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1

Effects of Galaxias maculatus on Nutrient Dynamics and Phytoplankton Biomass in a North Patagonian Oligotrophic Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we analysed the effects of Galaxias maculatus, a landlocked small fish species, on nutrient dynamics, and the consequent effects on phytoplankton biomass of an oligotrophic North Patagonian lake. We performed field and laboratory experiments in order to explore nutrient release by G. maculatus with increasing fish biomass and body size, and the resulting phytoplankton responses. Our results

Mariana Reissig; Claudia P. Queimaliños; Esteban G. Balseiro

2003-01-01

2

Effects of Galaxias maculatus on nutrient dynamics and phytoplankton biomass in a North Patagonian oligotrophic lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we analysed the effects of Galaxias maculatus, a landlocked small fish species, on nutrient dynamics, and the consequent effects on phytoplankton biomass of an oligotrophic North Patagonian lake. We performed field and laboratory experiments in order to explore nutrient release by G. maculatus with increasing fish biomass and body size, and the resulting phytoplankton responses. Our results

Mariana Reissig; Claudia P. Queimali; Esteban G. Balseiro

2003-01-01

3

Surviving historical Patagonian landscapes and climate: molecular insights from Galaxias maculatus  

PubMed Central

Background The dynamic geological and climatic histories of temperate South America have played important roles in shaping the contemporary distributions and genetic diversity of endemic freshwater species. We use mitochondria and nuclear sequence variation to investigate the consequences of mountain barriers and Quaternary glacial cycles for patterns of genetic diversity in the diadromous fish Galaxias maculatus in Patagonia (~300 individuals from 36 locations). Results Contemporary populations of G. maculatus, east and west of the Andes in Patagonia, represent a single monophyletic lineage comprising several well supported groups. Mantel tests using control region data revealed a strong positive relationship when geographic distance was modeled according to a scenario of marine dispersal. (r = 0.69, P = 0.055). By contrast, direct distance between regions was poorly correlated with genetic distance (r = -0.05, P = 0.463). Hierarchical AMOVAs using mtDNA revealed that pooling samples according to historical (pre-LGM) oceanic drainage (Pacific vs. Atlantic) explained approximately four times more variance than pooling them into present-day drainage (15.6% vs. 3.7%). Further post-hoc AMOVA tests revealed additional genetic structure between populations east and west of the Chilean Coastal Cordillera (coastal vs. interior). Overall female effective population size appears to have remained relatively constant until roughly 0.5 Ma when population size rapidly increased several orders of magnitude [100× (60×-190×)] to reach contemporary levels. Maximum likelihood analysis of nuclear alleles revealed a poorly supported gene tree which was paraphyletic with respect to mitochondrial-defined haplogroups. Conclusions First diversifying in the central/north-west region of Patagonia, G. maculatus extended its range into Argentina via the southern coastal regions that join the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. More recent gene flow between northern populations involved the most ancient and most derived lineages, and was likely facilitated by drainage reversal(s) during one or more cooling events of the late Pleistocene. Overall female effective population size represents the end result of a widespread and several hundred-fold increase over approximately 0.5 Ma, spanning several climatic fluctuations of the Pleistocene. The minor influence of glacial cycles on the genetic structure and diversity of G. maculatus likely reflects the access to marine refugia during repeated bouts of global cooling. Evidence of genetic structure that was detected on a finer scale between lakes/rivers is most likely the result of both biological attributes (i.e., resident non-migratory behavior and/or landlocking and natal homing in diadromous populations), and the Coastal Cordillera as a dispersal barrier. PMID:20211014

2010-01-01

4

A new genus of Cystidicolid nematode from the stomach of Galaxias maculatus (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in Patagonia (Argentina).  

PubMed

During a parasitological survey of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns) from Patagonian Andean Lakes, specimens of a new species of nematode were collected from the stomach of fish and studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. This species is described as the only member of a newly proposed genus of Cystidicolidae by having oral opening dorsoventrally elongated, 2 lateral pseudolabia, 4 cephalic papillae, stoma (vestibule) elongated, esophagus divided into anterior muscular and posterior glandular sections, and caudal alae in males. Placonema n. gen. (Habronematoidea, Cystidicolidae) is characterized by the combination of the following features: oral opening dorsoventrally elongated demarcated by 4 sclerotized plates and 2 well-developed pseudolabia projected to the buccal cavity, each pseudolabium with conspicuous, conical, anterior protuberances. Four cephalic papillae and deirids simple. Male with caudal alae, area rugosa absent, 4 pairs of preanal papillae, unpaired papilla present on anterior cloacal lip, and 6 pairs of postanal papillae. Larvigerous eggs without filaments. Placonema pataguense n. gen. n. sp. infects the stomach of G. maculatus from Lake Patagua (Patagonia, Argentina) and is the first species of Cystidicolidae described from G. maculatus. PMID:18652524

Brugni, Norma L; Viozzi, Gustavo P; Fernández, María V; Vega, Rocío M

2009-02-01

5

Two further new species of Galaxias (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) from the Taieri River, southern New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species of Galaxias have overlapping distributions in the lower Taieri River catchment, Otago, although not as yet found in sympatry. Galaxias pullus n.sp. is known from several tributaries of the Waipori River up? and downstream of Lake Mahinerangi, and also from a tributary of the Waitahuna, part of the Clutha River catchment. Galaxias eldoni n.sp. comes from several

R. M. McDowall

1997-01-01

6

Philureter trigoniopsis, a new genus and species (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae) from the ureters and urinary bladder of Galaxias maculatus (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in Patagonia (Argentina).  

PubMed

The monotypic Philureter n. gen. (Ancyrocephalinae; Dactylogyridae) is proposed to accommodate Philureter trigoniopsis n. sp. with the following features: presence of a cuplike ventral haptor armed with 14 hooks and 2 anchor/bar complexes; dorsal pair of anchors poorly defined and variable in shape, 1 frequently absent; tandem, intercecal gonads, testis bilaterally lobulated. Philureter trigoniopsis n. sp. is described from the ureters and urinary bladder of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842) (Osmeriformes) in Patagonian Andean lakes, Argentina. PMID:11318570

Viozzi, G P; Gutiérrez, P A

2001-04-01

7

Fifteen from one: a revision of the Galaxias olidus Günther, 1866 complex (Teleostei, Galaxiidae) in south-eastern Australia recognises three previously described taxa and describes 12 new species.  

PubMed

The systematics of the Galaxias olidus hyper-species complex from freshwater habitats in south-eastern, mainland Australia is revised. Galaxias olidus Günther 1866 is redescribed, Galaxias fuscus Mack 1936 and Galaxias ornatus Castelnau 1873, previously synonymised with G. olidus (sensu lato), are reinstated as valid taxa and redescribed, and 12 taxa are described as new: Galaxias aequipinnis sp. nov., Galaxias arcanus sp. nov., Galaxias brevissimus sp. nov., Galaxias gunaikurnai sp. nov., Galaxias lanceolatus sp. nov., Galaxias longifundus sp. nov., Galaxias mcdowalli sp. nov., Galaxias mungadhan sp. nov., Galaxias oliros sp. nov., Galaxias supremus sp. nov., Galaxias tantangara sp. nov., and Galaxias terenasus sp. nov. These species are morphologically similar and, whilst there is extensive overlap in meristic counts and morphometric characters, each can be diagnosed by unique combinations of characters, including allozyme loci and colour pattern; morphological diagnosis is improved greatly if based on freshly formalin-fixed material. Galaxias schomburgkii Peters 1868, Galaxias bongbong Macleay 1881, Galaxias kayi Ramsay & Ogilby 1886 and Galaxias oconnori Ogilby 1912 are retained as junior synonyms of G. olidus (sensu stricto). The types for Galaxias findlayi Macleay 1882 are lost and no specimens matching its description were collected or examined from the Mt. Kosciuszko region; it is also currently retained as a junior synonym of Galaxias olidus s.s. The species G. terenasus sp. nov. and G. arcanus sp. nov. are the most morphologically specialised in the complex and G. olidus s.s remains the most morphologically variable species. It also remains the most widespread taxon, though its previously known distribution is reduced, particularly in the south-west of its range. Nine species are narrow-range endemics, known from one, or only a few, locations, and these restricted distributions most probably reflect the fragmentation and reduction of former ranges caused by the effects of alien salmonids. Eleven species are of conservation concern, most are considered critically endangered. PMID:25543673

Raadik, Tarmo A

2014-01-01

8

Endocytosis of ferritin and hemoglobin by the trabecular endocardium in swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri L. and platy, Xiphophorus maculatus L. (Poecilidae: Teleostei).  

PubMed

The cardiac atrium and ventricle of swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri L. and platy, Xiphophorus maculatus L., are spongious, consisting of muscle trabeculae covered by endocardial cells. The cardiac trabecular endocardium is able to take up and store large amounts of horse-spleen ferritin and bovine hemoglobin from the blood stream. No such uptake was registered in endocardial cells lining the cardiac valves, atrio-ventricular junction and ventriculo-bulbar junction. The trabecular endocardium in these species seems to be unable to accumulate latex beads or bovine myoglobin, cytochrome C and holotransferrin from the blood stream. It is proposed that the trabecular endocardium in these species is able to clear the blood stream of some types of waste macromolecules; i. e. this tissue may have a scavenger function. The present results indicate that the uptake of foreign ferritin in bony fish endocardium can be clearly demonstrated at the light microscopic level in deparaffined sections by means of acid ferrocyanide or Mallory solutions. A similar uptake of hemoglobin is demonstrated by means of Mallory stain. PMID:11396795

Leknes, I L

2001-05-01

9

Dispersión de velocidades en cúmulos de galaxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se ha estudiado la dinámica de galaxias en cúmulos en base a una muestra de aproximadamente 4000 galaxias con estimas de velocidad radial pertenecientes a 40 cúmulos. Se desarrolló un algoritmo para identificar sub-estructuras del tipo ``grupos de galaxias". Una vez eliminada este tipo de sub-estructura se computaron los perfiles radiales de dispersión de velocidades (VDP) para los 40 cúmulos de galaxias. Dada las características de la muestra, fue posible estimar el VDP hasta grandes distancias del centro del cúmulo llegando en algunos casos hasta 7 Mpc-1. Los resultados indican que el 65% de los cúmulos presentan un VDP plano a grandes radios consistente con el modelo isotermo. Estos resultados son discutidos en el marco de las recientes controversias suscitadas respecto de la dinámica de los cúmulos vía los perfiles de temperaturas de cúmulos derivados de la emisión en rayos-X.

Muriel, H.; García Lambas, D.; Quintana, H.; Infante, L.

10

Código árbol paralelizado para simulaciones astrofísicas. Experimentos de encuentros de galaxias compuestas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se describe la implementación de un código árbol octal paralelizado desarrollado por los autores. Este código permite la integración del problema de N--cuerpos simultáneamente en varias computadoras (``cluster''), lo que permite desarrollar altas velocidades de cálculo. Se muestran los resultados de algunas integraciones de encuentros entre galaxias de disco con bulbo y halo, generadas mediante algoritmos no utilizados hasta el momento en este campo.

Viturro, H. R.; Carpintero, D. D.

11

Disappearance of koaro, Galaxias brevipinnis , from Lake Rotopounamu, New Zealand, following the introduction of smelt, Retropinna retropinna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Koaro, Galaxias brevipinnis, were once the only fish present in Lake Rotopounamu but, after a comprehensive survey in 1990, none were found in the lake or its tributary streams. Introduced native fish, specifically smelt, Retropinna retropinna, and the common bully, Gobiomorphus cotidianus, now occur in this lake. As koaro co-exist with bullies in other lakes, but have declined in landlocked

David K. Rowe

1993-01-01

12

Contact sex pheromone components of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, is a major pest of stored pulses. Females of this species produce a contact sex pheromone that elicits copulation behavior in males. Pheromone was extracted from filter-paper shelters taken from cages that housed females. Crude ether extract stimulated copulation in male C. maculatus. Initial fractionation showed behavioral activity in acidic and neutral fractions. Furthermore, bioassay-guided fractionation and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of active fractions revealed that the active components of the acidic fraction were 2,6-dimethyloctane-1,8-dioic acid and nonanedioic acid. These components along with the hydrocarbon fraction, a mixture of C(27)-C(35) straight chain and methyl branched hydrocarbons, had a synergistic effect on the behavior of males. Glass dummies treated with an authentic pheromone blend induced copulation behavior in males. The potential roles of the contact sex pheromone of C. maculatus are discussed. PMID:17394050

Nojima, Satoshi; Shimomura, Kenji; Honda, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Izuru; Ohsawa, Kanju

2007-05-01

13

POPULATION GENETIC STRUCTURE OF ANOPHELES MACULATUS IN THAILAND  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anopheles (Cellia) maculatus Theobald is a major malaria vector in southern Thailand and peninsular Malaysia, and previous studies on the population genetics of this mosquito suggested that mountain ranges reduced gene flow among some populations. In this study we examine the genetic variance among...

14

POPULATION GENETIC STRUCTURE OF ANOPHELES MACULATUS IN THAILAND  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anopheles (Cellia) maculatus Theobald is major malaria vector in southern Thailand and peninsular Malaysia, and previous studies on the population genetics of this mosquito suggested that mountain ranges reduced gene flow among some populations. In this study we examine the genetic variance among 5...

15

Effectiveness of spinosad (naturalytes) in controlling the cowpea storage pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The biopesticide Spinosad controls many insect pests of stored-food products. Laboratory and field trials were carried out to determine the efficacy of this pesticide against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the main storage pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, Walp, in West Africa. In the laboratory, Spinosad caused high mortality of adult C. maculatus and decreased the number of eggs laid by females. Spinosad, however, was less toxic in the 24 h treatment to C. maculatus than deltamethrin, an insecticide commonly used in Burkina Faso to control this insect. In "on-farm" experiments, Spinosad was effective in controlling C. maculatus. After 6 mo of storage, the number of insects emerging from cowpeas seeds was reduced by >80% by coating seeds with Spinosad but only by 43% by coating with deltamethrin. Less than 20% of the seeds were perforated in the Spinosad treatment compared with 29% for deltamethrin. Spinosad controlled C. maculatus throughout the 6 mo of cowpea storage whereas deltamethrin failed to control C. maculatus after 3 mo of storage. Spinosad has the potential to be more effective in controlling C. maculatus than deltamethrin. PMID:20214388

Sanon, Antoine; Ba, Niango M; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2010-02-01

16

A new species of Unilatus (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea) from the gills of Leporacanthicus galaxias Isbrücker et Nijssen (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Brazil.  

PubMed

Unilatus irae sp. nov. (Dactylogyridae) is described from the gills of the armored catfish, Leporacanthicus galaxias Isbrücker et Nijssen (Loricariidae: Ancistrinae), from Guamá river, Pará State, Brazil. The new species can be differentiated from its cogeneners by the combination of the following features: anterior anchor with well-developed superficial root, inconspicuous deep root, shaft bent at midpoint, forming angle of approximately 60°, evenly short curved point; posterior anchor with inconspicuous roots, sclerotized cap of base with small protuberance for articulation to posterior bar; evenly curved shaft and short point; anterior bar broadly V-shaped, with small posteromedial projection; and posterior bar anteriorly expanded on it midportion, with expanded ends slightly curved in posterior direction. PMID:24570054

Branches, Bárbara; Domingues, Marcus V

2014-03-01

17

Talisia esculenta lectin and larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Bruchid larvae cause major losses in grain legume crops throughout the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil and the Mexican bean weevil, are pests that damage stored seeds. Plant lectins have been implicated as antibiosis factors against insects, particularly the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. Talisia esculenta lectin (TEL) was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus larvae. TEL produced ca. 90% mortality to these bruchids when incorporated in an artificial diet at a level of 2% (w/w). The LD(50) and ED(50) for TEL was ca. 1% (w/w) for both insects. TEL was not digested by midgut preparations of C. maculatus and Z. subfasciatus. The transformation of the genes coding for this lectin could be useful in the development of insect resistance in important agricultural crops. PMID:12049788

Macedo, Maria Ligia R; das Graças Machado Freire, Maria; Novello, José Camillo; Marangoni, Sérgio

2002-06-01

18

Antigenic relationship between the venom of the night adder Causus maculatus and venoms of other viperids.  

PubMed

Monovalent antivenoms were raised in mice against the venoms of Causus maculatus, Vipera ammodytes, Echis carinatus, Cerastes cerastes, Bitis arietans, Agkistrodon rhodostoma and Bothrops atrox. These antivenoms as well as four commercially available antivenoms were tested against the venoms of 15 viperid species by means of immunoelectrophoresis and/or ELISA. Cross-reactive protein bands were determined by immunoblot. ELISA cross-reactions of C. maculatus antivenom were low with all heterologous venoms. When investigating the other viperine antivenoms in ELISA stronger cross-reactions were observed with several heterologous venoms. In immunoblot, two heterologous antivenoms cross-reacted with one or two protein bands of C. maculatus venom whereas there were at least four heterologous antivenoms cross-reacting with each of the other venoms. The findings indicate that there is little antigenic affinity between C. maculatus venom and the other venoms investigated. Broad in vitro cross-reactions between viperine antivenoms and Causus venom which were reported in literature seem to be attributable to the use of antivenoms of commercial grade. Specificity of commercially produced, mono- or polyvalent antivenoms may not be strictly limited to those venoms, against which potency is claimed on the label of the product. PMID:1706897

Janssen, M; Freyvogel, T A; Meier, J

1990-01-01

19

Bio-efficacy evaluation of nanoformulations of ?-cyfluthrin against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, bioefficacy of developed ?-cyfluthrin formulations, utilizing laboratory synthesized poly(ethylene glycols) based amphiphilic copolymers, were evaluated against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The bioefficacy data indicated that the formulations developed by utilizing polymers having PEG – 1500 (3c) and PEG – 2000 (3d) as the hydrophilic segment showed greater efficacy after 14 days as evident from EC50 values

Kumelachew Mulu Loha; Najam A. Shakil; Jitendra Kumar; Manish K. Singh; Chitra Srivastava

2012-01-01

20

Cuticular hydrocarbons of adults of the cowpea weevil,Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The composition of the cuticular hydrocarbons of the cowpea weevil,Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), was determined by using combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The hydrocarbons constituted 88% of the cuticular lipids and were composed of four homologous series of alkanes. Mono- and dimethyl branched-chain alkanes made up 83% of the hydrocarbon fraction. PMID:24420437

Baker, J E; Nelson, D R

1981-01-01

21

Sex pheromone biology and behavior of the cowpea weevilCallosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Female cowpea weevils,Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), emitted a pheromone which excited males. Pheromone release began soon after emergence and continued for one week. Synchronization of pheromone release with calling behavior was demonstrated. Mating reduced pheromone release but not male response. Pheromone obtained by aeration collection was utilized for determining a quantitative dose-response relationship. PMID:24414963

Qi, Y T; Burkholder, W E

1982-02-01

22

Paternal Investment in the Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): Variation Among Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ejaculate size in seed beetles (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is subject to both sexual and fecundity selection. We examined interpopulation variation and inheritance of ejaculate size in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). There was significant variation among three populations in both body mass and the proportion of a male's body mass that was transferred to females during mating. The seed upon

Udo M. Savalli; Mary Ellen Czesak; Charles W. Fox

2000-01-01

23

Evolution of Herbivory in a Carnivorous Clade of Minnows (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): Effects on Gut Size  

E-print Network

000 Evolution of Herbivory in a Carnivorous Clade of Minnows (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): Effects a total of 11 taxa: four herbivorous species in the genus Campostoma and six largely carnivorous species in the genus Nocomis, including two populations of Nocomis lepto- cephalus, the carnivorous Chattahoochee River

Evans, David H.

24

Bites by the night adder (Causus maculatus) and burrowing vipers (genus Atractaspis) in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nineteen patients proven to have been bitten by the small African adders Causus maculatus, Atractapis dahomeyensis and A. microlepidota were studied in the Nigerian savanna region. One of the patients bitten by C. maculatus was drowsy, hypotensive and flaccid on admission but recovered without treatment. Mild or moderate local swelling, local lymphadenitis and mild fever were the only other features in this group. None of the patients bitten by Atractaspis had signs of systemic envenoming apart from moderate fever. Local blistering appeared in two cases but did not progress to necrosis. No patient showed any disturbance of blood coagulation, or evidence of spontaneous hemorrhage or of cranial nerve lesions. The small literature on the effects of Causus and Atractaspis venoms in man and in laboratory animals is reviewed. It appears that bites by these species are very unlikely to cause serious ill effects. A few deaths from Atractaspis bites have been reported, but the danger from these species has been exaggerated. PMID:945703

Warrell, D A; Ormerod, L D; Davidson, N M

1976-05-01

25

Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) seed coat phaseolin is detrimental to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus).  

PubMed

The presence of phaseolin (a vicilin-like 7S storage globulin) peptides in the seed coat of the legume Phaseolus lunatus L. (lima bean) was demonstrated by N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Utilizing an artificial seed system assay we showed that phaseolin, isolated from both cotyledon and testa tissues of P. lunatus, is detrimental to the nonhost bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F) (cowpea weevil) with ED50 of 1.7 and 3.5%, respectively. The level of phaseolin in the seed coat (16.7%) was found to be sufficient to deter larval development of this bruchid. The expression of a C. maculatus-detrimental protein in the testa of nonhost seeds suggests that the protein may have played a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to legume seeds. PMID:10657058

Moraes, R A; Sales, M P; Pinto, M S; Silva, L B; Oliveira, A E; Machado, O L; Fernandes, K V; Xavier-Filho, J

2000-02-01

26

Female seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus, remate for male-supplied water rather than ejaculate nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus, mate multiply even though association with males and copulations carry costs, such as injury to the genital tract. Multiple\\u000a mating (polyandry) may, however, offset these costs through the acquisition of food and water, two material benefits hypothesized\\u000a to be obtained from the large ejaculates produced by males. The material benefits hypothesis can be tested by

Claudia Ursprung; Michelle den Hollander; Darryl T. Gwynne

2009-01-01

27

Effects of inhibitory neurotransmitters on the mudpuppy (Necturus maculatus) locomotor pattern in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of inhibitory neurotransmitters on the locomotor rhythm and pattern generation were investigated using an in vitro\\u000a preparation isolated from the mudpuppy (Necturus maculatus). The preparation consisted of the first five segments of the spinal cord and the right forelimb attached by the brachial\\u000a nerves. During N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-induced locomotion, the rhythmic motor output (EMG) was recorded unilaterally from elbow flexor

K. Jovanovi?; T. Petrov; R. B. Stein

1999-01-01

28

Production and biochemical characterization of insecticidal enzymes from Aspergillus fumigatus toward Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

In the present work, Aspergillus fumigatus is described as a higher producer of hydrolytic enzymes secreted in response to the presence of the Callosobruchus maculatus bruchid pest. This fungus was able to grow over cowpea weevil shells as a unique carbon source, secreting alkaline proteolytic and chitinolytic enzymes. Enzyme secretion in A. fumigatus was induced by both C. maculatus exoskeleton as well as commercial chitin, and alkaline proteolytic and chitinolytic activities were detected after 48 hours of growth. Furthermore, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed the production of specific proteins. Among them, two extracellular alkaline proteinases from culture enriched with C. maculatus exoskeleton were purified after chromatographic procedures using ion exchange and affinity columns. These proteins, named AP15 and AP30, had apparent molecular masses of 15,500 and 30,000 Da, respectively, as estimated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. AP30 was classified as a serine proteinase because it was inhibited by 5 mM: phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (100%) and 50 microM leupeptin (67.94%). PMID:16732450

Pereira, Jackeline L; Franco, Octávio L; Noronha, Eliane F

2006-06-01

29

Improving the upstream passage of two galaxiid fish species through a pipe culvert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Movement between habitats in river fish assemblages is often restricted by instream structures such as culverts. The ability of diadromous common jollytail, Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns), and spotted galaxias, Galaxias truttaceus (Val.), to pass upstream through an in situ pipe culvert modified through the installation of baffles was assessed. Spoiler baffles (100 · 70 · 28 or 56 mm) were installed

J. I. M ACDONALD

30

Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei)  

PubMed Central

Fierce predatory freshwater fishes, the species of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inhabit large rivers or lakes, and have a specific distribution pattern. Only a single species or subspecies occurs in each large-scale drainage basin of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the molecular phylogenetic relationships for all but one of the described subspecies/species of Percocypris were investigated based on three mitochondrial genes (16S; COI; Cyt b) and one nuclear marker (Rag2). The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax. Combined with analyses of morphological characters, our results suggest that Percocypris needs to be reclassified, and we propose that six species be recognized, with corresponding distributions in five main drainages (including one lake). In addition, based on the results of the estimation of divergence times and ancestral drainages, we hypothesize that Percocypris likely originated in the early Miocene from a paleo-connected drainage system containing the contemporary main drainages of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus. Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake. PMID:23750199

Wang, Mo; Yang, Jun-Xing; Chen, Xiao-Yong

2013-01-01

31

Screening of entomopathogenic Metarhizium anisopliae isolates and proteomic analysis of secretion synthesized in response to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) exoskeleton.  

