for WCP (whole chromosome painting) through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in several other Triportheus species, to analyze the differentiation of the ZZ/ZW system. The homology between this probe and chromosomes of species from other genera, putatively related to Triportheus, was also examined to search for evidence about evolution of their sex chromosomes. Complete homology was found among the Z chromosomes of all Triportheus species, while only small positive signals were found on the W chromosomes. Hybridization signals were absent in species from other genera. The present results reinforce both the conservative nature of Z chromosomes and the hypothesis that the ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system is a synapomorphic feature of Triportheus. On the other hand, besides reduction of size, W chromosomes have undergone accentuated composition changes in relation to Z chromosomes, since only a small region, usually located in the short arm, kept homology with the Z chromosomes. PMID:19096212

  20. Genetic Linkage Map of Fishes of the Genus Xiphophorus (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Morizot, D. C.; Slaugenhaupt, S. A.; Kallman, K. D.; Chakravarti, A.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of genotypes of 76 polymorphic loci in more than 2600 backcross hybrid individuals derived from intra- and interspecific genetic crosses of fishes of the genus Xiphophorus (Poeciliidae) resulted in the identification of 17 multipoint linkage groups containing 55 protein-coding loci and one sex chromosome-linked pigment pattern gene. Multipoint linkage analyses identified highly probable gene orders for 10 linkage groups. The total genome length was estimated to be ~18 Morgans. Comparisons of the Xiphophorus linkage map with those of other fishes, amphibians and mammals suggested that fish gene maps are remarkably similar and probably retain many syntenic groups present in the ancestor of all vertebrates. PMID:2004711

  1. Secretory activity of Poecilia latipinna (Teleostei) pituitary in vitro: rostral pars distalis and proximal pars distalis.

    PubMed

    Batten, T F; Young, G; Ball, J N

    1983-07-01

    The ultrastructure of each adenohypophysial secretory cell type was examined in pituitaries of adult female mollies (Poecilia latipinna) after various periods in vitro, and with varied medium osmotic pressure (OP), Na+, and Ca2+ concentrations. Prolactin (PRL) cells were markedly activated by 18 hr, and after 7 or 14 days were almost totally degranulated, with massive arrays of Golgi and RER. Reduction in OP, but not Na+ or Ca2+, caused an additional activation of PRL cells after periods of 18 hr or longer. Corticotroph (ACTH) cells became noticeably activated by 4 hr, and were possibly affected by OP, but not Na+ or Ca2+. Growth hormone (GH) cells were activated by 6 hr, and after 18 hr were quite degranulated with extensive arrays of RER. OP had no effect on GH cells before 3 days, when reduced OP appeared to cause an additional activation, with the appearance of large irregular secretory granule (SG)-like inclusions. Na+ and Ca2+ again had no effect. Gonadotrophic (GtH) cells appeared to be little affected by in vitro incubation; however, the very active cells from vitellogenic fish underwent a reduction in dilated RER after prolonged culture. Thyrotrophic (TSH) cells gradually became activated in vitro, but the response again varied with the sexual condition of the fish. Neither GtH nor TSH cells were affected by OP, Na+, or Ca2+. The findings are discussed in relation to hypothalamic control, via releasing/inhibiting factors, of adenohypophysial cell activity. PMID:6309607

  2. Parasites in sexual and asexual mollies (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei): a case for the Red Queen?

    PubMed

    Tobler, Michael; Schlupp, Ingo

    2005-06-22

    The maintenance of sexual reproduction in the face of its supposed costs is a major paradox in evolutionary biology. The Red Queen hypothesis, which states that sex is an adaptation to fast-evolving parasites, is currently one of the most recognized explanations for the ubiquity of sex and predicts that asexual lineages should suffer from a higher parasite load if they coexist with closely related sexuals. We tested this prediction using four populations of the sexual fish species Poecilia latipinna and its asexual relative Poecilia formosa. Contrary to expectation, no differences in parasite load could be detected between the two species. PMID:17148156

  3. Aspects of germinal cyst and sperm development in Poecilia latipinna (Teleostei: Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Grier, J H

    1975-06-01

    The structure of the testis of Poecilia latipinna is described with particular reference to Sertoli cell-germ cell relationships during development and maturation of the germinal cyst. The cyst develops when primary spermatocytes become surrounded by a single layer of Sertoli cells at the testis periphery. As spermatogenesis and then spermiogenesis proceed, the cyst moves centrally in the testis toward the ducts comprising the vasa efferentia. In addition to being a structural part of the germinal cyst, the Sertoli cells phagocytize residual bodies cast off by developing spermatids and form an association with mature bodies cast off by developing spermatids and form an association with mature sperm, which resembles that observed in mammals, before the sperm are released into the vasa efferentia as a spermatozeugmata. The results of this investigation are discussed in view of what is known concerning testis structure in other teleosts and similarities between cell functions in teleosts and mammals. It is concluded that teleost Sertoli cells, teleost lobule boundary cells and mammalian Sertoli cells are homologous. PMID:1152068

  4. Differences in thermal tolerance in coexisting sexual and asexual mollies (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Fischer, C; Schlupp, I

    2009-05-01

    This study reports significant differences between the gynogenetic Amazon molly Poecilia formosa and one of its sperm hosts, and the sexual sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna in the critical temperatures at which individual fishes lost motion control. Based on these measurements, it is suggested that cold snaps occurring in winter, but not summer temperatures, can significantly change population composition of these closely related fishes by inflicting higher mortality on P. formosa. PMID:20735663

  5. Cytogenetic analysis of two locariid species (Teleostei, Siluriformes) from Iguatemi River (Parana River drainage) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Alves, Diandra Soares; Guterres, Zaira da Rosa; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fishes of the Loricariidae family, known as “cascudos”, constitute an endemic group in Neotropical freshwaters. In this study, were cytogenetically examined two species of Loricariidae (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 and Farlowella amazonum (Günther, 1864) belonging to Hypostominae and Loricariinae subfamilies respectively) from Iguatemi River. Our study provide the first description regarding C-band and fluorochromic analysis in Farlowella amazonum. In Farlowella amazonum, diploid number was 58 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric regions of some chromosomes and large subtelomeric blocks were evidenced on the long arm of the pair 27, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The Pterygoplichthys anisitsi showed diploid number equal 52 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric and telomeric regions of some chromosomes and conspicuous large telomeric blocks on the long arm of the pair 10, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The results show that karyotype formula is nonconservative in Pterygoplichthys anisitsi and Farlowella amazonum.

  6. A comparative chromosome study of the North American species of sticklebacks (Teleostei: Gasterosteidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T.-R. Chen; H. M. Reisman

    1970-01-01

    The five North American species of the stickleback family Gasterosteidae were studied karyologically. They constitute two diploid-count groups; one with 46 includes ?peltes quadracus and Culaea inconstans, and the other with 42 consists of Gasterosteus aculeatus, G. wheatlandi and Pungitius pungitius. The common occurrence of a distinctly large submetacentric pair in complements of all five species suggests a monophyletic origin

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of small sliver gugeon Squalidus gracilis (Teleostei, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Di; Chen, I-Shiung; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Shen, Chia-Ning

    2014-04-22

    Abstract In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of small silver gugeon Squalidus gracilis has been amplified. The mitogenome, consisting of 16,605 base pairs (bp), had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes and a non-coding control region (CR). CR of 928?bp length is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of S. gracilis is 29.8% for A, 27.6% for C, 25.7% for T and 16.9% for G, with higher AT content of 55.5%. The complete mitogenome may provide rather essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic analysis for not only congeneric species but also higher different taxa of Cyprinid fishes. PMID:24749978

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the natural triploid loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cobitididae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Yao; Li, Yan-He; Li, Ru-Wei; Wang, Wei-Min; Zhou, Xiao-Yun

    2014-10-01

    Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the natural triploid loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus is a circular molecule of 16,646 bp in size, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 2 main noncoding regions (the control region and the origin of the light strand replication). Most of the genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and 8 tRNAs. The control region is 918 bp in length and located between the tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe) genes, some typical conserved elements (TAS, CSB1-3 and CSB D-F) were found in this region. All these features reflect a typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement of the triploid M. anguillicaudatus. PMID:23815325

  9. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17? induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17? (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  10. New Insights into Karyotypic Relationships Among Populations of Astyanax bockmanni (Teleostei, Characiformes) of Different Watersheds.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Sandro Natal; Penitente, Manolo; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Foresti, Fausto; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2015-04-01

    The fish constitute about 50% of all vertebrates, including a wide morphological and biological diversity, where the genus Astyanax is the most common and diverse, as described in virtually all freshwater environments. By occupying a basal position in the phylogeny of vertebrates, fish are an extremely favorable group for cytogenetic and evolutionary studies. The karyotype found in genus Astyanax diversity may involve a number of polymorphisms, which may be related to ploidy and karyotypic macrostructure, presence of B chromosomes, heterochromatin polymorphisms, and location of ribosomal genes. Nevertheless, the relationship between populations of this species is still poorly studied. Thus, the present work aimed to investigate karyotype variation, chromosomal relationships, and the behavior of 5S and 18S ribosomal genes in six populations of Astyanax bockmanni. The results confirmed the diploid number of 50 chromosomes in all the populations sampled, with the occurrence of one supernumerary chromosome in just one of them. In addition, all populations showed divergent patterns of constitutive heterochromatin and repetitive nucleolar sites. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique using 5S and 18S rDNA probes revealed distinct patterns of distribution for these conserved genes, while 5S rDNA genes were found located in two chromosome pairs, the 18S genes showed multiple marks dispersed in the genome characterizing an inter and intraindividual polymorphic behavior, as previously reported to occur with the utilization of the Ag-NOR technique. Thus, besides minor modifications observed in chromosome morphology, the populations of A. bockmanni analyzed revealed a preserved macrostructural feature, especially concerning to the diploid number; on the other hand, differences in microstructural characteristics indicated by the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) location, constitutive heterochromatin patterns, and distribution of ribosomal genes along the genome were clearly evident in the populations from different river basins, even located at short distances. PMID:25714526

  11. Chalinochromis cyanophleps, a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika.

    PubMed

    Kullander, Sven O; Karlsson, Mikael; Karlsson, Magnus; Norén, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Chalinochromis cyanophleps is described from nine specimens, the largest 129 mm SL, from Namansi. It differs from other species of Chalinochromis in plain trunk colouration, absence of black stripes on the head, relatively narrow lips, presence of tricuspid jaw teeth, and presence of five rather than four dentary lateralis foramina. The blue iridescent stripe below the eye is shared with other lamprologin cichlids, but is broader and more conspicuous in C. cyanophleps. Chalinochromis cyanophleps occurs at depths between 6 and 45 m in rocky habitats along the Tanzanian coast of Lake Tanganyika, from Mvuna Island south to Kalala Island, a stretch of about 90 km. Field observations were made of specimens up to 18 cm total length. The COI DNA barcode sequence differs by 1.8% from that of C. popelini. PMID:24869876

  12. The biology of the burrowing goby Croilia mossambica Smith (Teleostei, Gobiidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J. M. Blaber; Alan K. Whitfield

    1977-01-01

    Croilia mossambica, a burrowing goby endemic to the coastal lakes of south east Africa occurs from L. Poelela (salinity 8%.) to L. Sibaya (freshwater). Since these lakes are isolated from one another its distribution is discontinuous. It is not found in estuaries or the sea. In L. Sibaya C. mossambica is present on sheltered sides from a depth of 1

  13. Twilight migrations and foraging activities of the copper sweeper Pempheris schomburgki (Teleostei: Pempheridae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. B. Gladfelter

    1979-01-01

    During 1976 and 1977, movements and foraging activities of Pempheris schomburgki were studied on the shallow coral reefs of northeastern St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. P. schomburgki emerge from daytime refuges on the backreef at about local sunset. Fifteen to 20 min after sunset, local milling groups move beyond the confines of the reef and assemble into larger groups. Twenty-five

  14. Inferring parrotfish (Teleostei: Scaridae) pharyngeal mill function from dental morphology, wear, and microstructure.

    PubMed

    Carr, Andrew; Tibbetts, Ian R; Kemp, Anne; Truss, Rowan; Drennan, John

    2006-10-01

    Morphology, occlusal surface topography, macrowear, and microwear features of parrotfish pharyngeal teeth were investigated to relate microstructural characteristics to the function of the pharyngeal mill using scanning electron microscopy of whole and sectioned pharyngeal jaws and teeth. Pharyngeal tooth migration is anterior in the lower jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) and posterior in the upper jaw (paired third pharyngobranchials), making the interaction of occlusal surfaces and wear-generating forces complex. The extent of wear can be used to define three regions through which teeth migrate: a region containing newly erupted teeth showing little or no wear; a midregion in which the apical enameloid is swiftly worn; and a region containing teeth with only basal enameloid remaining, which shows low to moderate wear. The shape of the occlusal surface alters as the teeth progress along the pharyngeal jaw, generating conditions that appear suited to the reduction of coral particles. It is likely that the interaction between these particles and algal cells during the process of the rendering of the former is responsible for the rupture of the latter, with the consequent liberation of cell contents from which parrotfish obtain their nutrients. PMID:16779796

  15. Stressful and behavioral conditions that affect reversible cardiac arrest in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Ide, Liliam Midori; Hoffmann, Anette

    The objective of the present investigation was to study the reversible cardiac arrest (RCA) to visual stimuli in the unrestrained Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as well as the modulation of this response and its behavioral component (arousal/orientation or startle response) by external and internal factors that interfere with alertness and emotionality. The study was preceded by the determination of the autonomic receptors that contribute to the establishment of the heart rate (HR) and the RCA. Systemic injection of atropine and propranolol showed that a double cardiac autonomic control is present in the tilapia. Basal HR was 79.8+/-1.8 beats min(-1) and HR assessed after double autonomic blockade was 74.1+/-3.3 beats min(-1). The mean interbeat interval was 0.79+/-0.40 s during baseline recording and the magnitude of RCA induced by a moving shadow (2.67+/-0.22 s) was higher than that induced by light (1.53+/-1.11 s). RCA is peripherally mediated by muscarinic receptors for it is abolished by atropine but not by propranolol. Stressful conditions like handling the animal outside the water or a nociceptive stimulus (subcutaneous 2% or 3% formalin injection) reduced the cardiac interbeat interval. A subanesthetic dose of barbiturate (5 mg kg(-1)) inhibited RCA induced by a moving shadow stimulus and the startle response, suggesting that an ideal degree of vigilance is necessary for its occurrence. Benzodiazepine injections (1.0 and 2.0 mg kg(-1)) abolished the reduction in magnitude of RCA induced by handling stress and facilitated the startle response, seen in the dry-cold season, in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that drugs that act on alertness and on emotionality modulate the magnitude of cardiac interbeat intervals and the corresponding behavioral response. PMID:11890960

  16. A new Pseudophoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) species from Asi River Drainage (Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Küçük, Fahrettin; Güçlü, Salim Serkan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pseudophoxinus turani sp. n. is described from the ?ncesu Spring (Hassa-Hatay) drainage of Asi River, Turkey. It is distinguished from other Eastern Mediterranean Region Pseudophoxinus species by a combination of characters: lateral line incomplete, with 12–25 (commonly 16–21) perforated scales and 38–46+2-3 scales in lateral series (commonly 41–44+2-3); 10–11 scale rows between the lateral line and dorsal-fin origin; 3–4 scale rows between the lateral line and the pelvic–fin origin; dorsal fin with 7½ branched rays; anal fin commonly with 7½ branched rays; 8-11gill rakers on the first branchial arch; dorsal profile markedly convex with marked hump at the nape, ventral profile less convex than dorsal profile; a small, irregular, black blotch on the base of the caudal fin; mouth terminal, with slightly distinct chin, its corner not reaching vertical through anterior margin of eye; snout somewhat long, with rounded tip; and its length greater than eye diameter. PMID:24899855

  17. Genetic population structure of sympatric and allopatric populations of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, Teleostei, Coregonidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Mehner; Kirsten Pohlmann; Che Elkin; Michael T Monaghan; Barbara Nitz; Jörg Freyhof

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Teleost fishes of the Coregonidae are good model systems for studying postglacial evolution, adaptive radiation and ecological speciation. Of particular interest is whether the repeated occurrence of sympatric species pairs results from in-situ divergence from a single lineage or from multiple invasions of one or more different lineages. Here, we analysed the genetic structure of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula

  18. Genetic population structure of sympatric and allopatric populations of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, Teleostei, Coregonidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Teleost fishes of the Coregonidae are good model systems for studying postglacial evolution, adaptive radiation and ecological speciation. Of particular interest is whether the repeated occurrence of sympatric species pairs results from in-situ divergence from a single lineage or from multiple invasions of one or more different lineages. Here, we analysed the genetic structure of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex), examining 271 individuals from 8 lakes in northern Germany using 1244 polymorphic AFLP loci. Six lakes had only one population of C. albula while the remaining two lakes had C. albula as well as a sympatric species (C. lucinensis or C. fontanae). Results AFLP demonstrated a significant population structure (Bayesian ?B = 0.22). Lower differentiation between allopatric (?B = 0.028) than sympatric (0.063-0.083) populations contradicts the hypothesis of a sympatric origin of taxa, and there was little evidence for stocking or ongoing hybridization. Genome scans found only three loci that appeared to be under selection in both sympatric population pairs, suggesting a low probability of similar mechanisms of ecological segregation. However, removal of all non-neutral loci decreased the genetic distance between sympatric pairs, suggesting recent adaptive divergence at a few loci. Sympatric pairs in the two lakes were genetically distinct from the six other C. albula populations, suggesting introgression from another lineage may have influenced these two lakes. This was supported by an analysis of isolation-by-distance, where the drift-gene flow equilibrium observed among allopatric populations was disrupted when the sympatric pairs were included. Conclusions While the population genetic data alone can not unambiguously uncover the mode of speciation, our data indicate that multiple lineages may be responsible for the complex patterns typically observed in Coregonus. Relative differences within and among lakes raises the possibility that multiple lineages may be present in northern Germany, thus understanding the postglacial evolution and speciation in the C. albula complex requires a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of several potential founder lineages. PMID:20350300

  19. Metazoan ectoparasites of Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus (Teleostei: Scombridae): macro- and microhabitat distribution.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ricardo; Santos, Maria João

    2013-10-01

    Parasites are affected by the environment where their hosts live, having a specific distribution among their hosts and occupying a well-defined microhabitat. The present work aims to describe the metazoan ectoparasite fauna of Scomber scombrus, namely its distribution at the macro- and microhabitat levels. For that, fish from two different Portuguese regions, Matosinhos (n = 40) and Figueira da Foz (n = 39), were examined for macroectoparasites. S. scombrus of Matosinhos presented four different parasite species, whilst fish from Figueira da Foz presented five species. All parasites belonged to Monogenea, Copepoda, or Isopoda. The main differences between infection levels of fish from the two localities were found in Grubea cochlear (higher infection levels in Matosinhos) and Caligus pelamydis (where the highest values were found in Figueira da Foz). Regarding the microhabitat of the reported ectoparasites, it could be seen that every species has a very specific distribution within the host: G. cochlear and Kuhnia scombri have a preference for the inner medial areas of gills, Kuhnia sprostonae for the pseudobranchs, and C. pelamydis for the internal wall of opercula. The numerical and functional responses to interspecific competition were absent. These results support the idea that the parasite driving forces of community structure are the reinforcement of reproductive barriers and the enhancement of chances to mate. PMID:23912195

  20. Seasonality of metazoan ectoparasites in marine European flounder Platichthys flesus (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae).

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, F I; Santos, M J

    2009-07-01

    Seasonal occurrence of metazoan ectoparasites is described for the first time in marine European flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.). The parasitofauna, in this study monitored during 1 year, was found to be similar to that previously recorded for flounder. Moreover, specimens of Caligus sp. Müller, 1785 and Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae), Acanthochondria cornuta (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae), Holobomolochus confusus (Copepoda: Bomolochidae) and Nerocila orbignyi (Isopoda: Cymothoidae), and also, a praniza larva (Isopoda: Gnathiidae), were isolated. From these, L. pectoralis and A. cornuta were the dominant parasites in all samples of flounder, while Caligus sp., H. confusus, N. orbignyi and the gnathiid praniza seemed to infect the flounder only occasionally. As far as the seasonality of infections is concerned, it differed considerably from that described for estuarine environments. Indeed, both prevalence and abundance of L. pectoralis and A. cornuta reached significant peaks in the summer, whereas the literature identifies the autumn as the season of maximum infection on estuarine flounder. Thus, the former period seems more favourable for the occurrence of epizooties of L. pectoralis and A. cornuta in flounder culturing systems running on seawater and operated in the studied or similar environments. PMID:19470193

  1. Three species of Caligus Müller, 1785 (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on Caranx spp. (Teleostei: Carangidae) off Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ju-Shey; Lin, Chin-Long

    2007-09-01

    Three species of sea-lice (Siphonostomatoida: Caligidae) parasitic on marine fishes of the genus Caranx off Taiwan are reported. They are: Caligus fortis Kabata, 1965 on Caranx ignobilis (Forsskål); Caligus robustus Bassett-Smith, 1898 on Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard; and Caligus inanis n. sp. on Caranx ignobilis. Caligus robustus is a widely distributed species, but this is the first report of C. fortis outside the Australian and Indian regions. The new species is distinguished from its congeners in lacking postantennal process and carrying a pair of tiny, tooth-like, sharp protuberances on the posterior margin of the cephalothoracic shield. PMID:17429578

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Amur weatherfish, Misgurnus mohoity (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cobitididae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Yao; Song, Wen; Wang, Yi-Zhou; Wang, Wei-Min; Zhou, Xiao-Yun

    2015-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Amur weatherfish, Misgurnus mohoity is a circular molecule of 16,566?bp in size, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 2 main non-coding regions (the control region and the origin of the light strand replication). Most of the genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNAs. The control region is 915?bp in length and located between the tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe) genes, some typical conserved elements (TAS, CSB1-3 and CSB D-F) were found in this region. All these features reflect a typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement of the M. mohoity. PMID:24047182

  3. Potential of Metriaclima lanisticola (Teleostei: Cichlidae) for biological control of schistosome

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    orally shelled snails of all three species. Even when small snail sizes were offered, the fish shelled intermediate host snails Mary Lundeba1 , Jeremy S. Likongwe1 , Henry Madsen2* & Jay R. Stauffer, Jr3 1 as a predator of snails (Bulinus spp.). Bulinus globosus, B. nyassanus and B. tropicus were used as prey. B

  4. Potential of Metriaclima lanisticola (Teleostei: Cichlidae) for biological control of schistosome intermediate host snails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Lundeba; Jeremy S. Likongwe; Henry Madsen; Jay R. Stauffer

    2007-01-01

    Metriaclima lanisticola, a native cichlid of Lake Malawi, was studied under laboratory conditions to evaluate its possible role as a predator of snails (Bulinus spp.). Bulinus globosus, B. nyassanus and B. tropicus were used as prey. B. globosus and B. nyassanus are intermediate hosts of human schistosomes in Lake Malawi. M. lanisticola orally shelled snails of all three species. Even

  5. Phenotypic plasticity in the lower pharyngeal jaw dentition of Astatoreochromis alluaudi (Teleostei: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Huysseune, A

    1995-11-01

    The potentially molluscivorous cichlid fish Astatoreochromis alluaudi is known to exhibit a pronounced phenotypic plasticity in its pharyngeal jaw apparatus. Two phenotypes (wild-caught snail-eating specimens and specimens raised on soft food) were examined for differences in the number, size, shape, spacing and wear of functional teeth on the lower pharyngeal jaw. During growth, snail-eating specimens maintain tooth numbers but invest in teeth of a larger size (width and depth). In contrast, specimens fed a soft diet invest in more teeth, their size remaining unchanged except for the central, most posterior teeth. All changes in the dentition must be achieved through successive tooth generations. Serial microradiographs in the caudal area of the lower pharyngeal jaw, a region that is most significant in food processing, indicated that functional teeth in hard-food specimens more often show a successor below. This may be due to more time needed for larger replacement teeth to form and possibly to a shorter replacement cycle linked to the greater wear of the functional teeth. It is hypothesized that maintenance of tooth numbers and increase of tooth size in hard-food specimens is achieved by a one-for-one replacement and expansion of the tooth-bearing region and possibly by closer spacing of the teeth. Increase of tooth numbers in the soft-food specimens is probably achieved through the establishment of new tooth loci at the margins of the dentigerous area in addition to a one-for-one replacement. PMID:8670018

  6. Dependence on body size of respiratory function in Hoplias malabaricus (Teleostei, Erythrinidae) during graded hypoxia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Lúcia Kalinin; Francisco Tadeu Rantin; Mogens Lesner Glass

    1993-01-01

    Oxygen uptake and ventilatory responses to environmental hypoxia were assessed for two groups of Hoplias malabaricus of nearly tenfold different body weights (mean weights, group I = 39 g; group II = 365 g). The main purpose of the study\\u000a was to evaluate the relationships between body weight and the critical O2 tension (PCO2) for maintenance of normal resting O2

  7. A checklist of macroparasites of Liza haematocheila (Temminck & Schlegel) (Teleostei: Mugilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kostadinova, Aneta

    2008-01-01

    Background The mugilid fish Liza haematocheila (syn. Mugil soiuy), native to the Western North Pacific, provides opportunities to examine the changes of its parasite fauna after its translocation to the Sea of Azov and subsequent establishment in the Black Sea. However, the information on macroparasites of this host in both ranges of its current distribution comes from isolated studies published in difficult-to-access literature sources. Materials and methods Data from 53 publications, predominantly in Chinese, Russian and Ukrainian, were compiled from an extensive search of the literature and the Host-Parasite Database maintained up to 2005 at the Natural History Museum, London. Results The complete checklist of the metazoan parasites of L. haematocheila throughout its distributional range comprises summarised information for 69 nominal species of helminth and ectoparasitic crustacean parasites, from 45 genera and 27 families (370 host-parasite records in total) and includes the name of the parasite species, the area/locality of the host capture, and the author and date of the published record. The taxonomy is updated and the validity of the records and synonymies are critically evaluated. A comparison of the parasite faunas based on the records in the native and introduced/invasive range of L. haematocheila suggests that a large number of parasite species was 'lost' in the new distributional range whereas an even greater number was 'gained'. Conclusion Although the present checklist provides information that will facilitate future studies, the interesting question of macroparasite faunal diversity in L. haematocheila in its natural and introduced/invasive ranges cannot be dealt with the current data because of unreliability associated with the large number of non-documented and questionable records. This stresses the importance of data quality analysis in using host-parasite database and checklist data. PMID:19117506

  8. Systematics and biogeography of Cyprinella venusta (Cyprinidae: Teleostei) inferred from analysis of mitochondrial DNA

    E-print Network

    Kristmundsdottir, Asrun Yr

    1994-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt)DNA restriction-site analysis was used to study systematics and biogeography of the blacktail shiner, Cyprinella venusta. Taxonomically, C. venusta is comprised of three subspecies: C. v. venusta, C.v. cercostigma, and C. v...

  9. Shape based assignment tests suggest transgressive phenotypes in natural sculpin hybrids (Teleostei, Scorpaeniformes, Cottidae)

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Arne W; Sheets, H David

    2005-01-01

    Background Hybridization receives attention because of the potential role that it may play in generating evolutionary novelty. An explanation for the emergence of novel phenotypes is given by transgressive segregation, which, if frequent, would imply an important evolutionary role for hybridization. This process is still rarely studied in natural populations as samples of recent hybrids and their parental populations are needed. Further, the detection of transgressive segregation requires phenotypes that can be easily quantified and analysed. We analyse variability in body shape of divergent populations of European sculpins (Cottus gobio complex) as well as natural hybrids among them. Results A distance-based method is developed to assign unknown specimens to known groups based on morphometric data. Apparently, body shape represents a highly informative set of characters that parallels the discriminatory power of microsatellite markers in our study system. Populations of sculpins are distinct and "unknown" specimens can be correctly assigned to their source population based on body shape. Recent hybrids are intermediate along the axes separating their parental groups but display additional differentiation that is unique and coupled with the hybrid genetic background. Conclusion There is a specific hybrid shape component in natural sculpin hybrids that can be best explained by transgressive segregation. This inference of how hybrids differ from their ancestors provides basic information for future evolutionary studies. Furthermore, our approach may serve to assign candidate specimens to their source populations based on morphometric data and help in the interpretation of population differentiation. PMID:15987531

  10. Novel electrosensory advertising during diurnal resting period in male snoutfish, Marcusenius altisambesi (Mormyridae, Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Machnik; Bernd Kramer

    2011-01-01

    During the day, weakly electric snoutfish, such as Marcusenius altisambesi from the Okavango delta, avoid visually oriented predators by hiding in sheltered, dark places where they discharge their\\u000a electric organs at a low and variable rate, interspersed with occasional short bursts (mean discharge rate, 4–12 Hz). Hence,\\u000a histograms of inter-discharge intervals (IDI) are broad and bimodal (IDI range, about 15–500 ms; “variable

  11. Phylogeny and polyploidy: Resolving the classification of cyprinine fishes (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Sado, Tetsuya; Vincent Hirt, M; Pasco-Viel, Emmanuel; Arunachalam, M; Li, Junbing; Wang, Xuzhen; Freyhof, Jörg; Saitoh, Kenji; Simons, Andrew M; Miya, Masaki; He, Shunping; Mayden, Richard L

    2015-04-01

    Cyprininae is the largest subfamily (>1300 species) of the family Cyprinidae and contains more polyploid species (?400) than any other group of fishes. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of the Cyprininae based on extensive taxon, geographical, and genomic sampling of the taxa, using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes to address the phylogenetic challenges posed by polyploidy. Four datasets were analyzed in this study: two mitochondrial gene datasets (465 and 791 taxa, 5604bp), a mitogenome dataset (85 taxa, 14,771bp), and a cloned nuclear RAG1 dataset (97 taxa, 1497bp). Based on resulting trees, the subfamily Cyprininae was subdivided into 11 tribes: Probarbini (new; Probarbus+Catlocarpio), Labeonini Bleeker, 1859 (Labeo & allies), Torini Karaman, 1971 (Tor, Labeobarbus & allies), Smiliogastrini Bleeker, 1863 (Puntius, Enteromius & allies), Poropuntiini (Poropuntius & allies), Cyprinini Rafinesque, 1815 (Cyprinus & allies), Acrossocheilini (new; Acrossocheilus & allies), Spinibarbini (new; Spinibarbus), Schizothoracini McClelland, 1842 (Schizothorax & allies), Schizopygopsini Mirza, 1991 (Schizopygopsis & allies), and Barbini Bleeker, 1859 (Barbus & allies). Phylogenetic relationships within each tribe were discussed. Two or three distinct RAG1 lineages were identified for each of the following tribes Torini, Cyprinini, Spinibarbini, and Barbini, indicating their hybrid origin. The hexaploid African Labeobarbus & allies and Western Asian Capoeta are likely derived from two independent hybridization events between their respective maternal tetraploid ancestors and Cyprinion. PMID:25698355

  12. Genetic differentiation among natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei, cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Agnèse, J F; Adépo-Gourène, B; Abban, E K; Fermon, Y

    1997-07-01

    We analysed the genetic differentiation among 17 natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) using allozymes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The populations studied, from the River Senegal to Lake Tana and from Lake Manzalla to Lake Baringo, represent all subspecies which have been previously described. Sixteen variable nuclear loci showed that these populations can be clustered in three groups: (1) West African populations (Senegal, Niger, Volta and Chad drainages), (2) Ethiopian Rift Valley populations (Lakes Awasa, Ziway, Koka and the Awash River) and (3) Nile drainage (Manzalla, Cairo, Lake Edward) and Kenyan Rift Valley populations (Lakes Turkana, Baringo and River Suguta). Nine different mtDNA haplotypes were found in the RFLP analysis of a 1 kb portion of the D-loop region. The network obtained showed that there are three geographically distinct groups; all West African populations and O. aureus are clustered, the two Ethiopian Rift Valley populations are distinct and between these two groups are the Kenyan and Ugandan Rift Valley populations. Nile populations show affinities both with West African populations and with specimens from Lakes Tana and Turkana. Taxonomic and biogeographical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:9253615

  13. First record of the black bullhead Ameiurus melas (Teleostei: Ictaluridae) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowak, M; Kosco, J; Popek, W; Epler, P

    2010-04-01

    The North American catfish, the black bullhead Ameiurus melas, is recorded for the first time in Poland. The origin of these fish is not clear, but their presence may be associated with unregulated introductions by anglers. PMID:20537032

  14. Comparative histology of the adult electric organ among four species of the genus Campylomormyrus (Teleostei: Mormyridae).

    PubMed

    Paul, Christiane; Mamonekene, Victor; Vater, Marianne; Feulner, Philine G D; Engelmann, Jacob; Tiedemann, Ralph; Kirschbaum, Frank

    2015-04-01

    The electric organ (EO) of weakly electric mormyrids consists of flat, disk-shaped electrocytes with distinct anterior and posterior faces. There are multiple species-characteristic patterns in the geometry of the electrocytes and their innervation. To further correlate electric organ discharge (EOD) with EO anatomy, we examined four species of the mormyrid genus Campylomormyrus possessing clearly distinct EODs. In C. compressirostris, C. numenius, and C. tshokwe, all of which display biphasic EODs, the posterior face of the electrocytes forms evaginations merging to a stalk system receiving the innervation. In C. tamandua that emits a triphasic EOD, the small stalks of the electrocyte penetrate the electrocyte anteriorly before merging on the anterior side to receive the innervation. Additional differences in electrocyte anatomy among the former three species with the same EO geometry could be associated with further characteristics of their EODs. Furthermore, in C. numenius, ontogenetic changes in EO anatomy correlate with profound changes in the EOD. In the juvenile the anterior face of the electrocyte is smooth, whereas in the adult it exhibits pronounced surface foldings. This anatomical difference, together with disparities in the degree of stalk furcation, probably contributes to the about 12 times longer EOD in the adult. PMID:25752300

  15. Uric Acid in the Tapetum Lucidum of Mooneyes Hiodon (Hiodontidae Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Zyznar; F. B. Cross; J. A. C. Nicol

    1978-01-01

    Tapeta lucida (ocular reflectors) of mooneyes, Hiodon tergisus and H. alosoides, lie in the pigment epithelium, the processes of which are packed with reflecting particles and also contain melanin granules. The reflecting particles are tiny birefringent crystals. On the basis of chromatography, u.v. spectroscopy and enzymic degradation (with uricase), it is concluded that the reflecting material contains uric acid. Mooneye

  16. Morphology-diet relationships in four killifishes (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae, Orestias) from Lake Titicaca.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, E; Hubert, N; Sagnes, P; De Mérona, B

    2009-02-01

    This study explores the relationship between morphology and diet in four Andean killifishes (Orestias) from Lake Titicaca that are known to differ in habitat use. Species that fed preferentially on amphipods (Orestias albus) or molluscs (Orestias luteus) separated in multivariate space from other species that feed on cladocera and algae (Orestias agassii and Orestias jussiei). Generally, specimens feeding on cladocera were characterized by a short, blunt nose with a small mouth; whereas, specimens feeding on amphipods exhibited a long snout with a large mouth. Specimens including molluscs in their diet tended to have a larger posterior part of the head and the larger opercles than others; while the occurrence of substratum in gut content was generally related to a short but deep head. The present analysis suggests that the littoral O. jussiei has an intermediate phenotype and diet between the pelagic (O. agassii) and benthic (O. albus and O. luteus) species. Results suggest that resource partitioning was occurring and that several morphological traits relate to characteristics of the diet, and it is inferred that the benthic, the pelagic and the littoral zones in the lake host different prey communities constituting distinct adaptive landscapes. PMID:20735575

  17. Strong reproductive skew among males in the multiply mated swordtail Xiphophorus multilineatus (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Sanetra, M; Schartl, M; Meyer, A

    2005-01-01

    Male swordtails in the genus Xiphophorus display a conspicuous ventral elongation of the caudal fin, the sword, which arose through sexual selection due to female preference. Females mate regularly and are able to store sperm for at least 6 months. If multiple mating is frequent, this would raise the intriguing question about the role of female choice and male-male competition in shaping the mating system of these fishes. Size-dependent alternate mating strategies occur in Xiphophorus; one such strategy is courtship with a sigmoid display by large dominant males, while the other is gonopodial thrusting, in which small subordinate males sneak copulations. Using microsatellite markers, we observed a frequency of multiple paternity in wild-caught Xiphophorus multilineatus in 28% of families analyzed, but the actual frequency of multiple mating suggested by the correction factor PrDM was 33%. The number of fathers contributing genetically to the brood ranged from one to three. Compared to other species in the family Poeciliidae, both frequency and degree of multiple paternity were low. Paternity was found to be highly skewed, with one male on average contributing more than 70% to the offspring. Hence in this Xiphophorus mating system, typically one male dominates and sneaker males do not appear to be particularly effective. Postcopulatory mechanisms, however, such as sperm competition, are also indicated by our data, using sex-linked phenotypes among the offspring. PMID:15743903

  18. Hybrid origin of a swordtail species (Teleostei: Xiphophorus clemenciae) driven by sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Axel; Salzburger, Walter; Schartl, Manfred

    2006-03-01

    The swordlike exaggerated caudal fin extensions of male swordtails are conspicuous traits that are selected for through female choice. Swords are one of only few examples where the hypothesis of a pre-existing bias is believed to apply for the evolution of a male trait. Previous laboratory experiments demonstrated that females prefer males with longer swords and even females from some swordless species show an affiliation for males of sworded species. Earlier phylogenetic studies based on maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA placed the sworded southern swordtail Xiphophorus clemenciae with swordless platies, contradicting its morphology-based evolutionary affinities. The analyses of new nuclear DNA markers now recover its traditional phylogenetic placement with other southern swordtails, suggesting that this species was formed by an ancient hybridization event. We propose that sexual selection through female choice was the likely process of hybrid speciation, by mating of platy females with males of an ancestral swordtail lineage. In artificial crosses of descendent species from the two potential ancestral lineages of X. clemenciae the hybrid and backcross males have swords of intermediate lengths. Additionally, mate choice experiments demonstrate that hybrid females prefer sworded males. These experimental lines of evidence make hybridization through xeno-specific sexual selection by female choice the likely mechanism of speciation. PMID:16499697

  19. Moments of induced spawning and embryonic development of Brycon amazonicus (Teleostei, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika; Faustino, Francine; Mendes, José Mário Ribeiro; de Braga, Francisco Manoel

    2014-11-01

    Based on the economic and ecological relevance of Brycon amazonicus, the goal of this work was to describe the diameter of oocytes and eggs of this species, as well as the chronological embryonic development. The material was provided by Buriti fish farm, Nova Mutum - MT, Brazil. Samples of both oocytes and eggs were obtained from extrusion to hatching. The material was fixed and measured under stereomicroscope, and the samples were divided for light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. At extrusion, the oocytes were bluish green. The frequency distribution of oocytes revealed that 87.7% of them ranged from 1.11-1.30 mm in diameter. During incubation, the total diameter of the eggs increased from 1.22 ± 0.04 mm to 3.06 ± 0.46 mm in the first 60 min post fertilization (PF), and growth ceased at 180 min PF. Between 10-30 s PF, most eggs were fertilized and fertilization cones were observed from 10 s onwards after gamete activation. The main fertilization events took place asynchronically and spermatozoa were visualized in the micropyle vestibule up to 90 s PF. The first cell was formed in the centre of the blastodisc 20 min PF. The morula stage was identified 2 h PF and, 3 h later, 70% of the yolk was covered by the blastoderm; the blastopore was almost entirely closed at 6 h PF. The cephalic and caudal regions of the embryo could be defined 8 h PF and hatching occurred after 13 h of embryonic development. The larvae hatched with undifferentiated organic systems and with a large yolk sac, free from swimming abilities or visual acuity. PMID:23659693

  20. Stone loaches of Choman River system, Kurdistan, Iran (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Kamangar, Barzan Bahrami; Prokofiev, Artem M; Ghaderi, Edris; Nalbant, Theodore T

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, we present data on species composition and distributions of nemacheilid loaches in the Choman River basin of Kurdistan province, Iran. Two genera and four species are recorded from the area, of which three species are new for science: Oxynoemacheilus kurdistanicus, O. zagrosensis, O. chomanicus spp. nov., and Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi B?n. et Nalb. Detailed and illustrated morphological descriptions and univariate and multivariate analysis of morphometric and meristic features are for each of these species. Forty morphometric and eleven meristic characters were used in multivariate analysis to select characters that could discriminate between the four loach species. Discriminant Function Analysis revealed that sixteen morphometric measures and five meristic characters have the most variability between the loach species. The dendrograms based on cluster analysis of Mahalanobis distances of morphometrics and a combination of both characters confirmed two distinct groups: Oxynoemacheilus spp. and T. kosswigi. Within Oxynoemacheilus, O. zagrosensis and O. chomanicus are more similar to one other rather to either is to O. kurdistanicus. PMID:24869808

  1. Coreoleuciscus aeruginos (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), a new species from the Seomjin and Nakdong rivers, Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Ha-Yoon; Bang, In-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Coreoleuciscus splendidus was first reported as a monotypic species. Recent morphological and genetic studies have revealed that the species is represented by two disjunct and distinct lineages. The two lineages of C. splendidus include populations inhabiting the Han and Geum rivers in the East Korea Subdistrict and populations inhabiting the Seomjin and Nakdong rivers in the South Korea Subdistrict. In this study, significant differences were found between these two independent lineages through a high degree of genetic divergence in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene as well as conspicuous morphological differences in body coloration and shapes of black stripes on dorsal, anal and caudal fin rays. These morphological and genetic differences provide supporting evidence that the populations in the South Korea Subdistrict represent a new species, Coreoleuciscus aeruginos. PMID:25781820

  2. Description of a new species of Petrotilapia (Teleostei: Cichlidae), from Lake Malaw^ i, Africa

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    by their broad lips that are densely covered with slender teeth that are visible even when the mouth is closed (Konings 1990). The numerous teeth are used to comb algae for food. Most species of Petrotilapia inhabit as having all tri- cuspid teeth, that are visible when the mouth is closed (Trewavas 1935). Sub- sequently

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the tiger tail seahorse, Hippocampus comes (Teleostei, Syngnathidae).