PubMed

Cowpea crops are severely attacked by Callosobruchus maculatus, a Coleopteran that at the larval stage penetrates into stored seeds and feeds on cotyledons. Cowpea weevil control could be based in utilization of bacteria and fungi to reduce pest development. Entomopathogenic fungi, such as Metarhizium anisopliae, are able to control insect-pests and are widely applied in biological control. This report evaluated ten M. anisopliae isolates according to their virulence, correlating chitinolytic, proteolytic and alpha-amylolytic activities, as well proteomic analysis by two dimensional gels of fungal secretions in response to an induced medium containing C. maculatus shells, indicating novel biotechnological tools capable of improving cowpea crop resistance. PMID:16406356

Murad, André M; Laumann, Raul A; Lima, Thaina de A; Sarmento, Rubia B C; Noronha, Eliane F; Rocha, Thales L; Valadares-Inglis, Maria C; Franco, Octávio L

2006-01-01

32

Comparative effects of Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil and piperitone on Callosobruchus maculatus development.  

PubMed

The insecticidal activity of crude essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon schoenanthus and of its main constituent, piperitone, was assessed on different developmental stages of Callosobruchus maculatus. Piperitone was more toxic to adults with a LC(50) value of 1.6 microl/l vs. 2.7 microl/l obtained with the crude extract. Piperitone inhibited the development of newly laid eggs and of neonate larvae, but was less toxic than the crude extract to individuals developing inside the seeds. PMID:16938411

Ketoh, Guillaume K; Koumaglo, Honore K; Glitho, Isabelle A; Huignard, Jacques

2006-12-01

33

Presence of the storage seed protein vicilin in internal organs of larval Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Variant vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) are considered as the main resistance factor present in some African genotypes against the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. It has been suggested that the toxic properties of vicilins may be related to their recognition and interaction with glycoproteins and other membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the insect. However, the possibility of a systemic effect has not yet been investigated. The objective of this work was to study the fate of 7S storage globulins of V. unguiculata in several organs of larvae of the cowpea weevil C. maculatus. Results demonstrated binding of vicilins to brush border membrane vesicles, suggesting the existence of specific receptors. Vicilins were detected in the haemolymph, in the midgut, and in internal organs, such as fat body and malpighian tubules. There is evidence of accumulation of vicilins in the fat body of both larvae and adults. The absorption of vicilins and their presence in insect tissues parallels classical sequestration of secondary compounds. PMID:16288905

Uchôa, Adriana F; DaMatta, Renato A; Retamal, Claudio A; Albuquerque-Cunha, José M; Souza, Sheila M; Samuels, Richard I; Silva, Carlos P; Xavier-Filho, José

2006-02-01

34

Current insecticide susceptibility status of Malaysian Anopheles maculatus Theobald to malathion, permethrin, DDT and deltamethrin.  

PubMed

Chemical insecticides are still considered as important control agents for malaria vector control. However, prolonged use of these chemicals may select mosquito vectors for resistance. In this study, susceptibility status of adult Anopheles maculatus collected from 9 localities in peninsular Malaysia, viz., Jeli, Temerloh, Pos Banun, Senderut, Jeram Kedah, Segamat, Kota Tinggi, Kluang and Pos Lenjang were determined using the standard WHO bioassay method in which the adult mosquitoes were exposed to standard insecticide impregnated papers malathion, permethrin, DDT and deltamethrin--at pre-determined diagnostic dosage. Deltamethrin was most effective insecticide among the four insecticides tested, with the LT50 of 29.53 min, compared to malathion (31.67 min), DDT (47.76 min) and permethrin (48.01 min). The effect of all insecticides on the laboratory strain was greater (with all insecticides demonstrated LT50 < 1 hour) than the field strains (deltamethrin 32.7, malathion 53.0, permethrin 62.0, DDT 67.4 min). An. maculatus exhibited low degree of resistance to all test insecticides, indicating that these chemical insecticides are still effective in the control of malaria vector. PMID:24862056

Rohani, A; Aziz, I; Zurainee, M N; Rohana, S H; Zamree, I; Lee, H L

2014-03-01

35

Lethal and sublethal effects of essential oils from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Heracleum persicum against the adults of Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), is an important pest of stored cowpea, Vigna ungiculata (L.) Walpers (Fabales: Fabaceae), with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. Many plant essential oils have a broad-spectrum activity against pest insects, and these oils traditionally have been used in the protection of stored products. In this study, the lethal and sublethal effects of essential oils from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) and Heracleum persicum Desf. (Apiales: Apiaceae) were evaluated on the adults of C. maculatus at 26 ± 1° C, 70 ± 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 L:D. The LC50 values of E. camaldulensis and H. persicum were 56.7 and 219.4 µL/L air after 12 hr and 26.1 and 136.4 µL/L air after 24 hr of exposure, respectively. The LT50 values of E. camaldulensis and H.persicum were 6.3 and 10.9 hr, respectively. The results showed that low lethal concentration (LC20) of essential oils negatively affected the longevity, fecundity, and fertility of female adults. The sex ratio of C. maculatus offspring was not significantly affected by essential oils. Therefore, these essential oils can be suggested for controlling C. maculatus in storage systems. The introduction of essential oils into storage systems could potentially decrease seed losses. PMID:24773362

Izakmehri, Khadijeh; Saber, Moosa; Mehrvar, Ali; Hassanpouraghdam, Mohammad Bagher; Vojoudi, Samad

2013-01-01

36

Environment-dependent reversal of a life history trade-off in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental manipulations have consistently demonstrated a cost of reproduction in the capital-breeding seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus ,a s females deprived of seeds or mates lay fewer eggs and thereby increase their longevity. Yet fecundity and longevity tend to be positively correlated within populations, perhaps as a consequence of individual differences in resource acquisition. We conducted a split-brood experiment that combined

F. J. M ESSINA; J. D. F RY

2003-01-01

37

Intron-loss evolution of hatching enzyme genes in Teleostei  

PubMed Central

Background Hatching enzyme, belonging to the astacin metallo-protease family, digests egg envelope at embryo hatching. Orthologous genes of the enzyme are found in all vertebrate genomes. Recently, we found that exon-intron structures of the genes were conserved among tetrapods, while the genes of teleosts frequently lost their introns. Occurrence of such intron losses in teleostean hatching enzyme genes is an uncommon evolutionary event, as most eukaryotic genes are generally known to be interrupted by introns and the intron insertion sites are conserved from species to species. Here, we report on extensive studies of the exon-intron structures of teleostean hatching enzyme genes for insight into how and why introns were lost during evolution. Results We investigated the evolutionary pathway of intron-losses in hatching enzyme genes of 27 species of Teleostei. Hatching enzyme genes of basal teleosts are of only one type, which conserves the 9-exon-8-intron structure of an assumed ancestor. On the other hand, otocephalans and euteleosts possess two types of hatching enzyme genes, suggesting a gene duplication event in the common ancestor of otocephalans and euteleosts. The duplicated genes were classified into two clades, clades I and II, based on phylogenetic analysis. In otocephalans and euteleosts, clade I genes developed a phylogeny-specific structure, such as an 8-exon-7-intron, 5-exon-4-intron, 4-exon-3-intron or intron-less structure. In contrast to the clade I genes, the structures of clade II genes were relatively stable in their configuration, and were similar to that of the ancestral genes. Expression analyses revealed that hatching enzyme genes were high-expression genes, when compared to that of housekeeping genes. When expression levels were compared between clade I and II genes, clade I genes tends to be expressed more highly than clade II genes. Conclusions Hatching enzyme genes evolved to lose their introns, and the intron-loss events occurred at the specific points of teleostean phylogeny. We propose that the high-expression hatching enzyme genes frequently lost their introns during the evolution of teleosts, while the low-expression genes maintained the exon-intron structure of the ancestral gene. PMID:20796321

2010-01-01

38

Genetic characterization of the Neotropical catfish Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) in the Upper Uruguay River.  

PubMed

Freshwater fish present unique challenges when one attempts to understand the factors that determine the structure of their populations. Habitat fragmentation is a leading cause of population decline that threatens ecosystems worldwide. In this study, we investigated the conservation status of genetic variability in the Neotropical catfish (Pimelodus maculatus). Specifically, we examined the structure and genetic diversity of this species in a region of the Upper Uruguay River fragmented by natural barriers and dams. There was no genetic structure among the four sites analyzed, indicating the existence of only one population group. A combination of environmental management and genetic monitoring should be used to minimize the impact of impoundment on panmitic populations of migratory fish species. PMID:23271936

Ribolli, Josiane; de Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues; Zaniboni-Filho, Evoy

2012-12-01

39

Deterrent activity of plant lectins on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition.  

PubMed

A set of 14 plant lectins was screened in a binary choice bioassay for inhibitory activity on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition. Coating of chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) with a 0.05% (w/v) solution of plant lectins caused a significant reduction in egg laying. Control experiments with heat inactivated lectin and BSA indicated that the observed deterrent effects are specific and require carbohydrate-binding activity. However, no clear correlation could be established between deterrent activity and sugar-binding specificity/molecular structure of the lectins. Increasing the insect density reduced the inhibitory effect of the lectins confirming that female insects are capable of adjusting their oviposition rates as a function of host availability. PMID:16887156

Sadeghi, Amin; Van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; Smagghe, Guy

2006-09-01

40

Larval Competition Reduces Body Condition in the Female Seed Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Early body condition may be important for adult behavior and fitness, and is impacted by a number of environmental conditions and biotic interactions. Reduced fecundity of adult females exposed to larval competition may be caused by reduced body condition or shifts in relative body composition, yet these mechanisms have not been well researched. Here, body mass, body size, scaled body mass index, and two body components (water content and lean dry mass) of adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) females exposed to larval competition or reared alone were examined. Experimental females emerged at significantly smaller body mass and body size than control females. Additionally, scaled body mass index and water content, but not lean dry mass, were significantly reduced in experimental females. To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate a potential mechanism for previously documented direct effects of competition on fecundity in female bruchine beetles. PMID:22954282

Schade, Daynika J.; Vamosi, Steven M.

2012-01-01

41

Larval competition reduces body condition in the female seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Early body condition may be important for adult behavior and fitness, and is impacted by a number of environmental conditions and biotic interactions. Reduced fecundity of adult females exposed to larval competition may be caused by reduced body condition or shifts in relative body composition, yet these mechanisms have not been well researched. Here, body mass, body size, scaled body mass index, and two body components (water content and lean dry mass) of adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) females exposed to larval competition or reared alone were examined. Experimental females emerged at significantly smaller body mass and body size than control females. Additionally, scaled body mass index and water content, but not lean dry mass, were significantly reduced in experimental females. To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate a potential mechanism for previously documented direct effects of competition on fecundity in female bruchine beetles. PMID:22954282

Schade, Daynika J; Vamosi, Steven M

2012-01-01

42

Genetic characterization of the Neotropical catfish Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) in the Upper Uruguay River  

PubMed Central

Freshwater fish present unique challenges when one attempts to understand the factors that determine the structure of their populations. Habitat fragmentation is a leading cause of population decline that threatens ecosystems worldwide. In this study, we investigated the conservation status of genetic variability in the Neotropical catfish (Pimelodus maculatus). Specifically, we examined the structure and genetic diversity of this species in a region of the Upper Uruguay River fragmented by natural barriers and dams. There was no genetic structure among the four sites analyzed, indicating the existence of only one population group. A combination of environmental management and genetic monitoring should be used to minimize the impact of impoundment on panmitic populations of migratory fish species. PMID:23271936

Ribolli, Josiane; de Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues; Zaniboni-Filho, Evoy

2012-01-01

43

Tibet Orbivirus, a Novel Orbivirus Species Isolated from Anopheles maculatus Mosquitoes in Tibet, China  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Orbivirus includes a number of important pathogenic viruses, including Bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus (AHSV), and Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV). In this study we describe the isolation and characterization of an Orbivirus strain isolated from Anopheles maculatus mosquitoes collected in Tibet, China. Methods and Results Initial viral screening identified a viral strain (XZ0906) that caused significant cytopathic effect (CPE) in BHK-21 cells, including rounding, cell rupture, and floating. Although CPE was not observed in insect cells (C6/36), these cells supported viral replication. Polyacrylamide gel analysis revealed a genome consisting of 10 segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), with a distribution pattern of 3-3-3-1. 454 high throughput sequencing of culture supernatant was used for viral identification. Complete genome sequencing was performed by Sanger sequencing in combination with 5?-RACE and 3?-RACE. Sequence analysis demonstrated that all 5?- and 3?- untranslated regions (UTRs) for each of the 10 genome segments contained a series of six highly conserved nucleotides. In addition, homology analysis and phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequence was completed, and all results show that virus XZ0906 was not a member of any known species or serotype of Orbivirus, indicating it to be a new species within the genus Orbivirus. Conclusions The isolated Orbivirus strain was designated Tibet Orbivirus, TIBOV to denote the location from which it was isolated. TIBOV is a novel orbivirus species which is isolated from Anopheles maculatus mosquitoes collected in Tibet, China. PMID:24533145

Zhao, Guoyan; Fu, Shihong; Wang, David; Wang, Zhiyu; Liang, Guodong

2014-01-01

44

The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)].  

PubMed

We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat) of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin), detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus) we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants. PMID:15048195

Silva, Luciana B; Sales, Maurício P; Oliveira, Antônia E A; Machado, Olga L T; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Xavier-Filho, José

2004-03-01

45

Screening and secretomic analysis of enthomopatogenic Beauveria bassiana isolates in response to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) exoskeleton.  

PubMed

The production of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), an important self-sustained crop in Latin America and Africa, is severely affected by damage by the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. The presence of a single larva in stored seeds can lead to losses of almost 40%. Control of C. maculatus currently relies on the inefficient use of chemical insecticides and post-harvest treatments. The use of entomopathogenic fungus became a reliable alternative for coleopteran pest control and has been extensively investigated. Among them, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were widely evaluated in order to measure their virulence toward many insects. In this report, we evaluated the insecticidal activity of ten strains of B. bassiana and the most lethal fungi strains were analyzed for proteinaceous secretions by two dimensional electrophoresis and for enzyme activities, including chitinolytic, proteolytic and alpha-amylolytic activities. This study could, in the near future, help to establish novel biotechnological tools to use for cowpea weevil control. PMID:17350346

Murad, André M; Laumann, Raul A; Mehta, Angela; Noronha, Eliane F; Franco, Octávio L

2007-04-01

46

Susceptibility of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to three essential oils.  

PubMed

The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of seeds of Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) in West Africa. An endemic parasitoid, the pteromalid Dinarmus basalis (Rond.) reduces the increase in bruchid populations in stores and could be used for biological control. African farmers often introduce essential oils into granaries at harvest time. In Togo, essential oils were extracted from two Gramineae, Cymbopogon nardus (L.) and Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) and from a Lamiaceae, Ocimum basilicum (L.). The major components of these essential oils were citronellal in C. nardus, carene-2 and piperitone in C. schoenanthus and estragol in O. basilicum. Cymbopogon schoenanthus was the most toxic oil for C. maculatus adults. D. basalis adults were more susceptible to the three essential oils than the adults of their hosts C. maculatus. In the presence of cowpea seeds, the LC50s of the three essential oils were lower than in their absence, suggesting that the seeds may absorb a part of the volatiles. High doses of three essential oils slightly affected the survival of the fourth instar or the pupae of C. maculatus. This high survival was due to protection of larvae from volatiles by the surrounding seeds. The D. basalis were more affected by the oil volatiles than their hosts. Sub-lethal doses of essential oils reduced the duration of the adult life of both insect species and fecundity of the females. The differences in sensitivity of the host and its parasitoid could influence their population dynamics. The introduction of the essential oils into storage systems potentially could reduce density of parasitoid populations and increase seed losses. PMID:11942754

Ketoh, Guillaume K; Glitho, Adole I; Huignard, Jacques

2002-02-01

47

Morphological and molecular data reveal a new species of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from Dormitator maculatus in the Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) mexicoensis sp. n. is described from the intestine of Dormitator maculatus (Bloch 1792) collected in 5 coastal localities from the Gulf of Mexico. The new species is mainly distinguished from the other 33 described species of Neoechinorhynchus from the Americas associated with freshwater, marine and brackish fishes by having smaller middle and posterior hooks and possessing a small proboscis with three rows of six hooks each, apical hooks longer than other hooks and extending to the same level as the posterior hooks, 1 giant nucleus in the ventral body wall and females with eggs longer than other congeneric species. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal DNA including the domain D2+D3 were used independently to corroborate the morphological distinction among the new species and other congeneric species associated with freshwater and brackish water fish from Mexico. The genetic divergence estimated among congeneric species ranged from 7.34 to 44% for ITS and from 1.65 to 32.9% for LSU. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses with each dataset showed that the 25 specimens analyzed from 5 localities of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico parasitizing D. maculatus represent an independent clade with strong bootstrap support and posterior probabilities. The morphological evidence, plus the monophyly in the phylogenetic analyses, indicates that the acanthocephalans collected from intestine of D. maculatus from the Gulf of Mexico represent a new species, herein named N. (N.) mexicoensis sp. n. PMID:25064596

Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Sereno-Uribe, Ana L; García-Varela, Martín

2014-12-01

48

A Kunitz-type inhibitor of coleopteran proteases, isolated from Adenanthera pavonina L. seeds and its effect on Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus is one of the major pests of Vigna unguiculata cowpea. Digestion in the cowpea weevil is facilitated by high levels of cysteine and aspartic acid proteinases. Plants synthesize a variety of molecules, including proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors, to defend themselves against attack by insects. In this work, a trypsin inhibitor (ApTI) isolated from Adenanthera pavonina seeds showed activity against papain. The inhibition of papain by ApTI was of the noncompetitive type, with a K(i) of 1 microM. ApTI was highly effective against digestive proteinases from C. maculatus, Acanthoscelides obtectus (bean weevil), and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Mexican bean weevil) and was moderately active against midgut proteinases from the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis and the mealworm Tenebrio molitor. In C. maculates fed an artificial diet containing 0.25% and 0.5% ApTI (w/w), the latter concentration caused 50% mortality and reduced larval weight gain by approximately 40%. The action of ApTI on C. maculatus larvae may involve the inhibition of ApTI-sensitive cysteine proteinases and binding to chitin components of the peritrophic membrane (or equivalent structures) in the weevil midgut. PMID:15113152

Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; de Sá, Claudia Mara; Freire, Maria Das Graças Machado; Parra, José Roberto Postali

2004-05-01

49

Ecological comments on the intestinal helminths of the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei, Siganidae) from the northern Red Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between May and September 2006, 640 specimens of the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus Forsskål (Teleostei, Siganidae) were examined for infections with intestinal helminths. These fishes were caught in the Red\\u000a Sea off the coast of Sharm El-Sheikh, South Sinai, Egypt, examined in a field laboratory and separated into three size groups\\u000a of regular length intervals. Only three species of helminths were

Reda M. El-S. Hassanine; Mohammed O. Al-Jahdali

2007-01-01

50

Identification of sex pheromones from cowpea weevil,Callosobruchus maculatus, and related studies withC. analis (coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Female cowpea weevils,Callosobruchus maculatus, produce a sex pheromone that elicits orientation and sexual behavior in males. Bioassay-directed isolation of the sex pheromone was conducted and compounds in the active fraction were identified and synthesized. Volatiles were collected from individual virgin females by adsorption on filter paper dises and hexane extraction. A bioassay was used in which the locomotory response of single males in glass vials was recorded upon exposure to treatments or controls. Crude extracts were subjected to silica gel column chromatography with solvents of increasing polarity; all activity eluted with methanol. Activity in the highly polar methanol fraction suggested a carboxylic acid or a compound with multiple polar functionality. Acid-base partitioning of the crude extract isolated all activity in the acid fraction, confirming that the pheromone was a carboxylic acid. The acid fraction was further fractionated by preparative GC with a Carbowax column. The most active GC fraction contained the following five 8-carbon acids identified by GC-MS and comparison with synthetic candidates: 3-methyleneheptanoic acid, (Z)-3-methyl-3-heptenoic acid, (E)-3-methyl-3-heptenoic acid, (Z)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid, and (E)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid. Each of the synthetic acids was active individually for males, and combinations of two or more of the acid pheromones had an additive effect. Upwind flight responses to natural and synthetic pheromones were observed in a flight tunnel. (Z)-3-Methyl-2-heptenoic acid was previously identified as the sex pheromone for the relatedC. analis, but this and the other four acid pheromones fromC. maculatus were inactive for maleC. analis. There was no cross-attraction betweenC. maculatus andC. analis in reciprocal studies using extracted volatiles from females of both species, GC-MS analysis ofC. analis female volatiles failed to detect any of theC. maculatus compounds but did find an unidentified C-8 acid with a GC retention time different from any of theC. maculatus pheromones. PMID:24227300

Phillips, T W; Phillips, J K; Webster, F X; Tang, R; Burkholder, W E

1996-12-01

51

Insecticidal action of Bauhinia monandra leaf lectin (BmoLL) against Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Zabrotes subfasciatus and Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Bruchid beetle larvae cause major losses in grain legume crops throughout the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) and the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus), are pests that damage stored seeds. The Mediterranean flour moth (Anagasta kuehniella) is of major economic importance as a flour and grain feeder; it is often a severe pest in flour mills. Plant lectins have been implicated as antibiosis factors against insects. Bauhinia monandra leaf lectin (BmoLL) was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus, Z. subfasciatus and A. kuehniella larvae. BmoLL produced ca. 50% mortality to Z. subfaciatus and C. maculatus when incorporated into an artificial diet at a level of 0.5% and 0.3% (w/w), respectively. BmoLL up to 1% did not significantly decrease the survival of A. kuehniella larvae, but produced a decrease of 40% in weight. Affinity chromatography showed that BmoLL bound to midgut proteins of the insect C. maculatus. 33 kDa subunit BmoLL was not digested by midgut preparations of these bruchids. BmoLL-fed C. maculatus larvae increased the digestion of potato starch by 25% compared with the control. The transformation of the genes coding for this lectin could be useful in the development of insect resistance in important agricultural crops. PMID:16488638

Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; das Graças Machado Freire, Maria; da Silva, Maria Barbosa Reis; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso

2007-04-01

52

Use of commercial freezers to control cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), in organic garbanzo beans.  

PubMed

One California processor of organic garbanzo beans (Cicer arietinum L.), unable to use chemical fumigants, relies on 30-d storage at -18 degrees C to disinfest product of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F). To determine whether the storage period may be shortened, the most cold-tolerant life stage of the cowpea weevil was identified. Laboratory studies showed that the egg stage was most tolerant to -18 degrees C and that adults were most susceptible. To examine the efficacy of cold storage disinfestation, bags of black-eyed peas, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., infested with cowpea weevil eggs were buried within garbanzo bean bins placed in a commercial cold storage facility kept at approximately -18 degrees C and removed after 7, 14, and 21 d. Survival was highest in eggs located at the center of the bins and coincided with the slowest cooling rate. Although temperatures within the bins did not reach -18 degrees C until after 14-19 d, egg mortality was estimated to be >98% after just 7 d of exposure. Complete mortality of eggs occurred after 14 d of cold storage. A 2-wk treatment regimen may be sufficient for control of cowpea weevil in organic legumes. PMID:14977138

Johnson, J A; Valero, K A

2003-12-01

53

Can Preference for Oviposition Sites Initiate Reproductive Isolation in Callosobruchus maculatus?  