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hao; Lin, Han-Yang; Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Yeong-Shin; Ho, Hsuan-Ching

    2013-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the tiger tail seahorse was sequenced using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. The total length of mitochondrial DNA is 16,525 bp and includes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a control region. The mitochondrial gene arrangement of the tiger tail seahorse is also matching the one observed in the most vertebrate creatures. Base composition of the genome is A (32.8%), T (29.8%), C (23.0%), and G (14.4%) with an A+T-rich hallmark as that of other vertebrate mitochondrial genomes. PMID:23316712

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Rhodeus shitaiensis (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Acheilognathidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Yeong-Shin; Chang, Chia-Hao

    2015-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Rhodeus shitaiensis was determined by using a PCR-based method. The total length of mitochondrial DNA of this bitterling is 16,774?bp and includes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA, 22 transfer RNA genes, 1 replication origin region and 1 control region. The mitochondrial gene arrangement of the R. shitaiensis is also matching the one observed in the most vertebrate creatures. Base composition of the genome is A (28.7%), T (26.5%), C (27.4%) and G (17.4%) with an A?+?T rich hallmark as that of other vertebrate mitochondrial genomes. PMID:24047170

  5. Detection of interstitial telomeric sequences in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) (Teleostei: Salmonidae).

    PubMed

    Pomianowski, K; Jankun, M; Ocalewicz, K

    2012-01-01

    Highly polymorphic Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus Linnaeus, 1758) chromosomes were studied using conventional and molecular methods. The diploid chromosome number in the studied individuals was 2n = 81 or 2n = 82, with a fundamental arm number (NF) = 100. These differences are due to Robertsonian fusions. Interindividual variation in the number and size of DAPI and CMA(3) positively stained chromatin sites was observed in studied specimens. In the case of two individuals, the subtelomeric region of the long arm (q) of the largest acrocentric chromosome (chromosome number 10) was positively stained by CMA(3) fluorochrome. Both primed in situ labelling (PRINS) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that this CMA(3)-positive region was flanked by telomeric sequences. Previously, the subterminal position of interstitial telomeric sequences located in the vicinity of the CMA(3)-positive guanine-rich chromatin have been described in two other Salvelinus species, brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis ) and lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush ). Moreover, multichromosomal location and variation in size of CMA(3) bands have been observed in various Salvelinus taxa, including fishes with internally located telomeric sequences. These results suggest that relocation of CMA(3)-positive chromatin segments in these species may be facilitated by flanking interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs). PMID:22166084

  6. Simultaneous production of triploid and haploid eggs by triploid Squalius alburnoides (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Alves, M Judite; Gromicho, Marta; Collares-Pereira, M João; Crespo-López, Elena; Coelho, M Manuela

    2004-07-01

    The hybrid minnow Squalius alburnoides comprises diploid and polyploid forms with altered modes of reproduction. In the present paper, we report a cross where a triploid female generated both large, triploid and small, haploid eggs simultaneously, which were fertilized with S. pyrenaicus sperm. Although the large eggs were rarer (15%), they originated offspring with higher survivorship, so that tetraploids were dominant among the surviving siblings. The cross yielded apparently all female progeny. Inheritance patterns were inferred using four microsatellite markers and NORs (Nucleolus Organizer Regions) phenotypes, and suggested that haploid eggs were probably produced by an atypical hybridogenesis, in which the elimination of the unmatched genome permitted random segregation and recombination between the homospecific genomes, while the triploid eggs were clonal. The present results suggest that the occurrence of triploid unreduced eggs may be a new route for the natural tetraploidization in the complex. PMID:15229865

  7. Three new species of Alburnoides (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Euphrates River, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turan, Davut; Kaya, Cüneyt; Ekmekçi, F Güler; Do?an, Esra

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of Alburnoides, Alburnoides emineae sp. n., Alburnoides velioglui sp. n., Alburnoides recepi sp. n., are described from the Euphrates River drainages (Persian Gulf basin) in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Alburnoides emineae, from Beyazsu Stream (south-eastern Euphrates River drainage), is distinguished from all species of Alburnoides in Turkey and adjacent regions by a combination of the following characters (none unique to the species): a well developed ventral keel between pelvic and anal fins, commonly scaleless or very rarely 1-2 scales covering the anterior portion of the keel; a deep body (depth at dorsal-fin origin 31-36% SL); 37-43 + 1-2 lateral-line scales, 13½-15½ branched anal-fin rays; number of total vertebrae 41-42, modally 41, comprising 20-21 abdominal and 20-21 caudal vertebrae. Alburnoides velioglui, from S?rl?, Karasu, Divri?i and Sultansuyu streams (northern and northeastern Euphrates River drainages), is distinguished by a poorly developed ventral keel, completely scaled; a moderately deep body (depth at dorsal-fin origin 24-29% SL); 45-53 + 1-2 lateral-line scales, 11½ -13½ branched anal-fin rays; number of total vertebrae 41-42, modally 42, comprising 20-22 abdominal and 20-21 caudal vertebrae. Alburnoides recepi, from Merzimen Stream (southern Euphrates River drainage), is distinguished by a well developed ventral keel, completely scaleless; a deep body (depth at dorsal-fin origin 29-34% SL); 47-56 + 2-3 lateral-line scales; 13½-16½ branched anal-fin rays; number of total vertebrae 38-40, comprising 19-21 abdominal and 18-20 caudal vertebrae. PMID:24869683

  8. Body shape evolution among ploidy levels of the Squalius alburnoides hybrid complex (Teleostei, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Cunha, C; Bastir, M; Coelho, M M; Doadrio, I

    2009-04-01

    Hybridization, ploidy level and genomic constitution may be important to respond to different environments, by producing different phenotypes and thus reducing competitive interaction. Through geometric morphometrics, we examined variation in body size and shape among biotypes of the Squalius alburnoides hybrid complex and their sperm donor (Squalius carolitertii). Results showed that S. carolitertii is significantly larger in size than the biotypes of the complex. No significant relationship was observed between ploidy and body size among S. alburnoides biotypes. Significant variation in body shape was found between S. carolitertii and S. alburnoides, and between tetraploids and the other biotypes. These differences in biotypes may reduce resource competition, highlighting the potential importance of resource availability favouring one biotype over another. In S. alburnoides, the adaptation to different trophic niches through modification of trophic morphology, body shapes, and feeding behaviour, may result from an increase in ploidy and genomic constitution. This adaptation may account also for the formation and maintenance of this nonsexual complex. PMID:19320794

  9. Cobitis avicennae, a new species of spined loach from the Tigris River drainage (Teleostei: Cobitidae).

    PubMed

    Mousavi-Sabet, Hamed; Vatandoust, Saber; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Geiger, Matthias F; Freyhof, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Cobitis avicennae, new species, from the Karkheh and Karun sub-drainages in the Tigris catchment is distinguished from other Cobitis species in the Persian Gulf, Kor and the southern Caspian Sea basins by having a single lamina circularis in males, a small comma-shaped black spot on the upper caudal-fin base, 5½ branched anal-fin rays, 5-6 rows of dark spots on the dorsal and caudal fins, scales below the dorsal-fin base with a small focal zone and pigmentation zone Z4 with 12-17 large, partly fused blotches. It is also distinguished from other Cobitis species in the comparison group by six fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region. PMID:25661962

  10. A new species of redfin (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Pseudobarbus) from the Verlorenvlei River system, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chakona, Albert; Swartz, Ernst R.; Skelton, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pseudobarbus verloreni, a new species, is described from material collected in the Verlorenvlei River system on the west coast of South Africa. It differs from its congeners (except Pseudobarbus skeltoni, Pseudobarbus burchelli, and Pseudobarbus burgi) by the presence of two pairs of oral barbels. Pseudobarbus verloreni sp. n. can be distinguished from the three currently described double barbeled Pseudobarbus species by the following combination of characters: pigment pattern, generally deeper body relative to standard length, a longer intestine associated with the deeper body form, shorter snout relative to head length, and much shorter anterior barbels relative to head length. The new species is distinguished from Pseudobarbus burgi in the neighbouring Berg River system by its longer head and longer pre-dorsal length. It seems as if Pseudobarbus verloreni sp. n. has been extirpated from the Langvlei River system and face several threats to its survival in the Verlorenvlei River system. PMID:25493062

  11. A checklist of macroparasites of Liza haematocheila (Temminck & Schlegel) (Teleostei: Mugilidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aneta Kostadinova

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mugilid fish Liza haematocheila (syn. Mugil soiuy), native to the Western North Pacific, provides opportunities to examine the changes of its parasite fauna after its translocation to the Sea of Azov and subsequent establishment in the Black Sea. However, the information on macroparasites of this host in both ranges of its current distribution comes from isolated studies published

  12. Evolution of ontogenetic dietary shifts and associated gut features in prickleback fishes (Teleostei: Stichaeidae).

    PubMed

    German, D P; Gawlicka, A K; Horn, M H

    2014-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an ontogenetic dietary shift from carnivory to herbivory or omnivory, and concomitant changes in the gut facilitating digestion of algae, are synapomorphies of the tribes Xiphisterini and Esselenichthyini in the family Stichaeidae (pricklebacks). Previous investigations have revealed that two xiphisterine pricklebacks-Xiphister mucosus and Xiphister atropurpureus-become herbivorous or omnivorous, respectively, as their bodies grow larger, and that their guts show related changes in length and function. In this study we found that, with increase in size, the basal member of the Xiphisterini, Phytichthys chirus, showed an increased proportion of algae in its diet, increased activity of ?-amylase and decreased activity of aminopeptidase, all of which support the synapomorphy hypothesis. Cebidichthys violaceus, a herbivore in the Esselenichthyini, shows similar ontogenetic changes in diet and digestive tract length and physiology, but these features were not observed in two derived carnivores, Dictyosoma burgeri and Dictyosoma rubrimaculatum, within the clade. These results suggest that herbivory is isolated to C. violaceus within the Esselenichthyini. Allometric relationships of gut length as a function of body size generally follow diet within the Xiphisterini and Esselenichthyini, with herbivores having the longest guts, which become disproportionately longer than body size as the fishes grow, omnivores intermediate gut lengths, and carnivores the shortest. A carnivore from an adjacent clade, Anoplarchus purpurescens, had the shortest gut, which did not change in length relative to body length as the fish grew. Overall, our results clarify the patterns of dietary evolution within the Stichaeidae and lay the foundation for more detailed studies of dietary and digestive specialization in fishes in the family. PMID:24269211

  13. Molecular cytogenetic study of the European bitterling Rhodeus amarus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Acheilognathinae).

    PubMed

    Kirtiklis, Lech; Ocalewicz, Konrad; Wiechowska, Marzena; Boro?, Alicja; Hliwa, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    The European bitterlings (Rhodeus amarus) from the Eastern locations were cytogenetically examined by conventional and molecular techniques. All analyzed individuals presented invariably the same chromosomal constitution of 2n = 48, with 8 metacentrics + 20 submetacentrics + 20 subtelo-acrocentrics and C-banding positive heterochromatin at the pericentromeric regions in most of the chromosomes. Moreover, some of the chromosomes had short arms entirely built with heterochromatin. GC-rich Ag-NORs (nucleolus organizer regions) were located at the short arms of two submetacentric chromosomes, and the length polymorphism of these regions was found. Multiple location of 28S rDNA sequences with fluorescence in situ hybridization signals was observed on the long and/or short arms of three submetacentric chromosomes including NOR regions and short arms of three to five acrocentric chromosomes in the studied fish. 5S rDNA sites were found on the short arms of two subtelocentric chromosomes, and telomeric repeats were localized at the ends of all chromosomes. Provided results have expanded our knowledge concerning genetic characteristics of the European bitterlings that may be profitable in the conservation programs of this endangered species. PMID:24677088

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of the algae scraping cyprinid genus Capoeta (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Levin, Boris A; Freyhof, Jörg; Lajbner, Zden?k; Perea, Silvia; Abdoli, Asghar; Gaffaro?lu, Muhammet; Ozulu?, Müfit; Rubenyan, Haikaz R; Salnikov, Vladimir B; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    We reconstructed the matrilineal phylogeny of Asian algae-eating fishes of the genus Capoeta based on complete mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b sequences obtained from 20 species sampled from the majority of the range and 44 species of closely related barbs of the genera Barbus s. str. and Luciobarbus. The results of this study show that Capoeta forms a strongly supported monophyletic subclade nested within the Luciobarbus clade, suggesting that specialized scraping morphology appeared once in the evolutionary history of the genus. We detected three main groups of Capoeta: the Mesopotamian group, which includes three species from the Tigris-Euphrates system and adjacent water bodies, the Anatolian-Iranian group, which has the most diversified structure and encompasses many species distributed throughout Anatolian and Iranian inland waters, and the Aralo-Caspian group, which consists of species distributed in basins of the Caspian and Aral Seas, including many dead-end rivers in Central Asia and Northern Iran. The most probable origination pathway of the genus Capoeta is hypothesized to occur as a result of allopolyploidization. The origin of Capoeta was found around the Langhian-Serravallian boundary according to our molecular clock. The diversification within the genus occurred along Middle Miocene-Late Pliocene periods. PMID:21967785

  15. Comparative analysis of sex chromosomes in Leporinus species (Teleostei, Characiformes) using chromosome painting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Leporinus genus, belonging to the Anostomidae family, is an interesting model for studies of sex chromosome evolution in fish, particularly because of the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes only in some species of the genus. In this study we used W chromosome-derived probes in a series of cross species chromosome painting experiments to try to understand events of sex chromosome evolution in this family. Results W chromosome painting probes from Leporinus elongatus, L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens were hybridized to each others chromosomes. The results showed signals along their W chromosomes and the use of L. elongatus W probe against L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens also showed signals over the Z chromosome. No signals were observed when the later aforementioned probe was used in hybridization procedures against other four Anostomidae species without sex chromosomes. Conclusions Our results demonstrate a common origin of sex chromosomes in L. elongatus, L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens but suggest that the L. elongatus chromosome system is at a different evolutionary stage. The absence of signals in the species without differentiated sex chromosomes does not exclude the possibility of cryptic sex chromosomes, but they must contain other Leporinus W sequences than those described here. PMID:23822802

  16. Pituitary gland morphogenesis and ontogeny of adenohypophyseal cells of Salminus brasiliensis (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Lázaro Wender Oliveira; Chehade, Chayrra; Costa, Fabiano Gonçalves; Borella, Maria Inês

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we describe for the first time the details of the pituitary gland morphogenesis and the ontogeny of adenohypophyseal cells of a South American Characiform species with great importance for Brazilian Aquaculture, Salminus brasiliensis (Characiformes, Characidae), from hatching to 25 days after hatching (dah), by histochemical and immunocytochemical methods. The pituitary placode was first detected at hatching (0 dah), and the pituitary anlage became more defined at 0.5 dah. The neurohypophysis (NH) development started at 3 dah, and the early formation of its stalk at 12.5 dah. An increase in adenohypophyseal and NH tissues was also observed, and in juveniles at 25 dah, the pituitary displayed similar morphology to that found in adults of this species, displaying the main features of the teleost pituitary. PRL cells were detected at 0.5 dah, together with ACTH and ?-MSH cells, followed by GH and SL cells at 1.5 dah. ?-FSH cells were detected at 25 dah, while ?-LH cells at 5 dah. The pituitary development in this species comprises a dynamic process similar to other teleosts. Our findings in S. brasiliensis corroborate the heterogeneity in the ontogeny of adenohypophyseal cells in teleosts and suggest a role for adenohypophyseal hormones in the early development of this species. PMID:24310491

  17. Cytogenetic study of heptapterids (Teleostei, Siluriformes) with particular respect to the Nemuroglanis subclade

    PubMed Central

    Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Moreira Peres, Wellington Adriano; Moreira-Filho, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The catfish family Heptapteridae (order Siluriformes) is endemic to the Neotropics and is one of the most common of the fish families in small bodies of water. Although over 200 species have been identified in this family, very few have been characterized cytogenetically. Here, we analyze the chromosome genomes of four species of Heptapteridae: Cetopsorhamdia iheringi (Schubart & Gomes, 1959), 2n = 58, comprising 28 metacentric (m) + 26 submetacentric (sm) + 4 subtelomeric (st) chromosomes; Pimelodella vittata (Lütken, 1874), 2n = 46, comprising 16m + 22sm + 8st; Rhamdia prope quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824), 2n = 58 comprising 26m + 16sm + 14st + 2 acrocentric; and Rhamdiopsis prope microcephala (Lütken, 1874), 2n = 56, comprising 12m + 30sm + 14st. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were located in a single chromosome pair in all species. The two species that belonged to the subclade Nemuroglanis, Cetopsorhamdia iheringi and Rhamdia prope quelen, had a diploid chromosome number of 58 and an interstitial NOR adjacent to a C+ block located on one of the larger chromosome pairs in the complement. Our results from conventional cytogenetic techniques in combination with FISH using 18S and 5S rDNA probes corroborated the taxonomical hypothesis for the formation of the Nemuroglanis subclade.

  18. Pempheris bexillon, a new species of sweeper (Teleostei: Pempheridae) from the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mooi, Randall D; Randall, John E

    2014-01-01

    Pempheris bexillon new species is described from the 129 mm SL holotype and 11 paratypes (119-141 mm SL) from the Comoro Islands. Twelve other specimens have been examined from the Agaléga Islands, Mascarene Islands, and Bassas da India (Madagascar). It is differentiated from other Pempheris by the following combination of characters: a yellow dorsal fin with a black, distal margin along its full length, broadest on anterior rays (pupil-diameter width) and gradually narrowing posteriorly, the last ray with only a black tip; large, deciduous cycloid scales on the flank; dark, oblong spot on the pectoral-fin base; anal fin with a dark margin; segmented anal-fin rays 38-45 (usually >40); lateral-line scales 56-65; and total gill rakers on the first arch 31-35; iris reddish-brown. Tables of standard meristic and color data for type material of all nominal species of cycloid-scaled Pempheris in the Indo-Pacific are provided. PMID:24871843

  19. Callionymus omanensis, a new species of dragonet from Oman, north-western Indian Ocean (Teleostei: Callionymidae).

    PubMed

    Fricke, R; Jawad, L A; Al-Mamry, J M

    2014-11-01

    A new species of deep-living dragonet Callionymus omanensis from Oman is described on the basis of a single male specimen collected in a trawl from 500 m depth off the coast of Oman. The new species is characterized within the subgenus Bathycallionymus by having a small branchial opening; head short (3·9 in proportion to standard length); eye large (2·4 in proportion to head length); preopercular spine with a long, upcurved main tip, with a small antrorse barb and a larger antrorse spine, and with a strong antrorse spine laterally at the preopercular-spine base, ventral margin smooth; first dorsal fin slightly higher than second dorsal fin (male); second dorsal fin distally straight; 17 pectoral fin rays; distal end of caudal fin slightly pointed, with two median unbranched rays bearing short filaments; first dorsal fin with basal black spot reaching from first to fourth membranes, third membrane with an ocellated distal black blotch; second dorsal fin with vertical dark grey bars; distal three-fourths of anal fin black; upper half of caudal fin with oblique dark grey bars; pelvic fin dark grey, second ray basally with a black blotch. The new species is compared with similar species. Revised keys to callionymid species of the western Indian Ocean and the Red Sea, as well as species of the subgenus Bathycallionymus, are presented. PMID:25098471

  20. Neoniphon pencei, a new species of holocentrid (Teleostei: Beryciformes) from Rarotonga, Cook Islands

    PubMed Central

    Pyle, Richard L.; Earle, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neoniphon pencei, n. sp., is described from thirteen specimens, 132-197 mm standard length (SL) collected from mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) at Rarotonga, Cook Islands by divers using mixed-gas closed-circuit rebreathers. It differs from all other species of the genus in number of lateral line scales, scales above and below lateral line, elements of life color, and in COI and cytochrome b DNA sequences. Of the five other known species of Neoniphon, it is most similar to the Indo-Pacific N. aurolineatus and the western Atlantic N. marianus both morphologically and genetically. PMID:25698898

  1. Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis sp. n. (Teleostei, Characidae) una nueva especie para el Alto Cauca, Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. García-Alzate; C. Román-Valencia

    2009-01-01

    Se describe Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis sp. n. (Characiformes, Characidae) perteneciente al grupo heterorhabdus (Gery, 1977) de la cuenca alta del río Cauca, Colombia. La nueva especie se distingue de las otras especies descritas por la siguiente combinación de caracteres: tres radios simples y ocho radios ramificados en la aleta dorsal; un maxilar corto con un diente o sin dientes; cuatro pequeños

  2. Phylogenetic relationships and natural hybridization in rabbitfishes (Teleostei: Siganidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses.

    PubMed

    Kuriiwa, Kaoru; Hanzawa, Naoto; Yoshino, Tetsuo; Kimura, Seishi; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2007-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of rabbitfishes (the family Siganidae), ecologically important components as primary consumers in coral reef communities, were studied using mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and nuclear ITS1 (internal transcribed spacer 1) sequence analyses. The analyses of 19 out of 22 species known in the Western Pacific region revealed that siganids are genetically clustered into three major clades, which are characterized by some morphological and ecological traits. Between closely related species, such as Siganus guttatus-S. lineatus and S. virgatus-S. doliatus, and also between two morphs recognized in S. corallinus, small but discernible genetic differentiation was found, implying that the components of each pair are incipient species. On the other hand, between some species, such as S. fuscescens-S. canaliculatus and S. unimaculatus-S.vulpinus, individuals of the components of each pair were found to construct a genetic mosaic, suggesting that the components are genetic color morphs within a single biological species, respectively. Moreover, evidence from morphological characters, mtDNA, and nuclear DNA gave an inconsistent picture of identity and relationships for several individuals. They were regarded as hybrids or individuals with hybrid origin. Such instances were observed not only between closely related species, such as S. guttatus-S. lineatus, S. virgatus-S. doliatus, and two morphs (incipient species) in S. corallinus, respectively, but also between distantly related ones, such as S. corallinus-S. puellus. In fact, more than half of the species examined (11/20, when treating the two morphs in S. corallinus as independent species) were involved in hybridization. These suggest that hybridization is much more prevalent in marine fishes than previously assumed, and may have some relevance to their diversification. PMID:17590356

  3. Spermatozoon ultrastructure of Gyliauchen sp. (Digenea: Gyliauchenidae), an intestinal parasite of Siganus fuscescens (Pisces: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Quilichini, Y; Foata, J; Justine, J-L; Bray, R A; Marchand, B

    2011-10-01

    The ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoon of Gyliauchen sp., a parasite of the dusky rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens, was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoon possesses two axonemes of the 9+"1" pattern of Trepaxonemata, four attachment zones, one mitochondrion, a nucleus, cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, and spine-like bodies. The main characteristics of this spermatozoon are the presence of one mitochondrion, spine-like bodies not associated with the external ornamentation, and a posterior extremity of type 3 that is characterized by the following sequence: posterior extremity of the nucleus then posterior extremity of the second axoneme. Numerous other ultrastructural features are also discussed and compared to the digenean spermatology literature. This is the first study of a member of the Gyliauchenidae and the fourth within the Lepocreadioidea. The results show that many ultrastructural characters are variable within this superfamily and could be useful for phylogeny. PMID:22042438

  4. Multi-locus fossil-calibrated phylogeny of Atheriniformes (Teleostei, Ovalentaria).

    PubMed

    Campanella, Daniela; Hughes, Lily C; Unmack, Peter J; Bloom, Devin D; Piller, Kyle R; Ortí, Guillermo

    2015-05-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among families within the order Atheriniformes have been difficult to resolve on the basis of morphological evidence. Molecular studies so far have been fragmentary and based on a small number taxa and loci. In this study, we provide a new phylogenetic hypothesis based on sequence data collected for eight molecular markers for a representative sample of 103 atheriniform species, covering 2/3 of the genera in this order. The phylogeny is calibrated with six carefully chosen fossil taxa to provide an explicit timeframe for the diversification of this group. Our results support the subdivision of Atheriniformes into two suborders (Atherinopsoidei and Atherinoidei), the nesting of Notocheirinae within Atherinopsidae, and the monophyly of tribe Menidiini, among others. We propose taxonomic changes for Atherinopsoidei, but a few weakly supported nodes in our phylogeny suggests that further study is necessary to support a revised taxonomy of Atherinoidei. The time-calibrated phylogeny was used to infer ancestral habitat reconstructions to explain the current distribution of marine and freshwater taxa. Based on these results, the current distribution of Atheriniformes is likely due to widespread marine dispersal along the margins of continents, infrequent trans-oceanic dispersal, and repeated invasion of freshwater habitats. This conclusion is supported by post-Gondwanan divergence times among families within the order, and a high probability of a marine ancestral habitat. PMID:25769409

  5. Phylogeny of moray eels (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae), with a revised classification of true eels (Teleostei: Elopomorpha: Anguilliformes).

    PubMed

    Tang, Kevin L; Fielitz, Christopher

    2013-02-01

    The family Muraenidae is one of the largest and most recognizable eel groups. Moray eels are key components of marine ecosystems but their relationships remain poorly understood. The phylogenetic relationships of the morays are examined herein using mitochondrial 12S and 16S sequence data, totaling 1673 bp for 139 taxa. The results of our analyses found support for a monophyletic family Muraenidae that is part of a monophyletic suborder Muraenoidei, which is revised to include the anguilliform families Heterenchelyidae and Myrocongridae, and to exclude the family Chlopsidae. The muraenids form two monophyletic subfamilies, Muraeninae and Uropterygiinae. Of the genera that had multiple species included for analysis, only the type genus of the family, Muraena, is found to be monophyletic. In the subfamily Uropterygiinae, Uropterygius is not recovered as a monophyletic genus. In the subfamily Muraeninae, the species-rich piscivorous genera, Enchelycore and Gymnothorax, and the durophagous genus, Echidna, are demonstrably not monophyletic. The monotypic Gymnomuraena is the sister group to all other muraenine species. The relationships within Muraenidae require much additional study and its genera remain in urgent need of revision. The order Anguilliformes is revised herein to include four suborders: Anguilloidei, Congroidei, Muraenoidei, and Synaphobranchoidei. All four families of the order Saccopharyngiformes are nested within Anguilliformes, recovered as part of a clade that includes Anguillidae; the saccopharyngiform families are referred to the suborder Anguilloidei sensu novum. PMID:22967094

  6. Differentiated ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in Apareiodon ibitiensis (Teleostei, Parodontidae): cytotaxonomy and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Bellafronte, E; Vicari, M R; Artoni, R F; Margarido, V P; Moreira-Filho, O

    2009-12-01

    Conventional and molecular chromosomal analyses were carried out on three populations of Apareiodon ibitiensis sampled from the hydrographic basins of the São Francisco River and Upper Paraná River (Brazil). The results reveal a conserved diploid number (2n = 54 chromosomes), a karyotype formula consisting of 50 m-sm + 4st and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system that has not been previously identified for the species. C-banding analysis with propidium iodide staining revealed centromeric and terminal bands located in the chromosomes of the specimens from the three populations and allowed the identification of heteromorphism of heterochromatin regions in the Z and W chromosomes. The number of 18S sites located through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) varied between the populations of the São Francisco and Upper Paraná Rivers. The location of 5S rDNA sites proved comparable in one pair of metacentric chromosomes. Thus, the present study proposes a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system for A. ibitiensis among the Parodontidae, and a hypothesis is presented regarding possible W chromosome differentiation stages in this species through DNA accumulation, showing geographical variations for this characteristic, possibly as a consequence of geographical reproductive isolation. PMID:20738689

  7. Karyotypic diversity and evolutionary trends in the Neotropical catfish genus Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Anderson Luis; de Borba, Rafael Splendore; Oliveira, Claudio; Mauro Nirchio; Granado, Angel; Foresti, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The family Loricariidae with 813 nominal species is one of the largest fish families of the world. Hypostominae, its more complex subfamily, was recently divided into five tribes. The tribe Hypostomini is composed of a single genus, Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, which exhibits the largest karyotypic diversity in the family Loricariidae. With the main objective of contributing to a better understanding of the relationship and the patterns of evolution among the karyotypes of Hypostomus species, cytogenetic studies were conducted in six species of the genus from Brazil and Venezuela. The results show a great chromosome variety with diploid numbers ranging from 2n=68 to 2n=76, with a clear predominance of acrocentric chromosomes. The Ag-NORs are located in terminal position in all species analyzed. Three species have single Ag-NORs (Hypostomus albopunctatus (Regan, 1908), Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758), and Hypostomus prope paulinus (Ihering, 1905)) and three have multiple Ag-NORs (Hypostomus ancistroides (Ihering, 1911), Hypostomus prope iheringi (Regan, 1908), and Hypostomus strigaticeps (Regan, 1908)). In the process of karyotype evolution of the group, the main type of chromosome rearrangements was possibly centric fissions, which may have been facilitated by the putative tetraploid origin of Hypostomus species. The relationship between the karyotype changes and the evolution in the genus is discussed. PMID:24260683

  8. Cryptic Diversity and Venom Glands in Western Atlantic Clingfishes of the Genus Acyrtus (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae)

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Kevin W.; Baldwin, Carole; White, Macaulay D.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of genetic data (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I) for western Atlantic clingfishes revealed two distinct lineages within a group of individuals originally identified as Acyrtus artius. Subsequent investigation of preserved voucher specimens was conducted to reconcile the genetic data and the existing classification, which is based on morphology. In addition to discovering that one of the genetic lineages is an undescribed species, which we describe as Acyrtus lanthanum, new species, we found that the nominal species Acyrtus artius has a putative venom gland associated with the subopercle that has been overlooked since the species was described nearly 60 years ago. The new species lacks the subopercular gland as does Acyrtus rubiginosus, but one is present in the related Arcos nudus. Venom glands have not been reported previously for the Gobiesocidae, and the venom gland described herein for Acyrtus and Arcos represents the first example in teleost fishes of a venom gland associated with the subopercle. PMID:24825326

  9. Comparative analysis of sex chromosomes in Leporinus species (Teleostei, Characiformes) using chromosome painting

    E-print Network

    Parise-Maltempi, Patrícia P; da Silva, Edson L; Rens, Willem; Dearden, Frances; O’Brien, Patricia CM; Trifonov, Vladimir; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A

    2013-07-03

    Abstract Background The Leporinus genus, belonging to the Anostomidae family, is an interesting model for studies of sex chromosome evolution in fish, particularly because of the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes only in some species...

  10. Developmental Osteology of Two Species of Economically Important Sciaenids, Sciaenops ocellatus and Cynoscion nebulosus (Teleostei: Sciaenidae)

    E-print Network

    Kubicek, Kole

    2014-04-22

    Vertebral Column .......................................................................................... 37 Dorsal Fin ...................................................................................................... 41 Anal Fin... of S. ocellatus ...................................... 38 7 Ontogeny of the dorsal and anal fins of S. ocellatus and supraneurals of C. nebulosus ............................................................................................... 42...

  11. The Infrabranchial Musculature and Its Bearing on the Phylogeny of Percomorph Fishes (Osteichthyes: Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Datovo, Aléssio; de Pinna, Mário C. C.; Johnson, G. David

    2014-01-01

    The muscles serving the ventral portion of the gill arches (?=?infrabranchial musculature) are poorly known in bony fishes. A comparative analysis of the infrabranchial muscles in the major percomorph lineages reveals a large amount of phylogenetically-relevant information. Characters derived from this anatomical system are identified and discussed in light of current hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships among percomorphs. New evidence supports a sister-group relationship between the Batrachoidiformes and Lophiiformes and between the Callionymoidei and Gobiesocoidei. Investigated data also corroborate the existence of two monophyletic groups, one including the Pristolepididae, Badidae, and Nandidae, and a second clade consisting of all non-amarsipid stromateiforms. New synapomorphies are proposed for the Atherinomorphae, Blenniiformes, Lophiiformes, Scombroidei (including Sphyraenidae), and Gobiiformes. Within the latter order, the Rhyacichthyidae and Odontobutidae are supported as the successive sister families of all remaining gobiiforms. The present analysis further confirms the validity of infrabranchial musculature characters previously proposed to support the grouping of the Mugiliformes with the Atherinomorphae and the monophyly of the Labriformes with the possible inclusion of the Pholidichthyiformes. Interestingly, most hypotheses of relationships supported by the infrabranchial musculature have been advanced by preceding anatomists on the basis of distinct data sources, but were never recovered in recent molecular phylogenies. These conflicts clearly indicate the current unsatisfactory resolution of the higher-level phylogeny of percomorphs. PMID:25310286

  12. A new and morphologically distinct population of cavernicolous Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae: Teleostei)

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    A new and morphologically distinct population of cavernicolous Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae Abstract The cave molly, Poecilia mexicana, from the Cueva del Azufre, a sulfur cave in Tabasco, Mexico is the cave molly (Gordon and Rosen 1962), a distinct popula- tion of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana

  13. Reduction of a visually mediated association preference in the Cave molly (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae, Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael TOBLER; Heike BURMEISTER; Ingo SCHLUPP; Martin PLATH

    Several studies have reported on the persistence of visually mediated social preferences, such as preferences of females to as- sociate with certain types of males, in an eyed cave fish, the Cave molly ( Poecilia mexicana). However, so far most studies have examined preferences which are apparently currently under selection, i.e., the preferences are expressed also in darkness. In this

  14. Black spots and female association preferences in a sexual\\/asexual mating complex ( Poecilia , Poeciliidae, Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Tobler; Martin Plath; Heike Burmeister; Ingo Schlupp

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether female association preferences for males are influenced by black spot disease (BSD), a parasite induced change of the host phenotype. We compared three different species of fish: a gynogenetic hybrid species, Poecilia formosa (amazon molly) and two sexual species (Poecilia latipinna and Poecilia mexicana), which were involved in the natural hybridisation leading to the amazon molly. Contrary

  15. Sperm production in an extremophile fish, the cave molly ( Poecilia mexicana , Poeciliidae, Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Courtney M. Franssen; Michael Tobler; Rüdiger Riesch; Francisco J. García de León; Ralph Tiedemann; Ingo Schlupp; Martin Plath

    2008-01-01

    A prominent trade-off in life history theory and evolution balances the costs of reproduction with those of basic somatic\\u000a needs. Hence, reproductive efforts may be reduced in environments where additional energy is required for somatic maintenance.\\u000a Here, we investigated male sperm stores in Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) from a sulfidic cave and several sulfidic and non-sulfidic surface habitats. We found

  16. A new and morphologically distinct population of cavernicolous Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae: Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Tobler; R. Riesch; F. J. García de León; I. Schlupp; M. Plath

    2008-01-01

    The cave molly, Poecilia mexicana, from the Cueva del Azufre, a sulfur cave in Tabasco, Mexico, ranks among the best-studied cave fishes worldwide, despite\\u000a being known from a single population only. Here we describe a newly discovered second population of cave-dwelling P. mexicana from a nearby, but mostly non-sulfidic cave (Luna Azufre). Despite apparent similarities between the two populations (such

  17. Cave molly females ( Poecilia mexicana , Poeciliidae, Teleostei) like well-fed males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Plath; Katja U. Heubel; Francisco J. García de León; Ingo Schlupp

    2005-01-01

    We examined the preference of Atlantic molly females (Poecilia mexicana) to associate with a well-fed or a starved male in simultaneous choice tests. Females from three different populations were tested in three treatments: (1) the females could choose on the basis of multiple cues from the males (visual plus non-visual); (2) only non-visual cues could be perceived in darkness, (3)

  18. Female mating preferences in blind cave tetras Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Teleostei)

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    .g., Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae: Parze- fall, 1970; Astyanax fasciatus, Characidae: Schemmel, 1967) have (P. mexicana: Parzefall, 1970; Cottus carolinae, Cotti- dae: Burr et al., 2001) or by enlarging

  19. Parasites in sexual and asexual mollies (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei): a case for the Red Queen?

    PubMed Central

    Tobler, Michael; Schlupp, Ingo

    2005-01-01

    The maintenance of sexual reproduction in the face of its supposed costs is a major paradox in evolutionary biology. The Red Queen hypothesis, which states that sex is an adaptation to fast-evolving parasites, is currently one of the most recognized explanations for the ubiquity of sex and predicts that asexual lineages should suffer from a higher parasite load if they coexist with closely related sexuals. We tested this prediction using four populations of the sexual fish species Poecilia latipinna and its asexual relative Poecilia formosa. Contrary to expectation, no differences in parasite load could be detected between the two species. PMID:17148156

  20. Microsatellite variation and genetic structuring in Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae) populations from Argentina and Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Ana C. G.; Miño, Carolina I.; Marins, Luis F. F.; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Miranda, Laura; Schwingel, Paulo R.; Lemos, Valéria M.; Gonzalez-Castro, Mariano; Castello, Jorge P.; Vieira, João P.

    2014-08-01

    The mullet Mugil liza is distributed along the Atlantic coast of South America, from Argentina to Venezuela, and it is heavily exploited in Brazil. We assessed patterns of distribution of neutral nuclear genetic variation in 250 samples from the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (latitudinal range of 23-31°S) and from Buenos Aires Province in Argentina (36°S). Nine microsatellite loci revealed 131 total alleles, 3-23 alleles per locus, He: 0.69 and Ho: 0.67. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between Rio de Janeiro samples (23°S) and those from all other locations, as indicated by FST, hierarchical analyses of genetic structure, Bayesian cluster analyses and assignment tests. The presence of two different demographic clusters better explains the allelic diversity observed in mullets from the southernmost portion of the Atlantic coast of Brazil and from Argentina. This may be taken into account when designing fisheries management plans involving Brazilian, Uruguayan and Argentinean M. liza populations.

  1. Quantitative histological studies of the optic tectum in six species of Notropis and Cyprinella (Cyprinidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Huber, R; Rylander, M K

    1991-01-01

    Significant differences in stratification and size of the visual layers of the optic tectum were found between three clear-water minnows (Notropis amabilis, N. boops, Cyprinella venustas) and three turbid-water minnows (N. atherinoides, N. bairdi, and C. lutrensis). Correlations among a variety of neural structures suggested the importance of stratum marginale (SM), stratum opticum (SO), and stratum fibrosum et griseum superficiale (SFGS), stratum griseum centrale (SGC) and stratum periventriculare (SPV) in vision, of stratum album centrale (SAC) and SGC for olfaction, and of SPV for the processing of acoustico-lateral information. PMID:1779132

  2. The biology of Solea bleekeri (Teleostei) in Lake St Lucia on the southeast coast of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyrus, D. P.

    Several aspects of the biology of Solea bleekeri in Lake St Lucia were investigated, these included occurrence, distribution, reproduction and recruitment, food and feeding, size frequency distribution and the role of estuaries in the species' life cycle. Solea bleekeri was found to occur throughout the system in muddy turbid areas and was largely absent from the eastern shores of the lake where clear water sandy substrata occur. The preferred diet of the species was bivalve siphon tips of the species Solon cylindraceus, when these were in abundant supply. However, when numbers of large (length > 20 mm) specimens were not available then S. bleekeri fed on whatever prey was available in or near the substratum. Analysis of stomach contents under the latter conditions showed that food consumption reflected the composition of the benthos. Large numbers of S. bleekeri spend their entire post-larval and juvenile phases as well as the greater part of their adult life within estuaries. Evidence is presented to support the idea that S. bleekeri breeds in certain areas of the lake and that spawning takes place between September and November. The current data suggest that there may be two populations in St Lucia: one migrates from the system to spawn at sea during winter along with the other marine fish species which utilize estuaries as nursery areas, while the other population breeds within the system. Alternatively there may simply be a single population which normally breeds at sea, but which may breed within the system when conditions are suitable. Recruitment of S. bleekeri into the St Lucia estuarine system takes place from the muddy offshore marine banks and possibly from within the system as well. Solea bleekeri appears not to be totally dependent on estuaries for the completion of its life cycle. The advantages of utilizing these systems for their development relate to the shallow, calm, turbid food-rich areas which estuaries offer. The fact that breeding takes place within St Lucia means that adults and juveniles are present in varying numbers throughout the year.