PubMed Central

Theory has identified a variety of evolutionary processes that may lead to speciation. Our study includes selection experiments using different host plants and test key predictions concerning models of speciation based on host plant choice, such as the evolution of host use (preference and performance) and assortative mating. This study shows that after only ten generations of selection on different resources/hosts in allopatry, strains of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus develop new resource preferences and show resource-dependent assortative mating when given the possibility to choose mates and resources during secondary contact. The resulting reduced gene flow between the different strains remained for two generations after contact before being overrun by disassortative mating. We show that reduced gene flow can evolve in a population due to a link between host preference and assortative mating, although this result was not found in all lines. However, consistent with models of speciation, assortative mating alone is not sufficient to maintain reproductive isolation when individuals disperse freely between hosts. We conclude that the evolution of reproductive isolation in this system cannot proceed without selection against hybrids. Other possible factors facilitating the evolution of isolation would be longer periods of allopatry, the build up of local adaptation or reduced migration upon secondary contact. PMID:21297947

Rova, Emma; Björklund, Mats

2011-01-01

54

Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the number of eggs laid, in the percentage of eggs hatched and in the number of emerged adults in infested seeds. The fumigant insecticidal effect of 2-tridecanone was mainly due to its ovicidal activity. PMID:17401472

Braga, Yussef F B; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, Eder A; Lopes, Helano L; Bezerra, José N S; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Lima, Mary Anne S

2007-03-01

55

Five new species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) from the gills of Epinephelus costae (Teleostei: Serranidae).  

PubMed

A survey of the gill parasites of Epinephelus costae (Teleostei: Serranidae) was conducted between 2001 and 2005 in the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia). Five new species of Diplectanidae (Monogenea) were collected, all belonging to Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958: P. bouaini sp. n., P. dolicocolpos sp. n., P. enitsuji sp. n., P. sinediscus sp. n., and P. sosia sp. n. These five species differ from each other and from all described species of Pseudorhabdosynochus by the morphology and size of their sclerotized vagina. These diplectanids (except P. sinediscus) were also collected from the same host off Dakar in 1981 and 1989. The present paper includes the descriptions and taxonomic considerations of each of these species in addition to an amended diagnosis of Pseudorhabdosynochus. A key to the five new species parasitizing E. costae is provided. These five species are the first diplectanids described from E. costae. PMID:17886741

Neifar, Lassâd; Euzet, Louis

2007-06-01

56

Phylogenetic Relationships of Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Gobioninae) Inferred from Multiple Nuclear Gene Sequences  

PubMed Central

Gobionine species belonging to the genera Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae) have been heavily studied because of problems on taxonomy, threats of extinction, invasion, and human health. Nucleotide sequences of three nuclear genes, that is, recombination activating protein gene 1 (rag1), recombination activating gene 2 (rag2), and early growth response 1 gene (egr1), from Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia species residing in China, Japan, and Korea, were analyzed to elucidate their intergeneric and interspecific phylogenetic relationships. In the phylogenetic tree inferred from their multiple gene sequences, Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia and Pungtungia species ramified into three phylogenetically distinct clades; the “tenuicorpa” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa, the “parva” clade composed of all Pseudorasbora species/subspecies, and the “herzi” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia nigra, and Pungtungia herzi. The genus Pseudorasbora was recovered as monophyletic, while the genus Pseudopungtungia was recovered as polyphyletic. Our phylogenetic result implies the unstable taxonomic status of the genus Pseudopungtungia. PMID:24106702

Kim, Keun-Yong; Ko, Myeong-Hun; Liu, Huanzhang; Tang, Qiongying; Chen, Xianglin; Bang, In-Chul

2013-01-01

57

Complete mitochondrial genome of the dotted gizzard shad Konosirus punctatus (Teleostei, Clupeidae).  

PubMed

The complete mitochondrial genome of the dotted gizzard shad Konosirus punctatus (Teleostei, Clupeidae) has been determined. The entire sequence is 16,706 bp in length, with a gene content (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and 1 control region) and organization similar to that observed in most other vertebrates. Overall base composition of the light strand was represented as 25.8% of A, 29.0% of C, 25.1% of T and 20.1% of G. With the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Tandem repeat sequences were observed in the control region, indicating a useful marker for population genetic studies. PMID:22471761

Li, Min; Shi, Sufen; Wang, Ming; Lun, Zhaorong; Yang, Tingbao

2012-08-01

58

Next generation sequencing yields the complete mitochondrial genome of the Hornlip mullet Plicomugil labiosus (Teleostei: Mugilidae).  

PubMed

Abstract In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of hornlip mullet Plicomugil labiosus (Teleostei: Mugilidae) has been sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome, consisting of 16,829?bp, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes and a non-coding control region of D-loop. D-loop contains 1057?bp length is located between tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe. The overall base composition of P. labiosus is 28.0% for A, 29.3% for C, 15.5% for G and 27.2% for T. The complete mitogenome may provide essential and important DNA molecular data for further population, phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis for Mugilidae. PMID:25423515

Shen, Kang-Ning; Chen, Ching-Hung; Hsiao, Chung-Der

2014-11-25

59

Dinámica global en galaxias elípticas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Con el propósito de determinar propiedades dinámicas globales en sistemas triaxiales no integrables, utilizamos una nueva herramienta conocida como ``Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits'' (MEGNO), introducida por Cincotta y Simó (2000). Esta técnica no sólo resulta eficiente para investigar ambas componentes del espacio fase, regular y caótica, sino que también, provee una medida de la hiperbolicidad en el dominio caótico que coincide con la dada por el Lyapunov Characteristic Number (LCN). Previamente este método ha sido aplicado al estudio de modelos simples, y últimamente en el campo de la Mecánica Celeste, al estudio de sistemas planetarios extrasolares. En esta presentación, ilustraremos algunas de las propiedades más importantes del MEGNO, aplic& acute;andolo al potencial tridimensional de Stäckel perturbado.

Pérez, M. J.; Cincotta, P. M.; Giordano, C. M.

60

Effect of trypsin inhibitor from Crotalaria pallida seeds on Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly).  

PubMed

A proteinaceous trypsin inhibitor was purified from Crotalaria pallida seeds by ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on immobilized trypsin-Sepharose and TCA precipitation. The trypsin inhibitor, named CpaTI, had M(r) of 32.5 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and was composed of two subunits with 27.7 and 5.6 kDa linked by disulfide bridges. CpaTI was stable at 50 degrees C and lost 40% of activity at 100 degrees C. CpaTI was also stable from pH 2 to 12 at 37 degrees C. CpaTI weakly inhibited chymotrypsin and elastase and its inhibition of papain, a cysteine proteinase, were indicative of its bi-functionality. CpaTI inhibited, in different degrees, digestive enzymes from Spodoptera frugiperda, Alabama argillacea, Plodiainterpunctella, Anthonomus grandis and Zabrotes subfasciatus guts. In vitro and in vivo susceptibility of Callosobruchus maculatus and Ceratitis capitata to CpaTI was evaluated. C. maculatus and C. capitata enzymes were strongly susceptible, 74.4+/-15.8% and 100.0+/-7.3%, respectively, to CpaTI. When CpaTI was added to artificial diets and offered to both insect larvae, the results showed that C. maculatus was more susceptible to CpaTI with an LD(50) of 3.0 and ED(50) of 2.17%. C. capitata larvae were more resistant to CpaTI, in disagreement with the in vitro effects. The larvae were more affected at lower concentrations, causing 27% mortality and 44.4% mass decrease. The action was constant at 2-4% (w/w) with 15% mortality and 38% mass decrease. PMID:16426854

Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Pitanga, Joelma C M; Moura, Fabiano T; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Raniere M; Queiroz, Alexandre F S; Macedo, Francisco P; Andrade, Lúcia B S; Vidal, Márcia S; Sales, Mauricio P

2005-12-01

61

Variation in responses to susceptible and resistant cowpeas among West African populations of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The cowpea seed beetle, sometimes also known as the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), is a major pest of stored cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata Walpers) in West Africa. Control methods have included development of 'resistant' varieties as an environmentally benign alternative to insecticides, but there is concern over their effectiveness because of population variation among the insects and the possibility of adaptation overcoming seed resistance. Populations of C. maculatus from Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, and Niger, were used to examine variation in response to resistant and susceptible cowpea varieties at two geographical scales. Among seven Nigerian populations, there were significant differences in development times, the pattern of adult emergence, adult weights, and female fecundity when reared under identical conditions. Development in the resistant variety was retarded, produced higher mortality and lower adult weights. Significant interactions between variety and population were evident in terms of their effects on adult weight and development time; development times in the resistant variety were longer and emergences occurred over a longer period in some populations than in others. Population responses to resistant seeds were therefore unpredictable, but there was no evidence to suggest adaptation to overcome seed resistance within three generations. On a larger geographical scale, variation in performance was much greater and therefore, even less predictable. Mortality in resistant seeds was also higher among populations collected from outside Nigeria and may be explained by significant adaptation among Nigerian populations to previous release of resistant varieties. The findings are discussed in relation to understanding the extent of intraspecific variation in C. maculatus and its implications for future pest management. PMID:14994820

Appleby, J H; Credland, P F

2003-04-01

62

The immature stages of Dermestes maculatus, Sarcophaga sp. and Phaenicia sericata as potential paratenic hosts for Trichinella spiralis in nature.  

PubMed

The role of some insect populations in the transmission of Trichinella sp. has been demonstrated. However, most of the studies have been conducted under controlled conditions which may influence the real role that they could play as a paratenic host in nature. To enlight this issue, a series of studies to determine the infective capability of the muscle larva of Trichinella spiralis recovered from immature stages of insect populations that fed on infected tissues exposed to natural conditions were carried out. Mice harbouring T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) were sacrificed and deposited on a pitfall trap which was established in an open and safe area through 25 days in summer. Necrophilous and necrophagous insects that fed on corpses were recovered, identified and processed to search for live ML of T. spiralis. A complementary study in which maggots of Dermestes maculatus recovered from nature were induced to feed on muscle tissues harbouring T. spiralis larvae was also performed. The muscle larvae recovered from insects at different times of exposition were counted and inoculated to mice to determine the reproductive capability index (RCI). At day 3 of exposition, 29 live ML of T. spiralis were recovered from maggots of Phaenicia sericata. The RCI for these larvae was 133.6. On day 5 of exposition, maggots of Sarcophaga sp. were identified and 17 live T. spiralis larvae were recovered; the RCI of these larvae was 43.4. The T. spiralis ML recovered from maggots of D. maculatus obtained after 2 days of feeding on experimentally infected tissue showed a RCI of 24. The results suggest that larval stages of P. sericata, Sarcophaga sp. and D. maculatus might have an important role as a paratenic host of T. spiralis, which, in terms, may influence the epidemiology of this nematode in endemic areas of trichinellosis. PMID:25346194

Riva, Eliana; Fiel, César; Steffan, Pedro

2015-01-01

63

Effect of plant volatile oils in protecting stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation.  

PubMed

Adult Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were introduced into cowpea seeds which were stored in containers with volatile oils derived from Mentha arvensis, M. piperata, M. spicata and Cymbopogon nardus. The numbers of eggs laid, adult mortality, adult emergence and subsequent seed damage were studied for four months. All oils significantly influenced all parameters (P<0.05) and results with different parameters were generally parallel. Significant differences for at least some time/parameters combinations indicated an order of potency of M. spicata>M. piperata>M. arvensis>C. nardus. PMID:11124376

Raja; Albert; Ignacimuthu; Dorn

2001-04-01

64

Genetic architecture of differences between populations of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) evolved in the same environment.  

PubMed

We investigated the genetic architecture underlying differentiation in fitness-related traits between two pairs of populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). These populations had geographically distant (> 2000 km) origins but evolved in a uniform laboratory environment for 120 generations. For each pair of populations (Nigeria x Yemen and Cameroon x Uganda) we estimated the means of five fitness-related characters and a measure of fitness (net reproductive rate R0) in each of the parental populations and 12 types of hybrids (two F1 and two F2 lines and eight backcrosses). Models containing up to nine composite genetic parameters were fitted to the means of the 14 lines. The patterns of line means for all traits in the Nigeria x Yemen cross and for four traits (larval survival, developmental rate, female body weight, and fecundity) in the Cameroon x Uganda cross were best explained by models including additive, dominance, and maternal effects, but excluding epistasis. We did not find any evidence for outbreeding depression for any trait. An epistatic component of divergence was detected for egg hatching success and R0 in the Cameroon x Uganda cross, but its sign was opposite to that expected under outbreeding depression, that is, additive x additive epistasis had a positive effect on the performance of F2 hybrids. All traits except fecundity showed a pattern of heterosis. A large difference of egg-hatching success between the two reciprocal F1 lines in that cross was best explained as fertilization incompatibility between Cameroon females and sperm carrying Uganda genes. The results suggest that these populations have not converged to the same life-history phenotype and genetic architecture, despite 120 generations of uniform natural selection. However, the absence of outbreeding depression implies that they did not evolve toward different adaptive peaks. PMID:12683524

Bieri, Jonas; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

2003-02-01

65

Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Coriandrum sativum Seeds against Tribolium confusum and Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1-7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357??L/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24?h. In the probit analysis, LC(50) values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC(50) = 1.34??L/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC(50) = 318.02??L/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides. PMID:23227365

Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere

2012-01-01

66

Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Coriandrum sativum Seeds against Tribolium confusum and Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1–7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357??L/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24?h. In the probit analysis, LC50 values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC50 = 1.34??L/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC50 = 318.02??L/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides. PMID:23227365

Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere

2012-01-01

67

Synthesis of the four stereoisomers of 2,6-dimethyloctane-1,8-dioic acid, a component of the copulation release pheromone of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

A diastereomeric mixture and the four stereoisomers of 2,6-dimethyloctane-1,8-dioic acid (2), a copulation release pheromone of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, were synthesized. The stereoisomeric purities of the four synthetic isomers of 2 were determined by the HPLC analyses of their bis-2-(2,3-anthracenedicarboximide)-1-cyclohexyl esters. PMID:16377900

Nakai, Tomonori; Yajima, Arata; Akasaka, Kazuaki; Kaihoku, Takayuki; Ohtaki, Miki; Nukada, Tomoo; Ohrui, Hiroshi; Yabuta, Goro

2005-12-01

68

Analysis of the insecticidal activity of methylisothiocyanate on Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Rondani) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus causes major losses during the storage of the seeds of Vigna unguiculata in West Africa. An endemic parasitoid, the pteromalid Dinarmus basalis is present in the stores and can reduce the increase in bruchid populations. African farmers often place in the stores the leaves of a shrub, Boscia senegalensis Lam.(Capparaceae), which release methylisothiocyanate (MITC). This compound

A. Sanon; M. Garba; J. Auger; J. Huignard

2002-01-01

69

Ultrastructure and potential role of integumentary glandular cells in adult male and female Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic) and C. maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera : Bruchidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission and scanning electron microscopy methods were used to study the ultrastructure of integumentary glandular cells that may be involved in the production of sex pheromones and other semiochemicals in Callosobruchus subinnotatus and C. maculatus (Coleoptera : Bruchidae). Additionally, we measured electroantennogram (EAG) responses of male and female antennae to solvent extracts and glassadsorbed volatiles from both sexes of C.

Sonny B. Ramaswamy; Shengqiang Shu; William A. Monroe; George N. Mbata

1995-01-01

70

[Description of three new monogenean gill parasites from Mormyrus rume (Valenciennes, 1846) (Teleostei: Mormyridae) in Ivory Coast].  

PubMed

The study of the gill parasites from elephant fish Mormyrus rume Valenciennes, 1846 (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from the Ayamé man-made Lake (Ivory Coast) revealed the presence of three new monogenean species of the genus Bouixella Euzet & Dossou, 1976, which can be mainly distinguished from all other species of the genus by the morphology and the size of the sclerotised parts of the haptor (dorsal and ventral anchor, dorsal and ventral bar) and by the size and the structure of the male copulatory organ. In this paper, descriptions of Bouixella gorei n. sp., Bouixella yaoi n. sp. and Bouvixella koutouani n. sp. are given. PMID:19353952

Blahoua, K G; Pariselle, A; N'Douba, V; Kone, T; Kouassi, N J

2009-03-01

71

Genetic characterization of hatchery populations of Korean spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays.  

PubMed

The spotted sea bass, Lateolabrax maculatus, is an important commercial and recreational fishery resource in Korea. Aquacultural production of this species has increased because of recent resource declines, growing consumption, and ongoing government-operated stock release programs. Therefore, the genetic characterization of hatchery populations is necessary to maintain the genetic diversity of this species and to develop more effective aquaculture practices. In this study, the genetic diversity and structure of three cultured populations in Korea were assessed using multiplex assays with 12 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci; 144 alleles were identified. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 28, with an average of 13.1. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.724 and 0.753, respectively. Low levels of inbreeding were detected according to the inbreeding coefficient (mean FIS = 0.003-0.073). All hatchery populations were significantly differentiated from each other (overall fixation index (FST) = 0.027, P < 0.01), and no population formed a separate cluster. Pairwise multilocus FST tests, estimates of genetic distance, mantel test, and principal component analyses did not show a consistent relationship between geographic and genetic distances. These results could reflect the exchange of breeds and eggs between hatcheries and/or genetic drift due to intensive breeding practices. For optimal resource management, the genetic variation of hatchery stocks should be monitored and inbreeding controlled within the spotted sea bass stocks that are being released every year. This genetic information will be useful for the management of both L. maculatus fisheries and the aquaculture industry. PMID:25177950

An, H S; Kim, H Y; Kim, J B; Chang, D S; Park, K D; Lee, J W; Myeong, J I; An, C M

2014-01-01

72

Metazoan parasite communities of catfishes (Teleostei: Siluridae) in Benin (West Africa).  

PubMed

The need for more precise information on the effect of dry season on fish parasite communities in Benin lead us to undergo a focus during this season in one of the major sites of collection fry by fish farmers.Metazoan parasites were then inventoried in 166 specimens of catfishes which constituted of C larias gariepinus, Clarias ebriensis, Synodontis schall, Synodontis nigrita, and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Teleostei: Siluridae). Those fishes were collected from fishermen of Agonlin-Lowé at the side of Oueme River in south Benin from November 2011 to March 2012. In total, 12 parasite species were listed comprising three Monogena (Gyrodactylus sp., Synodontella sp., and Protoancylodiscoides chrysichthes), three Cestoda (Stoeksia pujehuni, Lytocestus sp., and Cestode indeterminate), five Nematoda (Paracamallanus cyathopharynx, Procamallanus laevionchus, Cithariniella petterae, Synodontisia thelastomoides, and nematode indeterminate), and one indeterminated Copepod species. Total infestation rate varied between 83.87 and 100% for the different fish species. This was high but independent of fish sex (?(2)?=?1.669, df?=?4, nonsignificant). The highest mean intensity and mean abundance were, respectively, 44 and 13.33. Monogenea and Nematoda have elevated frequency of dominance, and their presence in the host is significantly correlated (r?=?-0.999; p?

Tossavi, Nounagnon Darius; Gbankoto, Adam; Adité, Alphonse; Ibikounlé, Moudachirou; Grunau, Christoph; Sakiti, Gilbert Nestor

2014-11-01

73

Influence of a Toxic Microcystis aeruginosa Strain on Glutathione Synthesis and Glutathione-S-Transferase Activity in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of aqueous extracts of the cyanobacterium-producing microcystin (MC), Microcystis aeruginosa (strain RST9501), on detoxification capacity and glutathione (GSH) synthesis in liver, brain, gill, and muscle—as well as\\u000a apoptotic protease (calpain) activity in liver and brain—in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Experimental groups were defined as follows: (1) control (CTR); (2) carp treated with an

Lílian Lund Amado; Márcia Longaray Garcia; Patrícia Baptista Ramos; João Sarkis Yunes; José Maria Monserrat

2011-01-01

74

Potential of combining neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with varietal resistance for the management of the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of different rates (25, 50, 75 and 100 mg\\/5 g seed) of application of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil (NSO) was assessed on four cowpea varieties (Kanannado, IT89KD-391, Borno brown and IT89KD-374) with differing susceptibilities to Callosobruchus maculatus. The different rates of NSO significantly interacted with cowpea varietal resistance and reduced oviposition and percentage adult emergence of C.

N. E. S. Lale; A. Mustapha

2000-01-01

75

Preliminary estimates of the age and growth of immature smooth oreo Pseudocyttus maculatus Gilchrist 1906 (Oreosomatidae) in the Falkland Islands region of the South Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sectioned otoliths were used to estimate the age of 29 specimens of the smooth oreo (Pseudocyttus maculatus Gilchrist 1906) from the Falkland Islands region of the South Atlantic. This represents the first ageing study of this species\\u000a in this region of the world. All specimens were immature (sub-adults), the largest having a maximum total length of 347?mm.\\u000a Growth increments were

M. J. A. George; G. D. Jackson; C. P. Green; S. G. Robertson

1998-01-01

76

Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae) seed coat on the embryonic and larval development of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Bruchid beetles infest various seeds. The seed coat is the first protective barrier against bruchid infestation. Although non-host seed coats often impair the oviposition, eclosion and survival of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, morphological and biochemical aspects of this phenomenon remain unclear. Here we show that Phaseolus vulgaris (non-host) seed coat reduced C. maculatus female oviposition about 48%, increased 83% the seed penetration time, reduced larval mass and survival about 62 % and 40 % respectively. Interestingly, we found no visible effect on the major events of insect embryogenesis, namely the formation of the cellular blastoderm, germ band extension/retraction, embryo segmentation, appendage formation and dorsal closure. Larvae fed on P. vulgaris seed coat have greater FITC fluorescence signal in the midgut than in the feces, as opposed to what is observed in control larvae fed on Vigna unguiculata. Cysteine protease, ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities were reduced in larvae fed on P. vulgaris natural seed coat. Taken together, our results suggest that although P. vulgaris seed coat does not interfere with C. maculatus embryonic development, food digestion was clearly compromised, impacting larval fitness (e.g. body mass and survivability). PMID:24211390

de Sá, Leonardo Figueira Reis; Wermelinger, Tierry Torres; Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Gravina, Geraldo de Amaral; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Venancio, Thiago Motta; Rezende, Gustavo Lazzaro; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir Amancio

2014-01-01

77

Characterization of resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in mungbean variety VC6089A and its resistance-associated protein VrD1.  

PubMed

Characteristics of resistance of VC6089A, a mungbean, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek, bred by using a wild Vigna species, V. sublobata (Roxburgh) Verdcourt (accession no. TC1966), and containing a novel protein, VrD1, were investigated against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). The seeds of VC6089A showed high level of resistance; > 96% of the bruchid eggs failed to develop into adults, whereas 85% of eggs laid on susceptible cultivar VC1973A became adults. Mortality of surviving bruchids raised for five generations on VC6089A remained higher than 96%; however, female adults maintained high fecundity and thus showed a positive population growth through these generations. We therefore cannot exclude the possibility that the beetles could develop resistance to the resistant mungbean VC6089A. The protein VrD1 purified from seeds of VC6089A showed marked toxicity to C. maculatus when beetles were reared on artificial seeds containing varying levels of VrD1. Thorough inhibition of development was observed when artificial seeds containing 0.2% (wt:wt) VrD1 was provided for insect feeding. Our findings demonstrated the insecticidal activity of VC6089A mungbean seeds and VrD1 protein against C. maculatus. These results may facilitate safer control against bruchid infestation. PMID:16156592

Lin, Chan; Chen, Ching-San; Horng, Shwu-Bin

2005-08-01

78

Purification of legumin-like proteins from Coffea arabica and Coffea racemosa seeds and their insecticidal properties toward cowpea weevil ( Callosobruchus maculatus ) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Legumin-like proteins from seeds of Coffea arabica (CaL-1 and CaL-2) and Coffea racemosa (CrL-1 and CrL-2) were characterized and isolated by gel filtration and reverse-phase chromatography. The insecticidal properties of the purified proteins were tested against Callosobruchus maculatus using artificial diets. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analyses indicated that CaL-1 is composed of two subunits of 33 and 24 kDa, while CaL-2, CrL-1, and CrL-2 were monomeric with a single band of 14 kDa. The LD(50) values were 0.5% (w/w) for CaL-1 and 0.3% (w/w) for CaL-2, CrL-1, and CrL-2. ED(50) at 0.3% was assessed for all protein concentrations. The legumin-like proteins were not digested by midgut homogenates of C. maculatus until 8 h of incubation. CaL-1 and CaL-2 ( C. arabica ) and CrL-1 and CrL-2 ( C. racemosa ) are chitin-binding proteins, and their insecticidal properties toward C. maculatus larvae might be related to their capacity to bind chitin present in the larval gut and their associated low digestibility. PMID:20141142

Coelho, Mirela Batista; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; Marangoni, Sérgio; Silva, Desiree Soares da; Cesarino, Igor; Mazzafera, Paulo

2010-03-10

79

Purification, partial characterization and role in lipid transport to developing oocytes of a novel lipophorin from the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Lipid transport in arthropods is achieved by highly specialized lipoproteins, which resemble those described in vertebrate blood. Here we describe purification and characterization of the lipid-apolipoprotein complex, lipophorin (Lp), from adults and larvae of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. We also describe the Lp-mediated lipid transfer to developing oocytes. Lps were isolated from homogenates of C. maculatus larvae and adults by potassio bromide gradient and characterized with respect to physicochemical properties and lipid content. The weevil Lp (465 kDa) and larval Lp (585 kDa), with hydrated densities of 1.22 and 1.14 g/mL, contained 34 and 56% lipids and 9 and 7% carbohydrates, respectively. In both Lps, mannose was the predominant monosaccharide detected by paper chromatography. SDS-PAGE revealed two apolipoproteins in each Lp with molecular masses of 225 kDa (apolipoprotein-I) and 79 kDa (apolipoprotein-II). The lipids were extracted and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. The major phospholipids found were phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in adult Lp, and phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin in larval Lp. Hydrocarbons, fatty acids and triacylglycerol were the major neutral lipids found in both Lps. Lps labeled in the protein moiety with radioactive iodine (125I-iodine) or in the lipid moiety with fluorescent lipids revealed direct evidence of endocytic uptake of Lps in live oocytes of C. maculatus. PMID:18038102

Ximenes, A A; Oliveira, G A; Bittencourt-Cunha, P; Tomokyo, M; Leite, D B; Folly, E; Golodne, D M; Atella, G C

2008-01-01

80

The importance of gobies (Gobiidae, Teleostei) as hosts and transmitters of parasites in the SW Baltic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parasite fauna of five goby species (Gobiidae, Teleostei) was investigated in the Baltic Sea during the period 1987 to 1990. 13 parasite species were found in samples from the Lübeck Bight: Bothriocephalus scorpii, Schistocephalus sp. (Cestoda); Cryptocotyle concavum, Cryptocotyle lingua, Podocotyle atomon, Derogenes varicus (Digenea); Hysterothylacium sp. (cf. auctum), Contracaecum sp., Anisakis simplex (Nematoda); Corynosoma sp., Echinorhynchus gadi, Neoechinorhynchus rutili, Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala). The number of parasite species were: 10 in the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, 8 in the black goby Gobius niger, 7 in the two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens, 6 in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and 5 in the painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus. Neoechinorhynchus rutili occurred only in P. minutus, and Corynosoma sp. only in G. niger. The extent to which the gobies were parasitized clearly depended on the respective ways of life and, moreover, on the kind of prey ingested by the hosts. Additionally, the age of the hosts might be important. The highest rate of parasitism, more than 60%, was reached by Hysterothylacium sp. in G. niger and by Cryptocotyle concavum in P. microps. Infestation incidence lay mostly below 40% which means a satellite species status (Holmes, 1991). The number of parasite species was highest in summer; the highest intensities of single parasites occurred in spring ( Podocotyle atomon) or autumn ( Crytocotyle concavum). Bothriocephalus scorpii, Hysterothylacium sp. and Podocotyle infested their juvenile hosts very early, but only Hysterothylacium was accumulated by G. niger during its whole life span, whereas Bothriocephalus persisted also in older gobies in low intensities. The cercariae of Cryptocotyle spp. penetrate actively into their hosts; all the other parasites named were transmitted in larval form by prey organisms which consisted mainly of planktonic and benthic crustaceans. The gobies were final hosts for only 5 parasites; but two species may be transmitted to larger fish, and 6 species to sea birds or mammals. The parasite community of the five gobies may possibly be taken to characterize the ecological quality of the environment of the Lübeck Bight.

Zander, C. D.; Strohbach, U.; Groenewold, S.

1993-02-01

81

Flow Patterns Around the Carapaces of Rigid-bodied, Multi-propulsor Boxfishes (Teleostei: Ostraciidae).  

PubMed

Boxfishes (Teleostei: Ostraciidae) are rigid-body, multi-propulsor swimmers that exhibit unusually small amplitude recoil movements during rectilinear locomotion. Mechanisms producing the smooth swimming trajectories of these fishes are unknown, however. Therefore, we have studied the roles the bony carapaces of these fishes play in generating this dynamic stability. Features of the carapaces of four morphologically distinct species of boxfishes were measured, and anatomically-exact stereolithographic models of the boxfishes were constructed. Flow patterns around each model were investigated using three methods: 1) digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), 2) pressure distribution measurements, and 3) force balance measurements. Significant differences in both cross-sectional and longitudinal carapace morphology were detected among the four species. However, results from the three interrelated approaches indicate that flow patterns around the various carapaces are remarkably similar. DPIV results revealed that the keels of all boxfishes generate strong longitudinal vortices that vary in strength and position with angle of attack. In areas where attached, concentrated vorticity was detected using DPIV, low pressure also was detected at the carapace surface using pressure sensors. Predictions of the effects of both observed vortical flow patterns and pressure distributions on the carapace were consistent with actual forces and moments measured using the force balance. Most notably, the three complementary experimental approaches consistently indicate that the ventral keels of all boxfishes, and in some species the dorsal keels as well, effectively generate self-correcting forces for pitching motions-a characteristic that is advantageous for the highly variable velocity fields in which these fishes reside. PMID:21680378

Bartol, Ian K; Gordon, Malcolm S; Gharib, Morteza; Hove, Jay R; Webb, Paul W; Weihs, Daniel

2002-11-01

82

Cytotype-specific ISSR profiles and karyotypes in the Neotropical genus Eigenmannia (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes).  

PubMed

The genus Eigenmannia (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes), a widely distributed fish genus from the Neotropical region, presents very complex morphological patterns and many taxonomic problems. It is suggested that this genus harbors a species complex that is hard to differentiate using only morphological characteristics. As a result, many species of Eigenmannia may be currently gathered under a common name. With the objective of providing new tools for species characterization in this group, an analysis of the polymorphism of DNA inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR), obtained by single primer amplification reaction (SPAR), combined with karyotype identification, was carried out in specimens sampled from populations of the Upper Paraná, São Francisco and Amazon river basins (Brazil). Specific ISSR patterns generated by primers (AAGC)(4) and (GGAC)(4) were found to characterize the ten cytotypes analyzed, even though the cytotypes 2n = 38 and 2n = 38 XX:XY, from the Upper Paraná basin, share some ISSR amplification patterns. The geographical distribution of all Eigenmannia specimens sampled was inferred, showing the cytotype 2n = 31/2n = 32 as the most frequent and largely distributed in the Upper Paraná basin. The cytotype 2n = 34 was reported for the first time in the genus Eigenmania, restricted to the São Francisco basin. Polymorphic ISSR patterns were also detected for each cytotype. Considering our results and the data reported previously in the literature, it is suggested that many of the forms of Eigenmannia herein analyzed might be regarded as different species. This work reinforces the importance of employing diverse approaches, such as molecular and cytogenetic characterization, to address taxonomic and evolutionary issues. PMID:19779835

Moysés, Cinthia Bachir; Daniel-Silva, Maria de Fatima Zambelli; Lopes, Carlos Eduardo; de Almeida-Toledo, Lurdes Foresti

2010-02-01

83

Fine structure of the retina and pigment epithelium in the creek chub, Semotilus atromaculatus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei).  

PubMed

The structure of the light- and dark-adapted retina, the pigment epithelium and the choroid of the creek chub, Semotilus atromaculatus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) is examined by light and electron microscopy. An extensive network of vitreal blood vessels emanating from the hyaloid artery enters the eye with the optic nerve and overlies the inner limiting membrane. This membrane closely apposes the fine protrusions of the Müller cell processes which traverse the entire retina, dividing the inner retina into alternating fascicles of ganglion cells and optic axons. The inner nuclear layer consists of bipolar, amacrine, Müller cell soma and two layers of horizontal cells. The outer plexiform layer possesses both rod spherules and cone pedicles. Each rod spherule consists of a single synaptic ribbon in either a triad or quadrad junctional arrangement within the invaginating terminal endings of the bipolar and horizontal cell processes. In contrast, cone pedicles possess multiple synaptic ribbons within their junctional complexes and, in the light-adapted state, the horizontal cell processes show spinule formation. Four photoreceptor types are identified on morphological criteria; unequal double cones, large single cones, small single cones and rods. All but the small single cones are capable of retinomotor responses. The rod to cone ratio is approximately 5:1 and the rods form two ill-defined rows in the light-adapted condition. The retinal pigment epithelium possesses two types of osmiophilic granules. These are bound within slender microvilli and migrate vitread to surround the photoreceptors in response to light. Bruch's membrane is trilaminar and the vascularised choroid consists of up to three layers of melanocytes. The endothelial borders of the choroidal blood vessels abutting the outer lamina of Bruch's membrane are fenestrated. PMID:8720447

Collin, S P; Collin, H B; Ali, M A

1996-01-01

84

Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).  

PubMed

The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively. PMID:24737480

Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

2014-01-01

85

Sex-specific genetic variances in life-history and morphological traits of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of heritability and genetic correlations are of central importance in the study of adaptive trait evolution and genetic constraints. We use a paternal half-sib-full-sib breeding design to investigate the genetic architecture of three life-history and morphological traits in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Heritability was significant for all traits under observation and genetic correlations between traits (rA) were low. Interestingly, we found substantial sex-specific genetic effects and low genetic correlations between sexes (rMF) in traits that are only moderately (weight at emergence) to slightly (longevity) sexually dimorphic. Furthermore, we found an increased sire () compared to dam () variance component within trait and sex. Our results highlight that the genetic architecture even of the same trait should not be assumed to be the same for males and females. Furthermore, it raises the issue of the presence of unnoticed environmental effects that may inflate estimates of heritability. Overall, our study stresses the fact that estimates of quantitative genetic parameters are not only population, time, environment, but also sex specific. Thus, extrapolation between sexes and studies should be treated with caution. PMID:22408731

Hallsson, Lára R; Björklund, Mats

2012-01-01

86

BORSA P., BEAREZ P., CHEN W.-J. 2010. Gymnocranius oblongus (Teleostei: Lethrinidae), a new large-eye bream species from New Caledonia. Comptes Rendus Biologies 333, 241-247.  

E-print Network

large-eye bream species from New Caledonia. Comptes Rendus Biologies 333, 241-247. Gymnocranius oblongus, a new large-eye bream species from New Caledonia (Teleostei: Lethrinidae) Philippe Borsa a* , Philippe as a new species of the subfamily Monotaxinae (Sparoidaea : Lethrinidae), a group of commercially important

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

Developmental temperature affects the expression of ejaculatory traits and the outcome of sperm competition in Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The outcome of post-copulatory sexual selection is determined by a complex set of interactions between the primary reproductive traits of two or more males and their interactions with the reproductive traits of the female. Recently, a number of studies have shown the primary reproductive traits of both males and females express phenotypic plasticity in response to the thermal environment experienced during ontogeny. However, how plasticity in these traits affects the dynamics of sperm competition remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate plasticity in testes size, sperm size and sperm number in response to developmental temperature in the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Males reared at the highest temperature eclosed at the smallest body size and had the smallest absolute and relative testes size. Males reared at both the high- and low-temperature extremes produced both fewer and smaller sperm than males reared at intermediate temperatures. In the absence of sperm competition, developmental temperature had no effect on male fertility. However, under conditions of sperm competition, males reared at either temperature extreme were less competitive in terms of sperm offence (P(2)), whereas those reared at the lowest temperature were less competitive in terms of sperm defence (P(1)). This suggests the developmental pathways that regulate the phenotypic expression of these ejaculatory traits are subject to both natural and sexual selection: natural selection in the pre-ejaculatory environment and sexual selection in the post-ejaculatory environment. In nature, thermal heterogeneity during development is commonplace. Therefore, we suggest the interplay between ecology and development represents an important, yet hitherto underestimated component of male fitness via post-copulatory sexual selection. PMID:24891122

Vasudeva, R; Deeming, D C; Eady, P E

2014-09-01

88

CO2 enhances effects of hypoxia on mortality, development, and gene expression in cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Modified atmosphere based on lack of O2 offers a safe, residue-free alternative to chemical fumigants for pest control in stored grains. In this study, we intended to determine whether elevated CO2 (at a biologically achievable level) has an enhanced suppressive effect over low O2 atmosphere alone on the cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus), a storage pest of cowpea and other legumes. Experiments were performed under two modified atmospheric conditions, (1) 2% O2+18% CO2+80% N2 and (2) 2% O2+98% N2. Both hypoxic environments significantly affected the development and survival of all insect developmental stages. Eggs were most vulnerable to hypoxia, particularly at the early stage (4-6h old), surviving only up to a maximum of 2 days in both treatments. These were followed by adults, pupae and larvae, in order of decreasing susceptibility. The 3rd and 4th instar larvae were most resilient to hypoxia and could survive up to 20 days of low O2. The presence of 18% CO2 significantly increased the mortality of adults, the later stage of eggs, as well as 1st and 4th instar larvae caused by hypoxia. However, the surviving insects exhibited faster development, evidenced by their earlier emergence from cowpea seeds compared to those without CO2. One interesting observation was the frequent, premature opening of the emergence windows in the 4th instar larvae when CO2 was involved. This phenomenon was not observed at all in insects stressed by low O2 alone. Differential expression profiling of metabolic genes and proteolytic activity of midgut digestive enzymes suggested that the rate of metabolic activity could contribute in part to the difference in insect development and survival under hypoxia in the presence and absence of CO2. PMID:24001922

Cheng, Weining; Lei, Jiaxin; Ahn, Ji-Eun; Wang, Yu; Lei, Chaoliang; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

2013-11-01

89

Import of exotic and zoonotic trematodes (Heterophyidae: Centrocestus sp.) in Xiphophorus maculatus: implications for ornamental fish import control in Europe.  

PubMed

Ornamental fish, Xiphophorus maculatus, were imported from Singapore to Denmark for distribution to local aquarists. Importers observed lethargic and erratic swimming patterns among fish and forwarded a total of 30 fish for pathological examination to a university diagnostic service. All fish were diagnosed infected with encysted Centrocestus sp. metacercariae in gills (prevalence of 100% and mean intensity of 454.5 ± 161.9 parasites per fish). Metacercariae were identified by morphological and molecular methods. Cysts (mean length 163.3 ± 13.7 ?m and mean width 113.3 ± 10.6 ?m) contained a bent metacercaria with an X-shaped excretory bladder. PCR amplification of a rDNA region (5.8S rRNA gene, ITS-2, 28S rRNA gene) and subsequent sequencing confirmed the diagnosis. Metacercariae were found in gill filaments adjacent to the cartilage associated with cartilage hypertrophy, epithelial and mucous cell hyperplasia, clubbing and lamellar fusion. Host cell encapsulation of cysts comprised several layers of leucocytes, chondroblast-like and fibroblast-like cells. The observations raise concerns with regard to veterinary inspection and quarantine procedures. The zoonotic potential of these trematodes and a possible spread of the parasites in natural habitats in Europe should be regarded as a public health issue. So far, several cases of human infections have been reported only in Asia, but the potential intermediate host snail, Melanoides tuberculata, has been recorded in Germany. Accordingly, establishment of the parasite in Europe with climate changes should be considered a risk. PMID:24827099

Mehrdana, Foojan; Jensen, Hannah M; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt

2014-06-01

90

Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins) with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitinbinding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5?mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation. PMID:22267002

Souza, A.J.; Ferreira, A.T.S.; Perales, J.; Beghini, D.G.; Fernandes, K.V.S.; Xavier-Filho, J.; Venancio, T.M.; Oliveira, A.E.A.

2011-01-01

91

Parasite biodiversity in a coral reef fish: twelve speciesof monogeneans on the gills of the grouper Epinephelus maculatus (Perciformes: Serranidae) off New Caledonia, with a description of eight new species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenea: Diplectanidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs are known for their high level of biodiversity, but parasite biodiversity has not been evaluated. Cases such as Epinephelus maculatus, described here, show that the numer- ical estimation of parasite biodiversity in coral reefs could reach more than ten times the number of fish species; consequently, the extinction of certain fish species from endangered coral reefs would result

Jean-Lou Justine

2007-01-01

92

New Sicydiinae phylogeny (Teleostei: Gobioidei) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes: insights on systematics and ancestral areas.  

PubMed

The Sicydiinae subfamily (Teleostei: Gobioidei) is the biggest contributor to the diversity of fish communities in river systems of tropical islands. These species are found in the Indo-Pacific area, the Caribbean region and West Africa. They spawn in freshwater, their planktotrophic larvae drift downstream to the sea where they develop, before returning to the rivers to grow and reproduce. Hence, they are called amphidromous. Their phylogeny has been explored using a total of 3545 sites from 5 molecular markers (mitochondrial DNA: 16S rDNA, cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome b; nuclear DNA: rhodopsin gene and a nuclear marker specially developed for this study, the interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 1-IRF2PB1). Sequences were obtained for 59 Sicydiinae specimens of 9 known genera. The Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses support the monophyly of the subfamily as well as the monophylyof all genera except Sicydium, which is paraphyletic. Five major clades were identified within this subfamily. One clade contained the genus Stiphodon. Another clade contained Sicyopterus, Sicydium and Parasicydium with Sicyopterus as sister genus of Sicydium. The non-monophyly of Sicydium subclade, because it includes the monotypic genus Parasicydium, challenged the validity of Parasicydium genus. Ancestral area reconstruction showed that the subfamily emerged in the Central West Pacific region implying that previous hypotheses proposing a dispersal route for Sicydiinae into the Atlantic Ocean are unsupported by the present analysis. Our results suggest that the hypotheses for the dispersal route of the genus Sicydium should be reconsidered. PMID:24125831

Taillebois, Laura; Castelin, Magalie; Lord, Clara; Chabarria, Ryan; Dettaï, Agnès; Keith, Philippe

2014-01-01

93

Convergent evolution of ecomorphological adaptations in geographically isolated Bay gobies (Teleostei: Gobionellidae) of the temperate North Pacific.  

PubMed

North Pacific Bay gobies (Teleostei: Gobioidei: Gobionellidae) inhabit bays, beaches, coastal lagoons, and estuaries of temperate Asia and North America, but are absent from the boreal northernmost Pacific. Previously, morphological characters conventionally subdivided the clade into two groups - an elongate-bodied, infaunal-inhabiting "Astrabe" group, and a deeper-bodied, non-infaunal "Chasmichthys" group - each with a disjunct East-West (amphi-) Pacific distribution. Here we use mitochondrial and multi-locus nuclear DNA sequence data to show that several morphological characters previously used to delimit these two groups have in fact arisen independently on both sides of the Pacific, revealing convergence of ecologically adaptive characters within a geographically divided clade. Basal divergence of the resultant tree coincides with a dramatic global cooling event at the Eocene/Oligocene transition, without evidence of subsequent trans-Pacific migration. A novel approach to partitioning sequence data by relative rate, as opposed to traditional gene/codon position partitioning, was used to help distinguish phylogenetic signal from noise on a per-site basis. Resulting improvements in topology and nodal support, along with decreased computational effort, suggest that this partitioning strategy may be useful for future studies in phylogenetics and phylogenomics. PMID:24148989

Ellingson, Ryan A; Swift, Camm C; Findley, Lloyd T; Jacobs, David K

2014-01-01

94

Molecular taxonomy and identification within the Antarctic genus Trematomus (Notothenioidei, Teleostei): How valuable is barcoding with COI?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Trematominae are a particularly interesting subfamily within the antarctic suborder Notothenioidei (Teleostei). The 14 closely related species occupy a large range of ecological of niches, extremely useful for evolutionary and biogeography studies in the Antarctic Ocean. But some Trematomus species can be difficult to identify by using morphological criteria, specially young stages and damaged specimens. Molecular identification would therefore be highly useful, however the suitability of the cytochrome oxidase I gene in a barcoding approach needs to be assessed. We evaluated species delineation within the genus Trematomus comparing morphological identification, nuclear markers (the rhodopsin retrogene and a new nuclear marker pkd1: polycystic kidney disease 1) and COI. We show that Trematomus vicarius is not distinguishable from Trematomus bernacchii with the molecular markers used, and neither is Trematomus loennbergii from Trematomus lepidorhinus. We suggest that until this is investigated further, studies including these species list them as T. loennbergii/ T. lepidorhinus group, and keep voucher samples and specimens. Generally, COI gives a congruent result with the rhodopsin retrogene, and except for the previously cited species pairs, COI barcoding is efficient for identification in this group. Moreover pkd1 might not be suitable for a phylogenetic study at this scale for this group.

Lautredou, A.-C.; Bonillo, C.; Denys, G.; Cruaud, C.; Ozouf-Costaz, C.; Lecointre, G.; Dettai, A.

2010-08-01

95

Persistence and residual activity of an organophosphate, pirimiphos-methyl, and three IGRs, hexaflumuron, teflubenzuron and pyriproxyfen, against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Three insect growth regulators (IGR), the chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) teflubenzuron and hexaflumuron and the juvenile hormone mimic (JHM) pyriproxyfen, as well as the organophosphate (OP) pirimiphos-methyl, were evaluated for their activity against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F), in cowpea seeds stored for up to 8 months post-treatment. The initial activity data showed that, based on LC50 level, teflubenzuron had strong ovicidal activity (LC50 = 0.056 mg kg(-1)) followed by pirimiphos-methyl (1.82 mg kg(-1)) and pyriproxyfen (91.9 mg kg(-1)). The residual activity data showed that none of the IGRs tested had strong activity when applied at 200 mg kg(-1) in reducing the oviposition rates of C maculatus at various storage intervals up to 8 months post-treatment. However, teflubenzuron reduced adult emergence (F1 progeny), achieving control ranging from 96.2% at 1 month to 94.3% at 8 months. Hexaflumuron showed a similar trend in its residual activity, ranging between 93.8% control at 1 month to 88.2% control at 8 months post-treatment. However, pyriproxyfen was more active than the CSIs tested and caused complete suppression (100% control) of adult emergence at all storage intervals. Unlike the IGRs tested, pirimiphos-methyl applied at 25 mg kg(-1) was more effective in reducing oviposition rates of C maculatus up to 8 months post-treatment. A strong reduction of adult emergence was also observed at various bimonthly intervals (98.6% control at 1 month to 91.6% control at 8 months post-treatment). The persistence of hexaflumuron and pirimiphos-methyl in cowpea seeds was also studied over a period of 8 months. The loss of hexaflumuron residue in treated cowpeas (200 mg kg(-1)) was very slow during the first month post-treatment (4.43%). At the end of 8 months, the residue level had declined significantly to 46.4% of the initial applied rate. The loss of pirimiphos-methyl residue in treated cowpeas (25 mg kg(-1)) was relatively high during the first month post-treatment (36.7%) and increased to 81.6% after 8 months. PMID:14727746

Abo-Elghar, Gamal E; El-Sheikh, Anwar E; El-Sayed, Ferial M; El-Maghraby, Hamdi M; El-Zun, Hesham M

2004-01-01

96

A new variant of antimetabolic protein, arcelin from an Indian bean, Lablab purpureus (Linn.) and its effect on the stored product pest, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The anti-metabolic or insecticidal gene, arcelin (Arl) was isolated, cloned and sequenced using sequence specific degenerate primers from the seeds of Lablab purpureus collected from the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The L. purpureus arcelin nucleotide sequence was homologous to Arl-3 and Arl-4 alleles from Phaseolus spp. The protein it encodes has 70% amino acid identity with the amino acid sequences of Arl-3I, Arl-3III, Arl-4 precursor, Arl-4 and Arl-4I. The partially purified arcelin from the seeds of L. purpureus using an artificial diet confirmed the complete retardation of development of the stored product pest Callosobruchus maculatus at 0.2% w/w arcelin-incorporated artificial seeds. PMID:22980880

Janarthanan, Sundaram; Sakthivelkumar, Shanmugavel; Veeramani, Velayutham; Radhika, Dixit; Muthukrishanan, Subbaratnam

2012-12-15

97

Purification and characterization of a highly thermostable chitinase from the stomach of the red scorpionfish Scorpaena scrofa with bioinsecticidal activity toward cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

This present study is the first attempt to report on the purification and characterization of a chitinase from the stomach of the red scorpionfish Scorpaena scrofa. A 50-kDa chitinase (SsChi50) was purified to homogeneity, and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis showed that SsChi50 was a monomer with a molecular mass of 50,103 Da. The 25 N-terminal residues of SsChi50 displayed high homology with family-18 chitinases. Optimal activity was obtained at pH 5.0 at 80 °C. SsChi50 was stable at pH and temperature ranges of 3.0 to 7.0 and 70 to 90 °C for 48 and 4 h respectively. Among the inhibitors and metals tested, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, N-ethylmaleimide, Hg(2+), and Hg(+) completely inhibited enzyme activity. Chitinase activity was high on colloidal chitin, glycol chitin, glycol chitosane, chitotriose, and chitooligosaccharide. Chitinase activity towards synthetic substrates in the order of p-NP-(GlcNAc)(n) (n = 2-4) was p-NP-(GlcNAc)(2) > p-NP-(GlcNAc)(4) > p-NP-(GlcNAc)(3). Our results suggest that the SsChi50 enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed the second glycosidic link from the non-reducing end of (GlcNAc)(n). This enzyme obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, the K(m) and k(cat) values being 0.412 mg, colloidal chitin mL(-1) and 5.33 s(-1) respectively. An in vivo bioinsecticidal assay was developed for SsChi50 against Callosobruchus maculatus adults. The enzyme showed bioinsecticidal activity toward Callosobruchus maculatus, indicating the possibility of using it in biotechnological strategies for insect management for stored cowpea seeds. PMID:22972353

Laribi-Habchi, Hassiba; Dziril, Maya; Badis, Abdelmalek; Mouhoub, Samia; Mameri, Nabil

2012-01-01

98

Four new species of Cichlidogyrus (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae) from Sarotherodon mvogoi and Tylochromis sudanensis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Cameroon.  