  3. Larval development of five species of blenny (Teleostei: Blenniidae) from the western central North Atlantic,

    E-print Network

    -5015, U.S.A. (Received 12 June 2003, Accepted 17 December 2004) Light trap collections on oil and gas pores; presence or absence of canine teeth, hypural 5 and pectoral fin pigment; width of gill openings

  4. Microsatellite Development for an Endangered Bream Megalobrama pellegrini (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) Using 454 Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinjin; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhao, Kai; Zhang, Yaoguang; Tong, Jingou; Peng, Zuogang

    2012-01-01

    Megalobrama pellegrini is an endemic fish species found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. This species has become endangered due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and overfishing. However, the available genetic data for this species is limited. Here, we developed 26 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the M. pellegrini genome using next-generation sequencing techniques. A total of 257,497 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on 454 GS-FLX titanium platforms and 49,811 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 404 bp; 24,522 (49.2%) sequences contained microsatellite repeats. Of the 53 loci screened, 33 were amplified successfully and 26 were polymorphic. The genetic diversity in M. pellegrini was moderate, with an average of 3.08 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.47 and 0.51, respectively. In addition, we tested cross-species amplification for all 33 loci in four additional breams: M. amblycephala, M. skolkovii, M. terminalis, and Sinibrama wui. The cross-species amplification showed a significant high level of transferability (79%-97%), which might be due to their dramatically close genetic relationships. The polymorphic microsatellites developed in the current study will not only contribute to further conservation genetic studies and parentage analyses of this endangered species, but also facilitate future work on the other closely related species. PMID:22489139

  5. Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of Hemiodontidae from the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    PubMed

    Langeani, F; Moreira, C R

    2013-04-01

    Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of the Hemiodontidae from the Rio Iratapuru, a left bank tributary of the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil, is described. The new species is diagnosed from other species of Hemiodus by modifications in the ectopterygoid, tooth form, scale counts, dorsal-fin form and colour pattern. The new species is proposed to be related to the Hemiodus quadrimaculatus species group. PMID:23557304

  6. The eyes of lanternfishes (Myctophidae, Teleostei): novel ocular specializations for vision in dim light.

    PubMed

    de Busserolles, Fanny; Marshall, N Justin; Collin, Shaun P

    2014-05-01

    Lanternfishes are one of the most abundant groups of mesopelagic fishes in the world's oceans and play a critical role in biomass vertical turnover. Despite their importance, very little is known about their physiology or how they use their sensory systems to survive in the extreme conditions of the deep sea. In this study, we provide a comprehensive description of the general morphology of the myctophid eye, based on analysis of 53 different species, to understand better their visual capabilities. Results confirm that myctophids possess several visual adaptations for dim-light conditions, including enlarged eyes, an aphakic gap, a tapetum lucidum, and a pure rod retina with high densities of long photoreceptors. Two novel retinal specializations were also discovered. The first specialization is a fundal pigmentation in adult eyes, found within an isolated retinal region (typically central retina) composed of modified pigment epithelial cells, which we hypothesize to be the remnant of a more pronounced visual specialization important in larval stages. The second specialization is an aggregation of extracellular microtubular-like structures found within the sclerad region of the inner nuclear layer of the retina. We hypothesize that the marked interspecific differences in the hypertrophy of these microtubular-like structures may be related to inherent differences in visual function. A general interspecific variability in other parts of the eye is also revealed and examined in this study. The contribution of both ecology and phylogeny to the evolution of ocular specializations and vision in dim light are discussed. PMID:24638897

  7. Drift ecology of western catostomid larvae with emphasis on Warner suckers, Catostomus warnerensis (Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom B. Kennedy; Gary L. Vinyard

    1997-01-01

    We studied drift ecology of Warner sucker, Catostomus warnerensis, larvae in streams of Warner Valley, Oregon in 1992 and 1993 in part to determine whether downstream transport of larvae limits juvenile recruitment. Variation in runoff for the two years was extreme, where peak discharge in 1992 was two orders of magnitude lower than peak discharge in 1993. We deployed drift

  8. Macropharyngodon pakoko, a new species of wrasse (Teleostei: Labridae) endemic to the Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Delrieu-Trottin, Erwan; Williams, Jeffrey T; Planes, Serge

    2014-01-01

    A new species of wrasse, Macropharyngodon pakoko, is described from the Marquesas Islands, bringing the total number of species of the genus Macropharyngodon to 12. Macropharyngodon pakoko was found at depths from 0-42 m and is endemic to the Marquesas Islands. Macropharyngodon pakoko is similar to M. meleagris, which is widely distributed from the central and western Pacific to Cocos-Keeling in the Indian Ocean, but differs genetically and in several coloration characters: males with irregularly curved black humeral blotch with incomplete iridescent blue border; inverted irregular "U"- shaped band on the cheek; a small black spot at the upper base of the pectoral fin; and background color of the body greenish with faint bluish black spots on each scale. Females lack black pigment on the chest posterior to the ventral attachment of the gill membranes; reddish black blotches on the body are widely spaced, particularly on the head where they are more reddish and half the size of those on body; caudal fin with small, bright yellow spots arranged in narrow vertical bands with pale interspaces; pelvic fins pale with three reddish yellow cross-bands; a small black spot at the upper base of the pectoral fin; and small reddish spots along the base of the anal fin. Juveniles have irregular black blotches on the body, a small black spot instead of an ocellus posteriorly on the dorsal fin and lack large black spots and ocellus on the anal fin.  PMID:25283116

  9. Sensitivity of Danio rerio (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) during two stages of development based on acute toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Freiry, R; Stelzer, J A A; Maltchik, L; Arenzon, A

    2014-10-01

    The sensitivity of Danio rerio to three chemicals was compared at two growth stages [larval (10 ± 2 after hatching) and post-larval (60 ± 4 days after hatching)] based on acute toxicity tests. Thirty-nine 48 h acute toxicity tests were performed with the substances CuSO4, NaCl and KCl. The 48 h LC50 values at the two growth stages were compared by independent samples t-tests. The results showed a clear decrease in sensitivity when post-larval organisms were used. Since acute toxicity test methods for D. rerio that recommend using post-larval stage fish do not represent the most sensitive stage of the test organism, our study suggests a revision of the methods to use larval fish. PMID:25168694

  10. Multiple Invasions into Freshwater by Pufferfishes (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae): A Mitogenomic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yamanoue, Yusuke; Miya, Masaki; Doi, Hiroyuki; Mabuchi, Kohji; Sakai, Harumi; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2011-01-01

    Pufferfishes of the Family Tetraodontidae are the most speciose group in the Order Tetraodontiformes and mainly inhabit coastal waters along continents. Although no members of other tetraodontiform families have fully discarded their marine lives, approximately 30 tetraodontid species spend their entire lives in freshwaters in disjunct tropical regions of South America, Central Africa, and Southeast Asia. To investigate the interrelationships of tetraodontid pufferfishes and thereby elucidate the evolutionary origins of their freshwater habitats, we performed phylogenetic analysis based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences from 50 tetraodontid species and closely related species (including 31 newly determined sequences). The resulting phylogenies reveal that the family is composed of four major lineages and that freshwater species from the different continents are independently nested in two of the four lineages. A monophyletic origin of the use of freshwater habitats was statistically rejected, and ancestral habitat reconstruction on the resulting tree demonstrates that tetraodontids independently entered freshwater habitats in different continents at least three times. Relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian divergence time estimation suggests that the timing of these invasions differs between continents, occurring at 0–10 million years ago (MA) in South America, 17–38 MA in Central Africa, and 48–78 MA in Southeast Asia. These timings are congruent with geological events that could facilitate adaptation to freshwater habitats in each continent. PMID:21364898

  11. Dario huli, a new species of badid from Karnataka, southern India (Teleostei: Percomorpha: Badidae).

    PubMed

    Britz, Ralf; Ali, Anvar

    2015-01-01

    Dario huli, new species, is described from a small tributary stream of the Tunga River in southern Karnataka, India. It can be distinguished from all its congeners except D. urops by the presence of a conspicuous black caudal-fin blotch and by anterior dorsal-fin lappets in males not being produced beyond fin spines. It is readily distinguished from Dario urops by the absence of the horizontal suborbital stripe (vs. presence), the presence of a series of up to eight black bars on the body (vs. 2-3 black bars restricted to caudal peduncle), 25 scales in a lateral row (vs. 28), 3-5 tubed lateral-line scales (vs. tubed lateral-line scales completely absent), 13+13=26 vertebrae (vs. 14+14-15=28-29), and the presence of teeth on hypobranchial 3 (vs. absence of teeth).  PMID:25661602

  12. Mercury in the biotic compartments of Northwest Patagonia lakes, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, A; Arcagni, M; Arribére, M A; Bubach, D; Guevara, S Ribeiro

    2011-06-01

    We report on total mercury (THg) concentrations in the principal components of food webs of selected Northern Patagonia Andean Range ultraoligotrophic lakes, Argentina. The THg contents were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in muscle and liver of four fish species occupying the higher trophic positions (the introduced Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salvelinus fontinalis, and the native Percichthys trucha) accounted for eight lakes belonging to Nahuel Huapi and Los Alerces National Parks. We studied the food web components of both the West and East branches of Lake Moreno, including benthic primary producers such as biofilm, mosses, and macrophytes, three plankton fractions, fish, riparian tree leaves, and benthic invertebrates, namely decapods, molluscs, insect larvae, leeches, oligochaetes, and amphipods. Mercury concentrations in fish muscle varied in a wide range, from less than 0.05 to 4 ?g g(-1) dry weight (DW), without a distribution pattern among species but showing higher values for P. trucha and S. fontinalis, particularly in Lake Moreno. The THg contents of the food web components of Lake Moreno varied within 4 orders of magnitude, with the lower values ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 ?g g(-1) DW in tree leaves, some macrophytes, juvenile salmonids or benthic macroinvertebrates, and reaching concentrations over 200 ?g g(-1) DW in the plankton. Juvenile Galaxias maculatus caught in the pelagic area presented the highest THg contents of all fish sampled, reaching 10 ?g g(-1) DW, contents that could be associated with the high THg concentrations in plankton since it is their main food source. Although Lake Moreno is a system without local point sources of contamination, situated in a protected area, some benthic organisms presented high THg contents when compared with those from polluted ecosystems. PMID:21421254

  13. Synergistic interactions within disturbed habitats between temperature, relative humidity and UVB radiation on egg survival in a diadromous fish.

    PubMed

    Hickford, Michael J H; Schiel, David R

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic impacts, including urbanization, deforestation, farming, and livestock grazing have altered riparian margins worldwide. One effect of changes to riparian vegetation is that the ground-level light, temperature, and humidity environment has also been altered. Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widely distributed fishes of the southern hemisphere, lays eggs almost exclusively beneath riparian vegetation in tidally influenced reaches of rivers. We hypothesized that the survival of these eggs is greatly affected by the micro-environment afforded by vegetation, particularly relating to temperature, humidity and UVB radiation. We experimentally reduced riparian vegetation height and altered shading characteristics, tracked egg survival, and used small ground-level temperature, humidity and UVB sensors to relate survival to ground-level effects around egg masses. The ground-level physical environment was markedly different from the surrounding ambient conditions. Tall dense riparian vegetation modified ambient conditions to produce a buffered temperature regime with constant high relative humidity, generally above 90%, and negligible UVB radiation at ground-level. Where vegetation height was reduced, frequent high temperatures, low humidity, and high UVB irradiances reduced egg survival by up to 95%. Temperature effects on egg survival were probably indirect, through reduced humidity, because developing eggs are known to survive in a wide range of temperatures. In this study, it was remarkable how such small variations in relatively small sites could have such a large effect on egg survival. It appears that modifications to riparian vegetation and the associated changes in the physical conditions of egg laying sites are major mechanisms affecting egg survival. The impacts associated with vegetational changes through human-induced disturbances are complex yet potentially devastating. These effects are particularly important because they affect a very small portion of habitat that is required to complete the life history of a species, despite the wide distribution of adults and juveniles across aquatic and marine environments. PMID:21931680

  14. Modeling prey consumption by native and non-native piscivorous fishes: implications for competition and impacts on shared prey in an ultraoligotrophic lake in Patagonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juncos, Romina; Beauchamp, David A.; Viglianoc, Pablo H.

    2013-01-01

    We examined trophic interactions of the nonnative salmonids Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalisand the main native predator Creole Perch Percichthys trucha in Lake Nahuel Huapi (Patagonia, Argentina) to determine the relative impact of each predator on their forage base and to evaluate the potential vulnerability of each predator to competitive impacts by the others. Using bioenergetics simulations, we demonstrated the overall importance of galaxiids and decapods to the energy budgets of nonnative salmonids and Creole Perch. Introduced salmonids, especially Rainbow Trout, exerted considerably heavier predatory demands on shared resources than did the native Creole Perch on both a per capita basis and in terms of relative population impacts. Rainbow Trout consumed higher quantities and a wider size range of Small Puyen (also known as Inanga) Galaxias maculatus than the other predators, including early pelagic life stages of that prey; as such, this represents an additional source of mortality for the vulnerable early life stages of Small Puyen before and during their transition from pelagic to benthic habitats. All predators were generally feeding at high feeding rates (above 40% of their maximum physiological rates), suggesting that competition for prey does not currently limit either Creole Perch or the salmonids in this lake. This study highlights the importance of keystone prey for the coexistence of native species with nonnative top predators. It provides new quantitative and qualitative evidence of the high predation pressure exerted on Small Puyen, the keystone prey species, during the larval to juvenile transition from pelagic to littoral-benthic habitat in Patagonian lakes. This study also emphasizes the importance of monitoring salmonid and Creole Perch population dynamics in order to detect signs of potential impacts through competition and shows the need to carefully consider the rationale behind any additional trout stocking.

  15. Synergistic Interactions within Disturbed Habitats between Temperature, Relative Humidity and UVB Radiation on Egg Survival in a Diadromous Fish

    PubMed Central

    Hickford, Michael J. H.; Schiel, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic impacts, including urbanization, deforestation, farming, and livestock grazing have altered riparian margins worldwide. One effect of changes to riparian vegetation is that the ground-level light, temperature, and humidity environment has also been altered. Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widely distributed fishes of the southern hemisphere, lays eggs almost exclusively beneath riparian vegetation in tidally influenced reaches of rivers. We hypothesized that the survival of these eggs is greatly affected by the micro-environment afforded by vegetation, particularly relating to temperature, humidity and UVB radiation. We experimentally reduced riparian vegetation height and altered shading characteristics, tracked egg survival, and used small ground-level temperature, humidity and UVB sensors to relate survival to ground-level effects around egg masses. The ground-level physical environment was markedly different from the surrounding ambient conditions. Tall dense riparian vegetation modified ambient conditions to produce a buffered temperature regime with constant high relative humidity, generally above 90%, and negligible UVB radiation at ground-level. Where vegetation height was reduced, frequent high temperatures, low humidity, and high UVB irradiances reduced egg survival by up to 95%. Temperature effects on egg survival were probably indirect, through reduced humidity, because developing eggs are known to survive in a wide range of temperatures. In this study, it was remarkable how such small variations in relatively small sites could have such a large effect on egg survival. It appears that modifications to riparian vegetation and the associated changes in the physical conditions of egg laying sites are major mechanisms affecting egg survival. The impacts associated with vegetational changes through human-induced disturbances are complex yet potentially devastating. These effects are particularly important because they affect a very small portion of habitat that is required to complete the life history of a species, despite the wide distribution of adults and juveniles across aquatic and marine environments. PMID:21931680

  16. Compensatory behaviour in response to sulphide-induced hypoxia affects time budgets,

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    susceptibility to predators? Organisms and locations: Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana: Poeciliidae, Teleostei, Poecilia, Poeciliidae. Correspondence: M. Tobler, Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A

  17. Species profiles: Life history and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. [Scomberomorus cavalla; Scomberomorus maculatus

    SciTech Connect

    Godcharles, M.F.; Murphy, M.D.

    1986-06-01

    This Species Profile on king and Spanish mackerel summarizes the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, fishery descriptions, ecological role, and environmental requirements of these coastal pelagic fish to assist environmental impact assessment. King and Spanish mackerel support major commercial and sport fisheries in south Florida. In 1974 to 1983, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic commercial landings of king mackerel declined from 10.4 to 4.3 million lb.; Spanish mackerel have fluctuated between 4.9 to 17.4 million lb. Both inhabit coastal waters, but Spanish mackerel are generally found closer to beaches and in outer estuarine waters. Both species feed principally on estuarine-dependent species. They are highly migratory, exhibiting seasonal migrations to winter feeding grounds off south Florida and summer spawning/feeding grounds in the northern Gulf of Mexico and off the Atlantic coast of the Southeastern US. Spawning occurs from March/April through September/October between the middle and Outer Continental Shelf (35 to 183 mi) for king mackerel and the inner shelf (12 to 34 mi) for Spanish mackerel. King mackerel reach sexual maturity in their 3rd and 4th years and Spanish, between their 2nd and 3rd. Female king mackerel live longer and grow larger and faster than males. Spanish mackerel live to 8 years; females also grow faster than males. King and Spanish mackerel feed principally on schooling fishes. Larvae and juveniles of both species are prey to little tunny and dolphin; adults are prey for sharks and bottlenose dolphin. Temperature and salinity are important factors regulating mackerel distribution.

  18. Evaluation of neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil obtained by different methods and neem powder for the management of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored cowpea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. S Lale; H. T Abdulrahman

    1999-01-01

    Neem seed oil obtained by extraction with analytical grade acetone using a Soxhlet apparatus, NSO(S) and that obtained by the traditional kneading method, NSO(K) were compared with the powder equivalent weights (PEW, the neem seed powder capable of yielding the equivalent amounts of the oil used for the treatments) for their relative efficacy in reducing the reproductive potential of the

  19. Ethology and ecology of cichlid fishes of the genus Etroplus in Sri Lanka: preliminary findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack A. Ward; Richard L. Wyman

    1977-01-01

    Synopsis The Asian cichlid fishes, Etroplus maculatus (Bloch) and E. suratensis (Bloch) were observed in their natural habitat. Ecological and behavioral interactions of these species have not been previously reported. E. suratensis benefits from being cleaned by E. maculatus; it is doubtful the ingestion of parasites and fungi is of much direct benefit to E. maculatus. The advantage to E.

  20. Free from mitochondrial DNA: Nuclear genes and the inference of species trees among closely related darter lineages (Teleostei: Percidae: Etheostomatinae).

    PubMed

    Near, Thomas J; Keck, Benjamin P

    2013-03-01

    Investigations into the phylogenetics of closely related animal species are dominated by the use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data. However, the near-ubiquitous use of mtDNA to infer phylogeny among closely related animal lineages is tempered by an increasing number of studies that document high rates of transfer of mtDNA genomes among closely related species through hybridization, leading to substantial discordance between phylogenies inferred from mtDNA and nuclear gene sequences. In addition, the recent development of methods that simultaneously infer a species phylogeny and estimate divergence times, while accounting for incongruence among individual gene trees, has ushered in a new era in the investigation of phylogeny among closely related species. In this study we assess if DNA sequence data sampled from a modest number of nuclear genes can resolve relationships of a species-rich clade of North American freshwater teleost fishes, the darters. We articulate and expand on a recently introduced method to infer a time-calibrated multi-species coalescent phylogeny using the computer program (*)BEAST. Our analyses result in well-resolved and strongly supported time-calibrated darter species tree. Contrary to the expectation that mtDNA will provide greater phylogenetic resolution than nuclear gene data; the darter species tree inferred exclusively from nuclear genes exhibits a higher frequency of strongly supported nodes than the mtDNA time-calibrated gene tree. PMID:23178741

  1. Four new species of coral gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Gobiodon), with comments on their relationships within the genus

    PubMed Central

    Bogorodsky, Sergey V.; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of the coral-associated gobiid genus Gobiodon were discovered in the Red Sea. Although several of these species are common not only in the Red Sea but also in the Indian and western Pacific Ocean, they have not been described before. Detailed descriptions of the four species are based on morphological and molecular genetic (mitochondrial 12s and 16s rRNA) investigations. The new species, like most species of the genus, lack scales and have species-specific life colouration. Gobiodon bilineatus sp. nov. is the closest relative to G. quinquestrigatus (Valenciennes) and of G. sp. D (Munday et al.), and has five distinct, blue lines on the head as juveniles and subadults, which disappear in adults, and which are often uniformly orange-red with two distinct, vertical blue lines through each eye. Gobiodon irregularis sp. nov. has been confused with the former new species in the past, and is closely related to G. oculolineatus Wu, but is unmistakable in live colouration. Juveniles are characterised by a transparent body, red bars on the head with bluish to greyish interspaces, and irregular red lines and dots on the nape and dorsally on the body. Adults are usually uniformly brown or green-brown, with only remnants of the bars through the eye and below the orbit. Gobiodon ater sp. nov. is a small, entirely black species and can be easily confused with other black species, although it is genetically clearly distinct from G. ceramensis Bleeker and its black relatives. Gobiodon fuscoruber sp. nov. is likely to be the closest relative of G. ater sp. nov., but is uniformly reddish-brown or brown, has bright median fin margins (at least in the Red Sea), and grows considerably larger than G. ater. It has been genetically determined that G. fuscoruber sp. nov. is identical with an Indian Ocean/western Pacific species that has been called G. unicolor Castelnau by several authors. However, examination of the holotype of G. unicolor, including the original description, revealed that the type species and original description are clearly different from the species frequently called G. unicolor. The holotype resembles G. histrio (Valenciennes) and the name G. unicolor must therefore be considered a junior synonym of G. histrio. As a consequence, a new name for this species is provided. PMID:24511221

  2. Experimentally induced pigment changes in small African 'Barbus' (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): Synonymy of 'Barbus' amphigramma and 'Barbus' taitensis with 'Barbus' paludinosus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farm, B.P.

    2001-01-01

    Pigmentation in fishes is known to be variable both among individuals of a species and within individuals over time. Use of pigment characters for taxonomic diagnoses must, therefore, be carefully considered. I present experimental evidence showing that pigment characters previously considered diagnostic for three small African 'Barbus' species may differ between living and preserved specimens and that lasting changes in these characters can be induced experimentally by placing fishes in a different, less turbid environment. Lateral line pigmentation and presence of a spot on the caudal peduncle showed significant changes that resulted in different species identifications before and after the experiment. These pigment patterns are thereby shown to be labile, nontrenchant characters having little or no diagnostic utility. 'Barbus' amphigramma Boulenger, 1903, and 'Barbus' taitensis Gu??nther, 1894, are thus shown to be junior synonyms of 'Barbus' paludinosus Peters, 1852.

  3. Goblet Cells and Mucus Types in the Digestive Intestine and Respiratory Intestine in Bronze Corydoras (Callichthyidae: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Leknes, I L

    2014-08-21

    The structure and histochemical properties of the intestine in bronze corydoras (Corydoras aeneus), a stomach-containing teleost, are described, with emphasis on goblet cells and mucin types. The proximal intestine displayed a normal structure for teleosts, whereas the distal intestine was wide, translucent, thin-walled, richly vascularized and constantly filled with air, suggesting an important respiratory role. Goblet cells were common throughout the entire intestine and displayed a variable, but mainly faint metachromatic colour after toluidine blue. They were moderately coloured by alcian blue at both pH 2.5 and 0.2 and displayed no colour after periodic acid followed by Schiff's solution (PAS), but a distinct purple-brown colour after high iron diamine followed by alcian blue (pH 2.5). Together, these results suggest that the mucin in the intestine goblet cells consists mainly of sulphated proteoglycans. Further, the results from the present lectin and neuraminidase tests suggest that these mucins contain much N-acetylglucoseamines and some N-acetylgalactosamines and sialic acid, but seem to lack glucose and mannose. They also contain some galactose-N-acetylgalactosamines sequences, normally hidden by sialic acid. The distinct brush border and mucus layer on the epithelial cells in the respiratory intestine may indicate some digestive roles, such as absorption of water, ions and simple carbohydrates. As sulphated proteoglycans are tough and attract much water, this mucus may play important roles in the protection against mechanical and chemical damages and in the defence against micro-organisms throughout the entire intestine, but in the respiratory intestine it may impede significantly the oxygen uptake. However, as this part of the intestine usually contains no digesta, but is completely filled with air, frequently renewed by dry air from the atmosphere, and the main function of the mucus may be to protect the respiratory epithelium against a destroying and dangerous desiccation. PMID:25142839

  4. Local ecological knowledge of the artisanal fishers on Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822) (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) on Ilhéus coast – Bahia State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) of traditional fishermen may be the only source of information regarding the conservation of the marine ecosystem and its endangered species. One of these species is Epinephelus itajara, which can exceed 2 m in length and 400 kg weight, is classified by the IUCN as a critically endangered. In Brazil, there is currently a moratorium that prohibits the capture of this specie, and in the northeastern coast, a Marine Protected Area was recently established properly justified by the existence a one spawning aggregation. The scope of the present study was the analysis the LEK of fishers with the goal of contributing to the conservation of E. Itajara. Methods The Knowledge of 24 “experts” was recorded through semi-structured interviews with fishermen selected based on their expertise. LEK regarding some aspects of the life history of E. itajara, such as its morphology, spatial distribution, feeding, breeding and conservation, was systematized. The interviews were conducted in synchronic and diachronic situations. The data analysis followed the model of unity of the various individual skills, while the consistency of the analysis was tested using a matrix of methods employed in comparative cognitive science. Potential reproductive aggregation sites were identified by experts through projective interviews conducted based on a cartographic database and transferred to a geographic information system (GIS). Results The LEK of these specialists in relation to the biological and ecological characteristics of E. itajara showed a high level of detail and a high agreement with the scientific literature. Projective interviews are presented as a promising tool allowing spatialization of the information generated through the registration of LEK. Therefore, the visualization of information from the fishermen, as well as its analysis and comparison with other databases, is simplified, thereby contributing to the decision-making process concerning the conservation of marine ecosystem in Brazil. Conclusions Integration of LEK with scientific knowledge is an efficient strategy for the conservation of endangered species, as it provides important additional biological information that can be used in the process of participative and sustainable management of marine resources. PMID:24965849

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the gnomefish Scombrops boops (Teleostei, Perciformes, Scombropidae) from the Pacific Ocean off the Japanese Islands.

    PubMed

    Tsunashima, Tadasuke; Itoi, Shiro; Abe, Koko; Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Inoue, Satoshi; Kozen, Takahiro; Ono, Naoto; Noguchi, Shunsuke; Nakai, Shizuko; Takai, Noriyuki; Huang, Ming-Chih; Sugita, Haruo

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the gnomefish Scombrops boops was determined by a PCR-based method. The total length of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was 16,518?bp, including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and one control region. The mitochondrial gene arrangement of the gnomefish mtDNA was identical to those of typical teleosts. This is the first report of the complete mitochondrial genome of a member of the Scombropidae family and will be useful for the development of molecular tools for ecological research. PMID:25484172

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of Ptychobarbus kaznakovi (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), and repetitive sequences in the D-loop.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingzhan; Wu, Bo; Li, Jiuxuan; Song, Zhaobin

    2014-09-19

    Abstract The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Ptychobarbus kaznakovi was sequenced and characterized. The genome is 16,842?bp in length. Similar with most teleosts, it has two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and one displacement loop (D-loop) region. Conserved sequence blocks, including ETAS, CSB-B, D, E, F, and CSB1-3, were identified in the D-loop, which is similar to other species in Cypriniformes. Nevertheless, a 55?bp tandem repeat array was also identified at 3' end of the D-loop, which is the first finding in Schizothoracinae. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the species of Ptychobarbus (P. dipogon and P. kaznakovi) formed a monophyletic group and represented close relationship to the species without scales in Schizothoracinae. PMID:25238112

  7. Further evidence for the invasion and establishment of Pterois volitans (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae) along the Atlantic Coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meister, H.S.; Wyanski, D.M.; Loefer, J.K.; Ross, S.W.; Quattrini, A.M.; Sulak, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    We document the continued population expansion of red lionfish, Pterois volitans, the first documented successful introduction of an invasive marine fish species from the western Pacific to Atlantic coastal waters of the United States. Red lionfish are indigenous to the Indo-Pacific and have apparently established one or more breeding populations on reefs off the southeastern United States. Fifty-nine specimens, most presumably adult red lionfish, were documented or collected on live-bottom reefs off North Carolina, South Carolina, and Florida, and on a manmade structure off Georgia. Observation/collection depths and bottom water temperatures for these fish ranged from 40-99 m and 13.8-24.4??C, respectively. Eleven juvenile lionfish, believed to be expatriated from southeastern waters, were collected in estuaries along the coast of Long Island, NY, at depths of 0-5 m and water temperatures ranging from 13.8-16.5??C. Twelve of the total 70 specimens collected or observed were positively identified as red lionfish. Based on histological assessment of gonad tissue, two reproductively-active males and one immature female were collected. The life history of red lionfish, especially their reproductive biology and food habits, should be investigated along the east coast of the US to determine the potential impacts of this species on ecosystems they have invaded.

  8. Reprinted fromJ. Zool., Lond. (1981) 193, 517-530 Terrestrial feeding in the Mudskipper Periophthalmus (pisces: Teleostei)

    E-print Network

    Lauder, George V.

    .. ""' Anatomy Initial prey capture Pharyngeal jaw movements: deglutition Discussion Summary References Page 517 the intertidal zone with the tide and rarely penetrates the water to any *Present address: Department of Anatomy (Euphausia), goldfish (Carassius auratus), squid (Loligo), and earthworms (Lumbricus) as food. X

  9. Characterizing the resident, fermentative microbial consortium in the hindgut of the temperate-zone herbivorous fish, Hermosilla azurea (Teleostei: Kyphosidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pat M. Fidopiastis; Daniel J. Bezdek; Michael H. Horn; Judith S. Kandel

    2006-01-01

    The zebraperch, Hermosilla azurea Jenkins and Evermann, a warm-temperate marine fish species with a strictly macroalgal diet, has a relatively long digestive\\u000a tract with an enlarged hindgut and an associated blind caecum (HC). In zebraperch sampled off Santa Catalina Island, California\\u000a (33°19?42??N; 118°18?37??W) in years 1995 through 2001, direct cell counts, gut epithelium assessment of bacterial attachment,\\u000a and short-chain fatty

  10. Genetic and Morphological Evidence Implies Existence of Two Sympatric Species in Cyathopharynx furcifer (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tetsumi; Hori, Michio

    2012-01-01

    Although the cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika are treated as a textbook example of adaptive radiation, many taxonomic problems remain unresolved. Cyathopharynx furcifer, which belongs to the currently monospecific genus Cyathopharynx, contains two colour morphs at the southern end of the lake: one has a yellow anal fin, and the other has a black anal fin. Some books for hobbyists of ornamental fish treat these morphs as different species, but taxonomic studies have neither mentioned the existence nor addressed the status of these colour morphs. In the present paper, we analysed these two colour morphs using mitochondrial, microsatellite, morphometric, and meristic data sets. Both molecular and morphological data allowed clear discrimination between these morphs, suggesting the existence of two distinct sympatric species. Three taxonomic species have been described in this genus, and only C. furcifer is currently considered valid. Observations of type specimens of these three nominal species will be needed to determine the scientific names of these colour morphs. PMID:22675655

  11. Evolutionary history of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Lamprologini (Teleostei: Perciformes) derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data.

    PubMed

    Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter; Duftner, Nina; Schelly, Robert; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2010-10-01

    Lake Tanganyika comprises a cichlid species flock with substrate-breeding and mouthbrooding lineages. While sexual selection via mate choice on male mating color is thought to boost speciation rates in mouthbrooding cichlids, this is not the case in substrate-breeding lamprologines, which mostly form stable pairs and lack sexual dichromatism. We present a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolution of the cichlid tribe Lamprologini, based upon mtDNA sequences and multilocus nuclear DNA (AFLP) markers. Twelve mtDNA clades were identified, seven of which were corroborated by the AFLP tree. The radiation is likely to have started about 5.3 MYA, contemporarily with that of the mouthbrooding C-lineage, and probably triggered by the onset of deep-water conditions in Lake Tanganyika. Neither the Congo- nor the Malagarazi River species form the most ancestral branch. Several conflicts in the mtDNA phylogeny with taxonomic assignments based upon color, eco-morphology and behavior could be resolved and complemented by the AFLP analysis. Introgressive hybridization upon secondary contact seems to be the most likely cause for paraphyly of taxa due to mtDNA capture in species involving brood-care helpers, while accidental hybridization best explains the para- or polyphyly of several gastropod shell breeders. Taxonomic error or paraphyly due to the survival of ancestral lineages appear responsible for inconsistencies in the genera Lamprologus and Neolamprologus. PMID:20601006

  12. Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea) of Lake Tanganyika: II: description of the first Cichlidogyrus spp. parasites from Tropheini fish hosts (Teleostei, Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Gillardin, Céline; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Pariselle, Antoine; Huyse, Tine; Volckaert, Filip A M

    2012-01-01

    Although Lake Tanganyika hosts the most diverse endemic cichlid fish assemblage, its monogenean parasite fauna has hardly been documented. The cichlid tribe Tropheini has generated great interest because of its systematic position within the Haplochromini s.l. and its diversity in trophic morphology, reproductive behaviour and population structure. It has the potential to host a diverse Monogenea fauna. Here, we describe the first Cichlidogyrus spp.: Cichlidogyrus steenbergei sp. n., Cichlidogyrus irenae sp. n. and Cichlidogyrus gistelincki sp. n. The three host species, Limnotilapia dardennii, Ctenochromis horei and Gnathochromis pfefferi, are all infected by a single unique Cichlidogyrus sp. The genital and haptoral structure of the new species suggests a close relationship, which might mirror the close affinities between the hosts within the Tropheini. Based on haptoral configuration, the new species belong to a morphological group within the genus containing parasites both of West African cichlids and of Haplochromini, and hence, do not represent a new organisation of the attachment organ (as has recently been described of congeners infecting the ectodine cichlid Ophthalmotilapia). PMID:21710349

  13. Postglacial recolonization of eastern Blacknose Dace,Rhinichthys atratulus(Teleostei: Cyprinidae), through the gateway of New England

    PubMed Central

    Tipton, Michelle L; Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Sarah; Stonebraker, Phoebe; Chernoff, Barry

    2011-01-01

    During the last ice age, much of North America far south as 40°N was covered by glaciers (Hewitt 2000). About 20,000 years ago, as the glaciers retreated, the hydrologic landscape changed dramatically creating waterways for fish dispersal. The number of populations responsible for recolonization and the regions from which they recolonized are unknown for many freshwater fishes living in New England and southeastern Canada. The Blacknose Dace,Rhinichthys atratulus, is one of the freshwater fish species that recolonized this region. We hypothesize that the earliest deglaciated region, modern-day Connecticut, was recolonized byR. atratulusvia a single founding event by a single population. In this paper, we test this hypothesis phylogenetically with regard to the major drainage basins within Connecticut. The mitochondrial DNA exhibits low nucleotide diversity, high haplotype diversity, and a dominant haplotype found across the state. A small percentage of individuals in the Housatonic drainage basin, however, share a haplotype with populations in New York drainage basins, a haplotype not found elsewhere in Connecticut's drainage basins. We calculated a range for the rate of divergence for NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nd2) and control region (ctr) of 4.43–6.76% and 3.84–8.48% per million years (my), respectively. While this range is higher than the commonly accepted rate of 2% for mitochondrial DNA, these results join a growing list of publications finding high rates of divergence for various taxa (Peterson and Masel 2009). The data support the conclusion that Connecticut as a whole was recolonized initially by a single founding event that came from a single refugium. Subsequently, the Housatonic basin alone experienced a secondary recolonization event. PMID:22393505

  14. A new Pseudophoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) species from Southwestern Anatolia, with remarks on the distribution of the genus in western Anatolia

    PubMed Central

    Küçük, Fahrettin; Gülle, ?skender; Güçlü, S. Serkan; Çiftçi, Y?lmaz; Erdo?an, Ömer

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Pseudophoxinus burduricus sp. n. is described from drainages of Salda and Burdur lakes, southwestern Turkey. It is distinguished from other Anatolian Pseudophoxinus by a combination of characters: lateral line incomplete, with 21–39 (commonly 26–37) perforated scales and 47–57+1-2 scales in lateral series; 10½–12½ scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin, 3–4(5) scale rows between lateral line and the pelvic fin origin; dorsal fin commonly with 7½ branched rays; anal fin commonly with 6½ branched rays; 7–8(9) gill rakers on the first branchial arch; a faint and diffuse epidermal black stripe from eye to caudal fin base in alive and preserved individuals; mouth slightly subterminal, tip of mouth cleft on about level of lower margin of eye; snout rounded, its length greater than eye diameter. Comparison is given with all Pseudophoxinus species from western Anatolia. PMID:23950681

  15. Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra (Teleostei) in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. is described from the gills of the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra caught off Senegal, Tunisia and Libya (type-locality: off Dakar, Senegal). The species is distinguished from its congeners by the structure of its sclerotised vagina (length 26–35 ?m), which exhibits a trumpet in continuity with the primary canal, a straight primary canal, and primary and secondary chambers included in a common sclerotised mass along the primary canal. The species is also characterised by small squamodiscs (length 20–40 ?m) with 10–11 rows of rodlets. Its closest relatives (based on the structure of the sclerotised vagina) are species mostly found in the Mediterranean Sea and parasites on species of Mycteroperca. A second species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is reported from the same host and localities but not described. A list of diplectanids from groupers in the Mediterranean Sea is provided. We point out that a recent article was not compliant with the new Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; for this reason, three species, P. nhatrangensis Dang, Bristow, Schander & Berland, 2013, P. vietnamensis Dang et al., 2013 and P. brunei Dang et al., 2013, are invalid. PMID:25674913

  16. Evolutionary history of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Lamprologini (Teleostei: Perciformes) derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data

    PubMed Central

    Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter; Duftner, Nina; Schelly, Robert; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika comprises a cichlid species flock with substrate-breeding and mouthbrooding lineages. While sexual selection via mate choice on male mating color is thought to boost speciation rates in mouthbrooding cichlids, this is not the case in substrate-breeding lamprologines, which mostly form stable pairs and lack sexual dichromatism. We present a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolution of the cichlid tribe Lamprologini, based upon mtDNA sequences and multilocus nuclear DNA (AFLP) markers. Twelve mtDNA clades were identified, seven of which were corroborated by the AFLP tree. The radiation is likely to have started about 5.3 MYA, contemporarily with that of the mouthbrooding C-lineage, and probably triggered by the onset of deep-water conditions in Lake Tanganyika. Neither the Congo- nor the Malagarazi River species form the most ancestral branch. Several conflicts in the mtDNA phylogeny with taxonomic assignments based upon color, eco-morphology and behavior could be resolved and complemented by the AFLP analysis. Introgressive hybridization upon secondary contact seems to be the most likely cause for paraphyly of taxa due to mtDNA capture in species involving brood-care helpers, while accidental hybridization best explains the para- or polyphyly of several gastropod shell breeders. Taxonomic error or paraphyly due to the survival of ancestral lineages appear responsible for inconsistencies in the genera Lamprologus and Neolamprologus. PMID:20601006

  17. Genetic Divergence and Speciation in an Extremely Young Species Flock in Mexico Formed by the Genus Cyprinodon(Cyprinodontidae, Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike Strecker; Christian G. Meyer; Christian Sturmbauer; Horst Wilkens

    1996-01-01

    The lake Laguna Chichancanab contains one of the evolutionarily youngest species flocks known, composed of five endemic species of the genusCyprinodon.The presumed sister speciesCyprinodon artifronsstill exists in marine coastal habitats. Sequences of the mitochondrial control region were obtained forC. artifrons(genes of 17 individuals sequenced) and for all five endemic species (genes of 32 individuals sequenced). While nine different haplotypes were

  18. Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra (Teleostei) in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. is described from the gills of the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra caught off Senegal, Tunisia and Libya (type-locality: off Dakar, Senegal). The species is distinguished from its congeners by the structure of its sclerotised vagina (length 26-35 ?m), which exhibits a trumpet in continuity with the primary canal, a straight primary canal, and primary and secondary chambers included in a common sclerotised mass along the primary canal. The species is also characterised by small squamodiscs (length 20-40 ?m) with 10-11 rows of rodlets. Its closest relatives (based on the structure of the sclerotised vagina) are species mostly found in the Mediterranean Sea and parasites on species of Mycteroperca. A second species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is reported from the same host and localities but not described. A list of diplectanids from groupers in the Mediterranean Sea is provided. We point out that a recent article was not compliant with the new Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; for this reason, three species, P. nhatrangensis Dang, Bristow, Schander & Berland, 2013, P. vietnamensis Dang et al., 2013 and P. brunei Dang et al., 2013, are invalid. PMID:25674913

  19. Composition and structure of the parasite faunas of cod, Gadus morhua L. (Teleostei: Gadidae), in the North East Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Perdiguero-Alonso, Diana; Montero, Francisco E; Raga, Juan Antonio; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2008-01-01

    Background Although numerous studies on parasites of the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. have been conducted in the North Atlantic, comparative analyses on local cod parasite faunas are virtually lacking. The present study is based on examination of large samples of cod from six geographical areas of the North East Atlantic which yielded abundant baseline data on parasite distribution and abundance. Materials and Methods A total of 826 fish was sampled in the Baltic, Celtic, Irish and North seas, Icelandic waters and Trondheimsfjord (Norway) in 2002 (spring and autumn) and 2003 (spring). The gills and internal organs (oesophagus, stomach, intestine, pyloric caeca, liver, heart, spleen, gall bladder and gonads) were examined for macroparasites following a standardised protocol. The taxonomic consistency of the identification was ensured thorough the entire study. Results We discuss some problems in parasite identification, outline the composition of the parasite faunas in cod in the six North East Atlantic regions, provide novel data on parasite prevalence and abundance and a comparative assessment of the structure of the regional parasite faunas with respect to the higher-level taxonomic groupings, host specificity and zoogeographical distribution of the parasites. Altogether 57 different parasite forms were found including seven new host records (Diclidophora merlangi, Rhipidocotyle sp., Fellodistomum sp., Steringotrema sp., Cucullanus sp., Spinitectus sp., and Chondracanthus ornatus). The predominant groups of cod parasites were trematodes (19 species) and nematodes (13 species) including larval anisakids which comprised 58.2% of the total number of individuals. Conclusion Our study reveals relatively rich regional parasite faunas in cod from the North East Atlantic which are dominated by generalist parasites with Arcto-Boreal distribution. Further, it provides more detailed data on the distribution in the North East Atlantic of the majority of cod parasites which may serve as baselines for future studies on the effect of climate change. Based on the faunal comparisons, predictions can be made in relation to the structure and diversity of the parasite communities in the North East Atlantic regions studied. PMID:18638387

  20. Relationship between urotensin II- and somatostatin-immunoreactive spinal cord neurons of Catostomus commersoni and Oncorhynchus kisutch (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Yulis, C R; Lederis, K

    1988-01-01

    This immunocytochemical study describes the presence of separate immunoreactive (IR)-urotensin II (UII) and IR-somatostatin (SOM) systems in the spinal cord of two species of teleost fish. Both systems are arranged in a close spatial interrelationship in which IR-SOM fibres apparently innervate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting IR-UII neurons. Specimens of Oncorhynchus kisutch also display CSF-contacting IR-SOM neurons located in the lateral ependymal walls of the central canal, in addition to CSF-contacting IR-UII neurons located ventrally. It is suggested that, in this species, CSF-contacting IR-SOM and IR-UII neurons perceive different stimuli from the CSF and are integrated in such a way that one peptidergic system may modulate the function of the other. PMID:2906818

  1. Haemopoiesis in the head kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae): a morphological (optical and ultrastructural) study

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Aziz, El-Saydah H.; Abdu, Suzan B. S.; Fouad, Huda F.

    2009-01-01

    The present work focused on the histological and ultrastructural studies on haemopoiesis in the kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Haemopoietic tissue was found mainly in the head kidney and a small amount occurred in the mesonephros. The haemopoiesis of tilapia had the following series: erythropoiesis, granulopoiesis, thrombopoiesis, monopoiesis and lymphoplasmopoiesis. Erythropoiesis includes proerythroblasts, basophilic erythroblasts, polychromatic erythroblasts, acidophilic erythroblasts and young and mature erythrocytes. The proerythroblasts were the largest cells in the erythropoietic series. During the maturation process both the nuclear and cellular size decreased gradually due to the chromatin condensation and the progressive substitution of cytoplasmic matrix with a large amount of haemoglobin. Granulopoietic series consisted of cells with variable shape and size at different stages of maturity from myeloblasts to mature granulocytes. The promyelocytes were the largest cells in the series and were characterised by the appearance of primary (azoruphilic) granules. The maturation process involved the appearance of specific granules in the heterophilic, eosinophilic and basophilic series. It is important to mention that eosinophilic granulocytes were the dominant granulopoietic series in the haemopoietic tissue (Ht) of tilapia. Lymphopoietic series consisted of lymphoblasts, large lymphocytes, small lymphocytes and active and inactive plasma cells. Thrombopoietic series consisted of thromboblasts, prothromboblasts and thrombocytes. Thrombocytes of tilapia were nucleated and possessed a spindle shape. Melanomacrophage centres were dominant among the Ht of the head kidney. Also, monocytes were detected and shown to be large cells with an indented nucleus and cytoplasm containing numerous vesicles of different sizes and a few lysosomes. PMID:19152117

  2. Postglacial recolonization of eastern Blacknose Dace,Rhinichthys atratulus(Teleostei: Cyprinidae), through the gateway of New England.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Michelle L; Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Sarah; Stonebraker, Phoebe; Chernoff, Barry

    2011-11-01

    During the last ice age, much of North America far south as 40°N was covered by glaciers (Hewitt 2000). About 20,000 years ago, as the glaciers retreated, the hydrologic landscape changed dramatically creating waterways for fish dispersal. The number of populations responsible for recolonization and the regions from which they recolonized are unknown for many freshwater fishes living in New England and southeastern Canada. The Blacknose Dace,Rhinichthys atratulus, is one of the freshwater fish species that recolonized this region. We hypothesize that the earliest deglaciated region, modern-day Connecticut, was recolonized byR. atratulusvia a single founding event by a single population. In this paper, we test this hypothesis phylogenetically with regard to the major drainage basins within Connecticut. The mitochondrial DNA exhibits low nucleotide diversity, high haplotype diversity, and a dominant haplotype found across the state. A small percentage of individuals in the Housatonic drainage basin, however, share a haplotype with populations in New York drainage basins, a haplotype not found elsewhere in Connecticut's drainage basins. We calculated a range for the rate of divergence for NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nd2) and control region (ctr) of 4.43-6.76% and 3.84-8.48% per million years (my), respectively. While this range is higher than the commonly accepted rate of 2% for mitochondrial DNA, these results join a growing list of publications finding high rates of divergence for various taxa (Peterson and Masel 2009). The data support the conclusion that Connecticut as a whole was recolonized initially by a single founding event that came from a single refugium. Subsequently, the Housatonic basin alone experienced a secondary recolonization event. PMID:22393505

  3. A new species of the clingfish genus Apletodon (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae) from Sao Tome and Principe, Eastern Central Atlantic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Fricke

    2007-01-01

    The clingfish Apletodon wirtzi sp. nov. is described on the basis of ten specimens and colour photos from Bombom Island, Principe Group, Sao Tome and Principe,\\u000a eastern central Atlantic Ocean. The species is very small, apparently not exceeding 16?mm total length; it is characterized\\u000a by having three pores in the mandibular canal, the head length 2.2–2.5 in standard length: SL,

  4. Geophagus crocatus, a new species of geophagine cichlid from the Berbice River, Guyana, South America (Teleostei: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Hauser, Frances E; López-Fernández, Hernán

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new Geophagus from the Berbice River of Guyana, bringing the total number of described species in the genus to 19, and of Guianese species to six.. Geophagus crocatus, new species, is distinguished from all species of Geophagus outside of the G. surinamensis group by the presence of an incomplete suborbital stripe (vs. complete), and the presence of six lateral bars, with bars 2 and 3 slightly sloping toward each other and fusing dorsally at the base of the dorsal fin. Geophagus crocatus is the only Geophagus species known from the Berbice River, and it is present above and below the Itabru Falls. PMID:25277570

  5. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical patterns in Circum-Mediterranean subfamily Leuciscinae (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) inferred from both mitochondrial and nuclear data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Leuciscinae is a subfamily belonging to the Cyprinidae fish family that is widely distributed in Circum-Mediterranean region. Many efforts have been carried out to deciphering the evolutionary history of this group. Thus, different biogeographical scenarios have tried to explain the colonization of Europe and Mediterranean area by cyprinids, such as the "north dispersal" or the "Lago Mare dispersal" models. Most recently, Pleistocene glaciations influenced the distribution of leuciscins, especially in North and Central Europe. Weighing up these biogeographical scenarios, this paper constitutes not only the first attempt at deciphering the mitochondrial and nuclear relationships of Mediterranean leuciscins but also a test of biogeographical hypotheses that could have determined the current distribution of Circum-Mediterranean leuciscins. Results A total of 4439 characters (mitochondrial + nuclear) from 321 individuals of 176 leuciscine species rendered a well-supported phylogeny, showing fourteen main lineages. Analyses of independent mitochondrial and nuclear markers supported the same main lineages, but basal relationships were not concordant. Moreover, some incongruence was found among independent mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. The monophyly of some poorly known genera such as Pseudophoxinus and Petroleuciscus was rejected. Representatives of both genera belong to different evolutionary lineages. Timing of cladogenetic events among the main leuciscine lineages was gained using mitochondrial and all genes data set. Conclusions Adaptations to a predatory lifestyle or miniaturization have superimposed the morphology of some species. These species have been separated into different genera, which are not supported by a phylogenetic framework. Such is the case of the genera Pseudophoxinus and Petroleuciscus, which real taxonomy is not well known. The diversification of leuciscine lineages has been determined by intense vicariant events following the paleoclimatological and hydrogeological history of Mediterranean region. We propose different colonization models of Mediterranean region during the early Oligocene. Later vicariance events promoted Leuciscinae diversification during Oligocene and Miocene periods. Our data corroborate the presence of leuciscins in North Africa before the Messinian salinity crisis. Indeed, Messinian period appears as a stage of gradually Leuciscinae diversification. The rise of humidity at the beginning of the Pliocene promoted the colonization and posterior isolation of newly established freshwater populations. Finally, Pleistocene glaciations determined the current European distribution of some leuciscine species. PMID:20807419

  6. [A metacercarial disease in the dogfish species Umbra limi (Teleostei) and a trematode infestation in a Physa sp. (Mollusca)].

    PubMed

    Foersch, W; Reichenbach-Klinke, H H; Schaller, D; Schmidt, K

    1984-01-01

    A metacercarial infestation is reported in Canadian Umbra limi and a mass infestation by trematodes in Physa sp. from the same locality. Trials made by using parasitised snails showed that both parasites are not of the same species. PMID:6495318

  7. Phylogenetic patterns in populations of Chilean species of the genus Orestias (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae): results of mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Lüssen, Arne; Falk, Thomas M; Villwock, Wolfgang

    2003-10-01

    Patterns of molecular genetic differentiation among taxa of the "agassii species complex" (Parenti, 1984) were analysed based on partial mtDNA control region sequences. Special attention has been paid to Chilean populations of Orestias agassii and species from isolated lakes of northern Chile, e.g., O. agassii, Orestias chungarensis, Orestias parinacotensis, Orestias laucaensis, and Orestias ascotanensis. Orestias tschudii, Orestias luteus, and Orestias ispi were analysed comparatively. Our findings support the utility of mtDNA control region sequences for phylogenetic studies within the "agassii species complex" and confirmed the monophyly of this particular lineage, excluding O. luteus. However, the monophyly of further morphologically defined lineages within the "agassii complex" appears doubtful. No support was found for the utility of these data sets for inferring phylogenetic relationships between more distantly related taxa originating from Lake Titicaca. PMID:12967616

  8. Screening and characterization of sex-specific DNA fragments in the freshwater fish matrinchã, Brycon amazonicus (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Eder Marques; Wong, Marina Sek Lien; Martins, Cesar; Wasko, Adriane Pinto

    2012-10-01

    The matrinchã Brycon amazonicus, a commercially important freshwater fish resource, has no heteromorphic sex chromosomes so far described. In the present study, we performed a screening of sex-associated DNA markers in this species, through the use of a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay and a genomic DNA restriction digestion analysis. DNA digestions evidenced no differences between sexes. Sixty-six random primers were used in pooled and individual DNA samples of males and females, and the analysis of the RAPD fingerprints revealed one female sex-associated band. Cloning and sequencing of this band led to the identification of two distinct DNA segments. While one of the isolated fragments showed a significant identity with a described protein gene (phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class W), the other fragment, composed of 535 bp, corresponds to a novel DNA marker. Further experiments were performed with this second DNA fragment in order to verify its sex-specificity. Data on dot blot hybridization, using total DNA of both sexes, confirmed its female-specificity in B. amazonicus. A primer set was designed based on its sequence data and used in PCR with DNA samples of this species, leading to diagnose the animals' sexes with a 100 % overall accuracy through a sequence characterized amplified region approach. No amplification results were found for two other species of the genus--B. orbignyanus and B. lundii. The obtained data can lead to the hypothesis that B. amazonicus may present heteromorphic sex chromosomes that should be in an early phase of differentiation. PMID:22527611

  9. Evaluation of different sources of lipid and lipid levels in the diet of pearlspot Etroplus suratensis (Teleostei: Perciformes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Ahamad Ali

    Seven different oils namely, coconut oil, cod liver oil, gingely (sesame seed) oil, groundnut oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil and sardine oil were evaluated in the diet of pearlspot (Etroplus suratensis). These oils were individually incorporated at 7% level in an iso-nitrogenous diet consisting of a protein base, other ingredients and binder. In the second experiment, a mixture of coconut

  10. Resolving Taxonomy and Historic Distribution for Conservation of Rare Great Plains Fishes: Hybognathus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in Eastern Colorado Basins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Scheurer; Kevin R. Bestgen; Kurt D. Fausch; S. A. Schaefer

    2003-01-01

    (brassy minnow) and Hybognathus placitus (plains minnow) have made determination of their historic distributions and conservation status unclear in eastern Colorado basins. We developed logistic regression models from morphometric measurements to predict species identity of Hybognathus collections from Colorado and adjacent counties (n 5 1154 specimens in 134 lots). A model based on orbit diameter, stan- dard length, and eye

  11. An evaluation of fossil tip-dating versus node-age calibrations in tetraodontiform fishes (Teleostei: Percomorphaceae).

    PubMed

    Arcila, Dahiana; Alexander Pyron, R; Tyler, James C; Ortí, Guillermo; Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Time-calibrated phylogenies based on molecular data provide a framework for comparative studies. Calibration methods to combine fossil information with molecular phylogenies are, however, under active development, often generating disagreement about the best way to incorporate paleontological data into these analyses. This study provides an empirical comparison of the most widely used approach based on node-dating priors for relaxed clocks implemented in the programs BEAST and MrBayes, with two recently proposed improvements: one using a new fossilized birth-death process model for node dating (implemented in the program DPPDiv), and the other using a total-evidence or tip-dating method (implemented in MrBayes and BEAST). These methods are applied herein to tetraodontiform fishes, a diverse group of living and extinct taxa that features one of the most extensive fossil records among teleosts. Previous estimates of time-calibrated phylogenies of tetraodontiforms using node-dating methods reported disparate estimates for their age of origin, ranging from the late Jurassic to the early Paleocene (ca. 150-59Ma). We analyzed a comprehensive dataset with 16 loci and 210 morphological characters, including 131 taxa (95 extant and 36 fossil species) representing all families of fossil and extant tetraodontiforms, under different molecular clock calibration approaches. Results from node-dating methods produced consistently younger ages than the tip-dating approaches. The older ages inferred by tip dating imply an unlikely early-late Jurassic (ca. 185-119Ma) origin for this order and the existence of extended ghost lineages in their fossil record. Node-based methods, by contrast, produce time estimates that are more consistent with the stratigraphic record, suggesting a late Cretaceous (ca. 86-96Ma) origin. We show that the precision of clade age estimates using tip dating increases with the number of fossils analyzed and with the proximity of fossil taxa to the node under assessment. This study suggests that current implementations of tip dating may overestimate ages of divergence in calibrated phylogenies. It also provides a comprehensive phylogenetic framework for tetraodontiform systematics and future comparative studies. PMID:25462998

  12. The inner ear and its coupling to the swim bladder in the deep-sea fish Antimora rostrata (Teleostei: Moridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaohong; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Popper, Arthur N.

    2011-01-01

    The inner ear structure of Antimora rostrata and its coupling to the swim bladder were analyzed and compared with the inner ears of several shallow-water species that also have similar coupling. The inner ear of Antimora has a long saccular otolith and sensory epithelium as compared to many other fishes. Some parts of the membranous labyrinth are thick and rigid, while other parts are thinner but attached tightly to the bony capsule. The partially rigid membranous labyrinth, along with its intimate connection to the swim bladder, may help the inner ear follow the sound oscillations from the swim bladder with better precision than would occur in a less rigid inner ear. In addition, the saccular sensory epithelium has an elaborate structure and an anterior enlargement that may be correlated with increased hearing sensitivity. Some of the features in the inner ear of Antimora may reflect the functional specialization of deep-water living and support the hypothesis that there is enhanced inner ear sensitivity in some deep-sea fishes.

  13. Review of the crevalle jacks, Caranx hippos complex (Teleostei: Carangidae), with a description of a new species from West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Carpenter, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    The Caranx hippos species complex comprises three extant species: crevalle jack (Caranx hippos) (Linnaeus, 1766) from both the western and eastern Atlantic oceans; Pacific crevalle jack (Caranx caninus) Gu??nther, 1868 from the eastern Pacific Ocean; and longfin crevalle jack (Caranx fischeri) new species, from the eastern Atlantic, including the Mediterranean Sea and Ascension Island. Adults of all three species are superficially similar with a black blotch on the lower half of the pectoral fin, a black spot on the upper margin of opercle, one or two pairs of enlarged symphyseal canines on the lower jaw, and a similar pattern of breast squamation. Each species has a different pattern of hyperostotic bone development and anal-fin color. The two sympatric eastern Atlantic species also differ from each other in number of dorsal- and anal-fin rays, and in large adults of C. fischeri the lobes of these fins are longer and the body is deeper. Caranx hippos from opposite sides of the Atlantic are virtually indistinguishable externally but differ consistently in the expression of hyperostosis of the first dorsal-fin pterygiophore. The fossil species Caranx carangopsis Steindachner 1859 appears to have been based on composite material of Trachurus sp. and a fourth species of the Caranx hippos complex. Patterns of hyperostotic bone development are compared in the nine (of 15 total) species of Caranx sensu stricto that exhibit hyperostosis.

  14. A new record of a flathead fish (Teleostei: Platycephalidae) from China based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yan; Song, Na; Zou, Jianwei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Cheng, Guangping; Gao, Tianxiang; Zhang, Xiumei

    2013-05-01

    A new record of Platycephalus sp.1 (sensu Nakabo, 2002) was documented based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding. We collected 174 specimens of the genus Platycephalus from Chinese coastal waters of Dongying, Qingdao, Zhoushan, and Beihai. Samples were identified as Platycephalus sp.1 morphologically. The coloration, meristic traits, and morphometric measurements are consistent with previously published records. In brief, it is an orange-brown flathead fish with dark brown spots scattered on head and body, lateral line scales 83 to 99 with one or two spine-bearing anteriormost pored scale, no yellow blotch on the caudal fin. Cytochrome oxidase I subunit (COI) gene fragments were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The mean evolutionary distance within the species Platycephalus sp.1 was 0.1%. Net evolutionary distances between Platycephalus sp.1 and other species of Platycephalus ranged from 10.8% to 19.7%, which is much greater than the threshold for species delimitation. The COI sequence analysis strongly supports the validity of Platyceohalus sp.1 at genetic level.

  15. Comparative cytogenetics of two endangered leuciscine fish, Squalius aradensis and S. torgalensis (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), from the Iberian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Nabais, Catarina; Rampin, Massimiliano; Collares-Pereira, Maria João

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the description of the karyotypes of the endangered chubs Squalius aradensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998) and Squalius torgalensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998) is presented by means of conventional (Giemsa-staining, Chromomycin A3 (CMA3)-fluorescence, Silver-impregnation (Ag-NORs)) and molecular (fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA probe) protocols. These endemic sister-species have an allopatric but adjacent distribution in the most southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Diploid chromosome number was invariably 2n = 50 and karyotypes of both species were grossly similar, composed of metacentric and submetacentric elements with a reduced number of acrocentric pairs. Sequential staining using FISH with an 18S rDNA probe, CMA3 and Ag-NORs treatments revealed consistent positive signals located at the end of the short arms of a submetacentric chromosome pair, likely homologous in both species. While providing useful cytogenetic comparative data against other members of the genus Squalius Bonaparte, 1837, the work aimed to draw attention towards the conservation of two narrow-range and highly confined fish species. PMID:24260688

  16. Evolutionary history of Otophysi (Teleostei), a major clade of the modern freshwater fishes: Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masanori Nakatani; Masaki Miya; Kohji Mabuchi; Kenji Saitoh; Mutsumi Nishida

    2011-01-01

    Background  Freshwater harbors approximately 12,000 fish species accounting for 43% of the diversity of all modern fish. A single ancestral\\u000a lineage evolved into about two-thirds of this enormous biodiversity (? 7900 spp.) and is currently distributed throughout\\u000a the world's continents except Antarctica. Despite such remarkable species diversity and ubiquity, the evolutionary history\\u000a of this major freshwater fish clade, Otophysi, remains largely

  17. Phylogenetic relationships between tuna species of the genus Thunnus (Scombridae: Teleostei): Inconsistent implications from morphology, nuclear and mitochondrial genomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seinen Chow; Hirohisa Kishino

    1995-01-01

    In order to infer phylogenetic relationships between tuna species of the genus Thunnus, partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b and ATPase genes were determined in all eight species. Supplemental restriction analysis on the nuclear rRNA gene was also carried out. Pacific northern bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus orientalis) was found to have mtDNA distinct from that of the Atlantic subspecies

  18. Nematocharax costai Bragança, Barbosa & Mattos a junior synonym of Nematocharax venustus Weitzman, Menezes & Britski (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Menezes, Naércio A; Zanata, Angela M; Camelier, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of morphometric and meristic data from specimens obtained from various river basins along the distribution of Nematocharax venustus revealed intraspecific variation among geographically isolated populations. A comparative analysis of these data with data from the original description of N. costai, in addition to data obtained from the holotype and topotypes of the species, showed broad overlap and absence of morphological features supporting the recognition of two species within Nematocharax. Characters previously used to distinguish N. costai from N. venustus, such as presence of hooks or spinules on dorsal and pelvic fins, number of hooks on anal-fin rays, occurrence of a pink horizontal mark on the caudal peduncle, number of supraneurals, and coloration of the pelvic-fin filament, are not useful to distinguish the two putative species. Thus, N. costai is considered herein as a junior synonym of N. venustus. Presence of a complete lateral line and length of fin-filaments of N. venustus are briefly discussed and a current overview of the distribution of the species is given. In view of the proposed synonymy of a so recently described species and aiming to avoid problems of similar nature in the future, we also take the opportunity to reinforce herein the importance of the examination of large population samples and of intraspecific variation of secondary sexual features. PMID:25781260

  19. Kyphosus gladius, a new species of sea chub from Western Australia (Teleostei: Kyphosidae), with comments on Segutilum klunzingeri Whitley.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Clements, Kendall D

    2013-01-01

    Two morphologically distinct forms of the nominal species Kyphosus sydneyanus (Günther, 1886) (Kyphosidae) were discerned while collecting off Western Australia near Perth in 2009. A morphological comparison with recognized species of Kyphosus and an analysis of mtDNA (Cytochrome b, control region, 12S and 16S) and three nDNA markers (RAG1, RAG2 and Tmo-4C4) demonstrated that the more elongate of these forms was an undescribed species of Kyphosus. It differs from congeners in the Pacific and Indian Oceans in the combination of the following characters: green bar on the operculum, 11-12 dorsal soft fin rays, depth of caudal peduncle 9.9-11.8 % SL, body depth 33.3-41.6 % SL, 55-63 scales in lateral line, 12-16 interorbital scales, 44-55 pored scales in the lateral line, 3-5 gill rakers on upper limb of first gill arch internally, 11-15 gill rakers on lower limb of first gill arch internally, 15-19 total gill rakers on first gill arch, and by having 10 precaudal vertebrae and 16 caudal vertebrae. Examination of museum specimens and available underwater photographs suggests that the new species is restricted to Western Australia, and to date it has been recorded between the Houtman Abrolhos Islands and Albany. Discrepancies between the type specimen and original description of Segutilum klunzingeri Whitley made it impossible to determine the relationship between this taxon and the new species from Western Australia, and thus we consider S. klunzingeri a nomen dubium. PMID:24583811

  20. Light and ultrastructural description of Meglitschia mylei n. sp. (myxozoa) from Myleus rubripinnis (Teleostei: Serrasalmidae) in the Amazon River system.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Carlos; Ribeiro, Mariana; Clemente, Sérgio C S; Casal, Graça; Lopes, Leila; Matos, Patrícia; Al-Quraishy, Saleh A; Matos, Edilson

    2011-01-01

    Meglitschia mylei n. sp. found in the gall bladder of the teleostean fish Myleus rubripinnis (Serrasalmidae) from the middle Amazonian region of Brazil is described using light and transmission electron microscopy. The spores observed in the bile averaged 24.6±0.8 ?m long, 8.7±0.4 ?m wide and 5.1±0.3 ?m thick and were strongly furcate and arcuate ?-shaped composed of two symmetric equal-sized valves, up to ?70 nm thick. Each valve possessed one opposed tapering appendage, 20.1±0.7 ?m long, oriented parallel towards the basal tip of the appendages and joined along a right suture line forming a thick strand. The strand goes around the central part of the spore, which in turn surrounds two equal and symmetric spherical polar capsules (PC), 2.1±0.3 ?m in diameter, located at the same level. Each capsule contains a polar filament with five (rarely six) coils. The binucleate sporoplasm was irregular in shape, contained several sporoplasmosomes, ?175 nm in diameter and filled all the space of the two caudal appendages. Based on the arc shape of the spore with two tapering caudal appendages oriented to the basis of spores, on the number and position of the PC and of the polar filament coils and arrangements, and on the host specificity, we propose the name M. mylei n. sp. for this new myxozoan. Accordingly, this is the second described species of this genus. PMID:21895844

  1. Schistura sexnubes, a new diminutive river loach from the upper Mekong basin, Yunnan Province, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-01-01

    An ichthyofaunistic survey of Mekong tributaries in Lincang Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China yielded a new species of nemacheilid loach, herein described as Schistura sexnubes species nova. The new species is readily distinguishable from its congeners by the following combination of characters: 8+8 branched caudal fin rays, an incomplete lateral line, a dissociated caudal bar, a shallow caudal peduncle depth (7.6%-9.6% SL; respectively caudal peduncle 1.76-1.95 times longer than deep), a diminutive size of less than 50 mm SL, and no sexual dimorphism. A dorsocephalic pattern consisting of a black, forward directed V-shaped formation located between the nares, and a white, ovoid blotch on the upper operculum serves as an autapomorphy. PMID:24470455

  2. A review of the glyptosternine catfish genus Exostoma Blyth 1860 from Thailand, with descriptions of two new species (Teleostei: Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Ng, Heok Hee; Vidthayanon, Chavalit

    2014-01-01

    We review members of the sisorid catfish genus Exostoma known from Thailand. Three species are recognized, of which two from the headwaters of the Chao Phraya River drainage in northwestern Thailand, are described here as new: E. effrenum and E. peregrinator. In addition to the two new species, E. berdmorei (which is here redescribed) is also known from the Salween River drainage in western Thailand. The three species can be distinguished from each other and other congeners by the morphologies of the adipose and caudal fins, as well as morphometric data for the eye diameter, head width, dorsal-to-adipose distance, body depth at anus, caudal-peduncle length, caudal-peduncle depth, and numbers of branched pectoral-fin rays and preanal vertebrae.  PMID:25283928

  3. Quantitative Histological Study of the Optic Nerve in Species of Minnows (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) Inhabiting Clear and Turbid Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Huber; M. Kent Rylander

    1992-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the optic nerve of minnows using light- and electron microscopy demonstrated that anatomical characteristics of the visual system are closely related to habitat turbidity. Species in the genera Notropis and Cyprinella inhabiting predominantly clear water had larger eyes and almost twice as many optic nerve fibers compared to minnows of turbid habitats. No differences were detected in

  4. Identification of Astyanax altiparanae (Teleostei, Characidae) in the Iguaçu River, Brazil, based on mitochondrial DNA and RAPD markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sônia M. A. P. Prioli; Alberto J. Prioli; Horácio F. Júlio Jr.; Carla S. Pavanelli; Alessandra V. de Oliveira; Helaine Carrer; Dirce M. Carraro; Laudenir M. Prioli

    2002-01-01

    Astyanax fishes are among the most important food-web components of South America rivers. In the Iguaçu River basin, the Astyanax genus is represented mainly by endemic species. For millions of years, that hydrographic basin has been geographically isolated from the Paraná River basin by the Iguaçu Falls. Recently, a species from the Upper Paraná River basin identified as Astyanax bimaculatus

  5. Cement gland apparatus of the angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (Teleostei, Cichlidae): Functional morphology in comparison with adhesive organs of other Chordata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Groppelli; Roberta Pennati; Cristina Sotgia; Fiorenza De Bernardi

    2003-01-01

    In this report, the developmental stages of P. scalare are described, with particular attention to the functional morphology of the adhesive apparatus, composed of three pairs of glands, two dorsal and one ventral, which serve to attach the larvae to the substrate prior to their becoming free?swimming. The results show that this apparatus is a complex structure of remarkable dimensions.

  6. Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae) do not seem to hybridize in natural populations

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Neto, Maressa; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Camacho, Juan Pedro Martínez; Bakkali, Mohammed; de Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil) and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept) easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers. PMID:24260650

  7. Comparative spermatogenesis, spermatocytogenesis, and spermatozeugmata formation in males of viviparous species of clinid fishes (Teleostei: Clinidae, Blennioidei).

    PubMed

    Fishelson, Lev; Gon, Ofer; Holdengreber, Vered; Delarea, Yakob

    2007-03-01

    Spermatogenesis and spermatocytogenesis in 16 species of viviparous clinid fishes (Clinidae, Blennioidei) from various localities were followed for the first time by means of light and electron microscopy. The testes of the studied species are of the lobular type, with germinal stem cells situated at the apical ends of the lobules and a vas efferens along the internal margin. Maturation of the spermatides takes place in spermatocysts formed by Sertoli cells around the B-spermatogonia. The gradual condensation and relocation of the chromosomes along the nuclei membranes are highly prominent in this process, which can be divided into several stages. Anisodiametric and slightly flattened sperm heads are eventually formed, 0.4-0.5 microm in diameter and 7.5 +/- 1 microm long, bearing 80 +/- 15 microm long flagella. The sperms are packed into spermatozeugmata within the spermatocysts, enveloped and penetrated by the mucotic material of the Sertoli cells. With division of the germ cells and maturation of the spermatids, the spermatocyst dimensions increase, attaining 40 +/- 8 microm in diameter in the smaller species of Heteroclinus, and up to 90 +/- 10 microm in the larger males of Clinus superciliosus and C. cottoides. Accordingly, the volume of the maturing spermatocysts attains ca. 1,300 +/- 100 microm(3) in the smaller species, and ca. 6,500 +/- 300 microm(3) in the larger ones. As sperm head volume is ca. 2.24 microm(3), the number of sperm in the smallest mature spermatocysts reaches ca. 440 and in the largest over 2,900. Upon release from the cysts, the spermatozeugmata are transported along the sperm ducts to the posterior ampullae where they are stored in the epididymis. During copulation, the sperms are transported from there to the female via the intromittent organ. The sperm formation parameters and their structure and numbers are discussed. PMID:17525946

  8. Closing the reproductive cycle: Growth of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei, Syngnathidae) from birth to adulthood under experimental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maik dos Santos Cividanes da Hora; Jean-Christophe Joyeux

    2009-01-01

    The seahorse Hippocampus reidi is one of two seahorse species occurring in Brazil, and is in demand for the ornamental aquarium and curio trades. Juvenile H. reidi siblings (n=615) born in captivity were raised on a diet of wild zooplankton, enriched Artemia and wild mysid from birth to 109 days. Growth averaged 0.77±0.01 mm day?1 for the whole period. However, after the

  9. Epifluorescence and light microscopy evidencing structural and functional polymorphism of ribosomal DNA in fish (Teleostei: Astyanax fasciatus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Ferreira Artoni; Maria Cláudia Gross; Carlos Henrique Schneider; Marcelo Ricardo Vicari; Mara Cristina de Almeida; Daniele Aparecida Matoso

    2008-01-01

    New karyotypic data are presented for the Astyanax fasciatus species complex from four different locations on the Upper Tibagi River in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Chromosome markers were analyzed using conventional (Ag-NOR) and molecular (FISH with 18S biotinylated probes) methods. Two cytotypes were found in cell counts with diploid number 2n=48 chromosomes and 2n=50 chromosomes, previously denominated Cytotype A

  10. Biogeography of the New Zealand Torrentfish, Cheimarrichthys fosteri (Teleostei: Pinguipedidae): A Distribution Driven Mostly by Ecology and Behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. McDowall

    2000-01-01

    Cheimarrichthys fosteri is an endemic New Zealand freshwater fish that has its closest common ancestry with the blue cod, Parapercis colias, a species found in New Zealand coastal seas. Cheimarrichthys fosteri is amphidromous, and widely distributed around New Zealand. The fact that it has marine-living juvenile has a strong impact on the species' distribution. Upstream\\/inland penetration in river systems is

  11. Phylogenetic relationships within the speciose family Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) based on multilocus analysis and extensive ingroup sampling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With nearly 1,100 species, the fish family Characidae represents more than half of the species of Characiformes, and is a key component of Neotropical freshwater ecosystems. The composition, phylogeny, and classification of Characidae is currently uncertain, despite significant efforts based on analysis of morphological and molecular data. No consensus about the monophyly of this group or its position within the order Characiformes has been reached, challenged by the fact that many key studies to date have non-overlapping taxonomic representation and focus only on subsets of this diversity. Results In the present study we propose a new definition of the family Characidae and a hypothesis of relationships for the Characiformes based on phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (4,680 base pairs). The sequences were obtained from 211 samples representing 166 genera distributed among all 18 recognized families in the order Characiformes, all 14 recognized subfamilies in the Characidae, plus 56 of the genera so far considered incertae sedis in the Characidae. The phylogeny obtained is robust, with most lineages significantly supported by posterior probabilities in Bayesian analysis, and high bootstrap values from maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses. Conclusion A monophyletic assemblage strongly supported in all our phylogenetic analysis is herein defined as the Characidae and includes the characiform species lacking a supraorbital bone and with a derived position of the emergence of the hyoid artery from the anterior ceratohyal. To recognize this and several other monophyletic groups within characiforms we propose changes in the limits of several families to facilitate future studies in the Characiformes and particularly the Characidae. This work presents a new phylogenetic framework for a speciose and morphologically diverse group of freshwater fishes of significant ecological and evolutionary importance across the Neotropics and portions of Africa. PMID:21943181

  12. Redescription of Liza bandialensis (Teleostei: Mugilidae) with an identification key to mullet species of Eastern Central Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Trape, Sébastien; Harrison, Ian J; Diouf, Papa Samba; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Liza bandialensis Diouf 1991 is redescribed because previous descriptions have not been in well-distributed publications and have lacked sufficient detail or reference to voucher specimens. The description provided here is based on specimens from the Sine Saloum estuary, Senegal (West Africa), from where the species was originally described. The distinctness of the species is confirmed both by meristic and molecular criteria. L. bandialensis presents a unique combination of characters with a low number of scales in the longitudinal series (32-33), 10.5-12 transverse scale rows, and distinctly yellowish dorsal, anal, and caudal fins. The currently known distribution of L. bandialensis includes coastal waters of Senegal, Gambia and Guinea Bissau. Finally, we provide a morphological identification key for the sixteen species of Mugilidae species occurring along the eastern central Atlantic coast of Africa. PMID:22325565

  13. Taste preferences and taste thresholds to classical taste substances in the carnivorous fish, kutum Rutilus frisii kutum (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Goli, Sheyda; Jafari, Valiollah; Ghorbani, Rassol; Kasumyan, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the taste preferences in the closely related sympatric fish species with different feeding patterns. For this purpose, palatability for four classical taste substances was evaluated for carnivorous kutum Rutilus frisii kutum and the results were compared with the taste preferences of the omnivorous roach Rutilus rutilus which had been studied earlier. In addition, the threshold concentration and the dose-response relationship of the most palatable tastants were evaluated and the ability of kutum to differentiate food with tastants in different concentrations was estimated. It was found that citric acid significantly increases the agar gel pellet consumption within the range of concentrations from 0.01M to 0.52M; the pellets with a concentration of 0.026M were the most palatable. The pellet consumption is significantly different if the concentration of citric acid in the pellets differs more than two times. The absolute threshold concentration is 0.01M, or 2.74?g of citric acid per pellet. Sucrose and NaCl have deterrent taste at the highest concentrations tested (0.29 and 1.73M, respectively). Both substances are palatable at 10 times lower concentrations and become indifferent after further gradual decrease in their concentration. CaCl2 decreases the pellets consumption at 0.9M but is an indifferent tastant at lower concentrations (0.45, 0.09 and 0.045M). The number of rejections and repeated grasps of a food pellet is fewness and is not related to the pellet's palatability, while the retention time of pellet in the oral cavity positively and highly correlates with the pellet's palatability. Kutum have opposite taste preferences for most substances tested in comparison with the roach. It indicates that the taste preferences mediated by the oral taste receptors are different in closely related sympatric fish displayed diet divergences. PMID:25497081

  14. Interspecific feeding associations of groupers (Teleostei: Serranidae) with octopuses and moray eels in the Gulf of Eilat (Agaba)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Diamant; Mucky Shpigel

    1985-01-01

    Temporary interspecific feeding associations between groupers (Serranidae) and moray eels or octopuses in the Red Sea were observed 41 times during over 400 scuba dives. Such behavior is a feeding tactic adopted by groupers in which small organisms, escaping the primary (= nuclear) predators (eel or octopus), are caught by the groupers. Eels and octopuses, due to their body structure

  15. Some aspects of the biology and ecology of Knipowitschia caucasica (Teleostei: Gobiidae) in the Evros Delta (North Aegean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevrekidis, T.; Kokkinakis, A. K.; Koukouras, A.

    1990-06-01

    Some aspects of the biology and ecology of the goby Knipowitschia caucasica were studied over a period of 13 months in a poly-to euhaline area in the Evros Delta (North Aegean Sea). This fish grows rapidly in the summer and autumn after hatching, matures after its first winter, breeds from the end of April to the end of July, and grows rapidly again in July September. The older males perish after their second February, whereas some females have a second breeding season at the end of April/beginning of May, shortly before their death. The fish grows to about 40 mm in total length. There is a positive correlation between the total length (TL) and the standard length (SL) or the cleaned body weight (CW). SL increases slower than TL, whereas CW increases slower than TL in immature individuals and faster in males and females. There is no difference between immature individuals, males and females, in the growth rate of SL, TL and CW, TL. The mean monthly values of the condition factor varies from 0.289 to 0.576 in females and from 0.313 to 0.548 in males. The overall sex ratio of females to males is 1: 1.46. Fecundity ranges from 60 to 217 eggs with a mean value of 109.8 and depends upon size, whereas relative fecundity varies between 968 and 2170 with a mean of 1558. The fish feeds predominantly on benthic amphipods and polychaetes.

  16. Otolith morphology and hearing abilities in cave- and surface-dwelling ecotypes of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei: Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Ladich, Friedrich; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Cave fish have rarely been investigated with regard to their inner ear morphology, hearing abilities, and acoustic communication. Based on a previous study that revealed morphological differences in the saccular otolith between a cave and two surface populations of Poecilia mexicana, we checked for additional differences in utricular and lagenar otoliths and tested whether different populations have similar hearing sensitivities. We found pronounced differences in the shape of all three otoliths. Otoliths of the saccule and lagena from cave fish differed from those of surface fish in the features of the face oriented towards the sensory epithelium. In addition, otoliths of the utricle and lagena were significantly heavier in cave fish. Auditory sensitivities were measured between 100 and 1500Hz, utilizing the auditory evoked potential recording technique. We found similar hearing abilities in cave and surface fish, with greatest sensitivity between 200 and 300Hz. An acoustic survey revealed that neither ecotype produced species-specific sounds. Our data indicate that cave dwelling altered the otolith morphology in Atlantic mollies, probably due to metabolic differences. Different otolith morphology, however, did not affect general auditory sensitivity or acoustic behavior. PMID:20430090

  17. Karyotype and genome size of Iberochondrostoma almacai (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) and comparison with the sister-species I.lusitanicum

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to define the karyotype of the recently described Iberian endemic Iberochondrostoma almacai, to revisit the previously documented chromosome polymorphisms of its sister species I.lusitanicum using C-, Ag-/CMA3 and RE-banding, and to compare the two species genome sizes. A 2n = 50 karyotype (with the exception of a triploid I.lusitanicum specimen) and a corresponding haploid chromosome formula of 7M:15SM:3A (FN = 94) were found. Multiple NORs were observed in both species (in two submetacentric chromosome pairs, one of them clearly homologous) and a higher intra and interpopulational variability was evidenced in I.lusitanicum. Flow cytometry measurements of nuclear DNA content showed some significant differences in genome size both between and within species: the genome of I. almacai was smaller than that of I.lusitanicum (mean values 2.61 and 2.93 pg, respectively), which presented a clear interpopulational variability (mean values ranging from 2.72 to 3.00 pg). These data allowed the distinction of both taxa and confirmed the existence of two well differentiated groups within I. lusitanicum: one that includes the populations from the right bank of the Tejo and Samarra drainages, and another that reunites the southern populations. The peculiar differences between the two species, presently listed as “Critically Endangered”, reinforced the importance of this study for future conservation plans. PMID:21637679

  18. Otolith morphology and hearing abilities in cave- and surface-dwelling ecotypes of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Ladich, Friedrich; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Cave fish have rarely been investigated with regard to their inner ear morphology, hearing abilities, and acoustic communication. Based on a previous study that revealed morphological differences in the saccular otolith between a cave and two surface populations of Poecilia mexicana, we checked for additional differences in utricular and lagenar otoliths and tested whether different populations have similar hearing sensitivities. We found pronounced differences in the shape of all three otoliths. Otoliths of the saccule and lagena from cave fish differed from those of surface fish in the features of the face oriented towards the sensory epithelium. In addition, otoliths of the utricle and lagena were significantly heavier in cave fish. Auditory sensitivities were measured between 100 and 1500 Hz, utilizing the auditory evoked potential recording technique. We found similar hearing abilities in cave and surface fish, with greatest sensitivity between 200 and 300 Hz. An acoustic survey revealed that neither ecotype produced species-specific sounds. Our data indicate that cave dwelling altered the otolith morphology in Atlantic mollies, probably due to metabolic differences. Different otolith morphology, however, did not affect general auditory sensitivity or acoustic behavior. PMID:20430090

  19. Parallel evolution leads to reduced shoaling behavior in two cave dwelling populations of Atlantic mollies ( Poecilia mexicana , Poeciliidae, Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Plath; Ingo Schlupp

    2008-01-01

    Shoaling behavior protects fishes from avian and piscine predation, but at the same time costs of group living arise due to\\u000a several mechanisms including increased food competition. Most cave fishes live in an environment in which avian and piscine\\u000a predators are lacking, and cave environments are often characterized by low food availability, leading to increased food competition.\\u000a Altogether, this should

  20. Male mate choice and sperm allocation in a sexual/asexual mating complex of Poecilia (Poeciliidae, Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Schlupp, I; Plath, M

    2005-01-01

    Male mate choice is critical for understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual/asexual mating complexes involving sperm-dependent, gynogenetic species. Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa) require sperm to trigger embryogenesis, but the males (e.g. Poecilia mexicana) do not contribute genes. Males benefit from mating with Amazon mollies, because such matings make males more attractive to conspecific females, but they might control the cost of such matings by providing less sperm to Amazon mollies. We examined this at the behavioural and sperm levels. P. mexicana males preferred to mate with, and transferred more sperm to conspecific females. However, if males mated with P. formosa, sperm was readily transferred. This underscores the importance of male choice in this system. PMID:17148157

  1. Male mate choice and sperm allocation in a sexual/asexual mating complex of Poecilia (Poeciliidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Schlupp, I; Plath, M

    2005-06-22

    Male mate choice is critical for understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual/asexual mating complexes involving sperm-dependent, gynogenetic species. Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa) require sperm to trigger embryogenesis, but the males (e.g. Poecilia mexicana) do not contribute genes. Males benefit from mating with Amazon mollies, because such matings make males more attractive to conspecific females, but they might control the cost of such matings by providing less sperm to Amazon mollies. We examined this at the behavioural and sperm levels. P. mexicana males preferred to mate with, and transferred more sperm to conspecific females. However, if males mated with P. formosa, sperm was readily transferred. This underscores the importance of male choice in this system. PMID:17148157

  2. Parallel evolution leads to reduced shoaling behavior in two cave dwelling populations of Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae, Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2008-01-01

    Shoaling behavior protects fishes from avian and piscine predation, but at the same time costs of group living arise due to several mechanisms including increased food competition. Most cave fishes live in an environment in which avian and piscine predators are lacking, and cave environments are often characterized by low food availability, leading to increased food competition. Altogether, this should

  3. The role of sexual harassment in cave and surface dwelling populations of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Plath; Jakob Parzefall; Ingo Schlupp

    2003-01-01

    Sexual coercion is a common behaviour for males trying to compensate for being inferior in male competition and\\/or female choice. We measured the cost of male sexual harassment for females as reduced feeding time in three populations of the Atlantic molly ( Poecilia mexicana). Of these populations, one originated from a typical river habitat, another from a lightless cave chamber

  4. Sexual selection in darkness? Female mating preferences in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Plath; Jakob Parzefall; Kay E. Körner; Ingo Schlupp

    2004-01-01

    In many species, females prefer large males as mating partners. Male size can easily be determined visually. We examined how such mate choice evolves when individuals are deprived of sensory information previously used to determine male quality. Using a cave-dwelling population of Atlantic mollies, Poecilia mexicana, as a model, we asked whether the female mating preference for large male body

  5. Crevice spawning behavior in Dionda dichroma , with comments on the evolution of spawning modes in North American shiners (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Mayden; Andrew M. Simons

    2002-01-01

    The crevice spawning behavior of Diondadichroma is described for the first time, andcompared to spawning behavior in the genusCyprinella. The evolution of crevice spawningwith respect to other spawning behaviors ofNorth American shiners is examined usingexplicitly phylogenetic hypotheses for thisgroup. We present evidence that broadcastspawning is plesiomorphic and all otherspawning behaviors are independently derived. There is evidence that crevice spawning hasevolved

  6. Evolutionary history of the synbranchid eels (Teleostei: Synbranchidae) in Central America and the Caribbean islands inferred from their molecular phylogeny

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Perdices; I. Doadrio; E. Bermingham

    2005-01-01

    Swamp eels of the genera Synbranchus and Ophisternon are secondary freshwater fishes whose biogeography provides evidence of their long residence in Mesoamerica, while their impoverished species-level taxonomy might suggest a more recent diversification or a conservative morphology. We have inferred the phylogenetic relationships of Synbranchus marmoratus and Ophisternon aenigmaticum from 45 drainages throughout South, Central America, and Cuba based on

  7. Reproductive biology of Ilisha elongata (Teleostei: Pristigasteridae) in Ariake Sound, Japan: Implications for estuarine fish conservation in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Takita, Toru; Zhang, Chunguang

    2009-01-01

    Elongate ilisha ( Ilisha enlongata) is a commercially important species that contributes to clupeoid fisheries in Asian countries. In the present study, the reproductive biology of I. elongata in Ariake Sound, Japan is determined for the first time. Six maturity stages were described using ovarian and testicular histology throughout the annual cycle. The spawning season in Ariake Sound lasts from May to July, with peak spawning activity in May and June. Age at first maturity was estimated to be 2 years, with a few exceptions of 1 year in well-developed males. Ovaries that contained both tertiary yolk oocytes and postovulatory follicles occurred from late May to late July, indicating that I. elongata is a multiple spawner. The size-frequency distribution of oocytes provided evidence for its multiple spawning and accuracy of the fecundity estimates. The batch fecundity of this species was estimated at between 22,200 and 270,900 eggs per individual, increasing with age between two and six years. The present findings on the reproductive strategy of I. elongata in Ariake Sound are generally consistent with those in temperate or subtropical populations, but quite different from those of tropical population where first maturation occurs around 200 days and life spans are shorter, with a maximum age less than 3 years. The conservation implications of this reproductive strategy in a harsh, variable environment in Asian countries are also discussed.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of North American western chubs of the genus Gila (Cyprinidae, Teleostei), with emphasis on southern species.