PubMed

The four Cichlidogyrus species (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae) found on the gills of Sarotherodon mvogoi and Tylochromis sudanensis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Cameroon are considered new and are described herein. Cichlidogyrus mvogoi n. sp. from Sarotherodon mvogoi, characterised by a long (> 100 µm), thin and spirally coiled penis and a short marginal hook pair I. Cichlidogyrus sigmocirrus n. sp. from Tylochromis sudanensis, characterised by a short marginal hook pair I, a slightly spirally coiled penis with reduced heel, an accessory piece being a spirally coiled band wrapped round the penis and attached to the penis basal bulb by a very thin filament. Cichlidogyrus chrysopiformis n. sp. from Tylochromis sudanensis, characterised by an marginal hook pair I of medium size, a thin spirally coiled penis (1.5 turn) with a developed flared heel, an accessory piece being a large gutter shaped band, ending in a narrow complex extremity, and linked to the basal bulb of the penis by a very thin filament, a short, straight and slightly ringed vagina. Cichlidogyrus djietoi n. sp. from Tylochromis sudanensis, characterised by a slightly spirally coiled penis (2 turns) with developed heel, an accessory piece being a large gutter shaped band, ending in a narrow folded back extremity, a short funnel shaped vagina. The three latter species are also remarkable by the morphology of their auricles implanted on the anterior side of the dorsal transverse bar which make them (together with the other species described from Tylochromis hosts) a homogeneous and original group within Cichlidogyrus, this distinctive feature seems to be ancestral compared to other Cichlidogyrus species. PMID:25543634

Pariselle, Antoine; Nyom, Arnold R Bitja; Bilong, Charles F Bilong

2014-01-01

99

Phylogeny and biogeography of highly diverged freshwater fish species (Leuciscinae, Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inferred from mitochondrial genome analysis.  

PubMed

The distribution of freshwater taxa is a good biogeographic model to study pattern and process of vicariance and dispersal. The subfamily Leuciscinae (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) consists of many species distributed widely in Eurasia and North America. Leuciscinae have been divided into two phyletic groups, leuciscin and phoxinin. The phylogenetic relationships between major clades within the subfamily are poorly understood, largely because of the overwhelming diversity of the group. The origin of the Far Eastern phoxinin is an interesting question regarding the evolutionary history of Leuciscinae. Here we present phylogenetic analysis of 31 species of Leuciscinae and outgroups based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences to clarify the phylogenetic relationships and to infer the evolutionary history of the subfamily. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Far Eastern phoxinin species comprised the monophyletic clades Tribolodon, Pseudaspius, Oreoleuciscus and Far Eastern Phoxinus. The Far Eastern phoxinin clade was independent of other Leuciscinae lineages and was closer to North American phoxinins than European leuciscins. All of our analysis also suggested that leuciscins and phoxinins each constituted monophyletic groups. Divergence time estimation suggested that Leuciscinae species diverged from outgroups such as Tincinae to be 83.3 million years ago (Mya) in the Late Cretaceous and leuciscin and phoxinin shared a common ancestor 70.7 Mya. Radiation of Leuciscinae lineages occurred during the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene. This period also witnessed the radiation of tetrapods. Reconstruction of ancestral areas indicates Leuciscinae species originated within Europe. Leuciscin species evolved in Europe and the ancestor of phoxinin was distributed in North America. The Far Eastern phoxinins would have dispersed from North America to Far East across the Beringia land bridge. The present study suggests important roles for the continental rearrangements during the Late Cretaceous to form the present-day distribution of organisms. Furthermore, the Late Cretaceous biotic turnover influenced for the modern terrestrial biodiversity. PMID:23174367

Imoto, Junichi M; Saitoh, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Adachi, Jun; Kartavtsev, Yuri P; Miya, Masaki; Nishida, Mutsumi; Hanzawa, Naoto

2013-02-10

100

Evolution of microhabitat association and morphology in a diverse group of cryptobenthic coral reef fishes (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota).  

PubMed

Gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae) are an extremely diverse and widely distributed group and are the second most species rich family of vertebrates. Ecological drivers are key to the evolutionary success of the Gobiidae. However, ecological and phylogenetic data are lacking for many diverse genera of gobies. Our study investigated the evolution of microhabitat association across the phylogeny of 18 species of dwarfgobies (genus Eviota), an abundant and diverse group of coral reef fishes. In addition, we also explore the evolution of pectoral fin-ray branching and sensory head pores to determine the relationship between morphological evolution and microhabitat shifts. Our results demonstrate that Eviota species switched multiple times from a facultative hard-coral association to inhabiting rubble or mixed sand/rubble habitat. We found no obvious relationship between microhabitat shifts and changes in pectoral fin-ray branching or reduction in sensory pores, with the latter character being highly homoplasious throughout the genus. The relative flexibility in coral-association in Eviota combined with the ability to move into non-coral habitats suggests a genetic capacity for ecological release in contrast to the strict obligate coral-dwelling relationship commonly observed in closely related coral gobies, thus promoting co-existence through fine scale niche partitioning. The variation in microhabitat association may facilitate opportunistic ecological speciation, and species persistence in the face of environmental change. This increased speciation opportunity, in concert with a high resilience to extinction, may explain the exceptionally high diversity seen in Eviota compared to related genera in the family. PMID:23099149

Tornabene, Luke; Ahmadia, Gabby N; Berumen, Michael L; Smith, Dave J; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Pezold, Frank

2013-01-01

101

Repellent activity of some essential oils against two stored product beetles Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) with reference to Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oil for the safety of pigeon pea seeds.  

PubMed

Essential oils from 35 aromatic and medicinal plant species of Gorakhpur Division (U. P., India) were evaluated for their repellent activity against pulse bruchids Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. of stored pigeon pea seeds. The oil concentration was at 0.36 ?l/ml. Out of 35 essential oils, Adhatoda vasica Ness and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oils showed absolute (100 %) insect repellency. Chenopodium oil exhibited 100 % mortality for both the test insects at 10 ?l concentration (LD50?=?2.8 ?l for C. chinensis & 2.5 ?l for C. maculatus) and more toxic than Adhatoda oil (LD50?=?6.8 ?l for C. chinensis & 8.4 ?l for C. maculatus). During in vivo evaluation, 0.29 and 0.58 ?l/ml of Chenopodium oil significantly enhanced feeding deterrence in insects and reduced the seed damage as well as weight loss of fumigated pigeon pea seeds up to 6 months of storage as compared to control set. Thus, Chenopodium oil can be used as an effective option of commercial fumigants for the storage of pigeon pea seeds against pulse bruchids. PMID:25477682

Pandey, Abhay K; Palni, Uma T; Tripathi, N N

2014-12-01

102

Purification of a lectin from the marine red alga Gracilaria ornata and its effect on the development of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

A lectin from the marine red alga Gracilaria ornata (Gracilariaceae, Rodophyta) was purified and characterized. The purification procedure consisted of extracting soluble proteins in 0.025 M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5, followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation (70% saturation), ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and affinity chromatography on mucin-Sepharose 4B. The purified G. ornata lectin (GOL) showed a single protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 17 kDa when submitted to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. The native molecular mass of GOL determined by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column was 17.4 kDa and its carbohydrate content was estimated to be 2.9%. Therefore, GOL is a monomeric glycoprotein. The purified lectin agglutinated trypsin-treated erythrocytes from rabbit and chicken but not from human. Its activity was not inhibited by any of the mono- and disaccharides tested but by the complex glycoproteins porcine stomach mucin, lactotransferrin, asialofetuin and bovine and porcine thyroglobulins. Isoelectric focusing showed that GOL is an acidic protein with a pI of 5.4 with analysis of its amino acid composition revealing high contents of Asx, Glx, Ser, Glu, Ala and Cys. When incorporated in artificial seeds, GOL significantly affected the development of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, indicating the possibility of using this lectin in a biotechnological strategy for insect management of stored cowpea seeds. PMID:15869843

Leite, Yáskara Fabíola Monteiro Marques; Silva, Luana Maria Castelo Melo; Amorim, Rodrigo César das Neves; Freire, Eder Almeida; de Melo Jorge, Daniel Macedo; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Benevides, Norma Maria Barros

2005-06-20

103

Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), ?-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

2012-01-01

104

Insecticide activity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii against two stored product pests, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), ?-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC(50) values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC(50) = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC(50) = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

2012-01-01

105

Protecting embryos from stress: Corticosterone effects and the corticosterone response to capture and confinement during pregnancy in a live-bearing lizard (Hoplodactylus maculatus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hormones in the embryonic environment, including those of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, have profound effects on development in eutherian mammals. However, little is known about their effects in reptiles that have independently evolved viviparity. We investigated whether exogenous corticosterone affected embryonic development in the viviparous gecko Hoplodactylus maculatus, and whether pregnant geckos have a corticosterone response to capture and confinement that is suppressed relative to that in non-pregnant (vitellogenic) females and males. Corticosterone implants (5 mg, slow-release) administered to females in mid-pregnancy caused a large elevation of corticosterone in maternal plasma (P<0.001), probable reductions in embryonic growth and development (P=0.069-0.073), developmental abnormalities and eventual abortions. Cool temperature produced similar reductions in embryonic growth and development (P???0.036 cf. warm controls), but pregnancies were eventually successful. Despite the potentially harmful effects of elevated plasma corticosterone, pregnant females did not suppress their corticosterone response to capture and confinement relative to vitellogenic females, and both groups of females had higher responses than males. Future research should address whether lower maternal doses of corticosterone produce non-lethal effects on development that could contribute to phenotypic plasticity. Corticosterone implants also led to increased basking in pregnant females (P<0.001), and basal corticosterone in wild geckos (independent of reproductive condition) was positively correlated with body temperature (P<0.001). Interactions between temperature and corticosterone may have broad significance to other terrestrial ectotherms, and body temperature should be considered as a variable influencing plasma corticosterone concentrations in all future studies on reptiles. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Cree, A.; Tyrrell, C.L.; Preest, M.R.; Thorburn, D.; Guillette, L.J., Jr.

2003-01-01

106

The attraction of virgin female hide beetles (Dermestes maculatus) to cadavers by a combination of decomposition odour and male sex pheromones  

PubMed Central

Introduction The hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) feeds as an adult and larva on decomposing animal remains and can also be found on human corpses. Therefore, forensic entomological questions with regard to when and how the first receptive females appear on carcasses are important, as the developmental stages of their larvae can be used to calculate the post-mortem interval. To date, we know that freshly emerged males respond to the cadaver odour of post-bloated carcasses (approximately 9 days after death at Tmean = 27°C), being attracted by benzyl butyrate. This component occurs at its highest concentration at this stage of decay. The aim of our study was to determine the principle of attraction of virgin females to the feeding and breeding substrate. For this purpose, we tested the response of these females to headspace samples of piglet cadavers and male sex pheromones [(Z9)-unsaturated fatty acid isopropyl esters] in a Y-olfactometer. Because we expected that such an odour combination is of importance for virgin female attraction, we tested the following two questions: 1) Are virgin female hide beetles attracted by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones? 2) During which decomposition stage do the first virgin females respond to cadaver odour when combined with male sex pheromones? Results We found that young virgin females were attracted to the cadaver by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones. Neither cadaver odour alone nor male sex pheromones alone was significantly more attractive than a solvent control. Our results also gave a weak indication that the first young virgin females respond as early as the post-bloating stage to its associated decomposition odour when combined with male sex pheromones. Conclusions Our results indicate that freshly emerged males possibly respond to cadaver odour and visit carcasses before virgin females. Being attracted to cadavers when male sex pheromone is perceived as well, virgin females can optimise their reproductive possibilities. PMID:22889339

2012-01-01

107

Effects of insecticide formulations used in cotton cultivation in West Africa on the development of flat-backed toad tadpoles (Amietophrynus maculatus).  

PubMed

In the West African savanna zone, traditional subsistence farming increasingly shifts to cash crop farming and in particular to cotton cultivation, which is accompanied by application of pesticides. Increasing use of pesticides by smallholder farmers is suspected to have negative effects on non-target organisms. In this study, possible pesticide impact on the development of tadpoles was investigated. Two insecticide formulations used in cotton cultivation in Benin were compared: Cotofan® (active ingredient (a.i.): ?- and ?-endosulfan) and Tihan® (a.i.: spirotetramat and flubendiamide). Tadpoles of the widespread species Amietophrynus maculatus were kept in small water basins with increasing insecticide concentrations (1, 10 and 100 ?g a.i./L) over a period of 28?days. Tadpoles showed reduced survival at the highest endosulfan concentrations (100 ?g/L). Survival of tadpoles undergoing metamorphosis was not influenced by Tihan®. Endosulfan in concentrations of 10 and 100 ?g/L negatively impacted the movement of the tadpoles which was not the case for the mixture of spirotetramat and flubendiamide. Time to metamorphosis was not significantly different in the various treatments. Tail length of tadpoles was significantly shorter in Cotofan® treatments compared to controls. Pesticide residues in the tadpoles were relatively low after keeping them in concentrations of 1 and 10 ?g a.i./L (25 and 26 ?g/kg wet weight (w/w) for the sum of ?-endosulfan, ?-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate and below the detection limits for flubendiamide and spirotetramat). For the 100 ?g a.i./L treatments, 1,600 ?g/kg w/w was found of ?-endosulfan, ?-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate together in the survived tadpoles and 21 ?g/kg w/w of flubendiamide. PMID:25192667

Stechert, Christin; Kolb, Marit; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Bahadir, Müfit

2015-02-01

108

In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.  

PubMed

A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets. PMID:15913299

Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

2005-06-01

109

Parasite biodiversity in a coral reef fish: twelve species of monogeneans on the gills of the grouper Epinephelus maculatus (Perciformes: Serranidae) off New Caledonia, with a description of eight new species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenea: Diplectanidae).  

PubMed

Coral reefs are known for their high level of biodiversity, but parasite biodiversity has not been evaluated. Cases such as Epinephelus maculatus, described here, show that the numerical estimation of parasite biodiversity in coral reefs could reach more than ten times the number of fish species; consequently, the extinction of certain fish species from endangered coral reefs would result in the co-extinction of at least ten times the number of parasite species. E. maculatus is a grouper of intermediate size (1-2 kg) and common in the coral reefs of New Caledonia, South Pacific. Based on the examination of more than 800 monogenean specimens, 12 species of monogeneans (ten diplectanids and two ancyrocephalids) were differentiated on the gills. These species of diplectanids have not been found in other epinephelines in the same area and thus are considered as specific to this host. In addition, three species of copepods, and isopod larvae, are present on the gills; E. maculatus thus has a total of 16 species of gill ectoparasites, which can be found together on a single individual fish. Diplectanids include Laticola dae Journo & Justine, 2006, which is the most abundant species representing about 50% of the specimens, and nine species which are rare, each representing 2-7% of the specimens: Diplectanum uitoe n. sp. and eight species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958. D. uitoe, provisionally attributed to Diplectanum Diesing, 1858, is characterised by a small conical penis with internal walls. Pseudorhabdosynochus auitoe n. sp., P. buitoe n. sp., P. cuitoe n. sp., P. duitoe n. sp., P. euitoe n. sp. and P. fuitoe n. sp. are differentiated on the basis of the morphology of the sclerotised vagina, but are very similar in other characteristics; P. guitoe n. sp. is characterised by a quadriloculate organ with very thick walls and a very small sclerotised vagina; and P. huitoe n. sp. is characterised by its sclerotised vagina and by very long ventral and dorsal haptoral bars. Two rare (2-3% of specimens) ancyrocephalids, Haliotrema epinepheli Young, 1969 and Haliotrema sp., are briefly described in relation to the male copulatory organs and haptoral bars; H. epinepheli is apparently a generalist species found in various epinephelines and other fish species. A table of the 50 species of diplectanids (Pseudorhabdosynochus, Laticola Yang et al., 2006, Echinoplectanum Justine & Euzet, 2006 and Diplectanum) from serranids is provided. PMID:16972153

Justine, Jean-Lou

2007-02-01

110

Ultrastructure and development of Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia), a hyperparasite of Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda), a parasite of Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei).  

PubMed

Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) is described from Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda: Opecoelidae), a parasite of the fish Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei) in the Atlantic Ocean. Electron microscopy reveals that all the stages of the cycle (merogony and sporogony) are diplokaryotic and in direct contact with the cytoplasm of host cells. There is no sporophorous vesicle (pansporoblast). The earliest stages observed are meronts, which have a simple plasmic membrane. Their cytoplasm is granular, rich in ribosomes and contains some sacculi of endoplasmic reticulum. They divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporonts. The sporonts have a thick electron-dense wall. Their diplokaryon is slightly less electron-dense than the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of more advanced sporonts has numerous electron-lucent vesicles. Sporonts with two diplokarya divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporoblasts. The older sporoblasts are irregular or elongate and the polar filament is in formation. Their cytoplasm is denser, with ribosomes and lamellae of granular endoplasmic reticulum. The sporoblasts evolve into spores. The mature spores are broadly oval and measure 3.6 (3.1-4.0) × 2.58 (1.8-3.3) ?m. Their wall is 100-300 nm thick. The polar tube is isofilar with 11-16 coils, 130-155 nm in diameter and arranged in many layers in the centre of the spore. The polaroplast is divided into two regions: an outer electron-dense cup with granular content and lacking lamellae and an internal region, less electron-dense, composed of irregularly arranged sacs. The posterior vacuole, with an amorphous electron-dense content, is present. The new species is compared with other species of Nosema from trematodes. PMID:25174849

Toguebaye, Bhen Sikina; Quilichini, Yann; Diagne, Papa Mbagnick; Marchand, Bernard

2014-01-01

111

Simultaneous analysis of five molecular markers provides a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the living bony-tongue fishes (Osteoglossomorpha: Teleostei).  

PubMed

Fishes of the Superorder Osteoglossomorpha (the "bonytongues") constitute a morphologically heterogeneous group of basal teleosts, including highly derived subgroups such as African electric fishes, the African butterfly fish, and Old World knifefishes. Lack of consensus among hypotheses of osteoglossomorph relationships advanced during the past 30 years may be due in part to the difficulty of identifying shared derived characters among the morphologically differentiated extant families of this group. In this study, we present a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for this group, based on the analysis of more than 4000 characters from five molecular markers (the mitochondrial cytochrome b, 12S and 16S rRNA genes, and the nuclear genes RAG2 and MLL). Our taxonomic sampling includes one representative of each extant non-mormyrid osteoglossomorph genus, one representative for the monophyletic family Mormyridae, and four outgroup taxa within the basal Teleostei. Maximum parsimony analysis of combined and equally weighted characters from the five molecular markers and Bayesian analysis provide a single, well-supported, hypothesis of osteoglossomorph interrelationships and show the group to be monophyletic. The tree topology is the following: (Hiodon alosoides, (Pantodon buchholzi, (((Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Scleropages sp.), (Arapaima gigas, Heterotis niloticus)), ((Gymnarchus niloticus, Ivindomyrus opdenboschi), ((Notopterus notopterus, Chitala ornata), (Xenomystus nigri, Papyrocranus afer)))))). We compare our results with previously published phylogenetic hypotheses based on morpho-anatomical data. Additionally, we explore the consequences of the long terminal branch length for the taxon Pantodon buchholzi in our phylogenetic reconstruction and we use the obtained phylogenetic tree to reconstruct the evolutionary history of electroreception in the Notopteroidei. PMID:15324846

Lavoué, Sébastien; Sullivan, John P

2004-10-01

112

Integrative taxonomy identifies a new species of Phyllodistomum (Digenea: Gorgoderidae) from the twospot livebearer, Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae), in Central Veracruz, Mexico.  

PubMed

Phyllodistomum inecoli n. sp. is described from the twospot livebearer, Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae), collected in the Río La Antigua basin, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is described and characterised by using a combination of morphology, scanning electron microscopy, and sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Diagnostic characters of the new species of Phyllodistomum include a genital pore opening at the level of the caecal bifurcation; oval vitellarium, situated just posterior to the ventral sucker and not extended laterally and anterior extracaecal uterine loops variable in extension (reaching the anterior, median or posterior margin of the ventral sucker). P. inecoli n. sp. most closely resembles P. brevicecum, a species described as a parasite of the central mudminnow, Umbra limi, in other parts of North America; however, the genital pore in P. brevicecum is situated between the caecal bifurcation and the ventral sucker, the ovary is larger, the vitellarium is lobed and extended laterally and the anterior portion of the uterus extends to the posterior margin of the ventral sucker. Comparison of about 1,500–2,200 nucleotides of cox1 and 28S rDNA and ITS1 strongly supports the status of P. inecoli as a new species. Bayesian inference analysis of combined datasets of 28S rDNA and cox1 sequences showed that P. inecoli n. sp. and the other species found in freshwater fishes of Mexico, including the species complex of P. lacustri, are not sister species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 28S rDNA sequences of several gorgoderid taxa revealed the close relationship of P. inecoli n. sp. with several species of Phyllodistomum, Gorgodera and Gorgoderina with cystocercous cercariae developing in sphaeriid bivalves. Dot-plot analysis of ITS1 sequences of P. inecoli n. sp. revealed the presence of eight repetitive elements with different length, which together represent almost half the length of ITS1. PMID:24022129

Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel

2013-12-01

113

Ultrastructure and development of Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia), a hyperparasite of Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda), a parasite of Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei)  

PubMed Central

Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) is described from Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda: Opecoelidae), a parasite of the fish Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei) in the Atlantic Ocean. Electron microscopy reveals that all the stages of the cycle (merogony and sporogony) are diplokaryotic and in direct contact with the cytoplasm of host cells. There is no sporophorous vesicle (pansporoblast). The earliest stages observed are meronts, which have a simple plasmic membrane. Their cytoplasm is granular, rich in ribosomes and contains some sacculi of endoplasmic reticulum. They divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporonts. The sporonts have a thick electron-dense wall. Their diplokaryon is slightly less electron-dense than the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of more advanced sporonts has numerous electron-lucent vesicles. Sporonts with two diplokarya divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporoblasts. The older sporoblasts are irregular or elongate and the polar filament is in formation. Their cytoplasm is denser, with ribosomes and lamellae of granular endoplasmic reticulum. The sporoblasts evolve into spores. The mature spores are broadly oval and measure 3.6 (3.1–4.0) × 2.58 (1.8–3.3) ?m. Their wall is 100–300 nm thick. The polar tube is isofilar with 11–16 coils, 130–155 nm in diameter and arranged in many layers in the centre of the spore. The polaroplast is divided into two regions: an outer electron-dense cup with granular content and lacking lamellae and an internal region, less electron-dense, composed of irregularly arranged sacs. The posterior vacuole, with an amorphous electron-dense content, is present. The new species is compared with other species of Nosema from trematodes. PMID:25174849

2014-01-01

114

Variable survival across low pH gradients in freshwater fish species.  