    PubMed

    Schönhuth, Susana; Perdices, Anabel; Lozano-Vilano, Lourdes; García-de-León, Francisco J; Espinosa, Héctor; Mayden, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    Species of Gila comprise a heterogeneous and widespread group of freshwater fishes inhabiting drainage systems of western North America. The classification of species of Gila and relatives has been complicated and sometimes compromised by differences in body shapes, sizes, habitats, variable taxonomic placement by early taxonomists, and instances of hypothesized hybridization. While most attention on Gila has focused on hybridization in USA, little is actually know about their intra and intergeneric relationships. We present a molecular phylogeny using 173 specimens for all 19 recognized species of Gila, covering their entire distributions in 31 major drainages. Using one mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, specimens of Gila were analyzed with 10 other North American genera that comprise the Revised Western Clade. All analyses identified most species of Gila in a lineage that always included the monotypic genera Moapa and Acrocheilus, and we recommend the synonymy of both genera with Gila. The composition of this Gila lineage varied depending on the genes analyzed. Within the Gila lineage, similar morphotypes (forms adapted to fast currents vs. general forms) were not resolved as closest relatives. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA resolved all species of Gila from Mexico in reciprocally monophyletic clades except G. modesta. Most species of Gila in the USA were nested in 3 major clades, potentially indicating some level of historic or contemporary interspecific hybridization. Herein, we redefine the ranges for all species of Gila in Mexico. Relevant taxonomic and conservation implications stemming from the results are discussed. PMID:24096056

  9. Ovarian follicular atresia is mediated by heterophagy, autophagy, and apoptosis in Prochilodus argenteus and Leporinus taeniatus (Teleostei: Characiformes).

    PubMed

    Santos, H B; Thomé, R G; Arantes, F P; Sato, Y; Bazzoli, N; Rizzo, E

    2008-12-01

    We investigated apoptosis, cell proliferation antigen (PCNA), and heat shock protein (HSP70) during ovarian follicular atresia in two freshwater teleost species from the São Francisco River basin, Brazil: curimatã-pacu, Prochilodus argenteus and piau-jejo, Leporinus taeniatus. Fishes were maintained in captivity after the reproductive period and ovarian regression was assessed by gonadosomatic index for three stages: early, advanced, and late regression. Follicular atresia was analysed by light and transmission electron microscopy, as well as by TUNEL and immunohistochemistry for HSP70 and PCNA. During early regression, atretic follicles exhibited zona pellucida breakdown, yolk degeneration, and hypertrophied follicular cells (e.g., granulosa in mammals). Intense heterophagy to engulf the yolk, and autophagy were detected in the follicular cells during advanced and late atresia. The TUNEL assay detected DNA fragmentation, mainly in late follicular atresia. The apoptosis rate of the follicular cells increased up to 10% during follicular atresia in both species and was negatively correlated with follicular area. Immunohistochemistry reaction for HSP70 stained the follicular cells strongly during advanced atresia, when they are intensively involved in yolk engulfment, whereas the reaction for PCNA labelled theca cells. We inferred that heterophagy, autophagy, and apoptosis contributed to follicular atresia in teleost ovaries, thereby achieving a more efficient removal of the degenerating oocyte and dying follicular cells. Additionally, HSP70 may protect the follicular cells before apoptosis when they are involved in yolk engulfment, and cell proliferation in the theca contributed to ovarian remodelling. PMID:18701155

  10. Molecular and cytogenetic analysis of the telomeric (TTAGGG) n repetitive sequences in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joyce S. K. Chew; Claudio Oliveira; Jonathan M. Wright; Melanie J. Dobson

    2002-01-01

    The majority of chromosomes in Oreochromis niloticus, as with most fish karyotyped to date, cannot be individually identified owing to their small size. As a first step in establishing a physical map for this important aquaculture species of tilapia we have analyzed the location of the vertebrate telomeric repeat sequence, (TTAGGG)n, in O. niloticus. Southern blot hybridization analysis and a

  11. Species Flock in the North American Great Lakes: Molecular Ecology of Lake Nipigon Ciscoes (Teleostei: Coregonidae: Coregonus)

    E-print Network

    Bernatchez, Louis

    Species Flock in the North American Great Lakes: Molecular Ecology of Lake Nipigon Ciscoes #12;SPECIES FLOCK IN THE NORTH AMERICAN GREAT LAKES: MOLECULAR ECOLOGY OF LAKE NIPIGON CISCOES poly~norphismsobserved among the North American Great Lakes ciscoes suggest that this fish group has

  12. Clinal variation at microsatellite loci reveals historical secondary intergradation between glacial races of Coregonus artedi (Teleostei: Coregoninae).

    PubMed

    Turgeon, J; Bernatchez, L

    2001-11-11

    Classical models of the spatial structure of population genetics rely on the assumption of migration-drift equilibrium, which is seldom met in natural populations having only recently colonized their current range (e.g., postglacial). Population structure then depicts historical events, and counfounding effects due to recent secondary contact between recently differentiated lineages can further counfound analyses of association between geographic and genetic distances. Mitochondrial polymorphisms have revealed the existence of two closely related lineages of the lake cisco, Coregonus artedi, whose significantly different but overlaping geographical distributions provided a weak signal of past range fragmentation blurred by putative subsequent extensive secondary contacts. In this study, we analyzed geographical patterns of genetic variation at seven microsatellite loci among 22 populations of lake cisco located along the axis of an area covered by proglacial lakes 12,000-8,000 years ago in North America. The results clearly confirmed the existence of two genetically distinct races characterized by different sets of microsatellite alleles whose frequencies varied clinally across some 3000 km. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium analyses of isolation by distance revealed historical signal of gene flow resulting from the nearly complete admixture of these races following neutral secondary contacts in their historical habitat and indicated that the colonization process occurred by a stepwise expansion of an eastern (Atlantic) race into a previously established Mississippian race. This historical signal of equilibrium contrasted with the current migration-drift disequilibrium within major extant watersheds and was apparently maintained by high effective population sizes and low migration regimes. PMID:11794787

  13. Apistogramma ortegai (Teleostei: Cichlidae), a new species of cichlid fish from the Ampyiacu River in the Peruvian Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Britzke, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Kullander, Sven O

    2014-01-01

    Apistogramma ortegai, new species, is described from small streams tributaries of the Ampiyacu River near Pebas, in eastern Peru. It belongs to the Apistogramma regani species group and is distinguished from all other species of Apistogramma by the combination of contiguous caudal spot to bar 7, presence of abdominal stripes, short dorsal-fin lappets in both sexes, absence of vertical stripes on the caudal fin, and reduced number of predorsal and prepelvic scales. PMID:25283927

  14. Comparative cytogenetics of ten species of cichlid fishes (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from the Araguaia River system, Brazil, by conventional cytogenetic methods.

    PubMed

    Valente, G Targino; Vitorino, C de Andrade; Cabral-de-Mello, D C; Oliveira, C; Souza, I Lima; Martins, C; Venere, P C

    2012-01-01

    Cichlids represent one of the most species-rich families of fishes and have attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists due to the rapid radiation occurring in some groups and the importance of some species in the world aquaculture. Cytogenetic analysis was conducted in 10 cichlid species from the Araguaia River, Amazon Basin, Brazil. The chromosome number was 2n=48 for all analyzed species except for Laetacara araguaiae Ottoni et Costa, 2009 (2n=44). Chromosomal polymorphism was detected only in Geophagus proximus (Castelnau, 1855), which exhibits an extra large submetacentric and and a dot-like chromosomes. Moreover, the C-banding revealed a general pericentromeric heterochromatic pattern and some additional blocks for some species. The heterochromatic blocks corresponding to AgNOR bearing regions were observed in all species and also corresponded to CMA3 positive blocks, which were observed in terminal regions. Besides the general conserved chromosomal and heterochromatin patterns for South American cichlids, the presence of GC-rich heterochromatin was quite different in the species Biotodoma cupido (Heckel, 1840), Geophagus proximus, Retroculus lapidifer (Castelnau, 1855), Crenicichla strigata Günther, 1862 and Heros efasciatus Heckel, 1840. The results suggest that independent events of heterochromatin modification occurred during chromosome evolution in the group, regardless of the conservation of macro-chromosomal structure. PMID:24260660

  15. Early development of the postcranial skeleton of the pikeperch Sander lucioperca (Teleostei: Percidae) relating to developmental stages and growth.

    PubMed

    Ott, Alice; Löffler, Jasmin; Ahnelt, Harald; Keckeis, Hubert

    2012-08-01

    The early development of the postcranial skeleton (pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, vertebral column and fins) in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca (L.)) was studied from hatching to days 47 and 43 post fertilization (dpf) at two different rearing temperatures, 15.5 and 18.0°C. Four embryonic and six larval stages were described, ranging from 3.4 ± 0.3 mm to 21.8 ± 2.1 mm in total length. The crucial point in larval development is swimbladder inflation, which enables larvae to swim energy efficiently. Until this time point, only the most essential skeletal elements to enable swimming movements have developed. As the larvae become neutrally buoyant, they grow and differentiate postcranial elements rapidly. Concurrently, swimming performance and foraging success seems to improve. A specific size is correlated with a distinct developmental stage defined by a set of traits that includes the skeletal elements. The developmental sequence of skeletal structures is temperature independent, although growth is slower and the individual developmental stages are reached later at 15.5°C than at 18.0°C. PMID:22505228

  16. Intergeneric Spawning Between Captive Female Sacramento Perch (Archoplites interruptus) and Male Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestrus), Teleostei: Centrarchidae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel I. Bolnick; Chris E. Miller

    2006-01-01

    The North American freshwater fish family Centrarchidae is well known for extensive natural hybridization, but there are no reports of voluntary spawning between genera. We document courtship and spawning in an aquarium between two separate pairs of a male Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestris) and a female Sacramento Perch (Archoplites interruptus). One trial resulted in a low frequency of fertilized eggs,

  17. Neoplecostomus doceensis: a new loricariid species (Teleostei, Siluriformes) from the rio Doce basin and comments about its putative origin

    PubMed Central

    Roxo, Fábio F.; Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Zawadzki, Cláudio H.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Neoplecostomus is described from the rio Doce basin representing the first species of this genus in the basin. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by having enlarged, fleshy folds between dentaries, two or three series of developed papillae anterior to premaxillary teeth and a adipose-fin membrane present, and by lacking enlarged odontodes along snout lateral margins in mature males, a well-developed dorsal-fin spinelet wider than dorsal-fin spine base, lower number of lateral-line figs and developed membrane on the dorsal portion of the first, second and third pelvic-fin branched rays. Additionally, we present a brief discussion of biogeographic scenarios that may explain the distribution of the new species in the rio Doce basin. We suggested that the ancestral lineage of the new species reached the rio Doce from the upper portions of rio Paraná drainages about 3.5 Mya (95% HPD: 1.6–5.5) indicating a colonization route of the N. doceensis ancestral lineage from the south end of Serra do Espinhaço, probably as a result of headwater capture processes between the upper rio Paraná and rio Doce basins. PMID:25317064

  18. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters.

    PubMed

    Hermida, M; Cruz, C; Saraiva, A

    2014-06-01

    A study was carried out on the gastrointestinal helminth communities of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from the Portuguese mainland and island waters. Fifteen helminth parasite species were detected, including the following new records in this host: the digeneans Accacladocoelium petasiporum, Brachyenteron helicoleni, Glomericirrus macrouri, Lecithocladium excisum, Lepocreadium album and Pachycreadium carnosum; the nematode Camallanus sp. and the acanthocephalan Rhadinorhynchus pristis. Infection levels were generally low. Samples from mainland waters had a significantly higher prevalence of digeneans than those from the islands, probably due to the greater availability of invertebrate intermediate hosts on the continental slope. The helminth community of P. bogaraveo from Azores was diverse but mostly composed of species that infected no more than a single host, whereas in Madeira the helminth community was very depauperate. Most helminth species exhibited niche preferences within the gastrointestinal tract of the host. Higher functional richness and evenness were obtained in helminth communities of P. bogaraveo from mainland waters, indicating a balanced use of available resources, which is suggestive of more stable gastrointestinal helminth communities in these waters. PMID:23182041

  19. Pseudolamproglena boxshalli sp. n. (Lernaeidae: Lamprogleninae) parasitic on gills of Cyprinion macrostomum (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from the Tigris River, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Nasiri, Fatima S; Ho, Ju-Shey; Mhaisen, Furhan T

    2012-12-01

    Abstract: A new species of lamproglenine copepods, Pseudolamproglena boxshalli sp. n., is described from gills of the cyprinid fish Cyprinion macrostomum Heckel from the Tigris River in Tikreet, north of Baghdad, Iraq. This is the second species of Pseudolamproglena from Iraq and the fourth in the world. It differs from its three congeners mainly in the armature ofantennule, maxilla, maxilliped, legs 1-4 and caudal ramus. PMID:23327013

  20. En expansin acelerada: el Premio Nobel de Fsica 2011

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Luis F.

    , Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Un Universo en expansión En 1929 el astrónomo estadounidense Edwin Hubble había acumulado observaciones de 24 galaxias que le permitieron cambiar nuestra concepción del estrellas, la Vía Láctea. Pero a Hubble no le interesaba entender a nuestra galaxia sino a las ga- laxias

  1. Conservation Genetics 4: 6781, 2003. 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

    E-print Network

    Bernatchez, Louis

    and phylogenetic analyses have resulted in major polytomy among the 8 taxa of the "Coregonus artedi" species. 67 Reticulate evolution and phenotypic diversity in North American ciscoes, Coregonus ssp. (Teleostei words: conservation, Coregonus, ESU, microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA, reticulate evolution Abstract

  2. Trophic Apparatus in Cyprinodontiform Fishes: Functional Specializations for Picking and

    E-print Network

    Gibb, Alice C.

    (Teleostei) are generally considered to be a group of generalized ``midwater omnivores'' feeding on small and mechanisms found within the group. Though some cyprinodontiform fishes are indeed mid-water omnivores (e

  3. Behav Ecol Sociobiol (2003) 54:303309 DOI 10.1007/s00265-003-0625-0

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    2003-01-01

    populations of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei) Received: 18 February 2003 populations of the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana). Of these populations, one originated from a typical. Keywords Belostoma · Cave-fish · Mating tactics · Poecilia mexicana · Sexual harassment Introduction

  4. Author's personal copy Research paper

    E-print Network

    Ladich, Friedrich

    -dwelling ecotypes of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei: Poeciliidae) Tanja Schulz-Mirbach a of Poecilia mexicana, we checked for additional differences in utricular and lagenar otoliths and tested ecotypes of the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mex-

  5. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 118 Pictorial Guide to the Groupers

    E-print Network

    subcategories of the Technical Report series: "Special Scientific Report- Fisheries" and "Circular." CopiesNOAA Technical Report NMFS 118 Pictorial Guide to the Groupers (Teleostei: Serranidae A. Schmitten Assistant Administrator for Fisheries The NOAA Technical Report NMFS (ISSN 0892

  6. Annotated list of the entomophagous complex associated with pear psylla, Psylla pyri (L.)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    punctillum (Weise), Scymnus rubromaculatus (Goeze), S. subvillosus (Goeze), Coccinella septempunctata L. (Col (Weise), Scymnus rubro- maculatus (Goeze), S. subvillosus (Goeze), Coccinella septempunctata L. (Col

  7. Observing Sites in NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muriel, H.

    En esta comunicacion se propone revisar la importancia que los grandes relevamientos de galaxias y los diferentes catalogos que de ellos se derivan, tienen en los estudios sobre estructura y evolucion del Universo.

  8. An empirical test of freshwater vicariance via river capture.

    PubMed

    Burridge, Christopher P; Craw, Dave; Waters, Jonathan M

    2007-05-01

    River capture is a geomorphological process through which stream sections are displaced from one catchment to another, and it may represent a dominant facilitator of interdrainage transfer and cladogenesis in freshwater-limited taxa. However, few studies have been conducted in a manner to explicitly test the biological significance of river capture. Here we present a multispecies phylogeographical analysis to test whether the nonmigratory fish fauna of the Von River (South Island, New Zealand) is the product of a well-documented, Late Quaternary capture of a section of the Oreti River (Southland drainage). Specifically, we predict that nonmigratory fishes of the Von River will exhibit closer genetic affinities with those of Southland, rather than those of the Clutha system, into which the Von River presently drains. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography (control region and cytochrome b sequence data) and analysis of nuclear orthologues of mtDNA sequences indicate that 'flathead'Galaxias of the Von River (n = 31, three sites) have greatest genetic affinities with those of Southland (Galaxias 'southern', n = 216, 38 sites), rather than with those of the Clutha River (Galaxias sp. 'D', n = 73, 32 sites). Likewise, Von River 'roundhead'Galaxias (n = 52, four sites) have greatest genetic affinities with those of Southland drainages (Galaxias gollumoides, n = 223, 58 sites), rather than with those of the Clutha River (Galaxias pullus, Galaxias anomalus, Galaxias gollumoides of the Nevis tributary; n = 68, 32 sites). These findings are consistent with our predictions that genetic affinities of the nonmigratory fish fauna in the Von River would reflect past, rather than present, drainage connections. Consequently, river capture is responsible for the nonmigratory fish fauna of the Von River. In a broader context, river capture has frequently influenced the distribution of genetic lineages among catchments in New Zealand freshwater-limited fish, and its biogeographical significance may have been underestimated in other regions. PMID:17444899

  9. Sistemas de cúmulos globulares extragalácticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describen las características de los sistemas de cúmulos globulares asociados a galaxias elípticas en una variedad de medios y, en particular, aquellas vinculadas con la distribución espacial, frecuencia específica y composición química. Esta discusión se hace dentro de un conjunto de esquemas orientados a explicar las primeras fases de la formación de las galaxias dominantes en cúmulos y del rol de los sistemas de cúmulos globulares en esos procesos.

  10. Use of molecular genetics and functional genomics to: (i) Understand dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) resistance in Drosophila melanogaster and (ii) identify vulnerable target gene systems in Pediculus humanus humanus (body louse) and Callosobrucus maculatus (Cowpea weevil)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joao Helbert Ferreira Pedra

    2004-01-01

    Recent advance in insect science has facilitated the understanding of complex insecticide metabolic systems and opened the possibility of finding new targets for managing insect populations. I discuss the use of molecular biology, population genetics and functional genomics to understand two mechanisms of DDT resistance in Drosophila melanogaster: target site insensitivity and metabolic resistance. In the first chapter, a study

  11. The efficacy of four seed powders and the essential oils as protectants of cowpea and maize grains against infestation by Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricus) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. U. Okonkwo; W. I. Okoye

    1996-01-01

    Seed powders and the essential oils of Dennettia tripetela Baker F., Piper guineense Schum and Thonn, Mondora myristica (Gaerth) Dunal and Xylopia aethiopica Dunal A. Rich were evaluated for their effectiveness in protecting cowpea and maize grains during storage. D. tripetela powder mixed with maize grains, at 1.5 g per 25 g was significantly more effective (P < 0.05) than

  12. Partitioning of Habitat and Prey by Abundant and Similar-sized Species of the Triglidae and Pempherididae (Teleostei) in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platell, M. E.; Potter, I. C.

    1999-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether certain co-occurring and abundant species of the teleost families Triglidae and Pempherididae are segregated spatially and/or by diet, and are thus less likely to be susceptible to competition for resources. Nocturnal otter trawling in shallow (5-15 m) and deeper (20-35 m) waters in four regions along ˜200 km of the south-western Australian coastline collected large numbers of a wide size range of the triglids Lepidotrigla modestaand Lepidotrigla papilioand the pempheridids Pempheris klunzingeriand Parapriacanthus elongatus. Although these four species frequently co-occurred at several sites, each species attained its highest density at different sites, thereby representing a partial segregation of these species by habitat. This even occurred with the congeneric triglid species, with L. modestabeing most abundant in the four deep, offshore sites, while L. papiliowas most numerous at three sites which varied in depth and distance from shore. Although triglids and pempheridids both consumed substantial amounts of amphipods and mysids, only the members of the latter family ingested a large amount of errant polychaetes. The latter difference is assumed to reflect the fact that, in comparison with triglids, pempheridids can swim faster, have a mouth adapted for feeding upwards in the water column and feed at night when errant polychaetes emerge from the substratum. Although the dietary compositions of L. modestaand L. papiliodid not differ significantly when analyses were based on dietary data for all sites, they did differ significantly when analyses were restricted to dietary data obtained when both species were abundant and co-occurred. The likelihood of competition for food is thus reduced in the latter circumstances. In comparison with P. klunzingeri, P. elongatusconsumed a relatively larger volume of amphipods and a relatively smaller volume of mysids, which are more mobile, implying that P. elongatusfeeds to a greater extent on rather than above the substratum surface. The diets of all species underwent ontogenetic changes, which were particularly marked in P. klunzingeriwhere an increase in body size was accompanied by a reduced consumption of mysids and an increased ingestion of errant polychaetes and amphipods. The fact that L. modesta, L. papilio, P. klunzingeriand P. elongatusare partially segregated by habitat and feed on suites of prey which differ in composition, allied with an interfamilial difference in the time of feeding, would reduce the likelihood of competition for resources amongst these four species, when they co-occur and are abundant. Furthermore, ontogenetic changes in diet would reduce the potential for intraspecific competition for food.

  13. Cryptic speciation within the Neotropical cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Teleostei Cichlidae): a new paradigm in karyotypical and molecular evolution.

    PubMed

    Alves-Silva, Ana Paula; Dergam, Jorge Abdala

    2015-02-01

    The family Cichlidae is one of the most species-rich taxa in the Neotropics. However, the factors that determine these high levels of biodiversity remain unexplored. We have analyzed the morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular data from 62 specimens of a widespread cichlid, Geophagus brasiliensis, from three adjacent basins in southeastern Brazil. Morphological analyses did not show differences among specimens. The cytogenetic data indicate the occurrence of multiple nucleolar organizer regions and four sympatric karyotypes that differ in the first pair of chromosome morphology, in the Doce River Basin; whereas the karyotype from the Paraíba do Sul Basin is widely divergent. The molecular data--616 bp fragment of cytochrome oxidase subunit I--revealed two haplogroups with the deepest genetic divergence (6.4%) ever reported within a nominal species in the Neotropical Region: One of the haplogroups is restricted to the quaternary lakes in the middle portion of the Doce Basin and the Mucuri River, whereas the other haplogroup is composed of haplotypes from elsewhere in the Doce Basin and the Paraíba do Sul Basin. These patterns suggest that G. brasiliensis undergoes a cryptic speciation process involving three major lineages that differ from the African explosive cichlid radiation. PMID:25495140

  14. Taxonomic review of the species of Mugil (Teleostei: Perciformes: Mugilidae) from the Atlantic South Caribbean and South America, with integration of morphological, cytogenetic and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Naércio A; Nirchio, Mauro; De Oliveira, Cláudio; Siccharamirez, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of morphological, molecular and cytological data helped to define and more precisely characterize the species of Mugil from the Atlantic coasts of South Caribbean and South America, allowing a correction of prior misidentifications and distributional ranges. A new species from Venezuela is described and all the species from the area are redescribed. It is demonstrated that the apparent similarity in morphological traits, which contradicted the results from recent molecular studies, is the result of the misuse of traditional morphological characters, and thus both the molecular and cytological data instead are congruent with the morphological differences that are found among mullet species. The presence of Mugil hospes Jordan & Culver in the western south Atlantic is refuted based on the comparison of type material of this species with specimens from this area that also indicated a very significant morphological difference, what on the other hand justifies the recognition of these specimens as Mugil brevirostris (Ribeiro). The distribution of Mugil incilis Hancock is restricted and the similarities among the species formerly depicted in a prior dendrogram is modified following the inclusion of recently obtained molecular data for Mugil curvidens Valenciennes. PMID:25781080

  15. Evaluation of genotoxicity using the micronucleus assay and nuclear abnormalities in the tropical sea fish Bathygobius soporator (Valenciennes, 1837) (Teleostei, Gobiidae)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities assays have been used increasingly to evaluate genotoxicity of many compounds in polluted aquatic ecossystems. The aim of this study is to verify the efficiency of the micronucleus assay and nuclear abnormality assay in field and laboratory work, when using erythrocytes of the tropical marine fish Bathygobius soporator as genotoxicity biomarkers. Gill peripheral blood samples were obtained from specimens of Bathygobius soporator. In order to investigate the frequencies of micronuclei and to assess the sensitivity of species, the results were compared with samples taken at the reference site and maintained in the laboratory, and fish treated with cyclophosphamide. The micronucleus assay was efficient in demonstrating field pollution and reproducing results in the labotatory. There were significant higher frequencies of micronuclei in two sites subject to discharge of urban and industrial effluents. The nuclear abnormality assay did not appear to be an efficient tool for genotoxicity evaluation when compared with field samples taken at a reference site in laboratory, with a positive control. PMID:21637697

  16. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences?

    PubMed Central

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-01-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed. PMID:25606392

  17. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-12-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed. PMID:25606392

  18. Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes) species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses

    PubMed Central

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Kowasupat, Chanon; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Wanna, Warapond; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Kühne, Jens; Fasquel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Fighting fish species in the genus Betta are found in several Southeast Asian countries. Depending on the mode of paternal care for fertilized eggs and hatchlings, various species of the betta fish are classified as mouth brooders or nest builders whose members in turn have been grouped according to their similarities mainly in morphology. The mouth brooders as well as some nest builders involved in the present study include fishes discovered and identified subsequent to previous reports on species groupings and their positions on phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences that differ from those used by us in this study. From the mitochondrial COI gene and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences and more accurate analyses we conclude that the following members of the mouth-brooding pairs, named differently previously, are virtually identical, viz the Betta prima–Betta pallida pair and Betta ferox–Betta apollon pair. The Bettasimplex, hitherto believed to be one species, could possibly be genetically split into 2 distinct species. In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships. PMID:25606468

  19. Effects of orally administered chemotherapeutics (quinine, salinomycin) against Henneguya sp. Thelohán, 1892 (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), a gill parasite in the tapir fish Gnathonemus petersii Günther, 1862 (Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelika Dohle; Günter Schmahl; Wolfgang Raether; Hartmut Schmidt; Günter Ritter

    2002-01-01

    When given orally, quinine or salinomycin cause irreversible damage to the plasmodial developmental stages of Henneguya sp., a gill parasite in the tapir fish Gnathonemus petersii. Naturally infected tapir fish measured 75-169 mm in total length and their total weight ranged over 4.3-11.7 g. The fish bore 7-77 plasmodia in their gill arches. Medicinal food containing either quinine (5 g\\/1000

  20. Effects of orally administered chemotherapeutics (quinine, salinomycin) against Henneguya sp. Thelohán, 1892 (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), a gill parasite in the tapir fish Gnathonemus petersii Günther, 1862 (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Dohle, Angelika; Schmahl, Günter; Raether, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Hartmut; Ritter, Günter

    2002-09-01

    When given orally, quinine or salinomycin cause irreversible damage to the plasmodial developmental stages of Henneguya sp., a gill parasite in the tapir fish Gnathonemus petersii. Naturally infected tapir fish measured 75-169 mm in total length and their total weight ranged over 4.3-11.7 g. The fish bore 7-77 plasmodia in their gill arches. Medicinal food containing either quinine (5 g/1000 g food) or salinomycin (0.075 g/1000 g food) was given once a day to naturally infected fish in a food chain via water fleas ( Daphnia spp) for a period of 3, 6, or 9 days. From the monitored feeding of the tapir fish and weight determinations of the water fleas, it was calculated that gross uptake was 18.5 micro g/kg body weight fish daily for pure salinomycin and was 1.25 mg/kg body weight daily for quinine. After the end of the experiments, the fish were sacrificed and the plasmodia were carefully prepared from the gill arches and processed for transmission electron microscopy. As seen by ultrastructure investigations, for both substances the grade of damage in the parasites correlated positively with the period of application. When quinine was given for a 3-day period, the trophozoite ecto- and endoplasm exerted numerous vacuoles, caused by the drug, and the presporogonous and the pansporoblastic stages were malformed. Following a 6-day period, numerous abortive polar capsules were found in the trophozoite cytoplasm. To a large extent, the limiting membranes of the polaroblasts and valvogenic cells were destroyed. In addition, deep clefts between the polaroblasts, the valvogenic cells and between the two sporoblasts were observed. Following a 9-day treatment, all damage increased and, in addition, generative cells and two-cell stages were no longer detectable. As a first sign for the effects of salinomycin, following a 3-day treatment, a shrinking of the whole plasmodia occurred and the sutures in the pansporoblasts were enlarged. The polar capsules were malformed and the zonar structures of the polar filament were no longer detectable. The sporoplasmosomes were more electron-pale than those of the control samples. After a 9-day treatment, the pansporoblasts were completely destroyed. Under the experimental conditions chosen, both compounds were very well tolerated by the fishes. PMID:12172820

  1. Effects of cypermethrin chronic exposure and water temperature on survival, growth, sex differentiation, and gonadal developmental stages of Odontesthes bonariensis (Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Carriquiriborde; Juan Díaz; Gabriela C. López; Alicia E. Ronco; Gustavo M. Somoza

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of cypermethrin and temperature on the survival, growth, sex differentiation, and gonadal development of Odontesthes bonariensis, a gonochoristic teleost with a strong thermolabile sex differentiation. Two complementary trials were conducted. In the first trial, newly hatched larvae were exposed during six weeks to 0 or 0.1?gL?1 of cypermethrin at 17, 22, and 29°C. In the

  2. The Afro-Asian labeonine genus Garra Hamilton, 1822 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the Pliocene of Central Armenia: Palaeoecological and palaeobiogeographical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Carnevale, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Fossil skeletal remains of the Afro-Asian labeonine genus Garra are described on the basis of more than 300 specimens from the Pliocene diatomites of Jradzor, Central Armenia. Extant species of the genus Garra exhibit a wide distribution ranging from China, South Asia, and Borneo, through Middle East, the Arabian Peninsula, and Africa, where these fishes inhabit a variety of freshwater biotopes. The Pliocene fossils from the Jradzor site provide the first evidence of Garra in the fossil record. The inadequate preservation of the available material did not allow a detailed taxonomic attribution at the species level. Remains of Garra sp. were found associated to a moderately diverse assemblage, which includes also remains of additional freshwater fishes (Capoeta sp., Leuciscus cf. souffia, Leuciscus sp.), amphibians (Pelophylax cf. ridibundus), and large mammals (Rhinocerotidae indet.), as well as of monocotyledon plants. According to the diatom flora, the diatomites of Jradzor can be assigned to the Pliocene and were deposited in a freshwater lacustrine setting that was characterized by high productivity, eutrophic conditions, and standing macrophyte vegetation along the littoral zone. The presence of abundant resorptive pharyngeal teeth suggests that the Pliocene palaeolake of Jradzor was characterized by resident populations of Garra. Extant species of this genus are currently absent in the freshwaters of Armenia. The record of the genus Garra from Jradzor suggests that the Araks-Kura River drainage was connected, at least in part, with the Euphrates and Tigris River drainage during the Pliocene. The extinction of Garra (and other thermophilous taxa) from Araks and Kura River drainage was probably due to Plio-Pleistocene tectonic uplift of the Armenian Highland and consequent progressive climate cooling.

  3. Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes) species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses.

    PubMed

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Kowasupat, Chanon; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Wanna, Warapond; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Kühne, Jens; Fasquel, Frédéric

    2014-12-01

    Fighting fish species in the genus Betta are found in several Southeast Asian countries. Depending on the mode of paternal care for fertilized eggs and hatchlings, various species of the betta fish are classified as mouth brooders or nest builders whose members in turn have been grouped according to their similarities mainly in morphology. The mouth brooders as well as some nest builders involved in the present study include fishes discovered and identified subsequent to previous reports on species groupings and their positions on phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences that differ from those used by us in this study. From the mitochondrial COI gene and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences and more accurate analyses we conclude that the following members of the mouth-brooding pairs, named differently previously, are virtually identical, viz the Betta prima-Betta pallida pair and Betta ferox-Betta apollon pair. The Betta simplex, hitherto believed to be one species, could possibly be genetically split into 2 distinct species. In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships. PMID:25606468

  4. Expression of a low-molecular-weight (10 kDa) calcium binding protein in glial cells of the brain of the trout (Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Jesús Manso; Manuela Becerra; Manuel Becerra; Ramón Anadón

    1997-01-01

    Calcium-binding proteins of the EF-hand family are widely distributed in the vertebrate central nervous system. In the present\\u000a study of the trout brain, immunocytochemistry with a monoclonal antibody against chick gut calbindin-28k and a polyclonal\\u000a antibody against bovine S100 protein specifically stained ependymocytes and radial glia cells with identical patterns. Western\\u000a blot analysis of trout brain extracts with the antibodies

  5. Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea) of Lake Tanganyika: III: Cichlidogyrus infecting the world's biggest cichlid and the non-endemic tribes Haplochromini, Oreochromini and Tylochromini (Teleostei, Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Muterezi Bukinga, Fidel; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Van Steenberge, Maarten; Pariselle, Antoine

    2012-11-01

    Lake Tanganyika is the deepest and oldest African Great Lake and of economic importance. While the diversity of its endemic cichlid radiations yielded scientific interest, a number of cichlid tribes have few representatives in the lake. Some of those, namely Oreochromini (ex-Tilapiini), Haplochromini and Tylochromini, reach higher species numbers in riverine systems. Conversely, the phylogenetic position of the monospecific and endemic Boulengerochromini is unclear. The oreochromines Oreochromis tanganicae and Oreochromis niloticus, the haplochromine Astatotilapia burtoni, the tylochromine Tylochromis polylepis and the boulengerochromine Boulengerochromis microlepis, the largest cichlid species worldwide, were surveyed for ancyrocephalid monogenean gill parasites. Five new species are proposed. Cichlidogyrus gillardinae sp. n. is described from A. burtoni, Cichlidogyrus mbirizei sp. n. from O. tanganicae and Cichlidogyrus nshomboi sp. n. from B. microlepis. T. polylepis harbours Cichlidogyrus mulimbwai sp. n., Cichlidogyrus muzumanii sp. n. and a third, presently undescribed species. Four species known from outside the Tanganyika Basin were retrieved on the oreochromines. The host species are scientific models or important in the sectors of fisheries or ornamental fish trade. Moreover, their phylogenetic positions render them well-suited to help elucidate the historic relationships between riverine and lacustrine African cichlids. In this framework, their Cichlidogyrus fauna is compared to congeners known from African rivers and to the few Tanganyika representatives described. While the parasites of Oreochromis, A. burtoni and T. polylepis are reminiscent of those infecting related hosts throughout Africa, B. microlepis hosts a Cichlidogyrus morphotype typical of Lake Tanganyika. This supports its placement within an endemic cichlid radiation. PMID:22983218

  6. First description of monogenean parasites in Lake Tanganyika: the cichlid Simochromis diagramma (Teleostei, Cichlidae) harbours a high diversity of Gyrodactylus species (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea).

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Maarten P M; Snoeks, Jos; Volckaert, Filip A M; Huyse, Tine

    2011-03-01

    Lake Tanganyika harbours the most diverse endemic cichlid fish assemblage of Africa, but its monogenean fish parasites have not been investigated. Here we report, for the first time, on the Gyrodactylus parasites in this hotspot of fish biodiversity. Haptor morphometrics and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences revealed 3 new species on Zambian Simochromis diagramma: Gyrodactylus sturmbaueri n. sp., G. thysi n. sp. and G. zimbae n. sp. Their distinct morphology and strong genetic differentiation suggest that they belong to distant lineages within the genus Gyrodactylus, and phylogenetic reconstructions suggest affinities with other genera of gyrodactylids. Additional U-shaped haptoral plates in G. thysi n. sp. and a second large spine-like structure in the male copulatory organ of G. zimbae seem to represent new features for the genus. Such large diversity on a single host species can probably be explained by host-switching events during the course of evolution, in agreement with the generally accepted concept that ecological transfer is an important aspect of gyrodactylid speciation. Additional parasitological surveys on other host species, covering a broader phylogenetic and geographical range, should clarify the evolutionary history of Gyrodactylidae on cichlids in the African Great Lake and other parts of Africa. PMID:20946697

  7. Distinguishing between Incomplete Lineage Sorting and Genomic Introgressions: Complete Fixation of Allospecific Mitochondrial DNA in a Sexually Reproducing Fish (Cobitis; Teleostei), despite Clonal Reproduction of Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Choleva, Lukas; Musilova, Zuzana; Kohoutova-Sediva, Alena; Paces, Jan; Rab, Petr; Janko, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Distinguishing between hybrid introgression and incomplete lineage sorting causing incongruence among gene trees in that they exhibit topological differences requires application of statistical approaches that are based on biologically relevant models. Such study is especially challenging in hybrid systems, where usual vectors mediating interspecific gene transfers - hybrids with Mendelian heredity - are absent or unknown. Here we study a complex of hybridizing species, which are known to produce clonal hybrids, to discover how one of the species, Cobitis tanaitica, has achieved a pattern of mito-nuclear mosaic genome over the whole geographic range. We appplied three distinct methods, including the method using solely the information on gene tree topologies, and found that the contrasting mito-nuclear signal might not have resulted from the retention of ancestral polymorphism. Instead, we found two signs of hybridization events related to C. tanaitica; one concerning nuclear gene flow and the other suggested mitochondrial capture. Interestingly, clonal inheritance (gynogenesis) of contemporary hybrids prevents genomic introgressions and non-clonal hybrids are either absent or too rare to be detected among European Cobitis. Our analyses therefore suggest that introgressive hybridizations are rather old episodes, mediated by previously existing hybrids whose inheritance was not entirely clonal. Cobitis complex thus supports the view that the type of resulting hybrids depends on a level of genomic divergence between sexual species. PMID:24971792

  8. Phylogenetic structure of Zacco platypus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) populations on the upper and middle Chang Jiang (=Yangtze) drainage inferred from cytochrome b sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Perdices; C Cunha; M. M Coelho

    2004-01-01

    We examined the genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships of some Chinese populations from the Chang Jiang (=Yangtze) drainage of the cyprinid Zacco platypus. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 64 individuals from 6 upper and middle tributaries of the Sichuan and Hunan Provinces to assess their population structure and systematics. The combined analyses of the phylogenetic information

  9. The role of pelagic swarm fish (Myctophidae: Teleostei) in the oceanic life cycle of Anisakis sibling species at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Central Atlantic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Klimpel; Esra Kellermanns; Harry W. Palm

    2008-01-01

    First information is provided on the parasitation and feeding ecology of the myctophid fish species Myctophum punctatum and Notoscopelus kroyeri from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), Central Atlantic. Four different parasite species were found in both fish with a similar\\u000a high prevalence and intensity of infestation. The digeneans Gonocerca phycidis and Lethadena sp. were isolated as adults from the stomach, larval

  10. Ectopic ossicles associated with metacercariae of Apophallus brevis (Trematoda) in yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Teleostei): development and identification of bone and chondroid bone.