PubMed

A series of 14 day experiments was conducted on five common New Zealand fish species (redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni, inanga Galaxias maculatus, brown trout Salmo trutta, longfin eel Anguilla dieffenbachii and koaro Galaxias brevipinnis) to assess the effect of pH on survival and changes in body mass. No species survived in water of pH <4 although there was 100% survival of all adults at pH 4.5, G. maculatus larvae were also tested and had high mortality at this pH. Results suggest that adults are tolerant of low-pH waters; however, successful remediation of anthropogenically acidified streams will require an understanding of the susceptibility to low pH on different life cycle stages. PMID:25230112

Jellyman, P G; Harding, J S

2014-11-01

115

Avoidance behaviour of freshwater fish and shrimp exposed to ammonia and low dissolved oxygen separately and in combination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of common smelt (Retropinna retropinna Richardson), inanga (Galaxias maculatus Jenyns), common bully (Gobiomorphus cotidianus McDowall), and shrimp (Paratya curvirostris Heller) to ammonia and low dissolved oxygen (DO), separately and in combination, were measured in a fluvarium. Only common smelt avoided high or low ammonia (c. 8.5 and 2.0 g m NH3, respectively) and low DO (c. 2 g

Jody Richardson; Erica K. Williams; Christopher W. Hickey

2001-01-01

116

Ligophorus spp. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) occurring in the fresh and brackish waters of the Shatt Al-Arab River and Estuary in southern Iraq, with the description of Ligophorus sagmarius sp. n. from the greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes).  

PubMed

The gills of three of five species of mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) collected from the brackish and fresh waters of southern Iraq were infected with species of Ligophorus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) as follows: greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes) infected with Ligophorus lebedevi Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina and Galli, 2012, Ligophorus bantingensis Soo and Lim, 2012, Ligophorus sagmarius n. sp., and Ligophorus fluviatilis (Bychowsky, 1949) Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina, and Galli, 2012; Klunzinger’s mullet Liza klunzingeri (Day) with L. bantingensis, L. fluviatilis, and an apparently undescribed species of Ligophorus; and abu mullet Liza abu (Heckel) with L. bantingensis and L. fluviatilis. The keeled mullet Liza carinata (Valenciennes) and Speigler’s mullet Valamugil speigleri (Bleeker) were uninfected. L. sagmarius n. sp. is described, and L. lebedevi and L. bantingensis are redescribed. Available specimens of L. fluviatilis and the undescribed species of Ligophorus from Klunzinger’s mullet were insufficient for description. PMID:24022128

Kritsky, Delane C; Khamees, Najim R; Ali, Atheer H

2013-12-01

117

[Population genetic structure of the char species of the Northern Kuril Islands and the rank of the Dolly Varden Char in the system of the genus Salvelinus (Salmonidae: Teleostei)].  

PubMed

Analysis of the taxonomic position of most species and forms of the char (genus Salvelinus, Salmonidae: Teleostei) was made based on RAPD-PCR. The material was represented by samples from 29 populations from the Kuril Islands, coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, Kamchatka, Chukotka, Taymyr, Transbaikalia, the Kola Peninsula, Svalbard, Finland, and North America. It was shown that the genus Salvelinus splits into three well-justified clusters: (1) all the forms assigned to the Salvelinus alpinus--S. malma complex; (2) two samples of the White-Spotted Char from the Southern Kuril Islands and from Kamchatka; (3) two North American species, S. fontinalis and S. namaycush (samples of the North American species S. confluentis were absent from the collection). Analysis of the absolute values of genetic disctances of the S. alpinus--S. malma forms relative to S. leucomaenis, S. fontinalis, and S. namaycush revealed distances approaching the species rank between the following isolates: Frolikh Char, Mountain Char, Black Lake Char, Goggle-Eyed Char, and Neyva Char. Samples of Dolly Varden currently considered as "S. malma", do not constitute a separate cluster, falling within the group of the Arctic char S. alpinus. This conclusion is supported by the analysis of the results of three series of experiments by R. Phillips on ITS1 ribosome genes (Pleute et al., 1992; Phillips et al., 1995; Phillips et al., 1999). This indicates the infraspecific rank of malma within S. alpinus. Isolated populations of "Salvethymus svetovidovi" from the lake Elgygytgyn (Chukotka Peninsula) and of the char from the lake Chyornoye (Onekotan Island), recently described as S. gritzenkoi (Vasil'eva, Stygar, 2000), fell withing the S. alpinus--S. malma complex, the Onekotan char grouped together with another isolate from the same island. Comparison of genetic distances between the samples showed that the differences between the two isolated of Onekotan and migratory forms of the Kuril Islands are approximately equal, yet the homogeneity of the Chyornoye sample is higher than that of the other samples. The revealed 330-nucleotide diagnostic sequence of the Onekotan lake isolate showed identity of part of the fragment with a section of expressed DNA from the library of EST clones derived from the gills of Salmo salar, this possibly indicates the adaptive character of the evolution. PMID:17022488

Shubina, E A; Ponomareva, E V; Gritsenko, O F

2006-01-01

118

Effect of ramp length and slope on the efficacy of a baffled fish pass.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of ramp length and slope on fish passage over baffled ramps with 15° and 30° gradients. Three fish species indigenous to New Zealand were tested: the redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni, the common bully Gobiomorphus cotidianus and the inanga Galaxias maculatus with ramp lengths of 3, 4·5 and 6?m. As slope and ramp length increased, passage success rate decreased for G. maculatus and G. cotidianus. At a slope of 15°, both G. maculatus and G. cotidianus could pass all ramp lengths tested with the highest success rate on the 3?m ramp. As the gradient increased to 30°, G. maculatus could only pass the 3?m ramp, and G. cotidianus were incapable of passing any ramp. Gobiomorphus huttoni were the only test species capable of climbing the wetted margin of the ramps. Increasing ramp slope significantly reduced passage success for G. huttoni, but ramp length, up to the maximum used in this study, had no significant influence on successful passage. PMID:24417428

Baker, C F

2014-02-01

119

Contagem de fontes de radio na direção de aglomerados ricos de galaxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A contagem de fontes de rádio, na direção de aglomerados ricos de galáxias, deve fornecer uma distribuçãto acima da média do campo devido aos efeitos do meio. No entanto, a distribução de radiofontes de alguns aglomerados, investigada por vários autores no passado, mostrou, em alguns casos, uma deficência de fontes fracas. Neste trabalho, analisamos os levantamentos em 2.7 GHz (Reuter e Andernach 1990, 1990A&AS...82..279R; Loiseau et al. 1988, 1988A&AS...75...67L) e o catálogo 6CII em 151 MHz (Hales et al. 1988, 1988MNRAS.234..919H). Nosso estudio da distribução de radiofontes, na direção de aglomerados ricos de galáxias, nestas duas frequências, mostra um excesso de fontes fortes somente nas regiões centrais dos aglomerados. Este resultado pode ser explicado devido à evidência de confinamento das radiofontes pelo gás, do meio intra-aglomerado, e devido aos processos de colisão, coalescência e canibalismo de galáxias.

Andreazza, C. M.; Andernach, H.

120

Canibalismo Extremo y Lente Gravitacional Intensa en el Cúmulo de Galaxias Abell 3827  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abell 3827 is one of the most massive known clusters and at its center we observe an extreme example of galactic canibalism: a super giant elliptical galaxy in its formation process, devoring five massive galaxies at the same time. Using high spatial resolution Gemini+GMOS imagery and multi-object spectroscopy, we derived the redshift (z=0.099) and the radial velocity dispersion of the 55 brightest galaxies in the cluster central region (1134 +- 125 km/s). The estimated virial mass is ~ 1E14 M(sun) inside a radius of 300 kpc of the cluster center. We have also found features corresponding to a strong gravitational lense, four anular features arranged in an Einstein Ring from a galaxy (z=0.2) at double redshift than the cluster, and a fifth arclet feature corresponding to the lensed light of a farther galaxy (z=0.4). The possible Einstein Ring is of small angular size and the gravitational lense morphology would confirm that the cluster is indeed very massive and dense. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH.

Díaz, R. J.; West, M.; Bergmann, M.; Carrasco, E. R.; Gomez, P.; Lee, H.; Miller, B.; Turner, J.

121

Canibalismo Extremo y Lente Gravitacional Intensa en el Cúmulo de Galaxias Abell 3827  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abell 3827 is one of the most massive known clusters and at its center we observe an extreme example of galactic canibalism: a super giant elliptical galaxy in its formation process, devoring five massive galaxies at the same time. Using high spatial resolution Gemini+GMOS imagery and multi-object spectroscopy, we derived the redshift (z=0.099) and the radial velocity dispersion of the

R. J. Díaz; M. Bergmann; E. R. Carrasco; P. Gomez; H. Lee; B. Miller; J. Turner

2008-01-01

122

Contagem de fontes de radio na direção de aglomerados ricos de galaxias  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contagem de fontes de rádio, na direção de aglomerados ricos de galáxias, deve fornecer uma distribuçãto acima da média do campo devido aos efeitos do meio. No entanto, a distribução de radiofontes de alguns aglomerados, investigada por vários autores no passado, mostrou, em alguns casos, uma deficência de fontes fracas. Neste trabalho, analisamos os levantamentos em 2.7 GHz (Reuter

C. M. Andreazza; H. Andernach

1990-01-01

123

Extensive genetic divergence among Diptychus maculatus populations in northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

D. maculates is a kind of specialized Schizothoracinae fish has been locally listed as a protected animal in Xinjiang Province, China. Ili River located in north of Tianshan Mountain and Tarim River located in north of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were two main distribution areas of this fish. To investigate the genetic diversity and genetic structure of D. maculates, four populations from Tarim River system and two populations from Ili River system were collected in this study. A 570-bp sequence of the control region was obtained for 105 specimens. Twenty-four haplotypes were detected from six populations, only Kunes River population and Kashi River population shared haplotypes with each other. For all the populations examined, the haplotype diversity (h) was 0.904 8±0.012 6, nucleotide diversity (?) was 0.027 9±0.013 9, and the average number of pairwise nucleotide differences (k) was 15.878 3±7.139 1. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 86.31% of the total genetic variation was apportioned among populations, and the variation within sampled populations was 13.69%. Genetic differences among sampled populations were highly significant. F st statistical test indicated that all populations were significantly divergent from each other (P<0.01). The largest F st value was between Yurungkash River population and Muzat River population, while the smallest F st value was between Kunes River population and Kashi River population. NJ phylogenetic tree of D-loop haplotypes revealed two main clades. The neutrality test and mismatch distribution analysis suggested that the fish had went through a recent population expansion. The uplift of Tianshan Mountain and movement of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau might contribute to the wide genetic divergence of D. maculates in northwest China.

Meng, Wei; Yang, Tianyan; Hai, Sa; Ma, Yanwu; Cai, Lingang; Ma, Xufa; Gao, Tianxiang; Guo, Yan

2015-01-01

124

Callosobruchus maculatus: A Seed Beetle with a Future in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends the use of seed beetles for studying animal behavior and provides suggestions for practical and project assignments. Sources for obtaining the beetles and a list of the equipment needed for their study and maintenance are provided. Answers to common concerns are addressed. (DDR)

Dockery, Michael

1997-01-01

125

Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of the Australian freshwater fish genus Galaxiella, with an emphasis on dwarf galaxias (G. pusilla).  

PubMed

The freshwater fauna of Southern Australia is primarily restricted to the southwestern and southeastern corners of the continent, and is separated by a large, arid region that is inhospitable to this biota. This geographic phenomenon has attracted considerable interest from biogeographers looking to explain evolutionary diversification in this region. Here, we employed phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches to evaluate the effect of this barrier on a group of four galaxiid fish species (Galaxiella) endemic to temperate Southern Australia. We also tested if continental shelf width has influenced connectivity among populations during low sea levels when rivers, now isolated, could have been connected. We addressed these questions by sampling each species across its range using multiple molecular markers (mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences, nuclear S7 intron sequences, and 49 allozyme loci). These data also allowed us to assess species boundaries, to refine phylogenetic affinities, and to estimate species ages. Interestingly, we found compelling evidence for cryptic species in G. pusilla, manifesting as allopatric eastern and western taxa. Our combined phylogeny and dating analysis point to an origin for the genus dating to the early Cenozoic, with three of the four species originating during the Oligocene-Miocene. Each Galaxiella species showed high levels of genetic divergences between all but the most proximate populations. Despite extensive drainage connections during recent low sea levels in southeastern Australia, populations of both species within G. pusilla maintained high levels of genetic structure. All populations experienced Late Pleistocene-Holocene population growth, possibly in response to the relaxation of arid conditions after the last glacial maximum. High levels of genetic divergence and the discovery of new cryptic species have important implications for the conservation of this already threatened group of freshwater species. PMID:22693638

Unmack, Peter J; Bagley, Justin C; Adams, Mark; Hammer, Michael P; Johnson, Jerald B

2012-01-01

126

Source and trophic transfer of mercury in plankton from an ultraoligotrophic lacustrine system (Lake Nahuel Huapi, North Patagonia).  

PubMed

The incorporation and trophic transfer of total and methyl mercury (THg, MeHg) were examined in three size classes of plankton (10-53, 53-200, and >200 ?m size range) and a small planktivorous fish, Galaxias maculatus, from the large multi-branched Lake Nahuel Huapi (North Patagonia, Argentina). Three sites representing a large range of lake benthic-pelagic structures (based on depth and shoreline characteristics) and precipitation regimes were sampled. Nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes (?(15)N, ?(13)C) were analyzed to assess Hg trophodynamics. Selenium concentrations were determined together with THg in order to consider its potential effect on Hg trophodynamics. High THg concentrations (0.1-255 µg g(-1) dry weight (DW)) were measured in plankton, largely in inorganic form (MeHg: 3-29 ng g(-1) DW, 0.02-7% of THg, in the two larger size classes). A trend of increasing THg concentrations, varying in two to three orders of magnitude, with decreasing plankton size was associated with precipitation measured prior to each sampling event. Passive adsorption of dissolved Hg(2+) from wet deposition and runoff is considered to be the principal Hg uptake mechanism at the base of the pelagic food web. Despite the initially high THg uptake in the smaller plankton classes, the transfer to G. maculatus, and consequently to the entire food web, is likely limited due to low proportion of MeHg to THg in plankton. Furthermore, evidence of G. maculatus with benthic feeding habits having higher impact on MeHg trophic transfer compared to the same species with more pelagic (e.g., zooplankton) feeding habits, was observed. Although there is a high THg uptake in plankton, limited amounts are incorporated in the entire food web from the pelagic compartment. PMID:24844168

Rizzo, Andrea; Arcagni, Marina; Campbell, Linda; Koron, Neža; Pavlin, Majda; Arribére, María A; Horvat, Milena; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro

2014-09-01

127

[Parasitism in fishes and human riverside communities of the Huillinco and Natri lakes (Great Island of Chiloé), Chile].  

PubMed

In April and December 1989, 35 fish from Lake Huillinco (42 degrees 48'S, 74 degrees 02'W) and 36 fish from Lake Natri (42 degrees 48'S, 73 degrees 50'W), in the Great Island of Chiloé (Chile) were examined. Coprological samples from 159 persons, 17 dogs, 19 pigs and 4 cats from around both lakes were examined for Diphyllobothrium spp. infection. In the Lake Huillinco the following helminths of fishes were determined: Contracaecum sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. in Salmo trutta, Cauque mauleanum and Eleginops maclovinus; Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) dichelyneformis in S. trutta and E. maclovinus and Scolex pleuronectis in S. trutta. One specimen of Mugil cephalus did not show helminth parasites. Prevalence of infection were greater for Contracaecum sp. in S. trutta (75.0%) and C. mauleanum (76.0%); and Hysterothylacium sp. in E. maclovinus (75.0%). Mean intensity was higher for D. (C.) dichelyneformis in E. maclovinus. Contracaecum sp. in S. trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Oncorhynchus kisutch and Galaxias maculatus; Acanthocephalus sp. in S. trutta and G. maculatus, S. pleuronectis in O. mykiss and Cystidicoloides sp. in G. maculatus were determined at Lake Natri. Prevalence and intensity of infection were higher for Contracaecum sp. in S. trutta and O. kisutch. Infection by Diphyllobothrium sp. was determined in one domestic cat. Prevalence of infection by intestinal protozoan and helminths in human population only showed significative differences for Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura that were higher in the Lake Huillinco. Importance of natural infection by helminth parasites for fish in cultured condition and possible mechanisms of infections in relation to the diet of fishes are discussed. PMID:2152358

Torres, P; Ruíz, E; Rebolledo, C; Mira, A; Cubillos, V; Navarrete, N; Gesche, W; Montefusco, A; Valdés, L; Alberdi, A

1990-01-01

128

Complete mitochondrial genome of Schizopygopsis malacanthus (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Schizopygopsis malacanthus is a circular molecule of 16,677?bp in size, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 2 main non-coding regions (the control region and the origin of the light strand replication). Most of the genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNAs. The control region is 938?bp in length and located between the tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe) genes, some typical conserved elements (TAS, CSB1-3 and CSB D-F) were found in this region. All these features reflect a typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement of the S. malacanthus. PMID:25103444

Zeng, Yu; Chen, Yong-Bo; Pan, Bao-Zhu; Zhang, Da-Wen

2014-08-01

129

Head morphology of the ricefish, Oryzias latipes (Teleostei: Beloniformes).  

PubMed

The medaka, Oryzias latipes, is a model organism in experimental biology. Its ontogeny and osteology have been studied frequently, but no detailed description of its cranial anatomy exists. Based on manual dissections, histological slide sections, and 3D-reconstructions, we describe the anatomy of the jaw apparatus of O. latipes, focusing on musculature, connective tissue elements, and the nervous system. The soft tissue anatomy of the head of O. latipes is characterized by several derived characters that seem to be related to the modification of the upper jaw and a reduced mobility of its bones, which is an evolutionary novelty of the Beloniformes. These apomorphies could also be influenced by the small size of O. latipes. The maxilla is medial to the premaxilla. The presence of extensive connective tissue elements severely limits the mobility of both bones against each other and against the neurocranium. The external section of m. adductor mandibulae is partly fused with the internal section, originates from the quadrate, and inserts to the lower jaw. The intermediate head of the internal section is narrow and forms a bend along the ventral margin of the orbit. The intramandibular section is a separate narrow muscle between retroarcticular and dentary. These characters need to be verified in other representatives of Beloniformes to test their contribution to the disputed phylogenetic relationships within this taxon and to improve the understanding of the evolution of beak-like jaws in beloniform fishes. PMID:19388080

Werneburg, Ingmar; Hertwig, Stefan T

2009-09-01

130

Evolutionary origin and early biogeography of otophysan fishes (Ostariophysi: Teleostei).  

PubMed

The biogeography of the mega-diverse, freshwater, and globally distributed Otophysi has received considerable attention. This attraction largely stems from assumptions as to their ancient origin, the clade being almost exclusively freshwater, and their suitability as to explanations of trans-oceanic distributions. Despite multiple hypotheses explaining present-day distributions, problems remain, precluding more parsimonious explanations. Underlying previous hypotheses are alternative phylogenies for Otophysi, uncertainties as to temporal diversification and assumptions integral to various explanations. We reexamine the origin and early diversification of this clade based on a comprehensive time-calibrated, molecular-based phylogenetic analysis and event-based approaches for ancestral range inference of lineages. Our results do not corroborate current phylogenetic classifications of otophysans. We demonstrate Siluriformes are never sister to Gymnotiformes and Characiformes are most likely nonmonophyletic. Divergence time estimates specify a split between Cypriniformes and Characiphysi with the fragmentation of Pangea. The early diversification of characiphysans either predated, or was contemporary with, the separation of Africa and South America, and involved a combination of within- and between-continental divergence events for these lineages. The intercontinental diversification of siluroids and characoids postdated major intercontinental tectonic fragmentations (<90 Mya). Post-tectonic drift dispersal events are hypothesized to account for their current distribution patterns. PMID:23888847

Chen, Wei-Jen; Lavoué, Sébastien; Mayden, Richard L

2013-08-01

131

Evolutionary history of anglerfishes (Teleostei: Lophiiformes): a mitogenomic perspective  

PubMed Central

Background The teleost order Lophiiformes, commonly known as the anglerfishes, contains a diverse array of marine fishes, ranging from benthic shallow-water dwellers to highly modified deep-sea midwater species. They comprise 321 living species placed in 68 genera, 18 families and 5 suborders, but approximately half of the species diversity is occupied by deep-sea ceratioids distributed among 11 families. The evolutionary origins of such remarkable habitat and species diversity, however, remain elusive because of the lack of fresh material for a majority of the deep-sea ceratioids and incompleteness of the fossil record across all of the Lophiiformes. To obtain a comprehensive picture of the phylogeny and evolutionary history of the anglerfishes, we assembled whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 39 lophiiforms (33 newly determined during this study) representing all five suborders and 17 of the 18 families. Sequences of 77 higher teleosts including the 39 lophiiform sequences were unambiguously aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimation. Results Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis confidently recovered monophyly for all of the higher taxa (including the order itself) with the exception of the Thaumatichthyidae (Lasiognathus was deeply nested within the Oneirodidae). The mitogenomic trees strongly support the most basal and an apical position of the Lophioidei and a clade comprising Chaunacoidei + Ceratioidei, respectively, although alternative phylogenetic positions of the remaining two suborders (Antennarioidei and Ogcocephaloidei) with respect to the above two lineages are statistically indistinguishable. While morphology-based intra-subordinal relationships for relatively shallow, benthic dwellers (Lophioidei, Antennarioidei, Ogcocephaloidei, Chaunacoidei) are either congruent with or statistically indistinguishable from the present mitogenomic tree, those of the principally deep-sea midwater dwellers (Ceratioidei) cannot be reconciled with the molecular phylogeny. A relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian analysis of the divergence times suggests that all of the subordinal diversifications have occurred during a relatively short time period between 100 and 130 Myr ago (early to mid Cretaceous). Conclusions The mitogenomic analyses revealed previously unappreciated phylogenetic relationships among the lophiiform suborders and ceratioid familes. Although the latter relationships cannot be reconciled with the earlier hypotheses based on morphology, we found that simple exclusion of the reductive or simplified characters can alleviate some of the conflict. The acquisition of novel features, such as male dwarfism, bioluminescent lures, and unique reproductive modes allowed the deep-sea ceratioids to diversify rapidly in a largely unexploited, food-poor bathypelagic zone (200-2000 m depth) relative to the other lophiiforms occurring in shallow coastal areas. PMID:20178642

2010-01-01

132

Retinal organisation in goldeye and mooneye (Teleostei: hiodontidae).  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of a comparative investigation of the retinas of two Hiodontids, the goldeye (Hiodon alosoides) and the Mooneye (H. tergisus) employing light and electron microscopy, cell isolation techniques as well as microspectrophotometry. Contrary to the observations of previous workers these species possess a duplex retina. The photoreceptors are bundled in groups of 20 rods and 20 cones. They exhibit features which have hitherto not been observed in vertebrates. These are a) an ellipsoid divided in two parts by the myoid: b) tubules in cone outer segments and, c) large "lateral sacs" (accessory outer segments). Cones are immobile but the rods and epithelial pigment are capable of movement (retinomotor responses). The prominent reflecting layer consists of cuboid and rod-like crystals composed of uric acid. The inner layers are made up of three tiers of large horizontal cells, one of amacrine cells and scarce bipolar and ganglion cells. Bundle density is 1 700 per sq. mm. Roughly, one receptor bundle projects onto one bipolar and one ganglion cell suggesting that each bundle acts as a functional unit. The visual pigment of the mooneye absorbs maximally at 535 +/- 2 nm, and is based on vitamin A2 (porphyropsin). We suggest that all non deep-sea fishes with bundled receptors have duplex retinas and the adaptive mechanisms for vision in turbid waters are based on different morphological means as illustrated by the comparison with Stizostedion. PMID:704982

Wagner, H J; Ali, M A

1978-06-01

133

The Dorsal Pallium in Zebrafish, Danio rerio (Cyprinidae, Teleostei)  

PubMed Central

Zebrafish as a neurogenetic model system depends on the correct neuroanatomical understanding of its brain organization. Here, we address the unresolved question regarding a possible zebrafish homologue of the dorsal pallial division, the region that in mammals gives rise to the isocortex. Analyzing the distributions of nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate diphorase (NADPHd) activity and parvalbumin in the anterior zebrafish telencephalon, we show that against previous assumptions the central (Dc) zone possesses its own germinative region in the dorsal proliferative zone. We define the central (Dc) zone as topologically corresponding to the dorsal pallial division of other vertebrates (mammalian isocortex). In addition, we confirm through BrdU-labeling experiments that the posterior (Dp) zone is formed by radial migration and homologous to the mammalian piriform cortex. Based on our results, we propose a new developmental and organizational model of the zebrafish pallium—one which is the result of a complex outward-inward folding. PMID:21219890

Mueller, Thomas; Dong, Zhiqiang; Berberoglu, Michael A.; Guo, Su

2011-01-01

134

Clarias serniosus, a new walking catfish (Teleostei: Clariidae) from Laos.  

PubMed

Clarias serniosus, a new Southeast Asian walking-catfish species, is described from the Bolavens Plateau in southern Laos. The new species is a member of the C. batrachus species complex, and can be distinguished from congeners in the complex in having a combination of: occipital process length 15-17 % HL, head length 28.2-28.6% SL, head width 18.5-19.2% SL, head depth 13.0-13.7% SL, distance between the occipital process and the base of the first dorsal-fin ray 8.5% SL, smooth anterior edge of pectoral spine, 67 dorsal-fin rays, body depth at anus 16.2-16.5% SL, and 57 total vertebrae. PMID:25543801

Ng, Heok Hee; Kottelat, Maurice

2014-01-01

135

The complete mitochondrial genome of Clarias fuscus (Teleostei, Siluriformes: Clariidae).  

PubMed

Abstract The Clarias fuscus is an important economic fish in China and distributed widely in south China, e.g. Yangtze river, Pearl River, and Min River, even Hainan island. It is also distributed in Southeast Asia and Africa, so it is a good model for study population genetics and geological changes of these region. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of C. fuscus has been obtained with PCR. The gene composition and arrangement of mitochondrial genome sequence of C. fuscus are similar to most of other vertebrates, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region with total length of 16,518?bp. Most of genes are encoded on Heavy-Strand (H-strand), except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes. Like most vertebrates, the bias of G and C has universality in different region (genes). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of C. fuscus would contribute for better understanding of population genetics, conservation, biogeography, evolution of this species. PMID:24460162

Zhou, Chuanjiang; Wang, Xuzhen; Guan, Lihong; He, Shunping

2014-01-27

136

Genetic linkage map of the loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Teleostei: Cobitidae).  

PubMed

In the present study, the first genetic linkage map of the loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus was constructed with 164 microsatellite markers and a color locus, and it included 155 newly developed markers. A total of 159 microsatellite markers and a color locus were mapped in 27 linkage groups (LGs). The female map covered 784.5 cM with 153 microsatellite markers and a color locus, whereas the male map covered 662.2 cM with 119 microsatellite markers. The centromeric position in each LG was estimated by marker-centromere mapping based on half-tetrad analysis. In 4 LGs (LG2, LG3, LG4, and LG5), the centromere was estimated at the intermediate region. In LG1, LG11, and LG12, the centromere was estimated to shift from the sub-intermediate region to the end (telomeric). The number of these LGs (7) was identical to the collective number of bi-arm metacentric (5) and sub-metacentric chromosome (2) of the haploid chromosome set (n = 5) of the loach. In the other LGs, the position of the centromere was estimated at the end or outside. These results indicate satisfactory compliance between the linkage map and the chromosome set. Our map would cover approximately almost the entire loach genome because most markers were successfully mapped. PMID:17610134

Morishima, Kagayaki; Nakayama, Ichiro; Arai, Katsutoshi

2008-03-01

137

Pituitary cysts and concretions in the gasterosteidae (Teleostei).  

PubMed

Pituitary cysts in the nine-spined stickleback, Pungitius pungitius, were found in the prolactin zone of the rostral pars distalis in 22 per cent of fish caught in May from freshwater, field-drainage ditches near Cardiff, Wales. They were not associated solely with some special environmental or hereditary factor in the Welsh population, for they were also present in 6 per cent of fish caught at a similar time of year in a freshwater lake at Manitoba, Canada. Although the pituitaries of other sticklebacks (Culaea inconstans, Apeltes quadracus and Gasterosteus wheatlandi) are similar to that of P. pungitius, they did not develop large cysts. There were no cysts at all in A. quadracus, and none greater than 50 microns in diameter in C. inconstans and G. wheatlandi. A minority of P. pungitius (less than 1 per cent) develop concretions either within the pituitary ("intraglandular") or in the surrounding capsule ("capsular"). Most of the concretions are filled with a strongly staining and laminated colloid. They are present in males and females, adults and juveniles, in fish killed soon after capture and in animals adapted to laboratory conditions. As far as we are aware, this is the first record of such structures in lower vertebrates. PMID:3597848

Benjamin, M; Moodie, G E; Cone, D

1987-03-01

138

Microsatellite markers and mtDNA data indicate two distinct groups in dwarf galaxias, Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Pisces: Galaxiidae), a threatened freshwater fish from south-eastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galaxiella pusilla is a small, non-migratory freshwater fish, endemic to south-eastern Australia and considered nationally threatened. To assist\\u000a in the conservation of the species, microsatellite markers were developed and used to characterize genetic variation in 20\\u000a geographically distinct populations across its range. Substantial genetic differentiation was found between an eastern (Victoria\\u000a east of the Otway Ranges and Tasmania) and western

R. A. Coleman; V. Pettigrove; T. A. Raadik; A. A. Hoffmann; A. D. Miller; M. E. Carew

2010-01-01

139

Integrating multiple bioassays to detect and assess impacts of sublethal exposure to metal mixtures in an estuarine fish.  

PubMed

Estuaries are natural sinks for a wide range of urban, industrial and agricultural contaminants that accumulate at potentially toxic but non-lethal concentrations, yet we know relatively little about the long-term impacts of toxicants at these levels on aquatic organisms. In this study, we present an integrated, multi-pronged approach to detect and assess the impacts to estuarine fish of exposure to sublethal concentrations of metal mixtures. Our aims were to (1) examine the effects of sublethal metal exposure on the embryonic development of Galaxias maculatus, an estuarine spawning fish native to southeastern Australia, (2) determine whether sublethal exposure during development has knock-on effects on larval behaviour, and (3) establish whether a signature of metal exposure during embryogenesis can be detected in larval otoliths ("ear bones"). G. maculatus eggs are fertilised in water but develop aerially, in direct contact with estuarine sediments. We were thus also able to explore the relative importance of two exposure pathways, water and sediment. Embryos were exposed to two concentrations of a metal mixture containing Cu, Zn and Pb in water (during fertilisation) and on spiked sediments (during development), using a fully crossed experimental design. Overall, we found that exposure to the metal mixture reduced embryo survival and slowed embryonic development, resulting in poorer quality larvae that exhibited a reduced phototactic response. Differences in exposure to metals between treatment and control embryos were also permanently recorded in the developing otoliths. Combined these three approaches have the potential to be a powerful novel bioassessment tool as they provide a means of identifying a history of metal exposure during the embryonic period and linking it to suboptimal early growth and performance traits which could have long term fitness consequences. PMID:24794343

Barbee, Nicole C; Ganio, Katherine; Swearer, Stephen E

2014-07-01

140

Eugregarines reduce susceptibility of the hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus, to apicomplexan pathogens and retard larval development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eugregarines are abundant in a great diversity of invertebrates, and yet their relationships with their hosts are subject to controversy and confusion. We tested the effect of the eugregarine, Pyxinia crystalligera, on growth, development, and susceptibility to two Apicomplexa pathogens of the hide ...

141

Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F(1) adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F(1) adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment. PMID:19537990

Rahman, A; Talukder, F A

2006-01-01

142

Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F1 adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F1 adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment. PMID:19537990

Rahman, A.; Talukder, F. A.

2006-01-01

143

Proteomic analysis of Metarhizium anisopliae secretion in the presence of the insect pest Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop improvement in agriculture generally focuses on yield, seed quality and nutritional characteristics, as opposed to resistance to biotic stresses. Consequently, natural antifeedant toxins are often rare in seed material, with commercial crops being prone to insect pest predation. In the specific case of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), smallholder cropping is affected by insect pests that reproduce inside the stored seeds.

A. M. Murad; E. F. Noronha; R. N. G. Miller; F. T. Costa; C. D. Pereira; A. Mehta; R. A. Caldas; O. L. Franco

2008-01-01

144

Effect of various essential oils on Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Essential oils were extracted from four West African plant species [Tagetes minuta (Family Compositae), Hyptis suaveolens (Family Labiatae), white basil Ocimum canum (Family Labiatae), and sweet basil O. basilicum (Family Labiatae)] by steam distillation. The oil of the pepper Piper guineense (Family Piperaceae), was extracted from the fruits by hydro distillation and ethanol extraction. Mixed essential oil and total ethanol extract was used. Kaolin powder (clay) was mixed (aromatized) with these different oils. Cowpea weevils were reared on chickpeas and newly emerged males and females were deposited on uninfested seeds. Bioassays, i.e. fumigation with pure essential oils and aromatized kaolin powders, were carried out on adults and eggs. Twenty four hours after fumigation, 99 and 0% adult mortality were observed, respectively, as the result of treatments with Ocimum basilicum and the control. The application of powders aromatized with the same oils to weevil pairs resulted in a complete lack of oviposition, whereas 31, 56 and 76 eggs were laid in the controls after 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Application of aromatized powders did not have a significant effect on egg hatching (50 out of 110 with O. canum, 100 out of 115 with O. basilicum and 100 out of 130 in the control sample) but did have a significant impact on adult emergence: 0% for the two treatments compared with 100% in the controls. Our results suggest that plants of the genus Ocimum can be used as an alternative to synthetic insecticides. PMID:10880813

Kéïta; Vincent; Schmit; Ramaswamy; Bélanger

2000-10-15

145

The genetic control of sexual maturation in the teleost, Xiphophorus maculatus (Poeciliidae) ; a review  

E-print Network

. Summary. A sex-linked gene which controls the age at which the gonadotropic zone of the pituitary gland the genotype controls the development of the pituitary-gonadal axis, how the pituitary gland regulates gonadal in the platyfish, X. moculatus, a gene that controls an all-or-nothing response of the pituitary- gonadal axis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

146

New evidence on a cold case: trophic transmission, distribution and host-specificity in Hedruris spinigera (Nematoda: Hedruridae).  

PubMed

The life cycle of Hedruris spinigera Baylis, 1931 (Nematoda: Hedruridae) is determined here with the first formal identification of the parasite's intermediate host: the crustacean amphipod Paracorophium excavatum Thomson. Adult H. spinigera are redescribed from specimens collected from the stomach of fishes, Retropinna retropinna (Richardson) and Aldrichettaforsteri (Valenciennes), from Lake Waihola, New Zealand. Immature adults of the parasite collected from intermediate hosts (P. excavatum) are also described for the first time. The prevalence, abundance and intensity of infection of H. spinigera in several fish species are quantified along with the occurrence of P. excavatum, the parasite's intermediate host, in fish stomach contents. Although H. spinigera's transmission mode (trophic transmission) and fish diet potentially expose all fish species to infection, some level of host specificity must exist as parasite prevalence, abundance and intensity of infection vary greatly between potential definitive host species. We suggest here that the anatomy of the fish digestive tract and especially that of the stomach plays an important role in host suitability for H. spinigera. While P. excavatum is the only intermediate host in Lake Waihola, H. spinigera was found in six different fish species: Aldrichetta forsteri, Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns), Retropinna retropinna, Rhombosolea retiaria Hutton, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus and Salmo trutta Linnaeus; although typical hedrurid attachment and mating positions were observed only in R. retropinna and A. forsteri. The limited distribution of H. spinigera is most likely due to that of its different host species (intermediate and definitive), all inhabitants of coastal fresh and brackish waters. PMID:20941914

Luque, José L; Vieira, Fabiano M; Herrmann, Kristin; King, Tania M; Poulin, Robert; Lagrue, Clément

2010-09-01

147

OfOLITH ULTRASTRUcrURE OF SMOOTH OREO, PSEUDOCYTTUS MACULATUS, AND BLACK OREO, ALWCYTTUS SP., SPECIES  

E-print Network

of crystalline growth obscuring the finer (analogous to daily) growth rings, making their periodicity difficult about the biology of these fish. The black oreo is endemic to New Zealand while the smooth oreo occurs] of these fish was undertaken as part of a study to establish an ultrastructural basis for a suitable ageing

148

Antagonistic Regulation, Yet Synergistic Defense: Effect of Bergapten and Protease Inhibitor on Development of Cowpea Bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

The furanocoumarin compound bergapten is a plant secondary metabolite that has anti-insect function. When incorporated into artificial diet, it retarded cowpea bruchid development, decreased fecundity, and caused mortality at a sufficient dose. cDNA microarray analysis indicated that cowpea bruchid altered expression of 543 midgut genes in response to dietary bergapten. Among these bergapten-regulated genes, 225 have known functions; for instance, those encoding proteins related to nutrient transport and metabolism, development, detoxification, defense and various cellular functions. Such differential gene regulation presumably facilitates the bruchids' countering the negative effect of dietary bergapten. Many genes did not have homology (E-value cutoff 10?6) with known genes in a BlastX search (206), or had homology only with genes of unknown function (112). Interestingly, when compared with the transcriptomic profile of cowpea bruchids treated with dietary soybean cysteine protease inhibitor N (scN), 195 out of 200 coregulated midgut genes are oppositely regulated by the two compounds. Simultaneous administration of bergapten and scN attenuated magnitude of change in selected oppositely-regulated genes, as well as led to synergistic delay in insect development. Therefore, targeting insect vulnerable sites that may compromise each other's counter-defensive response has the potential to increase the efficacy of the anti-insect molecules. PMID:22927917

Sun, Yucheng; Chi, Yong Hun; Ge, Feng; Patil, Bhimanagouda S.; Koiwa, Hisashi; Zeng, Rensen; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

2012-01-01

149

Molecular cloning and characterization of DMRT genes from the medaka Oryzias latipes and the platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DMRT genes constitute a family of genes, which possess a common motif called the DM domain. DMRT1 is considered to be involved in sex determination and\\/or sex differentiation, but not much information exists about the function of the other gene family members. We cloned DMRT genes of two important model fish species, the medaka, Oryzias latipes, and the platyfish,

Mariko Kondo; Alexander Froschauer; Akiko Kitano; Indrajit Nanda; Ute Hornung; Jean-Nicolas Volff; Shuichi Asakawa; Hiroshi Mitani; Kiyoshi Naruse; Minoru Tanaka; Michael Schmid; Nobuyoshi Shimizu; Manfred Schartl; Akihiro Shima

2002-01-01

150

Methodological optimization of applying neuroactive agents for the study of locomotor-like activity in the mudpuppies (Necturus Maculatus)  

PubMed Central

We compared the effects of mode of delivery of neuroactive agents and the effects of Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a vehicle for dissolving neuroactive agents, on locomotor-like activity in vitro. By superfusion, D-glutamate (0.3 – 0.9 mM) produced robust walking-like activity at superfusion rates 10–25 ml/min. In contrast, bolus application of the same or higher doses of glutamate (0.1–1.5 mM) failed to induce any rhythmic activity. Superfusion with AP-5, a NMDA receptor antagonist, produced dose-dependent inhibition of the ongoing walking-like activity induced by D-glutamate and completely blocked the activity at 20 µM. In contrast, bolus application of AP-5 did not block the walking-like activity at concentrations up to 120 µM. Similarly, superfusion of AP-5 inhibited the initiation of walking-like activity and completely blocked the initiation at 20 µM, while bolus application of AP-5 failed to do so at concentrations up to 120 µM. Superfusion of strychnine, a glycine receptor antagonist, blocked the walking-like activity at concentrations of 3–5 µM, while its bolus application altered NMDA-induced, but not glutamate-induced, walking-like activity to a synchronized pattern. DMSO significantly affected the walking-like activity in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging 1–10% (v/v). These results demonstrate that the way by which the neuroactive agents are applied is a significant factor that determines the outcome of experiments on the neural control of locomotion. Also, the dose-dependent effects of DMSO on the activity of neural networks for locomotion should be taken into account in data interpretation. PMID:18692523

Lavrov, Igor; Cheng, Jianguo

2008-01-01

151

Methodological optimization of applying neuroactive agents for the study of locomotor-like activity in the mudpuppies (Necturus maculatus).  

PubMed

We compared the effects of mode of delivery of neuroactive agents and the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a vehicle for dissolving neuroactive agents, on locomotor-like activity in vitro. By superfusion, d-glutamate (0.3-0.9 mM) produced robust walking-like activity at superfusion rates 10-25 ml/min. In contrast, bolus application of the same or higher doses of glutamate (0.1-1.5 mM) failed to induce any rhythmic activity. Superfusion with AP-5, a NMDA receptor antagonist, produced dose-dependent inhibition of the ongoing walking-like activity induced by D-glutamate and completely blocked the activity at 20 microM. In contrast, bolus application of AP-5 did not block the walking-like activity at concentrations up to 120 microM. Similarly, superfusion of AP-5 inhibited the initiation of walking-like activity and completely blocked the initiation at 20 microM, while bolus application of AP-5 failed to do so at concentrations up to 120 microM. Superfusion of strychnine, a glycine receptor antagonist, blocked the walking-like activity at concentrations of 3-5 microM, while its bolus application altered NMDA-induced, but not glutamate-induced, walking-like activity to a synchronized pattern. DMSO significantly affected the walking-like activity in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging 1-10% (v/v). These results demonstrate that the way by which the neuroactive agents are applied is a significant factor that determines the outcome of experiments on the neural control of locomotion. Also, the dose-dependent effects of DMSO on the activity of neural networks for locomotion should be taken into account in data interpretation. PMID:18692523

Lavrov, Igor; Cheng, Jianguo

2008-09-15

152

Haematological parameters in Umbrina cirrosa (Teleostei, Sciaenidae): a comparison between diploid and triploid specimens.  

PubMed

Haematological features were compared between diploid and triploid specimens of the ray-finned fish Umbrina cirrosa. No significant differences between diploids and triploids were reported in haematocrit and total haemoglobin concentration, but erythrocytes and thrombocytes were significantly greater in size in triploids. Glycaemia was significantly lower in diploids, whereas triploid erythrocytes were more resistant to osmotic stress. In triploids, a greater fraction of leukocytes was positive for alkaline phosphatase activity, when stimulated with Bacillus clausii spores, otherwise no significant increase of oxygen consumption was observed in triploid leukocytes after stimulation, based on assays for superoxide anions. Triploids were characterized by a lower concentration of circulating blood cells with a lower surface/volume ratio when compared with diploids. These features may lead to a general disadvantage of triploids in withstanding stress conditions: a situation that needs to be taken into account in aquaculture practice. PMID:15165570

Ballarin, Loriano; Dall'Oro, Manuela; Bertotto, Daniela; Libertini, Angelo; Francescon, Antonia; Barbaro, Alvise

2004-05-01

153

Genetic population structure of sympatric and allopatric populations of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, Teleostei, Coregonidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Teleost fishes of the Coregonidae are good model systems for studying postglacial evolution, adaptive radiation and ecological speciation. Of particular interest is whether the repeated occurrence of sympatric species pairs results from in-situ divergence from a single lineage or from multiple invasions of one or more different lineages. Here, we analysed the genetic structure of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula

Thomas Mehner; Kirsten Pohlmann; Che Elkin; Michael T Monaghan; Barbara Nitz; Jörg Freyhof

2010-01-01

154

The complete mitochondrial genome of small sliver gugeon Squalidus gracilis (Teleostei, Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

Abstract In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of small silver gugeon Squalidus gracilis has been amplified. The mitogenome, consisting of 16,605 base pairs (bp), had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes and a non-coding control region (CR). CR of 928?bp length is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of S. gracilis is 29.8% for A, 27.6% for C, 25.7% for T and 16.9% for G, with higher AT content of 55.5%. The complete mitogenome may provide rather essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic analysis for not only congeneric species but also higher different taxa of Cyprinid fishes. PMID:24749978

Liu, Guo-Di; Chen, I-Shiung; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Shen, Chia-Ning

2014-04-22

155

Complete mitochondrial genome of the natural pentaploid loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cobitididae).  

PubMed

Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the natural pentaploid loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus is a circular molecule of 16,643?bp in size, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and two main noncoding regions (the control region and the origin of the light strand replication). Most of the genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNAs. The control region is 918?bp in length and located between the tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe) genes, some typical conserved elements (TAS, CSB1-3 and CSB D-F) were found in this region. All these features reflect a typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement of the pentaploid M. anguillicaudatus. PMID:25162828

Zeng, Yu; Chen, Yong-Bo; Pan, Bao-Zhu; Zhang, Da-Wen

2014-08-27

156

Complete mitochondrial genome of the natural triploid loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cobitididae).  

PubMed

Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the natural triploid loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus is a circular molecule of 16,646 bp in size, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 2 main noncoding regions (the control region and the origin of the light strand replication). Most of the genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and 8 tRNAs. The control region is 918 bp in length and located between the tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe) genes, some typical conserved elements (TAS, CSB1-3 and CSB D-F) were found in this region. All these features reflect a typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement of the triploid M. anguillicaudatus. PMID:23815325

Yu, Yong-Yao; Li, Yan-He; Li, Ru-Wei; Wang, Wei-Min; Zhou, Xiao-Yun

2014-10-01

157

The complete mitochondrial genome of Hoeven's mullet-goby Hemigobius hoevenii (Bleeker) (Teleostei, Gobiidae).  

PubMed

Abstract In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Hoeven's mullet-goby Hemigobius hoevenii (Bleeker, 1851) collected from Malay Peninsula has been amplified and sequenced. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,469 base pairs (bp) in total length, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 1 control region (CR) and 1 light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition of H. hoevenii is 27.1% for A, 26.6% for T, 29.0% for C, 17.3% for G, with higher AT content 53.7%. This study will contribute for understanding the phylogenetic approach of Hemigobius species as well as the related genera of gobiid fishes. PMID:24779596

Huang, Shih-Pin; Shen, Chia-Ning; Chen, I-Shiung

2014-04-29

158

Complete mitochondrial genome of the natural hexaploid loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cobitididae).  

PubMed

The complete mitochondrial genome of the natural hexaploid loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus is a circular molecule of 16,643 bp in size, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 2 main noncoding regions (the control region and the origin of the light strand replication). Most of the genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNAs. The control region is 918 bp in length and located between the tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe) genes, some typical conserved elements (TAS, CSB1-3 and CSB D-F) were found in this region. All these features reflect a typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement of the hexaploid M. anguillicaudatus. PMID:23586342

Yu, Yong-Yao; Li, Yan-He; Li, Ru-Wei; Wang, Wei-Min; Zhou, Xiao-Yun

2014-04-01

159

Pseudodiplectanum syrticum n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae), a parasite of Synapturichthys kleinii (Teleostei: Soleidae) from off Tunisia.  