    PubMed

    Taylor, L H; Hall, B K; Miyake, T; Cone, D K

    1994-07-01

    This paper describes the development and tissues in mineralized ossicles in the musculature of Perca flavescens infected with metacercariae of the trematode Apophallus brevis. Analysis involved light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray scanning electron microprobe analysis, and tetracycline labelling. Two to 14 days post-infection, fibroblast-like host cells stream towards the parasite cyst forming a fusiform cellular capsule. By 14 days post-infection the capsule differentiates into an inner hypertrophied layer, an extensive middle layer of fibroblast-like cells, and a thin outer layer of flattened fibroblast-like cells forming a fibrous sheath at the capsule/muscle interface. From 21-35 days post-infection, a bony tissue is deposited periosteally in an equatorial ring around the cyst. With time, additional tissue is secreted over the ring increasing its thickness and advancing the matrix front towards the poles of the ossicle. Plump osteoblast-like cells cover the developing ossicle and may become trapped within the matrix in lacunae encapsulated by collagen. By 63 days post-infection, medium-sized ossicles are morphologically similar to large cysts from perch captured in the wild; ovoid with two polarized canals, but lacking acellular or lamellar bone-like tissue. Mineralized ossicles contain calcium, phosphorus and oxygen. Large ossicles retrieved from perch given multiple doses of tetracycline revealed discrete fluorescent bands, indicative of incremental growth. Fully developed ossicles are composed of two skeletal tissues, an inner region of chondroid bone and an outer region of acellular, lamellar bone. PMID:7985810

  11. Multisensory Contributions to the Shelter-Seeking Behavior of a Mormyrid Fish, Gnathonemus petersii Günther (Mormyridae, Teleostei): The Role of Vision, and the Passive and Active Electrosenses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Rojas; Peter Moller

    2002-01-01

    This study examined how weakly electric fish, Gnathonemus petersii, integrate multiple sensory modalities (passive and active electrosenses, and vision) to maintain proximity to tubular structures, serving as the fish’s hiding place or shelter during the daytime. By moving the shelter along a linear 2-meter path, causing a mechanical disturbance, we challenged the fish’s shelter-seeking behavior and used the length of

  12. Karyotype, C-banding and AgNORs of two endemic leuciscine fish, Pseudophoxinus crassus (Ladiges, 1960) and P. hittitorum Freyhof & Özulug, 2010 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Sevgi; Gaffaro?lu, Muhammet; Ayata, Muradiye Karasu; Yüksel, E?ref

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Pseudophoxinus Bleeker, 1860 is found in a wide range of habitats in central Anatolia, but it is not well known from a cytogenetic aspect. In this study the first karyotypic description of the spring minnows Pseudophoxinus crassus (Ladiges, 1960) and Pseudophoxinus hittitorum Freyhof & Özulug, 2010 by means of conventional methods (Giemsa staining, C-banding, silver nitrate impregnation (Ag-NORs)) was performed. Both species are endemic and have restricted distributions in Central Anatolia. Pseudophoxinus crassus and Pseudophoxinus hittitorum have the same diploid chromosome number, 2n = 50, patterns of distribution of constitutive heterochromatin (CH), and localization of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs), but differ in their karyotypic formulae (KFs). The C-banding technique revealed clear pericentromeric blocks of CH in many chromosomes; Ag-NORs treatment revealed consistent positive signals at the end of the short arms of a submetacentric chromosome pair, likely homologous in both species. The karyotypic differences found between these species can be used for their taxonomical study. PMID:25610540

  13. Redescription of Rhabdochona cotti (Nematoda, Rhabdochonidae) from Cottus caeruleomentum (Teleostei, Cottidae) in Maryland, USA, with remarks on the taxonomy of North American Rhabdochona spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    František Moravec; Patrick Muzzall

    2007-01-01

    The nematode Rhabdochona cotti Gustafson, 1949 is redescribed from specimens collected from the intestine of the blue ridge sculpin Cottus caeruleomentum (a new host record), a recently described fish species, from Little Fishing Creek in Maryland, USA. The measurements of these\\u000a specimens, collected in November 2005, are generally smaller than those reported in the original description of R. cotti, this

  14. An atlas of the distribution of NADPH-diaphorase in the brain of the highly derived swordtail fish Xiphophorus helleri (Atherinoformes:Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Anken, R H; Rahmann, H

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (or -dehydrogenase, NADPHDH, a marker for nitric oxide synthase, NOS) positive neurons was demonstrated histochemically in the central nervous system of the swordtail fish Xiphophorus helleri, a highly derived telost of the atherinomorph outgroup. All nuclei of the swordtail fish, comprising almost all nuclei that have been described so far regarding the brains of telosts in general, were investigated. The results obtained clearly indicate, that NADPHDH positive neurons in the swordtail fish mostly are restricted to evolutionary primitive brain areas such as to most dorsomedial, dorsocentral and ventral portions of the telencephalon, to the preoptic area and to some thalamic, hypothalamic and pretectal nuclei of the diencephalon including the pituitary and the pineal organ, to the nuclei of the mesencephalic and myelencephalic cranial nerves, to the myelencephalic reticular formation and to the Mauthner cells. Some positive neurons were also observed within the mesencephalon, including the cerebellar body and its valve. Among non-neuronal cells, especially ependymocytes were strongly stained. It is the particular goal of the present study to provide a complete account on NADPHDH in the brain of a fish species, since, firstly, the NADPHDH/NOS system becomes increasingly important with regard to the understanding of the molecular basis of memory formation, and, secondly, fishes generally are more and more intensively studied concerning neurobiological approaches. PMID:8872564

  15. Mobilization and recovery of energy stores in traíra, Hoplias malabaricus Bloch (Teleostei, Erythrinidae) during long-term starvation and after re-feeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flavia Sant’Anna Rios; Gilberto Moraes; Eliane Tie Oba; Marisa Narciso Fernandes; Lucélia Donatti; Ana Lúcia Kalinin; Francisco Tadeu Rantin

    2006-01-01

    In some neotropical environments, fishes often experience periods of poor food supply, especially due to extreme fluctuations in rainfall regime. The fish species that experience periods of drought such as the trara Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch 1794), may stand up to long-term food deprivation. In this study, experiments were performed in order to determine the dynamic of utilization of endogenous reserves

  16. An invasive lineage of sculpins, Cottus sp. (Pisces, Teleostei) in the Rhine with new habitat adaptations has originated from hybridization between old phylogeographic groups

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Arne W; Freyhof, Jörg; Stemshorn, Kathryn C; Tautz, Diethard

    2005-01-01

    Fish abundance surveys in the Rhine system have shown in the past two decades that there is a rapid upriver invasion of a freshwater sculpin of the genus Cottus. These fish are found in habitats that are atypical for the known species Cottus gobio, which is confined to small cold streams within the Rhine drainage. Phylogeographic analysis based on mitochondrial haplotypes and diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms indicates that the invasive sculpins are hybrids between two old lineages from the River Scheldt drainage and the River Rhine drainage, although it is morphologically more similar to the Scheldt sculpins. Most importantly, however, the invasive population possesses a unique ecological potential that does not occur in either of the source populations from the Rhine or the Scheldt, which allows the colonization of new habitats that have previously been free of sculpins. Microsatellite analysis shows that the new lineage is genetically intermediate between the old lineages and that it forms a distinct genetic group across its whole expansion range. We conclude that hybridization between long separated groups has lead to the fast emergence of a new, adaptationally distinct sculpin lineage. PMID:16243698

  17. Delimiting the Origin of a B Chromosome by FISH Mapping, Chromosome Painting and DNA Sequence Analysis in Astyanax paranae (Teleostei, Characiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Duílio M. Z. de A.; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Daniel, Sandro Natal; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Cláudio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Foresti, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    Supernumerary (B) chromosomes have been shown to contain a wide variety of repetitive sequences. For this reason, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) is a useful tool for ascertaining the origin of these genomic elements, especially when combined with painting from microdissected B chromosomes. In order to investigate the origin of B chromosomes in the fish species Astyanax paranae, these two approaches were used along with PCR amplification of specific DNA sequences obtained from the B chromosomes and its comparison with those residing in the A chromosomes. Remarkably, chromosome painting with the one-arm metacentric B chromosome probe showed hybridization signals on entire B chromosome, while FISH mapping revealed the presence of H1 histone and 18S rDNA genes symmetrically placed in both arms of the B chromosome. These results support the hypothesis that the B chromosome of A. paranae is an isochromosome. Additionally, the chromosome pairs Nos. 2 or 23 are considered the possible B chromosome ancestors since both contain syntenic H1 and 18S rRNA sequences. The analysis of DNA sequence fragments of the histone and rRNA genes obtained from the microdissected B chromosomes showed high similarity with those obtained from 0B individuals, which supports the intraspecific origin of B chromosomes in A. paranae. Finally, the population hereby analysed showed a female-biased B chromosome presence suggesting that B chromosomes in this species could influence sex determinism. PMID:24736529

  18. The influence of phenylthiourea (PTU) on the pigment epithelium and the photoreceptor cells in the developing retina of Haplochromis burtoni (Cichlidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Pietzsch-Rohrschneider, I

    1977-03-01

    The effect of phenylthiourea (PTU) on the pigment epithelium and the photoreceptor cells in the developing retina of Haplochromis burtoni was studied by electron microscopy. In the retinal pigment epithelium of 6-day old embryos, both types of melanin granule (spindle-shaped and rod-shaped) are already found. PTU inhibits the biosynthesis of melanin but does not influence the formation of premelanosomes so that in PTU-treated embryos there are no melanosomes, but an abundance of premelanosomes. The structure of the premelanosomes is described. It differs completely from that of all other vertebrates. Other changes: an increase in polysomes, retarded development of the inner segment of the photoreceptor cells and enlargement of the intercellular space between the inner and outer leaflet of the retina, may be due to a toxic effect of PTU. PMID:844080

  19. Simultaneous analysis of five molecular markers provides a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the living bony-tongue fishes (Osteoglossomorpha: Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sébastien Lavoué; John P. Sullivan

    2004-01-01

    Fishes of the Superorder Osteoglossomorpha (the “bonytongues”) constitute a morphologically heterogeneous group of basal teleosts, including highly derived subgroups such as African electric fishes, the African butterfly fish, and Old World knifefishes. Lack of consensus among hypotheses of osteoglossomorph relationships advanced during the past 30 years may be due in part to the difficulty of identifying shared derived characters among

  20. An Eocene species of Hiodon from Montana, its phylogenetic relationships, and the evolution of the postcranial skeleton in the Hiodontidae (Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Guo-Qing; Mark V. H. Wilson

    1994-01-01

    Hiodon is a Recent genus of fishes endemic to the fresh waters of North America; it is represented by two species: Hiodon tergisus Lesueur and H. alosoides (Rafinesque). Two specimens of osteoglossomorph collected from the Eocene-Oligocene Kishenehn Formation of northwestern Montana represent a new fossil species that is more closely related to the Recent Hiodon than it is to the

  1. Differential expression of myogenic regulatory factor MyoD in pacu skeletal muscle ( Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg 1887: Serrasalminae, Characidae, Teleostei) during juvenile and adult growth phases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernanda Losi Alves de Almeida; Robson Francisco Carvalho; Danillo Pinhal; Carlos Roberto Padovani; Cesar Martins; Maeli Dal Pai-Silva

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the edible part of the fish. It grows by hypertrophy and hyperplasia, events regulated by differential expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). The study of muscle growth mechanisms in fish is very important in fish farming development. Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) is one of the most important food species farmed in Brazil and has been extensively used in

  2. Phylogeography of Rhinichthys cataractae (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): pre-glacial colonization across the Great Continental Divide and Pleistocene diversification within the Rio Grande drainage

    E-print Network

    Kim, Dae Min

    2013-09-16

    ). Sequence data for samples for which I was unable to obtain in the field or from museum collections were downloaded from GenBank (Table 1). Mylocheilus caurinus was used to root trees for gene-tree analyses, based on my preliminary analyses. For gene... al. (2012) JX442987 JX443216 JX443318 Mylocheilus caurinus North Thompson River (Fraser River) – 1 Schönhuth et al. (2012) JX443008 JX443233 JX443336 11 Two independent runs of 106 generations with four chains were performed for each...

  3. Characterization of Kudoa monodactyli n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) from the Muscle of Monodactylus argenteus (Teleostei: Monodactylidae) from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Nicole L; Cribb, Thomas H; Whipps, Christopher M; Adlard, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    Kudoa monodactyli n. sp. is described from the somatic musculature of Monodactylus argenteus from several localities in southern Queensland, Australia. This is the first record of a myxozoan parasite from the family Monodactylidae. The spores typically have five polar capsules, making this species similar to the four other five-valved Kudoa species (K. neurophila, K. muscularis, K. shulmani, K. cutanea) that have been described to date. However, morphometric measurements particularly of spore length and width make the species from M. argenteus distinct from the other species. Comparison of the small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence of this species with its congeners for which sequence data are available, provides further evidence of novelty. Kudoa monodactyli n. sp. displays 38 (of 1,554) nucleotide differences compared with rDNA sequence of Kudoa neurophila, which on phylogenetic analysis places these species in clades exclusive of each other. Phylogenetic analyses also provide evidence that the number of valves per spore in this genus is an imperfect indicator of relatedness. PMID:16968455

  4. Are rapids a barrier for floodplain fishes of the Amazon basin? A demographic study of the keystone floodplain species Colossoma macropomum (Teleostei: Characiformes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Izeni Pires Farias; Juan Pablo Torrico; Carmen García-Dávila; Maria da Conceição Freitas Santos; Tomas Hrbek; Jean-François Renno

    2010-01-01

    We investigated demographic history and population structuring of Colossoma macropomum sampled from 14 localities in the Amazon basin and the Bolivian sub-basin; the two basins are separated by a series of 16 rapids. Although genetically differentiated, IMa analyses suggest non-zero bi-directional migration rates, and inter-basin divergence of approximately 17 thousand years ago. Analyses in BEAST indicated that Bolivian C. macropomum

  5. New record of the short-tailed pipefish, Microphis brachyurus brachyurus (Teleostei: Syngnathidae), with a key to the species of the family Syngnathidae from Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sang-Yun; Lee, Jun Mo; Kim, Jin-Koo

    2014-12-01

    A single specimen of Microphis brachyurus brachyurus, belonging to the family Syngnathidae, was collected for the first time in Korea (Busan) on July 10, 2013. This specimen had 35 dorsal fin rays, 20 pectoral fin rays and 9 caudal fin rays. M. brachyurus brachyurus differs from Syngnathus schlegeli, the most common pipefish in Korean waters, in its body proportions (longer trunk than tail in M. brachyurus brachyurus vs shorter trunk than tail in S. schlegeli), configuration of the lateral ridge (confluent with the inferior tail ridge vs confluent with the lateral tail ridge, respectively) and the number of caudal fin rays (9 vs 10, respectively). We suggest the new Korean names "Zzal-beun-ggo-ri-sil-go-gi-sok" for the genus Microphis and "Zzal-beun-ggo-ri-sil-go-gi" for the species M. brachyurus brachyurus.

  6. Infection levels of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea, Diplostomidae) metacercariae in Plagioscion squamosissimus (Teleostei, Sciaenidae) from the Nova Avanhandava reservoir, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paes, J V K; Carvalho, E D; da Silva, R J

    2010-09-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the infection levels of Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae in 378 specimens of Plagioscion squamosissimus ('corvina' or 'pescada branca') from the Nova Avanhandava reservoir, low Tietê River, São Paulo State, Brazil. High prevalence, mean intensity of infection and abundance were observed in P. squamosissimus during most of the study, with the exception of March 2004. The relative condition factor (Kn) did not differ between parasitized and non-parasitized fish. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between host standard length and intensity of infection. The analysis of biotic and abiotic variables showed that no abiotic variable correlated with parasitic infection levels. Moreover, P. squamosissimus status was demonstrated to be unaffected by A. compactum metacercariae infection. PMID:19889255

  7. Lack of correspondence between CMA3-, Ag-positive signals and 28S rDNA loci in two Iberian minnows (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) evidenced by sequential banding.

    PubMed

    Gromicho, M; Ozouf-Costaz, C; Collares-Pereira, M J

    2005-01-01

    Despite the growing outcome of results that put doubt upon the reliability of silver (Ag) staining and chromomycin A3 (CMA3) fluorescent banding in the detection of major ribosomal gene sites (NORs), these methods have been widely used, especially in fishes. In order to clarify the previous patterns obtained with those techniques, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 28S rDNA probe followed by sequential CMA3 and Ag staining in diploid non-hybrid males of the Squalius alburnoides complex and in Squalius pyrenaicus. The results from all the studied specimens revealed a lack of correlation between classical and molecular techniques. Not just some other regions besides NORs were stained with CMA3 and Ag, but also the majority of the 28S rDNA sites were not detected. Care should then be taken in considering CMA3- and Ag-stained sites as NORs since their accuracy for that purpose may not always correspond to the expectations. PMID:15905646

  8. Production of fertile unreduced sperm by hybrid males of the Rutilus alburnoides complex (Teleostei, cyprinidae). An alternative route to genome tetraploidization in unisexuals.

    PubMed Central

    Alves, M J; Coelho, M M; Próspero, M I; Collares-Pereira, M J

    1999-01-01

    The hybrid minnow Rutilus alburnoides comprises diploid and polyploid females and males. Previous studies revealed that diploid and triploid females exhibit altered oogenesis that does not involve random segregation and recombination of the genomes of the two ancestors, constituting unisexual lineages. In the present study, we investigated the reproductive mode of hybrid males from the Tejo basin, using experimental crosses and flow cytometric analysis of blood and sperm. The results suggest that diploid hybrids produced fertile unreduced sperm, transmitting their hybrid genome intact to offspring. Triploid hybrids also produced unreduced sperm, but it was not possible to obtain data concerning their fertility. Finally, tetraploid hybrids produced fertile diploid sperm, which exhibited Mendelian segregation. Tetraploid R. alburnoides may reestablish biparental reproduction, as individuals of both sexes with the appropriate constitution for normal meiosis (two haploid genomes from each parental species) are likely to occur in natural populations. Tetraploids probably have arisen from syngamy of diploid eggs and diploid sperm produced by diploid hybrid males. Diploid hybrid males may therefore play a significant role in the dynamics of the complex, starting the evolutionary process that may ultimately lead to a new sexually reproducing species. PMID:9872966

  9. Sequence and expression of an ?-amylase gene in four related species of prickleback fishes (Teleostei: Stichaeidae): ontogenetic, dietary, and species-level effects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kelly H; Horn, Michael H; Sosa, Abraham E; German, Donovan P

    2014-02-01

    Partial ?-amylase gene sequences were determined and ?-amylase gene expression was quantified in four species of carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous prickleback fishes (family Stichaeidae) to assess the effects of ontogeny, diet, and species on expression of this gene. Pairwise comparison of ?-amylase nucleotide sequences revealed 96-98 % identity, and comparison of amino acid portions revealed 93-95 % similarity among the four prickleback species. Expression was determined using in situ hybridization and intensity of expression quantified using image analysis. Alpha-amylase expression level was compared in three feeding categories of the four species: (1) small, wild-caught carnivorous juveniles; (2) larger, wild-caught juveniles of the carnivorous species and the three that had shifted to herbivory or omnivory; and (3) larger, juveniles produced by feeding a low-starch artificial diet to small juveniles until they reached the size of the larger wild-caught juveniles. The results showed no dietary effect in any species but significant ontogenetic and species-level effects in Cebidichthys violaceus, as well as in the sister species Xiphister mucosus and X. atropurpureus. Based on a phylogeny for the Stichaeidae produced for this study using two mtDNA genes and one nuclear gene, the ontogenetic dietary shifts to herbivory/omnivory evolved independently in C. violaceus and in the clade containing the two species of Xiphister. All three of these species increased ?-amylase gene expression with increase in size and had higher expression than Anoplarchus purpurescens, which is a member of a third, stichaeid clade comprising carnivores. These results show the importance of ?-amylase in the herbivores and omnivores. PMID:24136006

  10. A new Haptoclinus blenny (Teleostei, Labrisomidae) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Robertson, D. Ross

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A second species of the blenniiform genus Haptoclinus is described from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Haptoclinus dropi sp. n. differs from the northwestern Caribbean Haptoclinus apectolophus Böhlke and Robins, 1974, in having 29 total dorsal-fin elements—III-I-XIII, 12 (vs. 31—III-I-XIV, 13 or III-I-XIII, 14); 19 anal-fin soft rays (vs. 20-21); 12 pectoral-fin rays (vs. 13); 12 precaudal vertebrae (vs. 13); and the first dorsal-fin spine longer than the second (vs. the second longer than the first). It further differs from Haptoclinus apectolophus in lacking scales (vs. three-quarters of body densely scaled), in having a distinctive pattern of spotting on the trunk and fins in preservative (vs. no spotting), and in lacking a fleshy flap on the anterior rim of the posterior nostril (vs. flap present). Color in life is unknown for Haptoclinus apectolophus, and the color description presented for the new species constitutes the first color information for the genus. Familial placement of Haptoclinus remains questionable, but the limited relevant information obtained from morphological examination of the new species provides additional support for a close relationship with the Chaenopsidae. Haptoclinus dropi represents one of numerous new teleost species emerging from sampling to 300 m off Curaçao as part of the Smithsonian Institution’s Deep Reef Observation Project (DROP). PMID:23794919

  11. A new Haptoclinus blenny (Teleostei, Labrisomidae) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships of the genus.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2013-01-01

    A second species of the blenniiform genus Haptoclinus is described from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Haptoclinus dropi sp. n. differs from the northwestern Caribbean Haptoclinus apectolophus Böhlke and Robins, 1974, in having 29 total dorsal-fin elements-III-I-XIII, 12 (vs. 31-III-I-XIV, 13 or III-I-XIII, 14); 19 anal-fin soft rays (vs. 20-21); 12 pectoral-fin rays (vs. 13); 12 precaudal vertebrae (vs. 13); and the first dorsal-fin spine longer than the second (vs. the second longer than the first). It further differs from Haptoclinus apectolophus in lacking scales (vs. three-quarters of body densely scaled), in having a distinctive pattern of spotting on the trunk and fins in preservative (vs. no spotting), and in lacking a fleshy flap on the anterior rim of the posterior nostril (vs. flap present). Color in life is unknown for Haptoclinus apectolophus, and the color description presented for the new species constitutes the first color information for the genus. Familial placement of Haptoclinus remains questionable, but the limited relevant information obtained from morphological examination of the new species provides additional support for a close relationship with the Chaenopsidae. Haptoclinus dropi represents one of numerous new teleost species emerging from sampling to 300 m off Curaçao as part of the Smithsonian Institution's Deep Reef Observation Project (DROP). PMID:23794919

  12. The role of ovarian steroids in reproductive plasticity in Hoplias malabaricus (Teleostei: Characiformes: Erythrinidae) in tropical reservoirs with different degrees of pollution.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Aline Dal'Olio; Tolussi, Carlos Eduardo; Ribeiro, Cristiéle da Silva; Honji, Renato Massaaki; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2014-10-24

    Chemicals in aquatic environments may lead to impairment of fish reproduction, but some species display plasticity levels to survive and reproduce in such localities. We investigated the reproductive cycle in a teleost species, Hoplias malabaricus, which inhabits a variety of environments with different degrees of pollution. Adult females were sampled at two locations in São Paulo State (Brazil), the reference Ponte Nova (PN) reservoir and the polluted Billings (BIL) reservoir. Metabolic and endocrine processes were analyzed throughout the annual cycle with special attention to ovarian histology, gonadosomatic index (GSI), fecundity, ovarian energetic substrates and plasma steroids analyses, in addition to physical and chemical analyses of the water. Pollutants were frequent in BIL but not in PN. The GSI, including the predominance of vitellogenic oocytes, was higher in spring and summer in both locations, but the oocyte recruitment dynamics was different. During winter, females from BIL presented vitellogenic oocytes and high levels of 11-ketotestosterone, which indicated precocity in the vitellogenic phase in relation to the females from PN. In animals from PN, high deposition of lipids occurred in the ovaries. However, plasma estradiol levels did not vary throughout the annual cycle. In animals from BIL, plasma estradiol levels peaked during the summer, but the ovarian lipid content remained unchanged throughout the year. The data suggest that the presence of pollutants cause various endocrine and metabolic responses and especially affects reproductive plasticity, which could explain why H. malabaricus survives under unfavorable environments. PMID:25449659

  13. Morphology of the jaw, suspensorial, and opercle musculature of Beloniformes and related species (Teleostei: Acanthopterygii), with a special reference to the m. adductor mandibulae complex

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The taxon Beloniformes represents a heterogeneous group of teleost fishes that show an extraordinary diversity of jaw morphology. I present new anatomical descriptions of the jaw musculature in six selected beloniforms and four closely related species. A reduction of the external jaw adductor (A1) and a changed morphology of the intramandibular musculature were found in many Beloniformes. This might be correlated with the progressively reduced mobility of the upper and lower jaw bones. The needlefishes and sauries, which are characterised by extremely elongated and stiffened jaws, show several derived characters, which in combination enable the capture of fish at high velocity. The ricefishes are characterised by several derived and many plesiomorphic characters that make broad scale comparisons difficult. Soft tissue characters are highly diverse among hemiramphids and flying fishes reflecting the uncertainty about their phylogenetic position and interrelationship. The morphological findings presented herein may help to interpret future phylogenetic analyses using cranial musculature in Beloniformes. PMID:25755920

  14. Re-description of two species of the cardinalfish genus Archamia (Teleostei: Apogonidae) from the Red Sea and Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gon, Ofer; Gouws, Gavin; Mwale, Monica; Mwaluma, James

    2013-01-01

    The cardinalfishes Archamia bilineata and A. pallida were originally described from a small number of specimens collected in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea and Oman, respectively. Both species are re-described using specimens collected recently in Yemen and Kenya, including the first known adult of A. pallida. These new collections increased the geographical range of both species considerably. Differences between the two populations now known for each of the species are discussed. PMID:24614490

  15. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Acanthocephaloides incrassatus (Molin, 1858) (Acanthocephala, Paleacanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae) from Anguilla anguilla (Pisces, Teleostei) in Urbino ponds (Corsica Island).

    PubMed

    Foata, J; Quilichini, Y; Dal Pos, N; Greani, S; Marchand, B

    2012-07-01

    This study deals with first ultrastructure features of Acanthocephaloides incrassatus (Paleacanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae), a parasite of the fish Anguilla anguilla, reported for the first time in a Mediterranean pond. The spermiogenesis of A. incrassatus shows original specificities which have never been pointed out to this day in ultrastructural studies on spermiogenesis: the centriolar derivative is divided into two parts of different densities: an electron-dense, and the other, electron-lucent; a ring form has been observed on each side of the axoneme; a centriole with one central element. After the elaboration of a flagellum of 9+2 pattern, the centriole migrates in a nuclear groove. Rapidly, the centriole disappears. Then, the flagellum migration occurs by a series of processes and gives rise to a spermatozoon. The spermatozoon of A. incrassatus presents its own specificities: it exhibits an evolution of the centriolar derivative characterized by only nine peripheral elements deprived of a central element in the anterior part, then nine peripheral and one central element, and finally, nine peripheral elements with two central elements. An assumption is emitted on a probable correspondence of the evolution of the derivative centriolar during the spermiogenesis and the evolution that occurs in the spermatozoon. Protein granules also show different sizes and forms, full or emptied of their contents compared with data on other Acanthocephala. PMID:22307764

  16. Ortholinea saudii sp. nov. (Myxosporea: Ortholineidae) in the kidney of the marine fish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei) from the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Soliman, Hatem; Saleh, Mona; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2015-02-10

    Myxozoans, a diverse group of microscopic obligate endoparasites, can cause diseases in a number of economically important fish, including the marbled spinefoot Siganus rivulatus. To date, only 1 myxozoan, Zschokkella helmii, has been reported to infect S. rivulatus. Here we describe another myxozoan detected in S. rivulatus. Investigations of 40 marbled spinefoot fish caught from the Red Sea coast, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, revealed clusters of parasitic spores in the kidney. Light microscope examination of the native spores revealed sub-spherical, mature spores with smooth shell valves. The 2 polar capsules were equal in size, and the polar filament was perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the polar capsules. Histopathological examinations of the infected kidneys demonstrated the presence of both spores and developmental stages in the lumen of the renal tubules without any pathological effect. Electron microscopy investigations showed maturing spores composed of 2 valvogenic cells, each with a prominent nucleus. The valvogenic cells enclosed 2 polar capsules containing 3 filament coils as well as a binucleated sporoplasm cell filling the space between and beneath the 2 polar capsules. BLAST search analysis of the amplified sequence from the detected parasite indicated a high percent of identity to the 18S rDNA genes of different myxosporean species. Phylogenetic analysis placed the detected parasite within a clade of Ortholinea sp. (AL-2006). Based on the results of the light and electron microscopy, histopathological, and molecular investigations, the detected parasite was identified as a myxosporean parasite belonging to the genus Ortholinea and designated as O. saudii sp. nov. PMID:25667333

  17. Infrapopulations of Procamallanus elatensis Fusco & Overstreet, 1979 (Nematoda: Camallanidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei, Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Al-Jahdali, Mohammed O

    2012-09-01

    Factors regulating gastrointestinal nematode infrapopulations are to a great extent density-dependent. Here, 23 natural infrapopulations (41-281 individuals) of the viviparous nematode Procamallanus elatensis (Camallanidae) from the fish Siganus rivulatus were found distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (posterior 55% of the intestine). Immature worms were mostly found in the anterior third of this niche, while mature worms were found in aggregations posterior to them and followed by gravid females in the posterior 20% of the intestine. This distribution strongly suggests that worms migrate towards the posterior intestine while they mature, copulate and reproduce. In small infrapopulations, the sex ratios were distinctly female-biased and the number of gravid females was low. In large infrapopulations, the sex ratios were distinctly male-biased and the number of gravid females was high. However, the mean lengths of both immature males and females and mature females decreased dramatically as the infrapopulation size increased, while those of mature males increased significantly. These results strongly suggest intraspecific competition and density-dependent regulation of mean worm length, and the increase in the mean length of mature males strongly suggests intense sexual selection and competition between mature males. Production of larvae by female worms decreased significantly as the infrapopulation size increased, suggesting a density-dependent reduction in female worm fertility. The results are statistically significant and strongly suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is through density-dependent mechanisms, in which development of immature worms, infrapopulation size, sex ratio, sexual selection and carrying capacity of the fundamental niche play essential roles in shaping and regulating the infrapopulations. PMID:21944549

  18. Infrapopulations of Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 (Trematoda: Gyliauchenidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei: Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Al-Jahdali, M O

    2012-08-01

    In hermaphroditic helminth parasites, infrapopulation size or mating group size mostly affects some processes acting within the infrapopulation. Here, 30 natural infrapopulations (12-154 individuals) of the intestinal trematode Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 from the fish Siganus rivulatus consisting of newly excysted juveniles, immature and mature worms were found distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (anterior 40% of the intestine). In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were alive. In larger infrapopulations, differential mortality was only and consistently observed among newly excysted juveniles, and gradually increased to include most or all juveniles in the largest infrapopulations. Among mature worms, the mean worm length seemed unaffected by the infrapopulation size. However, the ratio mean testis size-mean ovary size, a reliable indicator of resource allocation to the male function and of opportunities for cross fertilization, significantly increased with mating group size. In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were scattered along the niche, and never seen in mating pairs (possibly reproduced by self-fertilization). In larger infrapopulations, newly excysted juveniles and immature worms were scattered along the anterior two thirds of the niche, while mature worms were constantly found aggregated in its posterior third (narrow microhabitat), where some were arranged in mating pairs. The probability of mating reciprocally or unilaterally was dependent on body size. The mean number of uterine eggs per worm significantly decreased and their mean sizes significantly increased with mating group size. The results are statistically significant and suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is greatly associated with its size. PMID:22910665

  19. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Cavisoma magnum (Southwell, 1927) (Acanthocephala, Palaeacanthocephala, Cavisomidae), from Siganus lineatus (Pisces, Teleostei, Siganidae) (Valenciennes, 1835) in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Foata, J; Quilichini, Y; Justine, J-L; Bray, R A; Marchand, B

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents an ultrastructural study of Cavisoma magnum (Acanthocephala, Cavisomatidae) with a Transmission Electron Microscopy tool. This parasite of the fish Siganus lineatus is here reported for the first time from off New Caledonia, South Pacific. It is the first study describing the ultrastructure, spermiogenesis and spermatozoon of a species of the family Cavisomatidae. The young spermatid of C. magnum possesses a centriole constituted of doublets without a central element. After the elaboration of a flagellum of 9+2 pattern, the centriole migrates in a nuclear groove. Then the flagellum migration occurs and gives rise to a spermatozoon. The distribution and the size of the protein granules are reported and the posterior extremity appears like a chromatin lamina wave. Comparative ultrastructural data are presented on sperm and spermiogenesis of the Acanthocephala and Rotifers examined to date and the phylogenetic implications are discussed. PMID:22100318

  20. Infrapopulations of Sclerocollum saudii Al-Jahdali, 2010 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei, Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Al-Jahdali, M O; Hassanine, R M El-Said

    2012-03-01

    In infrapopulations of helminth parasites, density-dependent effects, through some form of intra- and interspecific competition, play an important role in shaping and regulating the infrapopulations. The mechanisms responsible for these processes have often been observed in laboratory studies and rarely studied under natural conditions. Here, 24 natural infrapopulations (77-447 individuals) of the acanthocephalan Sclerocollum saudii Al-Jahdali, 2010 from the fish Siganus rivulatus consisted of cystacanths, newly excysted juveniles, immature and mature worms, distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (anterior 60% of the intestine). Each of these stages exhibited a significantly different longitudinal distribution within this niche. In small infrapopulations, cystacanths and newly excysted juveniles were found in the sixth 10% of the intestine, immature worms in the fifth 10% and mature worms in the anterior 40% of the intestine. However, their proportions followed a clear ascending order in each infrapopulation, and the female-male ratios of both immature and mature worms were distinctly female-biased. In large infrapopulations, mature worms existed partially in the site of immature ones, where a differential mortality among immature females was constantly observed. However, the proportions of immature worms increased significantly and those of mature worms decreased significantly, the mean lengths of immature and mature females decreased dramatically and the female-male ratios were distinctly male-biased. The mean sizes of immature and mature males seemed stable through all infrapopulations. The distribution of mature males and females suggests intense male-male competition for access to females, and reveals that larger females are copulated prior to the smaller ones. The results are statistically significant and suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is through density-dependent mechanisms, in which immature females may play a key role. PMID:21396151

  1. Fine structure of the Plasmodia and Myxospore of Ellipsomyxa gobioides n. sp. (Myxozoa) found in the gallbladder of Gobioides broussonnetii (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the lower Amazon river.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Carlos; Videira, Marcela; Casal, Graça; Matos, Patrícia; Oliveira, Elsa; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Matos, Edilson

    2013-01-01

    A fish infecting myxosporean Ellipsomyxa gobioides n. sp. is described in the gallbladder of the Amazonian dragon fish Gobioides broussonnetii. Irregular disporous plasmodia (up to ~30 ?m in diameter) with long branched and anastomosed pseudopodia were found attached to the gallbladder wall. Mature ellipsoid myxospores occurring floating in the bile measured 6.8 (6.5-7.0) ?m (n = 30) long, 7.2 (6.9-7.5) ?m (n = 15) wide, and 13.1 (12.8-13.5) (n = 25) thick. They had smooth thin valves elongated in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the straight central transverse sutural line. The two ellipsoidal polar capsules (PC) opened some distance from the sutural line on opposite sides, each measuring 4.6 (4.3-4.8) ?m (n = 15) long and 2.5 (2.1-2.7) ?m (n = 20) wide. Distance between PC 3.5 (3.1-3.8) ?m (n = 15) in apical view. The polar filament was isofilar and consisted of a single coil with five or six turns. The objective of this study was to characterize this new species based on its morphological differences from the three previously described species. This is the first reported species of genus Ellipsomyxa from among the South American fauna. PMID:23869881

  2. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis of the genus Orestias (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) in the southern Chilean Altiplano: the relevance of ancient and recent divergence processes in speciation.

    PubMed

    Vila, I; Morales, P; Scott, S; Poulin, E; Véliz, D; Harrod, C; Méndez, M A

    2013-03-01

    This study presents phylogenetic molecular data of the Chilean species of Orestias to propose an allopatric divergence hypothesis and phylogeographic evidence that suggests the relevance of abiotic factors in promoting population divergence in this complex. The results reveal that diversification is still ongoing, e.g. in the Ascotán salt pan, where populations of Orestias ascotanensis restricted to individual freshwater springs exhibit strong genetic differentiation, reflecting putative independent evolutionary units. Diversification of Orestias in the southern Altiplano may be linked to historical vicariant events and contemporary variation in water level; these processes may have affected the populations from the Plio-Pleistocene until the present. PMID:23464552

  3. De novo assembly and characterization of the skeletal muscle and electric organ transcriptomes of the African weakly electric fish Campylomormyrus compressirostris (Mormyridae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Lamanna, Francesco; Kirschbaum, Frank; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2014-11-01

    African weakly electric fishes (Mormyridae) underwent an outstanding adaptive radiation (about 200 species), putatively owing to their ability to communicate through species-specific weak electric signals. The electric organ discharge (EOD) is produced by muscle-derived electrocytes organized in piles to form an electric organ. Despite the importance of this trait as a prezygotic isolation mechanism, genomic resources remained limited. We present here a first draft of the skeletal muscle and electric organ transcriptomes from the weakly electric fish species Campylomormyrus compressirostris, obtained using the Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing technology. Approximately 6.8 Gbp of cDNA sequence data were produced from both tissues, resulting in 57,268,109 raw reads for the skeletal muscle and 46,934,923 for the electric organ, and assembled de novo into 46,143 and 89,270 contigs, respectively. About 50% of both transcriptomes were annotated after protein databases search. The two transcriptomes show similar profiles in terms of Gene Ontology categories composition. We identified several candidate genes which are likely to play a central role in the production and evolution of the electric signal. For most of these genes, and for many other housekeeping genes, we were able to obtain the complete or partial coding DNA sequences (CDS), which can be used for the development of primers to be utilized in qRT-PCR experiments. We present also the complete mitochondrial genome and compare it to those available from other weakly electric fish species. Additionally, we located 1671 SSR-containing regions with their flanking sites and designed the relative primers. This study establishes a first step in the development of genomic tools aimed at understanding the role of electric communication during speciation. PMID:24690394

  4. Multilocus phylogeny of Crenicichla (Teleostei: Cichlidae), with biogeography of the C. lacustris group: species flocks as a model for sympatric speciation in rivers.

    PubMed

    Piálek, Lubomír; Rí?an, Old?ich; Casciotta, Jorge; Almirón, Adriana; Zrzavý, Jan

    2012-01-01

    First multilocus analysis of the largest Neotropical cichlid genus Crenicichla combining mitochondrial (cytb, ND2, 16S) and nuclear (S7 intron 1) genes and comprising 602 sequences of 169 specimens yields a robust phylogenetic hypothesis. The best marker in the combined analysis is the ND2 gene which contributes throughout the whole range of hierarchical levels in the tree and shows weak effects of saturation at the 3rd codon position. The 16S locus exerts almost no influence on the inferred phylogeny. The nuclear S7 intron 1 resolves mainly deeper nodes. Crenicichla is split into two main clades: (1) Teleocichla, the Crenicichla wallacii group, and the Crenicichla lugubris-Crenicichla saxatilis groups ("the TWLuS clade"); (2) the Crenicichla reticulata group and the Crenicichla lacustris group-Crenicichla macrophthalma ("the RMLa clade"). Our study confirms the monophyly of the C. lacustris species group with very high support. The biogeographic reconstruction of the C. lacustris group using dispersal-vicariance analysis underlines the importance of ancient barriers between the middle and upper Paraná River (the Guaíra Falls) and between the middle and upper Uruguay River (the Moconá Falls). Our phylogeny recovers two endemic species flocks within the C. lacustris group, the Crenicichla missioneira species flock and the herein discovered Crenicichla mandelburgeri species flock from the Uruguay and Paraná/Iguazú Rivers, respectively. We discuss putative sympatric diversification of trophic traits (morphology of jaws and lips, dentition) and propose these species flocks as models for studying sympatric speciation in complex riverine systems. The possible role of hybridization as a mechanism of speciation is mentioned with a recorded example (Crenicichla scottii). PMID:21971056

  5. Description of karyotype in Hypostomus regani (Ihering, 1905) (Teleostei, oricariidae) from the Piumhi river in Brazil with comments on karyotype variation found in Hypostomus.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Neto, Ernani de Oliveira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Moreira-Filho, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    The paper represents a comparative cytogenetic analysis of three populations of Hypostomus regani in Brazil.Two populations belong to the Upper Paraná River Basin and the third one, the karyotype of which is described for the first time, was probably introduced into the São Francisco River Basin through transposition from the Piumhi River. Karyotype features of populations of Hypostomus regani from the Piracicaba and Tietê River Basins are also discussed. The occurrence of Hypostomus regani in the São Francisco River Basin is reported for the first time here. The study also revealed distinct differences in the location of the Ag-NORs between the analyzed populations that enable individuals from the Piumhi River, Mogi-Guaçu River and Tietê River to be distinguished from one another. Thus, the data obtained indicate the possibility of geographic variation fixing different karyotypes even in the same basin of origin. PMID:24260625

  6. Allozyme differentiation of two populations of the genus Neoplecostomus Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888 (Teleostei, Loricariidae) from the upper Paraná River basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reusing, Ana Flávia; Renesto, Erasmo; Roxo, Fábio F; Zawadzki, Cláudio H

    2011-07-01

    Allozyme electrophoresis was used to examine 12 enzymatic systems in two populations of the genus Neoplecostomus from the Paraná River basin. Samples of Neoplecostomus sp. 1 were collected in Paraitinguinha stream of the Tietê River basin, in the municipality of Salesópolis, São Paulo State, and those of Neoplecostomus sp. 2 from São Domingos stream of the Rio Grande River basin, in the municipality of Muzambinho, Minas Gerais State. The genetic variability of the two populations was estimated by Nei's expected heterozygosity and was considered lower than average for populations of freshwater fish. The proportion of polymorphic loci was low (only 5.26% for the locus Idh). The low frequency of heterozygosity for both populations revealed a high fixation of alleles for each locus. Homozygote excess was observed in both populations. The values of Nei's genetic identity and the presence of loci with different allele frequencies in both populations may imply that the two populations belong to different species. The genetic variability between populations was compared to other data for loricariids. PMID:21931525

  7. Post-glacial expansion into the Paleozoic Plateau: evidence of an Ozarkian refugium for the Ozark minnow Notropis nubilus (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Berendzen, P B; Dugan, J F; Gamble, T

    2010-10-01

    Genetic variation was examined within the Ozark minnow Notropis nubilus using complete mtDNA cytochrome b gene sequences from 160 individuals representing 30 localities to test hypotheses on the origin of the distribution. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three strongly supported clades of haplotypes consistent with geographic distributions: a clade from the Western Ozarks, a clade from the Southern Ozarks and a clade from the Northern Ozarks and upper Mississippi River basin. The estimated mean ages of these clades indicated that they diverged during pre-Illinoian glacial cycles extending from the late Pliocene into the early Pleistocene. Results of demographic analyses based on coalescent approaches supported the hypothesis that the Paleozoic Plateau was not a refugium for N. nubilus during periodic glacial advances. There is evidence of a genetic signature of northern expansion into the Paleozoic Plateau from a Southern Ozarkian refugium. Populations expanded out of drainages in the Northern Ozarks into the Paleozoic Plateau during the late Pleistocene. Subsequently, the two regions were isolated due to the recent extirpation of intervening populations caused by the loss of suitable habitat. PMID:21039494

  8. Stable-isotope analyses reveal the importance of seagrass beds as feeding areas for juveniles of the speckled worm eel Myrophis punctatus (Teleostei: Ophichthidae) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Vaslet, A; France, C; Phillips, D L; Feller, I C; Baldwin, C C

    2011-09-01

    The feeding habits and habitats of the speckled worm eel Myrophis punctatus were studied on the mangrove edge of the Indian River Lagoon (IRL, Florida) using gut-content and stable-isotope analyses of carbon (?(13) C) and nitrogen (?(15) N). Four taxa were identified through analyses of gut contents, and the index of relative importance suggested that amphipods, microphytobenthos and annelids are the most important food sources in the fish's diet. To assess the feeding habits of the fish after their recruitment to the IRL, these food sources were collected from mangroves and nearby seagrass beds for isotope analyses. Stable isotopes constituted a powerful tool for discriminating fish prey items from mangroves (mean ± s.d.?(13) C = -20·5 ± 0·6‰) and those from seagrass beds (mean ± s.d.?(13) C = -16·9 ± 0·6‰), thus providing good evidence of food source origins. The 56 M. punctatus collected [10·0 < total length (L(T) ) < 16·2 cm] had average isotopic signatures of ?(13) C = -16·7 ± 0·2‰ and ?(15) N = 8·2 ± 0·1‰. A significant depletion in (13) C was observed for larger juveniles (15·0 < L(T) < 16·2 cm), suggesting that they found a portion of their food in mangroves. Estimation of the trophic level from stable isotopes (T(Liso)) was similar among different size groups of juvenile fish (T(Liso) = 3·2-3·5); therefore, M. punctatus was considered a secondary consumer, which is consistent with its zoobenthic diet. The concentration-dependent mixing Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR) model revealed the importance of food sources from seagrass beds as carbon sources for all the fish collected, with a significant increase in mangrove prey contributions, such as annelids, in the diet of larger juveniles. This study highlights the importance of seagrass beds as feeding habitats for juveniles of M. punctatus after their recruitment to coastal waters. PMID:21884107

  9. Seven new species within western Atlantic Starksia atlantica, S. lepicoelia, and S. sluiteri (Teleostei, Labrisomidae), with comments on congruence of DNA barcodes and species

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Castillo, Cristina I.; Weigt, Lee A.; Benjamin C., Victor

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Specimens of Starksia were collected throughout the western Atlantic, and a 650-bp portion of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase-c subunit I (COl) was sequenced as part of a re-analysis of species diversity of western Central Atlantic shorefishes. A neighbor-joining tree constructed from the sequence data suggests the existence of several cryptic species. Voucher specimens from each genetically distinct lineage and color photographs of vouchers taken prior to dissection and preservation were examined for diagnostic morphological characters. The results suggest that Starksia atlantica, Starksia lepicoelia, and Starksia sluiteri are species complexes, and each comprises three or more species. Seven new species are described. DNA data usually support morphological features, but some incongruence between genetic and morphological data exists. Genetic lineages are only recognized as species if supported by morphology. Genetic lineages within western Atlantic Starksia generally correspond to geography, such that members of each species complex have a very restricted geographical distribution. Increasing geographical coverage of sampling locations will almost certainly increase the number of Starksia species and species complexes recognized in the western Atlantic. Combining molecular and morphological investigations is bringing clarity to the taxonomy of many genera of morphologically similar fishes and increasing the number of currently recognized species. Future phylogenetic studies should help resolve species relationships and shed light on patterns of speciation in western Atlantic Starksia. PMID:21594143

  10. A revision of the Rutilus complex from Mediterranean Europe with description of a new genus, Sarmarutilus, and a new species, Rutilus stoumboudae (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Bianco, Pier Giorgio; Ketmaier, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    By combining morphology, ecology, biology, and biogeography with the available molecular (sequence variation of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b gene; cyt-b) and karyology data, the taxonomy of several species of the Rutilus complex inhabiting southern Europe is revised. Rutilus stoumboudae, new species, is described from Lake Volvi, Greece. It differs from Rutilus rutilus in possessing more total GR and less branched rays in both dorsal and anal fins and in its placement in the cyt-b based phylogeny of the genus. The resurrected genus Leucos Heckel, 1843 (type species Leucos aula, Bonaparte, 1841), which according to molecular data diverged from Rutilus more than 5 million years ago, during the Messinian salinity crisis, includes five species of small size, without spinous tubercles on scales and head in reproductive males, pharyngeal teeth formula 5-5, and all show a preference for still waters. Leucos aula is the Italian species endemic in the Padany-Venetian district: L. basak is widespread in Croatia, Albania, Montenegro and former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM); L. albus, recently described from Lake Skadar, Montenegro, is also found in rivers Moraca and Zeta (Montenegro). L. albus differs from L. basak, its closest relative, in having more scales on the LL and less anal-fin rays; L. panosi is endemic to the western-Greece district, and L. ylikiensis is endemic to lakes Yliki and Paralimni in eastern Greece (introduced in Lake Volvi). Among the nominal species examined, Rutilus karamani, R. ohridanus, R. prespensis and R. prespensis vukovici are all junior synonyms of Leucos basak. Rutilus vegariticus is definitively regarded as junior synonym for R. rutilus. Sarmarutilus n.gen. is a monotypic genus, with Sarmarutilus rubilio as the type species. According to phylogenetic data, Sarmarutilus rubilio is basal to a cluster of species that includes Leucos basak, L. albus, L. aula, L. panosi and L. ylikiensis. Sarmarutilus possibly evolved in pre-Messinian time, in the Lago Mare, entered the Mediterranean area during the Messinian Lago Mare phase of the Mediterranean Sea and survived only in the Tuscany- Latium district. This genus differs from Leucos in having large pearl organs on the central part of head and body scales in mature males and for the habitat preference, being a riverine-adapted species. It differs from Rutilus in pharyngeal teeth formula (5-5 in Sarmarutilus and 6-5 in Rutilus), size (small in Sarmarutilus and large in Rutilus) and for the preferential habitat (riverine vs. still water). Finally, lectotypes for Leucos basak, Leucos aula, and Sarmarutilus rubilio are designated. PMID:25082046

  11. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), using chromosome staining and fluorescence in situ hybridisation with rDNA probes

    PubMed Central

    Spoz, Aneta; Boron, Alicja; Porycka, Katarzyna; Karolewska, Monika; Ito, Daisuke; Abe, Syuiti; Kirtiklis, Lech; Juchno, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) is a species with restricted and decreasing distribution in Europe. Six males and six females of the species from the Baltic Sea basin in Poland were examined to show sequentially CMA3/AgNO3 staining pattern, DAPI staining, and, for the first time in literature, molecular cytogenetic analysis using double-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 28S and 5S rDNA probes. The karyotype consisted of 20 m, 36 sm and 44 sta chromosomes, NF=156. The AgNO3 stained NORs were most frequently located terminally in the short arms of two sm and two sta elements, and CMA3-positive sites were also observed suggesting abundant GC-rich repetitive DNA in the regions. Other CMA3-positive sites in the short arms of six to ten sm and sta chromosomes were detected. The results based on 28S rDNA FISH confirmed the location of rDNA sites. DAPI-negative staining of NORs suggested the scarcity of AT-rich DNA in the regions. FISH with 5S rDNA probe revealed 8–14 loci (ten and 12 in respectively 49 and 29% of metaphases). They were located in two sm and eight to ten sta chromosomes and six of them were larger than others. Simultaneously, mapping of the two rDNA families on the chromosomes of C. carassius revealed that both 28S and 5S rDNA probes were located in different chromosomes. Molecular cytogenetic data of C. carassius presented here for the first time give an important insight into the structure of chromosomes of this polyploid and declining species and may be useful in its systematics. PMID:25349674

  12. Genetic heterogeneity reveals on-going speciation and cryptic taxonomic diversity of stream-dwelling gudgeons (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the middle Danubian hydrosystem (Hungary).

    PubMed

    Takács, Péter; Bihari, Péter; Er?s, Tibor; Specziár, András; Szivák, Ildikó; Bíró, Péter; Csoma, Eszter

    2014-01-01

    Although stream-dwelling gudgeons (Cyprinidae, genus: Gobio) are widespread in Central Europe, the taxonomy of this group and the distribution of its species are still unexplored in detail. The aims of our study are to ascertain taxonomic composition and distribution of the former Gobio gobio superspecies in the inner area of the Carpathian Basin. Since the presence of cryptic species is suspected in this area, we examined the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Central European Gobio taxa by sequencing the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtCR). Additionally, we characterized the genetic structure of 27 stream-dwelling gudgeon populations of this area by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP). Results of mtCR analysis proved the presence of three species already known as G. obtusirostris (dominant in NW-Hungary), G. gobio (sporadic) and G. carpathicus (sporadic). Additionally, the analysis revealed the existence of one doubtful taxon, G. sp1 (dominant in NE-Hungary), and a new isolated haplogroup (dominant in SW-Hungary). Although Network analysis showed significant detachment among haplogroups, their genetic distances were quite small. Therefore Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed weak nodal support for the branching pattern both for newly described haplotypes, and for the already accepted species. AFLP data showed distinct population structure and a clear pattern of isolation was revealed by distance of stocks. At the same time, level of separation was not affected by the altitudinal position of sites. Moreover we found three major clusters of populations which were separated according to hydrographic regions, and corresponded to the findings of mtCR analysis. Our results suggest the on-going speciation of gudgeons in the Carpathian Basin, however the separation of haplogroups seems to only be an intermediate phase. The discovered natural pattern seems to be only slightly influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Additionally our results put into question the suitability of the recently accepted within Gobio genus taxonomy. PMID:24824751

  13. On the paraphyly of Homaloptera (Teleostei: Balitoridae) and description of a new genus of hillstream loaches from the Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Randall, Zachary S; Page, Lawrence M

    2015-01-01

    Homaloptera van Hasselt 1823 as treated historically exhibits substantial morphological diversity and is paraphyletic based on both morphological and molecular data. The morphological diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Homaloptera, Homalopteroides Fowler 1905, Homalopterula Fowler 1940, and Balitoropsis Smith 1945, are elucidated. Pseudohomaloptera Silas 1953 is removed from the synonymy of Homaloptera. Homalopteroidini is created for the monophyly of Homalopteroides and Homalopterula; it is the sister group to balitorini Swainson 1839. Ghatsa n. gen. is created for species previously assigned to Homaloptera from the Western Ghats of India, and a redescription of Ghatsa montana (Herre 1945) is provided. PMID:25781768

  14. Female choice for large body size in the cave molly, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei): influence of species- and sex-specific cues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Plath; Ingo Schlupp; Jakob Parzefall; Rüdiger Riesch

    Summary Previous studies revealed that females of a cave form of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexi- cana (cave molly) have maintained the ancestral visual preference for large males, but — as an adaptation to life in darkness — they have evolved the novel capability to assess male size non-visually. Here we examined the mechanisms by which non-visual mate choice for

  15. Sex recognition in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic molly females ( Poecilia mexicana , Poeciliidae, Teleostei): influence of visual and non-visual cues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Plath; Michael Tobler

    2007-01-01

    Cave fishes need to rely on non-visual senses, such as the sense of smell or the lateral line to communicate in darkness.\\u000a In the present study, we investigated sex identification by females of a cave-dwelling livebearing fish, Poecilia mexicana (cave molly), as well as its surface-dwelling relatives. Unlike many other cave fishes, cave mollies still possess functional\\u000a eyes. Three different

  16. Two new species of the tooth-carp Aphanius (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) and the evolutionary history of the Iranian inland and inland-related Aphanius species .

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Teimori, Azad; Gholami, Zeinab; Reichenbacher, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Aphanius are described from the Kol drainage in southern Iran (Aphanius darabensis n. sp.) and the endorheic Kavir Basin in northern Iran (A. kavirensis n. sp.), and compared with eight closely related species. Aphanius darabensis n. sp. is sister to A. shirini, from which it is distinguished by molecular characters (cytochrome b) and the combination of three morphological characters: 9-18 flank bars in males (vs. 7-10), females with irregular vertical patches of brown color on the flank (vs. prominent dark brown blotches of round or irregular shape), and symmetrically-shaped triangular to trapezoid otoliths with a rostrum distinctly longer than the antirostrum (vs. quadrangular to trapezoid otoliths with short and equally sized rostrum and antirostrum). Aphanius kavirensis n. sp. is closely related to a group containing A. sophiae, A. mesopotamicus and A. pluristriatus, from which it is distinguished by cytochrome b characters and the combination of three morphological characters: females with irregularly arranged large blotches of dark brown color on the flank, short pectoral fin in both sexes (13.4-18.1% SL in males, 11.2-18.3% SL in females), and asymmetrically shaped triangular to trapezoid otoliths with a pronounced predorsal region. Our tree based on the cytochrome b data demonstrates that the Iranian inland and inland-related Aphanius species (IIRAS) form a monophyletic clade with three subclades (A. vladykovi -, A. shirini -, A. sophiae subclades). The A. sophiae subclade, which is the most diverse of the three subclades, can be further divided into three lineages (A. isfahanensis -, A. farsicus -, A. sophiae lineages). The temporal diversification of the IIRAS clade is discussed and two evolutionary groups of Aphanius are depicted. Aphanius vladykovi, together with A. shirini, A. darabensis n. sp. and A. isfahanensis characterize the "old" evolutionary group. Their divergences may have happened 10-5 m.y. ago (Late Miocene-Early Pliocene). Aphanius farsicus, A. arakensis, A. sophiae, A. mesopotamicus, and A. pluristriatus, together with Aphanius kavirensis n. sp., represent the "young" evolutionary group, which developed in the Late Pleistocene (100,000-11,700 y. ago) and Early to Middle Holocene (c. 11,700-4,000 y. ago). PMID:24869537

  17. Ultrastructural study of vitellogenesis and oogenesis of Metadena depressa (Stossich, 1883) Linton, 1910 (Digenea, Cryptogonimidae), intestinal parasite of Dentex dentex (Pisces, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Greani, Samuel; Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Swiderski, Zdzis?aw; Marchand, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the female reproductive system of Metadena depressa, digenean intestinal parasite of Sparidae (Dentex dentex), was investigated by electron microscopy. The vitellogenesis is divided into four stages: stage I, vitellocytes have a cytoplasm mainly filled with ribosomes and few mitochondria; stage II, beginning of the synthetic activity; stage III, active shell globule clusters synthesis; stage IV, mature vitellocytes are filled with shell globule clusters and generally contain several large lipid droplets. Glycogen granules are grouped at the periphery of the cell. The three stages of the oogenesis process take place in the ovary: stage I, oogonia are undifferentiated small cells located at the periphery of the organ; stage II, primary oocytes possess a higher nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio and a nucleus with a nucleolus and synaptonemal complexes indicating the zygotene-pachytene stage of the first meiotic division; stage III, mature oocytes are located in the proximal region of the organ and possess a cytoplasmic chromatoid body and cortical granules in a monolayer close to the periphery of the cell. PMID:23199633

  18. Ceratomyxa sparusaurati (Protozoa: Myxosporea) infections in cultured gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata (Pisces: Teleostei) from Spain: aspects of the host-parasite relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oswaldo Palenzuela; Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla; Pilar Álvarez-Pellitero

    1997-01-01

    Ceratomyxa sparusaurati infection was studied in gilthead sea bream from different mariculture systems of Spain. Culture conditions were found to\\u000a influence the infection dynamics. Total prevalences ranged from 0 in a closed system to 59.9% in a Mediterranean semi-intensive\\u000a farm. Prevalence was significantly lower in summer in a restricted group from the latter system, but no clear seasonal pattern\\u000a was

  19. Molecular evidence for the monophyly of East Asian groups of Cyprinidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) derived from the nuclear recombination activating gene 2 sequences.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuzhen; Li, Junbing; He, Shunping

    2007-01-01

    The family Cyprinidae is one of the largest families of fishes in the world and a well-known component of the East Asian freshwater fish fauna. However, the phylogenetic relationships among cyprinids are still poorly understood despite much effort paid on the cyprinid molecular phylogenetics. Original nucleotide sequence data of the nuclear recombination activating gene 2 were collected from 109 cyprinid species and four non-cyprinid cypriniform outgroup taxa and used to infer the cyprinid phylogenetic relationships and to estimate node divergence times. Phylogenetic reconstructions using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis retrieved the same clades, only branching order within these clades varied slightly between trees. Although the morphological diversity is remarkable, the endemic cyprinid taxa in East Asia emerged as a monophyletic clade referred to as Xenocypridini. The monophyly for the subfamilies including Cyprininae and Leuciscinae, as well as the tribes including Labeonini, Gobionini, Acheilognathini, and Leuciscini, was also well resolved with high nodal support. Analysis of the RAG2 gene supported the following cyprinid molecular phylogeny: the Danioninae is the most basal subfamily within the family Cyprinidae and the Cyprininae is the sister group of the Leuciscinae. The divergence times were estimated for the nodes corresponding to the principal clades within the Cyprinidae. The family Cyprinidae appears to have originated in the mid-Eocene in Asia, with the cladogenic event of the key basal group Danioninae occurring in the early Oligocene (about 31-30 MYA), and the origins of the two subfamilies, Cyprininae and Leuciscinae, occurring in the mid-Oligocene (around 26 MYA). PMID:16919973

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) inferred from the partial S6K1 gene sequences and implication of indel sites in intron 1.

    PubMed

    Kong, XiangHui; Wang, XuZhen; Gan, XiaoNi; Li, JunBing; He, ShunPing

    2007-12-01

    The family Cyprinidae is widely distributed in East Asia, and has the important phylogenetic significance in the fish evolution. In this study, the 5' end partial sequences (containing exon 1, exon 2 and indel 1) of S6K1 gene were obtained from 30 representative species in Cyprinidae and outgroup using PCR amplification and sequencing. The phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae were reconstructed with neighbor joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian methods. Myxocyprinus asiaticus (Catostomidae) was assigned to the outgroup taxon. Similar phylogenetic relationships within the family Cyprinidae were achieved with the four analyses. Leuciscini and Barbini were monophyletic lineages respectively with the high nodal supports. Leuciscini comprises Hypophthalmichthyinae, Xenocyprinae, Cultrinae, Gobioninae, Acheilognathinae and East Asian species of Leuciscinae and Danioninae. Monophyly of East Asian clade was supported with high nodal support. Barbini comprises Schizothoracinae, Barbinae, Cyprininae and Labeoninae. The monophyletic lineage consisting of Danio rerio, D. myersi, and Rasbora trilineata was basal in the tree. In addition, the large fragment indels in intron 1 were analyzed to improve the understanding of Cyprinidae relationships. The results showed that the large fragment indels were correlated with the relations among species. Some conserved regions in intron 1 were thought to be involved in the functional regulation. However, no correlation was found between sequence variations and species characteristic size. PMID:17882385

  1. Infrapopulations of Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 (Trematoda: Gyliauchenidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei: Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jahdali, M.O.

    2012-01-01

    In hermaphroditic helminth parasites, infrapopulation size or mating group size mostly affects some processes acting within the infrapopulation. Here, 30 natural infrapopulations (12-154 individuals) of the intestinal trematode Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 from the fish Siganus rivulatus consisting of newly excysted juveniles, immature and mature worms were found distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (anterior 40 % of the intestine). In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were alive. In larger infrapopulations, differential mortality was only and consistently observed among newly excysted juveniles, and gradually increased to include most or all juveniles in the largest infrapopulations. Among mature worms, the mean worm length seemed unaffected by the infrapopulation size. However, the ratio mean testis size-mean ovary size, a reliable indicator of resource allocation to the male function and of opportunities for crossfertilization, significantly increased with mating group size. In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were scattered along the niche, and never seen in mating pairs (possibly reproduced by selffertilization). In larger infrapopulations, newly excysted juveniles and immature worms were scattered along the anterior two thirds of the niche, while mature worms were constantly found aggregated in its posterior third (narrow microhabitat), where some were arranged in mating pairs. The probability of mating reciprocally or unilaterally was dependent on body size. The mean number of uterine eggs per worm significantly decreased and their mean sizes significantly increased with mating group size. The results are statistically significant and suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is greatly associated with its size. PMID:22910665

  2. Morphology of the jaw, suspensorial, and opercle musculature of Beloniformes and related species (Teleostei: Acanthopterygii), with a special reference to the m. adductor mandibulae complex.

    PubMed

    Werneburg, Ingmar

    2015-01-01

    The taxon Beloniformes represents a heterogeneous group of teleost fishes that show an extraordinary diversity of jaw morphology. I present new anatomical descriptions of the jaw musculature in six selected beloniforms and four closely related species. A reduction of the external jaw adductor (A1) and a changed morphology of the intramandibular musculature were found in many Beloniformes. This might be correlated with the progressively reduced mobility of the upper and lower jaw bones. The needlefishes and sauries, which are characterised by extremely elongated and stiffened jaws, show several derived characters, which in combination enable the capture of fish at high velocity. The ricefishes are characterised by several derived and many plesiomorphic characters that make broad scale comparisons difficult. Soft tissue characters are highly diverse among hemiramphids and flying fishes reflecting the uncertainty about their phylogenetic position and interrelationship. The morphological findings presented herein may help to interpret future phylogenetic analyses using cranial musculature in Beloniformes. PMID:25755920

  3. Cryptic speciation reversal in the Etheostoma zonale (Teleostei: Percidae) species group, with an examination of the effect of recombination and introgression on species tree inference.

    PubMed

    Halas, Dominik; Simons, Andrew M

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial and nuclear introgression among closely related taxa can greatly complicate the process of determining their phylogenetic relationships. In the Central Highlands of North America, many fish taxa have undergone introgression; in this study, we demonstrate the existence of an unusual introgression event in the Etheostoma zonale species group. We used one mitochondrial and seven nuclear loci to determine the relationships of the taxa within the E. zonale group, and their degree of differentiation. We found evidence of multiple divergent populations within each species; much of the divergence within species has taken place during the Pleistocene. We also found evidence of a previously unknown cryptic species in the Upper Tennessee River which diverged from the remainder of the group during the Pliocene, and has undergone mitochondrial and nuclear introgression with E. zonale, in an apparent process of speciation reversal. We examined the effects that using varying types of recombination tests to eliminate the signal of recombination from nuclear loci would have on the phylogenetic placement of this introgressed lineage in our species tree analyses. PMID:23994165

  4. Reticulate evolution and phenotypic diversity in North American ciscoes, Coregonus ssp. (Teleostei: Salmonidae): implications for the conservation of an evolutionary legacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Turgeon; Louis Bernatchez

    2003-01-01

    Coregonine fishes are notorious taxonomicproblems due to their extreme morphological andecological variation. In North America, diversity is particularly baffling among ciscoes, and both morphological and phylogenetic analyses have resulted in major polytomy among the 8 taxa of the ``Coregonus artedi'' species complex. Ciscoes arealso a devastated group, accounting for 10% ofthe fish species listed by the Committee on theStatus of

  5. Morphology and phylogeny of Thelohanellus marginatus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), a parasite infecting the gills of the fish Hypophthalmus marginatus (Teleostei: Pimelodidae) in the Amazon River.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Sónia; Casal, Graça; Velasco, Michele; Alves, Angela; Matos, Edilson; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Azevedo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Thelohanellus marginatus n. sp., a new myxosporean parasite infecting the primary gill filaments of the teleost fish Hypophthalmus marginatus (Pimelodidae) in the Amazon River, is described on the basis of microscopic and molecular procedures. The parasite forms whitish and ellipsoidal cysts up to 250 ?m in diam. Myxospores ellipsoidal with a slightly more pointed anterior end, measuring 17.1 ± 0.6 ?m in length, 6.9 ± 0.4 ?m in width, and 5.1 ± 0.5 ?m in thickness. A single pyriform polar capsule, 9.0 ± 0.3 ?m long and 6.1 ± 0.4 ?m wide, positioned slightly right to the medial plane in valvular view, contains a polar filament arranged in 4-5 coils. Molecular analysis of the SSU rRNA gene by Maximum Parsimony, Neighbor-Joining, and Maximum Likelihood revealed the parasite clustering among other myxobolids, namely Henneguya and Myxobolus. Host affinity is supported as an important evolutionary signal for the phylogeny of myxobolids. The parasite here described represents the first record of the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 from the South American fauna. PMID:25039988

  6. Morphological aspects of Henneguya aequidens n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) in Aequidens plagiozonatus Kullander, 1984 (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Videira, Marcela; Velasco, Michele; Azevedo, Rodney; Silva, Reinaldo; Gonçalves, Evonnildo; Matos, Patrícia; Matos, Edilson

    2015-03-01

    A new species of Myxosporea, Henneguya aequidens sp. n. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), was described based on its ultrastructural features. This is a parasite of the freshwater fish Aequidens plagiozonatus, in the Peixe-boi River, Pará, Brazil. This parasite was found in the gills, in the form of whitish ellipsoid cysts with mature spores inside them. The average spore body was 15?±?0.9 ?m in length (n?=?30) and 6?±?0.8 ?m in width (n?=?30), and the tail measured 27?±?0.5 ?m in length (n?=?15). The spores showed typical features of the genus Henneguya with two valves of equal size and two symmetrical polar capsules of 3?±?0.3 ?m in length and 2?±?0.3 ?m in width. Each polar capsule had a polar filament forming a helix from the apical region to the polar caps, with four to six turns. Based on the ultrastructural differences in morphology of these spores, the location of the parasite, and its host specificity, this parasite was described as a new species. PMID:25573695

  7. Molecular systematics and historical biogeography of the Nocomis biguttatus species group (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): nuclear and mitochondrial introgression and a cryptic Ozark species.

    PubMed

    Echelle, Anthony A; Schwemm, Michael R; Lang, Nicholas J; Nagle, Brett C; Simons, Andrew M; Unmack, Peter J; Fisher, William L; Hoagstrom, Christopher W

    2014-12-01

    The Nocomis biguttatus species group ranges widely across North America from the Red River in Oklahoma and Arkansas north to Minnesota and east-west from Wyoming to Ontario. The group includes three traditionally recognized allopatric species: the wide-ranging N. biguttatus and two geographically more restricted species, N. asper from the western Ozarks (Arkansas River system) and two disjunct locations in the Red River system, and N. effusus from the Green, Cumberland, and lower Tennessee rivers. Separate analyses of the mitochondrial cytb gene and two nuclear genes (S7 intron 1 and a portion of the gene for growth hormone, GH), each resolved a cryptic species previously treated as N. biguttatus from the southern Ozarks (White River). Relationships among the four species were unresolved because of conflicts between cytb and S7 and a lack of resolution for GH. A previously indicated N. biguttatus-N. effusus sister-relationship appears to reflect past hybridization and mtDNA capture by N. effusus. Nocomis biguttatus includes four primary cytb clades with unresolved inter-relationships. A Northern Ozarks-Great Plains-Upper Midwest Clade and an Ohio River-Eastern Great Lakes Clade presumably represent late Quaternary dispersal from glacial refugia in, respectively, the northern Ozarks and an unglaciated portion of the Ohio River system. Other clades include one from the Meramec River and a Black River-St. Francis River Clade. There was evidence in N. effusus for a phylogeographic break between the lower Tennessee River and the Green-Cumberland basins. Geographic structure is weak in N. asper, indicating relatively recent contact between now disjunct populations in the Arkansas and Red river basins. The Blue River population of N. asper appears to reflect late Pleistocene or Holocene hybridization and genetic swamping of a resident native population of N. biguttatus by an invading population of N. asper. This postulates past occurrence of N. biguttatus far south of its present range. PMID:25251937

  8. [Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae (Teleostei: Characidae) two new species of fish in the basin of Madre de Dios river, Peru].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alzate, Carlos A; Romin-Valencia, César; Ortega, Hernán

    2013-06-01

    Hyphessobrycon with 129 valid species, is a genus of fish that has a great diversity of species in the Neotropical ichthyofauna, reaches its greatest diversity in the Amazon basin with about 70% of these species, is highly desired by hobbyists because of their beauty and color, and are still meeting new species. We analyzed specimens from the Departamento de Ictiología, Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú (MUSM); and measurements of the specimens were taken point to point with digital calipers. Observations of bone and cartilage structures were made on cleared and stained (C&S) samples. The morphometric relationships between species using 21 variables were explored using a principal component analysis (PCA). Here we describe two new species, Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae from the Madre de Dios River drainage, Peru. Hyphessobrycon taphorni sp. n. can be distinguished by the number of dorsal-fin rays (iii, 8), by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (4-5), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (1-2), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (7-8), by: the caudal-peduncle length (11.4-16.4% SL), number of lateral scales (28-29, except from H. loretoensis which has 29-30) and absence of a humeral spot (vs. present), it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: scales between the lateral line and the anal fin origin (4 vs. 3) and maxillary teeth (2 vs. 3-4), and it differs from H. agulha by the number of branched pectoral-fin rays (11-12 vs. 9-10). Hyphessobrycon eschwartzae sp. n. is distinguished by the number of: simple anal-fin rays (iv), teeth on the dentary (13-15), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (6), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (3, except from H. heterorhabdus and H. loretoensis which have 3-4); it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (7 vs. 9-10), scales between the lateral line and the dorsal-fin origin (5 vs. 3-4); it differs from H. agulha in the number of lateral scales (30-31 vs. 33-34), by the number of: predorsal scales (9 vs. 10), maxillary teeth (4 vs. 0-1); in having in life a red lateral stripe above the dark lateral stripe that extends from the posterior part of the opercle to the caudal peduncle (vs. absent) and by the presence of bony hooks in mature males only on the anal fin (vs. hooks on all fins, including the caudal). PMID:23885596

  9. The role of pelagic swarm fish (Myctophidae: Teleostei) in the oceanic life cycle of Anisakis sibling species at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Central Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Klimpel, Sven; Kellermanns, Esra; Palm, Harry W

    2008-12-01

    First information is provided on the parasitation and feeding ecology of the myctophid fish species Myctophum punctatum and Notoscopelus kroyeri from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), Central Atlantic. Four different parasite species were found in both fish with a similar high prevalence and intensity of infestation. The digeneans Gonocerca phycidis and Lethadena sp. were isolated as adults from the stomach, larval tetraphyllidean cestodes (Scolex pleuronectis) from the intestine, and genetically identified larval anisakid nematodes of Anisakis simplex (s.s.) from the body cavity. No further Anisakis sibling species could be identified. Both myctophids had small pelagic crustaceans, mainly copepods and hyperiids, within their stomach contents. Ostracods, euphausiids, decapods, and amphipods were minor food components, demonstrating the pelagic environment for both fish. The recorded parasites including the anisakid A. simplex (s.s.) perform pelagic life cycles within the region, benefiting from extensive diurnal vertical migrations of their fish hosts. Comparison of the host range among the anisakis sibling species suggests that the A. simplex complex has low host specificity, infecting toothed and baleen whales on their extensive oceanic migrations. This contrasts the Anisakis physeteris complex that is restricted to toothed whales of the families Kogiidae and Physeteridae. Specificity in the teleost intermediate hosts for both complexes seems to be low, and sympatric occurrence of different siblings within the same intermediate hosts is likely. Myctophid swarm fish as important copepod feeders at the MAR significantly contribute to the oceanic anisakid nematode life cycle, especially considering the 100% prevalence and high intensity of infestation. Further genetic identification of Anisakis nematodes is needed in order to understand the sibling species distribution, along the MAR and within other oceanic environments. PMID:18758825

  10. Involvement of pituitary gonadotropins, gonadal steroids and breeding season in sex change of protogynous dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), induced by a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carlos Eduardo de O; Araújo, Bruno C; Mello, Paulo H; Narcizo, Amanda de M; Rodrigues-Filho, Jandyr A; Medrado, Andreone T; Zampieri, Ricardo A; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2013-10-01

    Two experiments were performed using the aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole (100mg/kg) to promote sex change, from female-to-male, in protogynous dusky grouper. One experiment was performed during the breeding season (spring) and the other at the end of the breeding season (summer). During the spring, AI promoted sex change after 9 weeks and the sperm produced was able to fertilize grouper oocytes. During the summer, the sex change was incomplete; intersex individuals were present and sperm was not released by any of the animals. Sex changed gonads had a lamellar architecture; cysts of spermatocytes and spermatozoa in the lumen of the germinal compartment. In the spring, after 4 weeks, 11ketotestosterone (11KT) levels were higher in the AI than in control fish, and after 9 weeks, coincident with semen release, testosterone levels increased in the AI group, while 11KT returned to the initial levels. Estradiol (E2) levels remained unchanged during the experimental period. Instead of decreasing throughout the period, as in control group, 17 ?-OH progesterone levels did not change in the AI-treated fish, resulting in higher values after 9 weeks when compared with control fish. fsh? and lh? gene expression in the AI animals were lower compared with control fish after 9 weeks. The use of AI was effective to obtain functional males during the breeding season. The increase in androgens, modulated by gonadotropins, triggered the sex change, enabling the development of male germ cells, whereas a decrease in E2 levels was not required to change sex in dusky grouper. PMID:23792264

  11. Morphometric or morpho-anatomal and genetic investigations highlight allopatric speciation in Western Mediterranean lagoons within the Atherina lagunae species (Teleostei, Atherinidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Trabelsi; F. Maamouri; J.-P. Quignard; M. Boussaid; E. Faure

    2004-01-01

    Current distribution of Atherina lagunae poses an interesting biogeographical problem as this species inhabits widely separate circum-Mediterranean lagoons. Statistical analyses of 87 biometric parameters and genetic variation in a portion of the cytochrome b gene were examined in four populations of A. lagunae from Tunisian and French lagoons. The results suggested a subdivision into two distinct Atherinid groups: one included

  12. Parapedocotyle prolatili gen. n. et sp. n., a representative of a new subfamily of the Diclidophoridae (Monogenea), a gill parasite of Prolatilus jugularis (Teleostei: Pinguipedidae) from Chile.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Marcelo E; Sepulveda, Fabiola A; González, M Teresa

    2014-12-01

    Parapedocotylinae, a new subfamily, is proposed to accommodate the gen. n. et sp. n. Parapedocotyle prolatili (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae), a gill parasite of the Pacific sandperch, Prolatilus jugularis (Valenciennes) (Pinguipedidae) from northern Chile (30 degrees 56'S; 71 degrees 20'W). Among the Diclidophoridae Cerfontaine, 1895, the species of the Pedocotylinae Yamaguti, 1963 are unique by bearing the first pair of clamps (most posteriorly) in a haptoral projection. Pedocotyle MacCallum, 1913, the only genus in the Pedocotylinae, is characterised by the first pair of clamps non-pedunculate, modified and non-functional, without accessory suckers, and clamps of pairs 2-4 being pedunculate and functional. In contrast, the first pair of clamps in Parapedocotyle is well developed and functional at the terminal end of a long haptoral appendix and having clamp pairs 2-4 pedunculated, modified and apparently not functional. Seminal receptacle is preovarian in Parapedocotyle in opposition to its postovarian position in Pedocotyle. These differences justified the erection of the new subfamily Parapedocotylinae. The new subfamily is also supported by genetic analyses (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA and cox1 sequences) demonstrating that the Pedocotylinae and Parapedocotylinae belong to different clades in the Diclidophoridae. PMID:25651696

  13. Speciation and host–parasite relationships in the parasite genus Gyrodactylus (Monogenea, Platyhelminthes) infecting gobies of the genus Pomatoschistus (Gobiidae, Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tine Huyse; Vanessa Audenaert; Filip A. M. Volckaert

    2003-01-01

    Using species-level phylogenies, the speciation mode of Gyrodactylus species infecting a single host genus was evaluated. Eighteen Gyrodactylus species were collected from gobies of the genus Pomatoschistus and sympatric fish species across the distribution range of the hosts. The V4 region of the ssrRNA and the internal transcribed spacers encompassing the 5.8S rRNA gene were sequenced; by including published sequences

  14. MNU Induction of Neoplasia in a Platyfish Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Kazianis; Irma Gimenez-Conti; Richard B. Setlow; Avril D. Woodhead; John C. Harshbarger; David Trono; Mark Ledesma; Rodney S. Nairn; Ronald B. Walter

    2001-01-01

    Interspecific hybrid crosses between members of the fish genus Xiphophorus have been used for over 70 years to study the genetic aspects of melanoma formation. In the well-established “Gordon-Kosswig” cross, the platyfish X. maculatus is outcrossed to the swordtail X. helleri, and the resulting backcross segregants spontaneously develop melanoma. We recently produced a distinct cross between X. maculatus and another

  15. David J. Schmidt Mark R. Collins**

    E-print Network

    , maturity, and spawning of Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill), from the Atlantic Coast of the southeastern United States* Abstract.-Sectioned sagittae of 1,039 Spanish mackerel, Scombero- morus maculatus- rity and the disadvantages of their inclusion are discussed. The Spanish mackerel, Scombero- morus

  16. V. P. Buonaccorsi E. Starkey J. E. Graves Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analysis of population subdivision among

    E-print Network

    Graves, John E.

    subdivision among young-of-the-year Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus) from the western Atlantic regions was consistent with the hypothesis that Spanish mackerel comprise a single intermingling genetic. Introduction The Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus) is a migratory, coastal pelagic species that has

  17. MEXUS-Gulf Coastal Pelagic Fish Research, 1977-84 Introduction

    E-print Network

    on Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, and king mackerel, S. cavalla, fished by both Mexico. Mackerel Tagging Marking, or tagging, fish has long been a practical method of determining movements-Gulf, 1977-84. Species Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus King mackerel, S. cavalla Little tunny

  18. Hair Cell Heterogeneity in the Goldfish Saccule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saidel, William M.; Lanford, Pamela J.; Yan, Hong Y.; Popper, Arthur N.

    1995-01-01

    A set of cytological studies performed in the utricle and saccule of Astronotus ocellatus (Teleostei, Percomorphi, Cichlidae) identified two basic types of hair cells and others with some intermediate characteristics. This paper reports on applying the same techniques to the saccule of Carassius auratus (Teleostei, Otophysi, Cyprinidae) and demonstrates similar types of hair cells to those found in Astronotus. Since Carassius and Astronous are species of extreme taxonomic distance within the Euteteostei, two classes of mechanoreceptive hair cells are likely to represent the primitive condition for sensory receptors in the euteleost inner ear and perhaps in all bony fish ears.

  19. Possible cytoskeletal structures of rainbow trout sperm revealed by electron microscopic observation after detergent extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maya D. Markova; Ralitsa S. Zhivkova

    2003-01-01

    Despite the considerable research interest in fish sperm ultrastructure, little is known about the functions of different sperm cell components. Our electron microscopic study was aimed at identifying possible tissue-specific cytoskeletal structures in spermatozoa of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Teleostei, Salmoniformes, Salmonidae; formerly Salmo gairdneri). Based on the known resistance of the cytoskeleton to nonionic detergents, we compared the ultrastructure

  20. Department of Biology. California State University Long Beach. California 90840-3702

    E-print Network

    -3702 Phylogeny and Biogeography of Hakes (Merluccius; TeleosteiJ: A Cladistic Analysis Abstract.-The phylogeny and historical biogeography of hakes (Merluccius) are reexamined using a cladistic analysis of Inada's (1981 value, is congruent with the scheme of evolution proposed by Ho (1974) for the hake-specific copepod

  1. 2001 The Society for the Study of Evolution. All rights reserved. Evolution, 55(11), 2001, pp. 22742286

    E-print Network

    Bernatchez, Louis

    GLACIAL RACES OF COREGONUS ARTEDI (TELEOSTEI: COREGONINAE) JULIE TURGEON1,2,3 AND LOUIS BERNATCHEZ1,4 1 the existence of two closely related lineages of the lake cisco, Coregonus artedi, whose significantly different and low migration regimes. Key words. Cline, Coregonus, disequilibrium, historical gene flow, isolation

  2. Developmental Cell Short Article

    E-print Network

    Freund, Jonathan B.

    Developmental Cell Short Article Mechanistic Basis of Otolith Formation during Teleost Inner Ear bundles in the inner ear, serve as inertial sensors for balance. In teleostei, otolith development which form the ear stone or oto- conia located in the vestibular labyrinth of the inner ear

  3. Accepted by L. Page: 9 Mar. 2011; published: 27 Apr. 2011 ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)

    E-print Network

    Piller, Kyle R.

    Paraneetroplus (Teleostei: Cichlidae) currently consists of 11 species that naturally occur from southern Mex, Central America Introduction In his checklist of New World cichlids, Kullander (2003) recognized 16 species in the genus Vieja, a group that nat- urally occurs from southern Mexico to Panama. However, like

  4. Biosystematics of Ambystoma rosaceum and A. tigrinum in Northwestern Mexico Author(s): H. Bradley Shaffer

    E-print Network

    Shaffer, H. Bradley

    . An annotated list of the American cyprinodontid fishes of the genus Fundulus, with the description:1-77. WILEY,E. 0. 1977. The phylogeny and systematics of the Fundulus nottii species group (Teleostei: Cy- prinodontidae). Occ. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas 66. DIVISION OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND MUSEUM OF ZOOLOGY

  5. Patterns of nucleotide change in mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes and the phylogeny of piranhas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo Ortí; Paulo Petry; Jorge I. R. Porto; Michel Jégu; Axel Meyer

    1996-01-01

    The patterns and rates of nucleotide substitution in mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes are described and applied in a phylogenetic analysis of fishes of the subfamily Serrasalminae (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae). Fragments of 345 bp of the 12S and 535 bp of the 16S genes were sequenced for 37 taxa representing all but three genera in the subfamily. Secondary-structure models based on

  6. High genetic diversity in cryptic populations of the migratory sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in the Mekong River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N So; G E Maes; F A M Volckaert

    2006-01-01

    The detection and conservation of spawning units is of crucial importance in highly migratory species. The sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Pangasiidae; Teleostei) is a common large-sized tropical fish, which migrates annually to several upstream spawning sites on the Lower Mekong River and feeds on the huge floodplain of the Lower Mekong and Tonle Sap for the other half of the

  7. INTRODUCTION In animals moving from surface to cave living, be-

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    traits gain a new function in perceiving relevant signals. The Cave molly Poecilia mexicana inhabits females (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae, Teleostei)? Martina ARNDT , Jakob PARZEFALL and Martin PLATH(1 tetra Astyanax fasciatus Cuvier, 1819 (Characidae; Plath et al in prep.) and in the Cave molly Poecilia

  8. The offspring size/fecundity trade-off and female fitness in the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae)

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    The offspring size/fecundity trade-off and female fitness in the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana environments. Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana: Poeciliidae, Teleostei), inhabiting a sulfidic cave conditions. We tested 30-day newborn survival of offspring from wild- caught P. mexicana females from

  9. Behav Ecol Sociobiol (2006) 60: 159165 DOI 10.1007/s00265-005-0152-2

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    2006-01-01

    and Poecilia mexicana), which were involved in the natural hybridisation leading to the amazon molly. Contrary in a sexual/ asexual mating complex (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei) Received: 6 August 2005 / Revised: 15: a gynogenetic hybrid species, Poecilia formosa (amazon molly) and two sexual species (Poecilia latipinna

  10. Subterranean Biology 2: 59-64, 2004 INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    they reach sexual maturity (Snelson 1989). For example, Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana) males may mature-dependent male mating behaviour in the Cave molly, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei) Martin PLATH(1@zimserver.zoologie.uni-hamburg.de ABSTRACT We investigated male mating behaviour in a population of Poecilia mexicana from a Mexican

  11. INTRODUCTION Mate choice in Cave mollies

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    , the Mexican livebearer Poecilia mexicana. The cave form of P. mexicana (the Cave molly) inhabits a sulphurous- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei) Martin PLATH(1,2) , Kay E-dwelling Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) in simultaneous choice tests. When females could evaluate the stimulus

  12. Compensatory behavior in response to sulfide- induced hypoxia affects time budgets, feeding efficiency, and predation risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Tobler; R. Riesch; C. M. Tobler; M. Plath

    ABSTRACT Background: In habitats containing toxic hydrogen sulfide, fish breathe at the water's surface to stay alive. The behavioris called aquatic surface respiration (ASR). Question: What effects does this compensatorybehavior have? Does it constrain individuals’ time budgets? Negatively affect foraging? Increase susceptibility to predators? Organisms and places: Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae, Teleostei) and Sulfur mollies (P. sulphuraria) inhabiting sulfidic

  13. Behav Ecol Sociobiol (2004) 55:596601 DOI 10.1007/s00265-003-0750-9

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    2004-01-01

    preferences in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei size in different populations of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana, living in light population of Atlantic mollies, Poecilia mexi- cana, as a model, we asked whether the female mating

  14. Intergeneric Spawning Between Captive Female Sacramento Perch (Archoplites interruptus) and Male Rock

    E-print Network

    Bolnick, Daniel I.

    two separate pairs of a male Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestris) and a female Sacramento Perch to rivers of California's central valley (Moyle, 1976). The Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestris) is native Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestrus), Teleostei: Centrarchidae DANIEL I. BOLNICK1 Section of Integrative

  15. 77 FR 35358 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Gulf of Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ...0648-XA897 Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus) and Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  16. Structure and origin of the tooth pedicel (the so-called bone of attachment) and dental-ridge bone in the mandibles of the sea breams Acanthopagrus australis, Pagrus auratus and Rhabdosargus sarba (Sparidae, Perciformes, Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianne R. Hughes; Jack R. Bassett; Lynette A. Moffat

    1994-01-01

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were used to show that the pedicels of fish teeth (the so-called “bones of attachment”) consist of three types of dentine that lie concentrically around a pulp cavity lined with typical odontoblasts with cytoplasmic processes in dentinal tubules. Circumpulpal canalar dentine forms on a thin layer of orthodentine that is encased in mantle dentine. Canalar

  17. Two new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) and a redescription of Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier and S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky (Teleostei: Characidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Taísa Mendes; Boeger, Walter A; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marília

    2015-01-01

    Three species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 are reported from the gills of Salminus spp. in Brazil. Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier is redescribed, based on examination of paratypes. The study revealed morphological differences from the original description, especially in the morphology of the cephalothorax and the ornamentation of antenna, antennule and legs. Ergasilus lacusauratus n. sp. described from S. brasiliensis in lake Lagoa Dourada (Paraná) differs from the only known species from this host group, E. salmini, in the shape and size of the cephalothorax and the general morphology of the egg-sacs. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. from S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky in River São Francisco (Minas Gerais) closely resembles E. pitalicus, E. coatiarus and E. leporinidis in the lack of a pectinate seta on the first exopodal segment, a feature common in species of Ergasilus in the Neotropics. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. differs from these species in the presence of a spiniform process on the coxae of legs 2, 3 and 4, an ornament never reported from freshwater species of Ergasilus in South America. PMID:25557749

  18. Biosynthesis of steroids in ovarian follicles of red seabream, Pagrus major (Sparidae, Teleostei) during final oocyte maturation and the relative effectiveness of steroid metabolites for germinal vesicle breakdown in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Sonoko; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Gen, Koichiro; Okuzawa, Koichi; Kagawa, Hirohiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2002-09-01

    The steroid synthesis pathway in the ovarian follicles of the red seabream during final oocyte maturation (FOM) was investigated by incubating intact follicles with different radioactively labeled steroid precursors. During FOM, the steroidogenic shift from estradiol-17beta to 20 beta-hydroxylated progestin production occurred mainly due to a combination of inactivation of C 1720-lyase and activation of 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Of the steroids produced, 1720 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (1720 beta-P) and 1720 beta,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20 beta-S) exhibited the greatest effect on germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in vitro. 1720 beta-P was further converted to its 5 beta-reduced form, 1720 beta-dihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-3-one (1720 beta-P-5 beta), which had lower GVBD activity, suggesting that 5 beta-reduction plays a role in the inactivation of the maturation-inducing ability of 1720 beta-P. In contrast, no 5 beta-reduced metabolite of 20 beta-S was found. Serum levels of 1720 beta-P and 20 beta-S, measured by ELISA, showed that circulating levels of both progestins increased during FOM, and 20 beta-S levels were approximately twice as high as 1720 beta-P levels. This study clarified the complete steroidogenesis pathway during FOM in red seabream ovarian follicles and showed that two 20 beta-hydroxylated progestins, 1720 beta-P and 20 beta-S, act as maturation-inducing hormones in this species. The catabolites of these two progestins and their physiological roles in reproduction are also discussed. PMID:12223211

  19. Re-description of the gudgeon species Saurogobio gracilicaudatus Yao & Yang in Luo, Yue & Chen, 1977 (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from the Chang-Jiang basin, South China, with a note on its generic classification.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhen-Yan; Zhang, E; Jiang, Zhong-Guan; Wang, Xue

    2014-01-01

    Saurogobio gracilicaudatus, originally described from the middle Yangtze River (Chang-Jiang in Chinese) basin at Yichang and Guanghua (now Laohekou), Hubei Province, South China, is here re-described, with particular concern for oromandibular structures in the mouth. It is uniquely distinguishable from all other species of Saurogobio in having a rostral cap with a slightly crenulated median portion, lips covered with brush-like, conical papillae, and a lower lip with a small, smooth and protruded central pad anteriorly free and posteriorly confluent with lateral lobes. The generic classification of this species is also discussed on the basis of oromandibular structures, which are of taxonomic importance in generic classification of gudgeons.  PMID:25112340

  20. Contrast between extensive variation of 28S rDNA and stability of 5S rDNA and telomeric repeats in the diploid-polyploid Squalius alburnoides complex and in its maternal ancestor Squalius pyrenaicus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Gromicho, Marta; Coutanceau, Jean-Pierre; Ozouf-Costaz, Catherine; Collares-Pereira, Maria João

    2006-01-01

    The diploid-polyploid Squalius alburnoides complex resulted from interspecific hybridization. The chromosomal mapping of 28S and 5S ribosomal genes and of (TTAGGG)n telomeric repeats was performed on specimens from the complex and from the sympatric bisexual species S. pyrenaicus (the complex maternal ancestor) as part of an investigation of the evolutionary relationships between genomic constitutions and the consequences of the ongoing polyploidization process in terms of chromosome reshaping. Contrasting results were obtained. While results with 5S rDNA and telomeric probes gave an impression of genomic stability, the variability detected with 28S rDNA probe suggested quite the opposite. The 5S rDNA probe mapped constantly to three chromosomes per haploid genome with apparently conserved locations in morphologically similar chromosomes; conversely, prominent intra- and inter-individual variations of 28S rDNA and of syntenic sites with 5S rDNA were detected with regard to number, size and location. Hypotheses for the causes of such polymorphisms are discussed. The terminal position of most 28S rDNA sites and the absence of detectable interstitial telomeric sequences suggest a mechanism that does not involve major chromosomal rearrangements. These fishes share similar patterns for the studied cytogenetic markers which may be taken as evidence of an apparent stability that may be hiding extensive and subtle genome variations that are possibly related to an ongoing evolutionary process of genome tetraploidization and speciation. PMID:16628500

  1. Gonadotropin-dependent oocyte maturational competence requires activation of the protein kinase A pathway and synthesis of RNA and protein in ovarian follicles of Nibe, Nibea mitsukurii (Teleostei, Sciaenidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoshizaki, G.; Shusa, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Patino, R.

    2002-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone- (LH)-dependent ovarian follicle maturation has been recently described in two stages for teleost fishes. The oocyte's ability to respond to the steroidal maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), also known as oocyte maturational competence (OMC), is acquired during the first stage; whereas the MIH-dependent resumption of meiosis occurs during the second stage. However, studies directly addressing OMC have been performed with a limited number of species and therefore the general relevance of the two-stage model and its mechanisms remain uncertain. In this study, we examined the hormonal regulation of OMC and its basic transduction mechanisms in ovarian follicles of the sciaenid teleost, Nibe (Nibea mitsukurii). Exposure to MIH [17,20??-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one or 17,20??,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one] stimulated germinal vesicle breakdown (index of meiotic resumption) in full-grown follicles primed with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, an LH-like gonadotropin) but not in those pre-cultured in plain incubation medium. The induction of OMC by HCG was mimicked by protein kinase A (PKA) activators (forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP), and blocked by specific inhibitors of PKA (H89 and H8) as well as inhibitors of RNA (actinomycin D) and protein (cycloheximide) synthesis. Forskolin-induced OMC was also inhibited by actinomycin D and cycloheximide. A strong activator of protein kinase C, PMA, inhibited HCG-dependent OMC. In conclusion, OMC in Nibe ovarian follicles is gonadotropin-dependent and requires activation of the PKA pathway followed by gene transcription and translation events. These observations are consistent with the two-stage model of ovarian follicle maturation proposed for other teleosts, and suggest that Nibe can be used as new model species for mechanistic studies of ovarian follicle differentiation and maturation in fishes.

  2. Dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) parasitizing the gills of spinefoots (Teleostei: Siganidae): proposal of Glyphidohaptor n. gen., with two new species from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and G. plectocirra n. comb. from Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Galli, Paolo; Yang, Tingbao

    2007-02-01

    Nine species of Siganus (Perciformes: Siganidae) were examined for dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) from the Red Sea, Egypt; the Great Barrier Reef, Australia; and the South China Sea, China. Species of Tetrancistrum were found on siganids from all 3 localities; Pseudohaliotrema spp. were restricted to siganids from the Great Barrier Reef; and species representing Glyphidohaptor n. gen. were found on siganids from the Red Sea and Great Barrier Reef. Siganus argenteus from the Red Sea and Siganus vulpinus from the Great Barrier Reef were negative for dactylogyrid parasites. Glyphidohaptor n. gen. is proposed for 3 species (2 species new to science) and the new species are described: Glyphidohaptor phractophallus n. sp. from Siganus fuscescens from the Great Barrier Reef; Glyphidohaptor sigani n. sp. from Siganus doliatus (type host), Siganus punctatus, Siganus corallinus, and Siganus lineatus from the Great Barrier Reef; and Glyphidohaptor plectocirra (Paperna, 1972) n. comb. (= Pseudohaliotrema plectocirra Paperna, 1972) from Siganus luridus and Siganus rivulatus from the Red Sea. PMID:17436940

  3. To be cited as: Borsa P., Collet A., Carassou L., Ponton D., Chen W.-J. 2010. -Multiple nuclear and mitochondrial genotyping identifies emperors and large-eye breams (Teleostei: Lethrinidae) from New Caledonia and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and coral-reef habitats of the tropical Indo-Pacific, and they are important fishery resources). Coral reef ecosystems harbour a high diversity of fishes that may include entire families that contain and resource management, at any life history stage. Current studies on fish larval ecology of tropical species

  4. The catfish, Rhinelepis aspera (Teleostei; Loricariidae), in the Guaíra region of the Paraná River: an example of population estimation from catch-effort and tagging data when emigration and immigration are high

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho; Yasunobu Matsuura; Edson Kiyoshi Okada; Keshiyu Nakatani

    1995-01-01

    Using the Leslie model, an estimate was made of the stock of the loricariid catfish, Rhinelepis aspera, in the fishing grounds in the Guaíra region of the Paraná River. The method was based on catch-effort and mark-recapture data collected over a 90 day period in 1986. The estimated initial population size, based on catch-effort, was 734 806 catfish with a

  5. Cytogenetic comparison between two allopatric populations of Astyanax altiparanae Garutti et Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae), with emphasis on the localization of 18S and 5S rDNA

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Rosiley Berton; da Rosa, Renata; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia; Júlio Jr., Horácio Ferreira; Dias, Ana Lúcia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Two populations of Astyanax altiparanae (Garutti & Britski, 2000) of the Água dos Patos stream/SP and lake Igapó/PR were analyzed. All individuals showed 2n = 50, however, different karyotypic formulae were observed. The population of the Água dos Patos stream showed 8m +24sm+6st+12a (NF=88) and the population of lake Igapó, 8m+28sm+4st+10a (NF=90). Nucleolus organizing regions (AgNORs) were observed in the terminal position on the short and long arm of different chromosomes of both populations, showing a variation from 3 to 4 chromosomes. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using 18S rDNA probes revealed only one pair of chromosomes with fluorescent signals in the terminal site on the short arm in the Igapó lake population, while the population of Água dos Patos stream showed 4 fluorescence terminal signals, characterizing a system of simple and multiple NORs, respectively. 5S rDNA fluorescent signals were detected in the interstitial position of a pair of chromosomes in the two studied populations. Some AgNOR sites revealed to be GC-rich when stained with Chromomycin A3 (CMA3), however, AT positive regions were not observed. The data obtained show that, despite the conservation of the diploid number and location of 5S DNAr, differences in both the distribution of 18S rDNA and karyotypic formula among the populations were found, thus corroborating the existing data on chromosome variability in Astyanax altiparanae that can be significant for cytotaxonomy in this group. PMID:24260632

  6. A profile of the introduced Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Teleostei) populations in Lake Victoria Region in relation to its putative origin of Lakes Edward and Albert (Uganda - E. Africa) based on random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilson W. Mwanja; Gregory C. Booton; Les Kaufman; Paul A. Fuerst

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker analyses were used to profile the 'ecological explosion' of the introduced Oreochromis niloticus in the basins of Lakes Victoria and Kyoga in comparison to its putative origin of Lakes Edward, George and Albert. O. niloticus is currently the dominant tilapiine in Lakes Victoria and Kyoga basins following its introductions from the Lakes Albert and

  7. Astrofsica Extragalctica y Cosmologa II Mayo-Julio 2007

    E-print Network

    Aretxaga, Itziar

    las galaxias en el cúmulo: relación morfología- densidad, función de luminosidad, evolución II edad del Universo 4.5 La importancia de k y 4.6 Parámetro de densidad 4.7 Modelos con =0 4.8 Modelos

  8. Larval horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from the tissues of native freshwater fish in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Blair

    1983-01-01

    Encysted larval horsehair worms (Phylum Nematomorpha) were recovered from the tissues of upland bullies (Gobiomorphus breviceps) and a galaxiid (Galaxias vulgaris) from the Seaward River, Canterbury. The cysts were mostly in the alimentary submucosa. A few occurred in the liver. An adult digenean fluke (Coitocaecum sp.), parasitic within the gut of a bully, also contained nematomorph larvae in its tissues.

  9. International Journal of PIXE, Vol. 15, Nos. 3 & 4 (2005) 9Fh01 World Scientitlc

    E-print Network

    Waikato, University of

    . MARKWITZ Rajier Research Centre, Instituteof Geological and Nuclear Sciences Ltd, P.O. Box 31-312, Lower test of assumptions about these migrations. Concentric layers of CaCO, with some Sr as SrCO, comprise to scale vertical faces that are covered by a film of water,' and penetrate far Koaro (Galaxias brevipinnis

  10. Molecular Ecology (2008) 17, 50495061 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.03987.x 2008 The Authors

    E-print Network

    Ruzzante, Daniel E.

    by the phylogeographical signal of Galaxias platei in Patagonia TYLER S. ZEMLAK,* EVELYN M. HABIT, SANDRA J. WALDE,* MIGUEL, Galaxiidae) collected throughout Patagonia (25 lakes/rivers) to examine how Andean orogeny and the climatic were likely restricted to the northern region of Patagonia with small relicts in the south, whereas

  11. Revision of the genus Chordodes (Gordiida: Nematomorpha) from Africa IV. Ultrastructural redescription of Chordodes congolensis Sciacchitano, 1933, Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, Chordodes madagascariensis (Camerano, 1893), Chordodes mobensis Sciacchitano, 1958 and reinterpretation of Chordodes maculatus Sciacchitano, 1958 and Chordodes kakandensis Sciacchitano, 1958

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. De Villalobos; F. Zanca; A. Schmidt-Rhaesa

    2009-01-01

    Six species of the genus Chordodes from Africa were investigated in order to certify their taxonomic descriptions and verify the species status. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the female of Chordodes congolensis has seven types of areoles, while the females of C. ferox have six and the male and females of C. madagascariensis have four and five areolar types, respectively.

  12. Identification of transcriptome SNPs between Xiphophorus lines and species for assessing allele specific gene expression within F1 interspecies hybrids?

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yingjia; Catchen, Julian; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Amores, Angel; Beldroth, Ion; Wagner, Jonathon R; Zhang, Ziping; Postlethwait, John; Warren, Wes; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Variations in gene expression are essential for the evolution of novel phenotypes and for speciation. Studying allelic specific gene expression (ASGE) within interspecies hybrids provides a unique opportunity to reveal underlying mechanisms of genetic variation. Using Xiphophorus interspecies hybrid fishes and high-throughput next generation sequencing technology, we were able to assess variations between two closely related vertebrate species, X. maculatus and X. couchianus, and their F1 interspecies hybrids. We constructed transcriptome-wide SNP polymorphism sets between two highly inbred X. maculatus lines (JP 163 A and B), and between X. maculatus and a second species, X. couchianus. The X. maculatus JP 163 A and B parental lines have been separated in the laboratory for ? 70 years and we were able to identify SNPs at a resolution of 1 SNP per 49 kb of transcriptome. In contrast, SNP polymorphisms between X. couchianus and X. maculatus species, which diverged ? 5–10 million years ago, were identified about every 700 bp. Using 6,524 transcripts with identified SNPs between the two parental species (X. maculatus and X. couchianus), we mapped RNA-seq reads to determine ASGE within F1 interspecies hybrids. We developed an in silico X. couchianus transcriptome by replacing 90,788 SNP bases for X. maculatus transcriptome with the consensus X. couchianus SNP bases and provide evidence that this procedure overcomes read mapping biases. Employment of the insilico reference transcriptome and tolerating 5 mismatches during read mapping allow direct assessment of ASGE in the F1 interspecies hybrids. Overall, these results show that Xiphophorus is a tractable vertebrate experimental model to investigate how genetic variations that occur during speciation may affect gene interactions and the regulation of gene expression. PMID:21466860

  13. Astroglial architecture of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) brain as revealed by immunohistochemical staining against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kálmán

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is the first comprehensive study on the astroglia of a teleost fish that is based on the immunohistochemical\\u000a staining of GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, an immunohistochemical marker of astroglia). The ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii)\\u000a and their largest group, the Teleostei, represent a separate pathway of vertebrate evolution. Their brain has a very complex\\u000a macroscopic structure; several parts

  14. Geology and paleontology of late Cenozoic marine deposits in the Sacaco area (Peru)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian de Muizon; Thomas J. Devries

    1985-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Paläontologische, stratigraphische und geochronologische (K-Ar) Daten belegen ein obermiozänes und pliozänes Alter der Pisco-Formation. Die Sequenz wird etwa 350 m mächtig und besteht aus tuffartigen Sandsteinen, Silten und Schillsanden. Die feineren Sedimente sind in großen Lagunen, die gröberen im geschützten Strandbereich abgelagert worden. Die reiche Fauna enthält Fische (Teleostei und Selachii), Meeres-Vögel, eine Edentata und an Wirbellosen hauptsächlich Veneriden und

  15. Reproductive interference determines persistence and exclusion in species interactions.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Shigeki; Nishida, Takayoshi; Tsubaki, Yoshitaka

    2009-09-01

    1. Reproductive interference is a negative interspecific sexual interaction that adversely affects the fitness of males and females during reproductive process. Theoretical studies suggest that because reproductive interference is characterized by positive frequency dependence it is far more likely to cause species exclusion than the density dependence of resource competition. However, the respective contributions of resource competition and reproductive interference to species exclusion, which have been frequently observed in many competition studies, remain unclear. 2. We show that reproductive interference is a far more critical cause of species exclusion than resource competition in the competition between Callosobruchus bean weevil species. In competition experiments over several generations, we manipulated the initial relative abundance of the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis, and the southern cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. When the initial adult ratio of C. chinensis : C. maculatus were 6 : 2 and 4 : 4, C. chinensis excluded C. maculatus. However, when C. maculatus was four times more abundant than C. chinensis at the start, we observed the opposite outcome. 3. A behavioural experiment using adults of the two species revealed asymmetric reproductive interference. The fecundity and longevity of C. maculatus females, but not those of C. chinensis females, decreased when the females were kept with heterospecific males. Fecundities of females of both species decreased as the number of heterospecific males increased. In contrast, resource competition at the larval stage resulted in higher survival of C. maculatus than of C. chinensis. 4. These results suggest that the positive frequency-dependent effect of reproductive interference resulted in species exclusion, depending on the initial population ratio of the two species, and the asymmetry of the interference resulted in C. chinensis being dominant in this study, as in previous studies. Classical competition studies should be reviewed in light of this evidence for reproductive interference. PMID:19457018

  16. Curvas de rotación - Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, C.

    Se está elaborando un atlas con imágenes y datos publicados en las revistas principales por diversos autores, de las curvas de rotación en galaxias observadas en diferentes frecuencias. Las curvas de rotación constituyen uno de los medios más apropiados para el estudio de las diferencias cinemáticas entre los diversos componentes y quizá la mejor prueba observacional de la existencia de materia oscura en el universo. Este atlas tiene el propósito de servir como una guía cualitativa y cuantitativa para estos estudios.

  17. Publications of the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology University of Hawaii

    E-print Network

    . Planet. Sci., 34, 813-815. 2. Bevis, M., E. C. Kendrick, R. Smalley, Jr., T. Herring, J. Godoy, and F crust, Meteorit. Planet. Sci., 34, 185-195. 7. DeHon, R., P.J. Mouginis-Mark, and E.E. Brick. Geologic map of the Galaxias Quadrangle (MTM 35217) of Mars. U. S. Geological Survey Misc. Map. I-2579, 1999. 8

  18. Comparisons of the food niches of three native and two introduced fish species in an Australian river

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luke J. Pen; Ian C. Potter; Michael C. Calver

    1993-01-01

    Synopsis  The breadth, correspondence and overlap of the diets of the small and large size classes of the three native species (Galaxias occidentalis, Bostockia porosa and Edelia vittata) and two introduced species (Gambusia holbrooki and Perca fluviatilis) of fishes found in the shallows of the main channel and in the tributary creeks of a south-western Australian river have\\u000a been compared in

  19. Drought, differential mortality and the coexistence of a native and an introduced fish species in a south east Australian intermittent stream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard E. Closs; P. Sam Lake

    1996-01-01

    The longitudinal distribution ofSalmo trutta andGalaxias olidus, a small salmoniform fish, was mapped over four summers (1985–1988) in the upper reaches of the Lerderderg River, an intermittent stream in central Victoria. Over the four successive summers of the study, the distribution ofS. trutta expanded upstream. Coincident with the expansion ofS. trutta was a contraction in the distribution ofG. olidus upstream.

  20. A new species of Dermoergasilus Ho & Do, 1982 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) from freshwater fishes in the south-west of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Marina; Jones, Brian; Lymbery, Alan J

    2009-10-01

    A new species of Dermoergasilus Ho & Do, 1982 is described from freshwater fish hosts in the south west of Western Australia. D. occidentalis n. sp. differs from previously described species in the genus principally by the armature of the legs. The new species was found on the gills of the freshwater cobbler Tandanus bostocki Whitely and western minnow Galaxias occidentalis Ogilby in two different river systems. PMID:19731098

  1. Historical abiotic events or human-aided dispersal: inferring the evolutionary history of a newly discovered galaxiid fish.

    PubMed

    Chakona, Gamuchirai; Swartz, Ernst R; Chakona, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Range expansion of obligate freshwater fishes in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa has mostly been attributed to river capture events and confluence of rivers following sea-level regression. The role of low drainage divides and interbasin water transfers has received less attention. This study analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to assess the processes that could have influenced the phylogeographic patterns of a newly discovered lineage of Galaxias zebratus (hereafter Galaxias zebratus "Joubertina") that occurs across two currently isolated river systems close to the Joubertina area in the eastern CFR. Results from both analyses revealed that observed genetic differentiation cannot be explained by isolation between the two river systems. No genetic differentiation was found between the Krom River system and a population from one of the Gamtoos tributaries. Shallow genetic differentiation was found between the Krom and the other Gamtoos populations. Historical river capture events and sea-level changes do not explain the present distribution of Galaxias zebratus "Joubertina" across the Krom and Gamtoos River systems. Interbasin dispersal during pluvial periods, recent river capture, or recent human-mediated translocation seems to be the most plausible explanations. PMID:25897377

  2. A Dynamical Study of the Formation of Peculiar Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, T. K.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Un estudlo de la formaci6n de diferentes tipos de galaxias peculiares (interactuantes) es conducido en base de la dina'mioa de la colisi6n lievando a su formaci6n usando la aproximaci6n impulsiva. Los resultados indican la existencia de una relaci6n caracteristica en base del camblo de la energia interna durante la colisi6n, cual determina el tipo de la galaxia peculiar formado. La relacion es analisada y valores criticos del camblo de Ia energia interna, ilevando a la interacci6n entre galaxias de varias intensidades y la formaci6n consecuente de varios tipos de sistemas peculiares es discutido. ABSTRACT. A study of the formation of different types of peculiar (interacting) galaxies is conducted based on the dynamics of the collision leading to their formation, using the impulsive approximation. Results indicate the existance of a characteristic relationship, based on the internal energy changes during the collision, governing the type of peculiar galaxy formed. The relationship is analysed and critical values of internal energy changes, leading to galaxy interaction of varying intensities and consequent formation of different types of peculiar galaxies is discussed. Key words: GALAXIES-DYNAMICS -- GALAXIES-FORMATION

  3. Historical abiotic events or human-aided dispersal: inferring the evolutionary history of a newly discovered galaxiid fish

    PubMed Central

    Chakona, Gamuchirai; Swartz, Ernst R; Chakona, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Range expansion of obligate freshwater fishes in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa has mostly been attributed to river capture events and confluence of rivers following sea-level regression. The role of low drainage divides and interbasin water transfers has received less attention. This study analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to assess the processes that could have influenced the phylogeographic patterns of a newly discovered lineage of Galaxias zebratus (hereafter Galaxias zebratus “Joubertina”) that occurs across two currently isolated river systems close to the Joubertina area in the eastern CFR. Results from both analyses revealed that observed genetic differentiation cannot be explained by isolation between the two river systems. No genetic differentiation was found between the Krom River system and a population from one of the Gamtoos tributaries. Shallow genetic differentiation was found between the Krom and the other Gamtoos populations. Historical river capture events and sea-level changes do not explain the present distribution of Galaxias zebratus “Joubertina” across the Krom and Gamtoos River systems. Interbasin dispersal during pluvial periods, recent river capture, or recent human-mediated translocation seems to be the most plausible explanations.

  4. Ventos em supergigantes B[e] das nuvens de Magalhães e da Galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araújo, F. X.; Pilling, D. A.; Pereira, C. B.; Fernandes, M. B.

    2003-08-01

    As Supergigantes B[e] apresentam as seguintes características: (i) alta luminosidade; (ii) espectro típico de estrelas de tipo B; (iii) linhas permitidas e proibidas em emissão de metais de baixa ionização, especialmente FeII; (iv) linhas de Balmer, e por vêzes também dos ions HeI e FeII, com perfis tipo P Cygni indicativos de altas taxas de perda de massa. Atualmente estamos desenvolvendo um projeto que visa comparar as propriedades fisicas (principalmente e v¥) dos ventos destes objetos nas Nuvens de Magalhães e na Galaxia. O objetivo é estudar a influência da metalicidade. No presente painel apresentamos uma determinação das velocidades terminais de 11 estrelas, sendo 4 na GNM (Hen S111, 66, R126 e Hen S93), 4 na PNM (Hen S18, S23, S65 e R4) e 3 na Galaxia (CPD-529243, MWC 300 e GG Car). Nossos dados são espectros de alta resolução obtidos no telescópio 1.52m do ESO com o espectrógrafo FEROS. Para determinar as velocidades terminais usamos as linhas Hd e HeI 3888 Å cujas componentes em absorção costumam estar livres de "blends" e estruturas. Nossos resultados sugerem que as velocidades de expansão na GNM são maiores (ainda que apenas ligeiramente) do que aquelas da PNM, como esperado. No entanto, os objetos da Galaxia não parecem seguir a mesma tendência.

  5. Relevamiento de HI en las Nubes de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Arnal, E. M.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    El relevamiento de HI en el hemisferio sur, que se está realizando desde el IAR con el nuevo receptor enfriado, abarca, en su rango de velocidades, las velocidades desplegadas por el hidrógeno neutro de las Nubes de Magallanes. Esto permite obtener los perfiles de velocidad correspondientes a estas galaxias con una sensibilidad y una completitud de grilla excepcionales para el estudio de la distribución y de la cinemática del gas a gran escala y con una resolución angular de 30' y una resolución en velocidad de 1 km/s. Estas condiciones permiten el estudio de los campos de velocidad, de las componentes múltiples en velocidad, de las asimetrías, concentraciones y burbujas en la distribución del gas, los puentes entre las Nubes y entre las Nubes y la Galaxia, etc. Estas características son de particular importancia para su correlación con los mapas obtenidos con las emisiones en el radio-continuo, el IR y el CO (relacionable con el hidrógeno molecular) todas las cuales permiten el estudio de la dinámica de las Nubes y su relación con la Galaxia, de la formación y evolución estelar y de la evolución de la Nubes mismas.

  6. Evolutionary drivers of diversification and distribution of a southern temperate stream fish assemblage: testing the role of historical isolation and spatial range expansion.

    PubMed

    Chakona, Albert; Swartz, Ernst R; Gouws, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    This study used phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences to investigate genetic diversity within three broadly co-distributed freshwater fish genera (Galaxias, Pseudobarbus and Sandelia) to shed some light on the processes that promoted lineage diversification and shaped geographical distribution patterns. A total of 205 sequences of Galaxias, 177 sequences of Pseudobarbus and 98 sequences of Sandelia from 146 localities across nine river systems in the south-western Cape Floristic Region (South Africa) were used. The data were analysed using phylogenetic and haplotype network methods and divergence times for the clades retrieved were estimated using *BEAST. Nine extremely divergent (3.5-25.3%) lineages were found within Galaxias. Similarly, deep phylogeographic divergence was evident within Pseudobarbus, with four markedly distinct (3.8-10.0%) phylogroups identified. Sandelia had two deeply divergent (5.5-5.9%) lineages, but seven minor lineages with strong geographical congruence were also identified. The Miocene-Pliocene major sea-level transgression and the resultant isolation of populations in upland refugia appear to have driven widespread allopatric divergence within the three genera. Subsequent coalescence of rivers during the Pleistocene major sea-level regression as well as intermittent drainage connections during wet periods are proposed to have facilitated range expansion of lineages that currently occur across isolated river systems. The high degree of genetic differentiation recovered from the present and previous studies suggest that freshwater fish diversity within the south-western CFR may be vastly underestimated, and taxonomic revisions are required. PMID:23951050

  7. Genome organization in Xiphophorus (Poeciliidae; Telostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Schwab

    1982-01-01

    Xiphophorus represents a valuable model for studying genomic contributions to neoplasia. For analyzing these contributions at the molecular level, basic information about the genome organization is a prerequisite. This study presents data on the organization and complexity of the genomes of three species of Xiphophorus, maculatus, variatus and helleri, representative of the problem. Their diploid nuclei, as measured in the

  8. OCCURRENCE OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR KING, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, AND SPANISH,

    E-print Network

    OCCURRENCE OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR KING, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, AND SPANISH, S. MACULATUS. MACKERELS IN COMMERCIAL-lYPE SHRIMP TRAWLS ALONG THE ATLANTIC COAST OF THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES1 King mackerel (September- October 1986). Tongue nets, also known as bib, falcon, cobra, or mongoose trawl nets, have become

  9. Characterization of four Flavobacterium columnare ( Flexibacter columnaris) strains isolated from tropical fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Decostere; F Haesebrouck; L. A Devriese

    1998-01-01

    Four Flavobacterium columnare strains (AJS 1–4) were isolated from black mollies (Poecilia sphenops) and platies (Xiphophorus maculatus), showing white spots on the back, head and skin ulcers. The isolates developed characteristic rhizoid yellow pigmented colonies on Shieh agar and typical growth in Shieh broth. They were Gram-negative, filamentous bacteria exhibiting flexing movements. When compared to F. columnare strains isolated from

  10. Radio Frequency Heat Treatments to Disinfest Dried Pulses of Cowpea Weevil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore the potential of radio frequency (RF) heat treatments as an alternative to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of dried pulses, the relative heat tolerance and dielectric properties of different stages of the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) was determined. Among the immature st...

  11. Animal model for ultraviolet radiation-induced melanoma: Platyfish-swordtail hybrid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Setlow; A. D. Woodhead; E. Grist

    1989-01-01

    Sunlight exposure is strongly indicated as one of the important etiologic agents in human cutaneous malignant melanoma. However, because of the absence of good animal models, it has not been possible to estimate the wavelengths or wavelength regions involved. We have developed a useful animal model from crosses and backcrosses of platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) and swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri). Two strains

  12. Animal Model for Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Melanoma: Platyfish-Swordtail Hybrid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard B. Setlow; Avril D. Woodhead; Eleanor Grist

    1989-01-01

    Sunlight exposure is strongly indicated as one of the important etiologic agents in human cutaneous malignant melanoma. However, because of the absence of good animal models, it has not been possible to estimate the wavelengths or wavelength regions involved. We have developed a useful animal model from crosses and backcrosses of platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) and swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri). Two strains

  13. Sexual selection did not contribute to the evolution of male lifespan under curtailed age at reproduction in a seed beetle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALEXEI A. M AKLAKOV; F RICKE

    2009-01-01

    Sexual selection is a powerful evolutionary force that is hypothesised to play an important role in the evolution of lifespan. Here we test for the potential contribution of sexual selection to the rapid evolution of male lifespan in replicated laboratory populations of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. 2. For 35 generations, newly hatched virgin male beetles from eight different populations

  14. How labile are the egg-laying preferences of seed beetles?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANK J. M ESSINA

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with respect to the genetic lability of host preference in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. 2. In this study, replicate lines of an Asian population were kept on an ancestral host (mung bean) or switched to a novel host (cowpea). After 40þ generations, lines were assayed for host preference (in choice tests) and host

  15. Life-history variation in a seed beetle: adult egg-laying vs. larval competitive ability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J. Messina

    1991-01-01

    Populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus differ genetically in several traits that mediate intraspecific competition. This study examined competitive interactions between larvae from two strains that differed in their propensity to oviposit on occupied hosts. In a strain (S) where females avoided laying >1 egg\\/seed, larvae were highly competitive; if two larvae entered a small host simultaneously, only one

  16. An experimentally induced host shift in a seed beetle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J. Messina; Michelle Mendenhall; Jake C. Jones

    2009-01-01

    Many insects use a fairly well-defined set of host plants, but are occasionally observed on an atyp- ical host. The seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) has rarely been reported to attack lentil, which is distantly related to its usual legume hosts. An initial assay of an Asian beetle population revealed that none of the 100 larvae entering

  17. Inbreeding depression in two seed-feeding beetles, Callosobruchus

    E-print Network

    Fox, Charles W.

    Inbreeding depression in two seed-feeding beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus and Stator limbatus, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546-0091, USA Abstract Inbreeding depression is well documented in insects but the degree to which inbreeding depression varies among populations within species, and among

  18. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access A unique swim bladder-inner ear connection

    E-print Network

    Ladich, Friedrich

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access A unique swim bladder-inner ear connection in a teleost fish revealed to the lagena. Our study was designed to uncover the swim bladder-inner ear relationship in this species. We. Results: E. maculatus revealed a complex swim bladder-inner ear connection in which a bipartite swim

  19. A new genus and species of the leafhopper subtribe Paraboloponina from China (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Qu, Ling; Webb, M D; Dai, Ren-Huai

    2015-01-01

    A new leafhopper genus and species Forficus maculatus Qu gen. nov., sp. nov. of the subtribe Paraboloponina (Deltocephalinae, Drabescini) are described from China. A checklist to the Paraboloponina from China is given and a key to genera is provided. PMID:25781127

  20. SCOMBEROMORUS BRASILIENSIS, A NEW SPECIES OF SPANISH MACKEREL FROM THE WESTERN ATLANTIC

    E-print Network

    Scomberomorus-the king mackerel, S. cavalla (Cuvier), Spanish mackerel, S. maculatus (Mitchill); and cero, S of Natural History, Washington, DC 20560. "Department of Biological Sciences, George Washington Uni- versity. Statistical tests were performed on the IBM 370-148 compu- ter4 at the George Washington University using