PubMed

Pseudodiplectanum syrticum n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) is described from the gills of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso) collected from the Gulf of Gabès in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia. The new species differs from the congeneric species by the morphology of the penis and vagina. It resembles the Mediterranean species P. kearni Vala, Lopez-Roman & Boudaoud, 1980 from Solea vulgaris Quensel and P. gibsoni Oliver, 1987 from Michrochirus variegatus (Donovan) in its tubular penis, but it differs from these two species by having a vagina with a long tube presenting two loops and a male copulatory organ ending in a curved point. It also differs in the morphology and size of the transverse bars of the haptor. In P. syrticum the ventral transverse bar and dorso-lateral bars are longer than those of P. gibsoni (114 vs 69.5-89 microm and 48 vs 33-44 microm, respectively). PMID:17896190

Derbel, Hela; Boudaya, Lobna; Neifar, Lassad

2007-11-01

160

Lamellodiscus crampus sp. nov. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae), a parasite of Dentex maroccanus (Teleostei, Sparidae) from off Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lamellodiscus crampus sp. nov. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) is described from the gills of Dentex maroccanus (Valenciennes) collected from the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia) in the oriental part of Mediterranean Sea. The new species belongs\\u000a to the “ignoratus” group (sensu Oliver 1987) characterized by a lamellodisc with complete lamellae and a “lyre” shaped male copulatory organ, and the “ignoratus”\\u000a sensu stricto subgroup,

Lassâd Neifar; Sfax Tunisia

2008-01-01

161

Pseudodiplectanum syrticum n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae), a parasite of Synapturichthys kleinii (Teleostei: Soleidae) from off Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudodiplectanum syrticum n. sp. (Mono- genea: Diplectanidae) is described from the gills of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso) collected from the Gulf of Gabes in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia. The new species differs from the congeneric species by the morphology of the penis and vagina. It resembles the Mediterranean species P. kearni Vala, Lopez-Roman & Boudaoud, 1980 from Solea vulgaris Quensel

Hela Derbel; Lobna Boudaya; Lassad Neifar

2007-01-01

162

A new species of Bibarba (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cobitidae) from Guangxi, China.  

PubMed

A new loach species of the genus Bibarba is described from a cave (Hongshuihe River basin) in Guangxi, China. The new species, Bibarba parvoculus, can be distinguished from its only congener Bibarba bibarba by pigmentation patterns on fins and side of the body, shape of snout, counts of fin rays, eye diameter, caudal-peduncle length, and preanal length.  PMID:25661027

Wu, Tie-Jun; Yang, Jian; Xiu, Li-Hui

2015-01-01

163

The gulf surgeon, Acanthurus randalli, a junior synonym of the ocean surgeon, Acanthurus bahianus (teleostei: Acanthuridae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared 62 specimens, 48-126.5 mm standard length, of Acanthurus bahianus from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico with 95 specimens from other localities to determine if the distinguishing characters in the original description of the Gulf of Mexico endemic surgeonfish Acanthurus randalli were valid. No color pattern or meristic differences were found, and the only measurement that allowed distinction (91% percent concordance) was the shallower caudal concavity of northeastern Gulf of Mexico specimens. Acanthurus chirurgus from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico also have shallower caudal concavities (93.7% percent concordance) than do conspecifics from other areas, suggesting that this trend may be correlated with some unknown environmental influence. Considering the extended planktonic larval dispersal capabilities of Atlantic surgeonfishes, and that the single divergent morphological character state is also exhibited in a sympatric northeastern Gulf of Mexico population of A. chirurgus, recognition of A. randalli is untenable, and the name is considered a junior synonym of A. bahianus. An identification key to western Atlantic species of Acanthurus that incorporates the results of this study is given.

Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Jelks, H.L.; Randall, J.E.

2003-01-01

164

Embryonic fissure and photoreceptor differentiation in the eye of adult Garra rufa Heckel 1843 (Cyprinidae, Teleostei).  

PubMed

The retina of the adult teleost Garra rufa retains a curved, open embryonic fissure indicating an asymmetrical postembryonic retinal growth. Undifferentiated, oval photoreceptors are observed on both sides of the middle of the fissure with their larger diameter running parallel to the fissure to which they may attach by desmosomes. They detach from the fissure, rotate to become perpendicular to it and begin an active process of differentiation as they slide along the temporal side of the outer half of the fissure. This process is divided into stages for simplicity. The photoreceptors develop stumpy inner segments extending into a ventricular space that appears between the retinal pigment epithelium and the photoreceptors. Calycal processes arise from the inner segments and the distal centriole of each photoreceptor forms a connecting cilium. The proximal centriole is retained for some time after the outer segment develops. The formation of rod spherules and cone pedicles takes place almost concomitantly with the outer segments. Double cones appear first as single cones before pairing. One or more of the principal cone mitochondria accumulate electron-dense material and merge to form the ellipsosome. The retinal pigment epithelium undergoes a parallel differentiation. The developmental events described in the present work conform those recorded in embryonic teleostean retinas. PMID:11987455

al-Adhami, M A; Qar, J; al Khodur, M

2001-01-01

165

Systematics of the subgenus Oligocephalus (Teleostei: Percidae: Etheostoma) with complete subgeneric sampling of the genus Etheostoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Etheostoma is the most diverse clade of freshwater fishes in North America. While studies have been performed with complete sampling of a single subgenus, none have included representatives of all remaining subgenera. The subgenus Oligocephalus is the largest, consisting of 25–27 species in four species groups, and its monophyly has never been clearly demonstrated. The monophyly of this

Nicholas J. Lang; Richard L. Mayden

2007-01-01

166

Systematics of the subgenus Oligocephalus (Teleostei: Percidae: Etheostoma) with complete subgeneric sampling of the genus Etheostoma.  

PubMed

The genus Etheostoma is the most diverse clade of freshwater fishes in North America. While studies have been performed with complete sampling of a single subgenus, none have included representatives of all remaining subgenera. The subgenus Oligocephalus is the largest, consisting of 25-27 species in four species groups, and its monophyly has never been clearly demonstrated. The monophyly of this subgenus and its constituent groups was tested using parsimony and Bayesian analyses of ND2 (mtDNA) and the first intron of S7 (nDNA) with complete species sampling from Oligocephalus and complete subgeneric sampling from Etheostoma. Although the subgenus Oligocephalus was not recovered as a monophyletic group in any analyses, monophyletic E. whipplei, Southwestern Darter, and E. spectabile (in part) species groups were recovered in all analyses. All analyses agree that E. okaloosae and both subspecies of E. hopkinsi are not closely related to other members of the subgenus Oligocephalus. E. exile is, however, presenting the strongest evidence yet that recognition of the subgenus Boleichthys is unwarranted. PMID:17158072

Lang, Nicholas J; Mayden, Richard L

2007-05-01

167

Phylogenetic Relationships of Major Clades of Catostomidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) as Inferred from Mitochondrial  

E-print Network

from Mitochondrial SSU and LSU rDNA Sequences Phillip M. Harris1 and Richard L. Mayden Biodiversity occurring in North and Central America (Table 1; Burr and May- den, 1992; Jenkins and Burkhead, 1993 and Moxostomatini (Buth, 1978, 1979a,b, 1980; Jenkins, 1970; Robins and Raney, 1956, 1957; Smith, 1966; Smith

Harris, Phillip

168

Microsatellite variation and genetic structuring in Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae) populations from Argentina and Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mullet Mugil liza is distributed along the Atlantic coast of South America, from Argentina to Venezuela, and it is heavily exploited in Brazil. We assessed patterns of distribution of neutral nuclear genetic variation in 250 samples from the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (latitudinal range of 23-31°S) and from Buenos Aires Province in Argentina (36°S). Nine microsatellite loci revealed 131 total alleles, 3-23 alleles per locus, He: 0.69 and Ho: 0.67. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between Rio de Janeiro samples (23°S) and those from all other locations, as indicated by FST, hierarchical analyses of genetic structure, Bayesian cluster analyses and assignment tests. The presence of two different demographic clusters better explains the allelic diversity observed in mullets from the southernmost portion of the Atlantic coast of Brazil and from Argentina. This may be taken into account when designing fisheries management plans involving Brazilian, Uruguayan and Argentinean M. liza populations.

Mai, Ana C. G.; Miño, Carolina I.; Marins, Luis F. F.; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Miranda, Laura; Schwingel, Paulo R.; Lemos, Valéria M.; Gonzalez-Castro, Mariano; Castello, Jorge P.; Vieira, João P.

2014-08-01

169

The Infrabranchial Musculature and Its Bearing on the Phylogeny of Percomorph Fishes (Osteichthyes: Teleostei)  

PubMed Central

The muscles serving the ventral portion of the gill arches (?=?infrabranchial musculature) are poorly known in bony fishes. A comparative analysis of the infrabranchial muscles in the major percomorph lineages reveals a large amount of phylogenetically-relevant information. Characters derived from this anatomical system are identified and discussed in light of current hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships among percomorphs. New evidence supports a sister-group relationship between the Batrachoidiformes and Lophiiformes and between the Callionymoidei and Gobiesocoidei. Investigated data also corroborate the existence of two monophyletic groups, one including the Pristolepididae, Badidae, and Nandidae, and a second clade consisting of all non-amarsipid stromateiforms. New synapomorphies are proposed for the Atherinomorphae, Blenniiformes, Lophiiformes, Scombroidei (including Sphyraenidae), and Gobiiformes. Within the latter order, the Rhyacichthyidae and Odontobutidae are supported as the successive sister families of all remaining gobiiforms. The present analysis further confirms the validity of infrabranchial musculature characters previously proposed to support the grouping of the Mugiliformes with the Atherinomorphae and the monophyly of the Labriformes with the possible inclusion of the Pholidichthyiformes. Interestingly, most hypotheses of relationships supported by the infrabranchial musculature have been advanced by preceding anatomists on the basis of distinct data sources, but were never recovered in recent molecular phylogenies. These conflicts clearly indicate the current unsatisfactory resolution of the higher-level phylogeny of percomorphs. PMID:25310286

Datovo, Aléssio; de Pinna, Mário C. C.; Johnson, G. David

2014-01-01

170

Developmental Osteology of Two Species of Economically Important Sciaenids, Sciaenops ocellatus and Cynoscion nebulosus (Teleostei: Sciaenidae)  

E-print Network

with the posterior tip of the interopercle. The interopercle now terminates in a spine-like projection anteriorly, which accommodates the posterior tip of the retroarticular ligament, and is partially covered by two well-developed spines along the ventral edge... of the epiphyseal bar, with the majority of the bone situated posterior to this element. The thin dermal parasphenoid is located centrally along the ventral surface of the chondrocranium, between the medial edges of the parachordal cartilages. Anteriorly...

Kubicek, Kole

2014-04-22

171

Morphology of the Neotropical swamp eel, Synbranchus marmoratus (Pisces: Teleostei), with emphasis on adaptive features  

E-print Network

. . . 29 Regional Account of the Vertebrae. Vertebra No. 1 Anterior precaudal vertebrae. Abdominal vertebrae. Anterior caudal vertebrae. . . . Posterior caudal vertebrae. . . The Caudal Fin and Its Support. . . . SKELETAL MUSCULAR SYSTEM. 31 31... with the orbits placed far anteriorly. Elongation and cylindrification of *he skull result mainly from modification of the frontal, para- sphenoid, and pterygoid bones, along with the lower jaw. The osteocranium is composed of two major divisions...

Conner, John Van

1966-01-01

172

Chriolepis prolata, a new species of Atlantic goby (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the North American continental shelf.  

PubMed

A new species of seven-spined goby of the genus Chriolepis is described from five specimens collected from the continental shelf of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean off South Carolina in depths of ca 54 to 110 m. The "Platform Goby", Chriolepis prolata, is distinguishable from all other western Atlantic species currently assigned to the genus Chriolepis and the morphologically similar genus Varicus in having pelvic-fin rays one through four branched, the fifth (innermost) pelvic-fin ray unbranched and relatively long (longer than the second ray to longer than all other pelvic-fin rays); most lateral body scales ctenoid, extending anteriorly in a wedge to a level anterior to the first dorsal-fin insertion or nearly to the pectoral-fin axil, with two or more rows of small cycloid scales extending anteriorly to near the pectoral-fin axil, cycloid scales along the bases of the dorsal and anal fins, and no scales on the belly; and the first two anal-fin pterygiophores inserted anterior to the first haemal spine. It closely resembles C. bilix but differs from that species which has a scaled belly, a shorter fifth pelvic-fin ray, prolonged dorsal-fin spines and smaller teeth in the lower jaw. An earlier report of C. bilix from Florida waters apparently refers to C. prolata.  PMID:25660803

Hastings, Philip A; Findley, Lloyd T

2015-01-01

173

Stone loaches of Choman River system, Kurdistan, Iran (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).  

PubMed

For the first time, we present data on species composition and distributions of nemacheilid loaches in the Choman River basin of Kurdistan province, Iran. Two genera and four species are recorded from the area, of which three species are new for science: Oxynoemacheilus kurdistanicus, O. zagrosensis, O. chomanicus spp. nov., and Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi B?n. et Nalb. Detailed and illustrated morphological descriptions and univariate and multivariate analysis of morphometric and meristic features are for each of these species. Forty morphometric and eleven meristic characters were used in multivariate analysis to select characters that could discriminate between the four loach species. Discriminant Function Analysis revealed that sixteen morphometric measures and five meristic characters have the most variability between the loach species. The dendrograms based on cluster analysis of Mahalanobis distances of morphometrics and a combination of both characters confirmed two distinct groups: Oxynoemacheilus spp. and T. kosswigi. Within Oxynoemacheilus, O. zagrosensis and O. chomanicus are more similar to one other rather to either is to O. kurdistanicus. PMID:24869808

Kamangar, Barzan Bahrami; Prokofiev, Artem M; Ghaderi, Edris; Nalbant, Theodore T

2014-01-01

174

Effects of deltamethrin on hematological parameters and enzymatic activity in Ancistrus multispinis (Pisces, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deltamethrin (DM) is a pyrethroid insecticide widely used in Brazilian crops and in pest-control programs because of its low environmental persistence and toxicity. It has been shown to exert a wide range of effects on non-targeted organisms including fishes. The aim of this study to evaluate the effects of deltamethrin through the hematological and biochemical parameters using Ancistrus multispinis as

C. T. Pimpão; A. R. Zampronio; H. C. Silva de Assis

2007-01-01

175

Prey capture in the pike-perch, Stizostedion lucioperca (teleostei, percidae): A structural and functional analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The pike-perch,Stizostedion lucioperca, uses both suction and grasping during feeding. Type, size, and position of prey and predator determine the movement of catching.\\u000a This is concluded from simultaneous motion analysis, electromyography, and the record of pressures inside the buccopharyngeal\\u000a cavity during feeding. The EMG incorporates 24 muscles of the head, including the branchial basket and the anterior body musculature.\\u000a \\u000a When

Mariette J. W. Elshoud-Oldenhave

1979-01-01

176

Muscular system in the pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Teleostei: Scombridae).  

PubMed

The muscular system in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis is studied in detail. For the first time, a complete description of the muscular anatomy of a thunnid is provided here. Eighty-two elements including subdivisions of components of the muscular system are identified. This is less than found in a basal perciform and two other investigated scombrid species, owing mainly to the absence or fusion of pectoral, pelvic and caudal fin muscles. The absence of elements of the basal perciform pattern was most prominent in the caudal fin, which includes only the flexor dorsalis, flexor ventralis, hypochordal longitudinalis, and interradialis. In the caudal fin, the medial fan-shaped ray was identified as the first dorsal ray, judging from myological and neuroanatomical characters. The highly developed gill filament muscles in Thunnus orientalis and sheet-like rectus communis control gill ventilation. Long body muscle tendons reduce the metabolic energy needed during rapid and continuous swimming. These characters are interpreted as adaptations in the context of the oceanic life style of the species. PMID:24186153

Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio; Shinohara, Gento; Okada, Tokihiko; Matsuura, Keiichi

2014-02-01

177

Structure and function of placental exchange surfaces in goodeid fishes (Teleostei: Atheriniformes).  

PubMed

The species of the family Goodeidae have evolved reproductive strategies involving intraovarian gestation, early evacuation of nearly yolk-exhausted embryos from the ovigerous tissue into the ovarian cavity, placental matrotrophy during intraluminal gestation, and the birth of highly developed fry. The inner ovarian lining becomes hypervascularized during gestational periods and functions as the maternal component of the placental association. Embryotrophic liquid is secreted by the inner ovarian epithelium into the ovarian cavity. Comparative electrophoretic analyses of embryotrophe and maternal blood serum provide evidence for the transfer of maternal serum proteins into the embryotrophe. Trophotaeniae, proctodaeal processes of the embryos, provide a surface for nutrient absorption. Endocytic activity was demonstrated by ingestion of unspecific tracer proteins in various species. Moreover, the trophotaenial absorptive cells (TACs) in Ameca splendens ingest various proteins or random copolymers conjugated to colloidal gold as well as radioiodinated proteins in a way that satisfies the criteria of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Several aminopeptidases (APs) on the surface of TACs were identified as protein binding sites as evidenced by inhibition of binding and uptake of marker proteins in the presence of AP substrates or AP inhibitors. Morphological adaptations of the embryonic circulatory system pertaining to nutrient and gas exchange were characterized. The embryonic epidermis comprises two layers of squamous cells closely underlain by a dense capillary net. Efficient gas exchange is facilitated by a thin embryotrophe-blood barrier of both the embryonic skin and the intraovarian lining. J. Morphol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24797516

Schindler, Joachim F

2014-05-01

178

The eyes of lanternfishes (Myctophidae, Teleostei): novel ocular specializations for vision in dim light.  

PubMed

Lanternfishes are one of the most abundant groups of mesopelagic fishes in the world's oceans and play a critical role in biomass vertical turnover. Despite their importance, very little is known about their physiology or how they use their sensory systems to survive in the extreme conditions of the deep sea. In this study, we provide a comprehensive description of the general morphology of the myctophid eye, based on analysis of 53 different species, to understand better their visual capabilities. Results confirm that myctophids possess several visual adaptations for dim-light conditions, including enlarged eyes, an aphakic gap, a tapetum lucidum, and a pure rod retina with high densities of long photoreceptors. Two novel retinal specializations were also discovered. The first specialization is a fundal pigmentation in adult eyes, found within an isolated retinal region (typically central retina) composed of modified pigment epithelial cells, which we hypothesize to be the remnant of a more pronounced visual specialization important in larval stages. The second specialization is an aggregation of extracellular microtubular-like structures found within the sclerad region of the inner nuclear layer of the retina. We hypothesize that the marked interspecific differences in the hypertrophy of these microtubular-like structures may be related to inherent differences in visual function. A general interspecific variability in other parts of the eye is also revealed and examined in this study. The contribution of both ecology and phylogeny to the evolution of ocular specializations and vision in dim light are discussed. PMID:24638897

de Busserolles, Fanny; Marshall, N Justin; Collin, Shaun P

2014-05-01

179

Profundulus kreiseri, a new species of Profundulidae (Teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes) from northwestern Honduras  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Profundulus, Profundulus kreiseri (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), is described from the Chamelecón and Ulúa Rivers in the northwestern Honduran highlands. Based on a phylogenetic analysis using cytochrome b and the presence of synapomorphic characters (dark humeral spot, a scaled preorbital region and between 32-34 vertebrae), this new species is placed in the subgenus Profundulus, which also includes Profundulus (Profundulus) oaxacae, Profundulus (Profundulus) punctatus and Profundulus (Profundulus) guatemalensis. Profundulus kreiseri can be distinguished from other members of the subgenus Profundulus by having less than half of its caudal fin densely scaled. Profundulus kreiseri can further be differentiated from Profundulus (Profundulus) oaxacae and Profundulus (Profundulus) punctatus by the absence of rows of dark spots on its flanks. The new species can further be differentiated from Profundulus (Profundulus) guatemalensis by the presence of fewer caudal- and pectoral-fin rays. The new species is distinguished from congeners of the profundulid subgenus Tlaloc (viz., Profundulus (Tlaloc) hildebrandi, Profundulus (Tlaloc) labialis, Profundulus (Tlaloc) candalarius and Profundulus (Tlaloc) portillorum) by having a scaled preorbital region and a dark humeral spot. Profundulus kreiseri and Profundulus portillorum are the only two species of Profundulus that are endemic to the region south of the Motagua River drainage in southern Guatemala and northwestern Honduras. PMID:23166464

Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Schaefer, Jacob F.; Hernández, Carmen L.; Prosanta Chakrabarty

2012-01-01

180

New and previously described species of Dactylogyridae (Monogenoidea) from the gills of Panamanian freshwater fishes (Teleostei).  

PubMed

During an investigation of the diversity of metazoan parasites of 7 freshwater fish species from 3 localities in central Panama, the following gill dactylogyrid (Monogenoidea) species were found: Aphanoblastella chagresii n. sp. from Pimelodella chagresi (Heptapteridae); Aphanoblastella travassosi (Price, 1938) Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco, and Scholz, 2000 from Rhamdia quelen (Heptapteridae); Diaphorocleidus petrosusi n. sp. from Brycon petrosus (Characidae); Gussevia asota Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1989, from Astronotus ocellatus (Cichlidae); Sciadicleithrum panamensis n. sp. from Aequidens coeruleopunctatus (Cichlidae); Urocleidoides flegomai n. sp. from Piabucina panamensis (Lebiasinidae); and Urocleidoides similuncus n. sp. from Poecilia gillii (Poeciliidae). Consideration of the comparative morphology and distribution of these parasites along with the evolutionary history of the host fishes suggests that diversification may be associated with geotectonic events that provided isolation of the Central American fauna with the uplift of the Panamanian Isthmus during early Pliocene (3 mya). PMID:17918354

Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M

2007-08-01

181

Powered control mechanisms contributing to dynamically stable swimming in porcupine puffers (Teleostei: Diodon holocanthus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Balances of multiple varying forces must be the basis for the unusually great dynamic stability of swimming pufferfishes. We used high-speed digital video recordings to study biomechanics and kinematics of rectilinear swimming at different speeds of five porcupine puffers in a water tunnel. We measured critical swimming speeds ( U crit); fin biomechanics, kinematics, and coordination; recoil movements; and gait changes. Major propulsors were pectoral fins at lower speeds; dorsal, anal, and caudal fins at higher speeds. Precise coordination of fin movements produced small recoil movements at speeds below U crit. The unusual body shape probably contributes to unconscious stability control.

Wiktorowicz, Alexis M.; Lauritzen, Dean V.; Gordon, Malcolm S.

2007-11-01

182

A further note on the identity of Barbus mussullah Sykes (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)  .  

PubMed

Knight et al. (2013a) clarified the identity of Barbus mussullah Sykes, the type species of Hypselobarbus Bleeker, showing it to represent a lineage clearly distinct from Tor Gray (type species Tor hamiltonii Gray (= Cyprinus tor Hamilton)). They showed the two species to be distinguished by a suite of characters, with Hypselobarbus lacking the distinctive median fleshy lobe of the lower lip (present in T. tor), having the last simple ray of the dorsal fin weak (vs. strong, 'osseous'), gill rakers long and branched (vs. short and simple, unbranched) on first gill arch, and the proximal end of the fifth ceratobranchial hooked (vs. only slightly curved). Nevertheless, some subsequent authors (e.g., Ambili et al. 2014; Khare et al. 2014) have persisted in referring Barbus mussullah to Tor, in effect synonymyzing Hypselobarbus (in which 12 species are currently recognized) with Tor and thereby causing confusion with regard to the identities of these groups of fishes which, being large and relatively common cyprinids, are of significant economic importance.  PMID:24989742

Knight, J D Marcus; Rai, Ashwin; D'souza, Ronald K P

2014-01-01

183

Saccopharynx berteli , a new gulper eel from the Pacific Ocean (Teleostei, Saccopharyngidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species,Saccopharynx berteli, is described from one specimen collected in the Central Pacific Ocean. It differs from the other nine species in the genus\\u000a in morphometric characters, principally including the extreme elongation of the caudal region (88.5% of TL) compared with\\u000a 71–82% in the other species.

Kenneth A. Tighe; Jørgen G. Nielsen

2000-01-01

184

Mitogenomic evidence for an Indo-West Pacific origin of the Clupeoidei (Teleostei: Clupeiformes).  

PubMed

The clupeoid fishes are distributed worldwide, with marine, freshwater and euryhaline species living in either tropical or temperate environments. Regional endemism is important at the species and genus levels, and the highest species diversity is found in the tropical marine Indo-West Pacific region. The clupeoid distribution follows two general pattern of species richness, the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients. To test historical hypotheses explaining the formation of these two gradients, we have examined the early biogeography of the Clupeoidei in reconstructing the evolution of their habitat preferences along with their ancestral range distributions on a time-calibrated mitogenomic phylogeny. The phylogenetic results support the distinction of nine main lineages within the Clupeoidei, five of them new. We infer several independent transitions from a marine to freshwater environment and from a tropical to temperate environment that occurred after the initial diversification period of the Clupeoidei. These results combined with our ancestral range reconstruction hypothesis suggest that the probable region of origin and diversification of the Clupeoidei during the Cretaceous period was the tropical marine precursor to the present Indo-West Pacific region. Thus, our study favors the hypotheses of "Region of origin" and "Tropical conservatism" to explain the origins of the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients of clupeoid species richness, respectively. Additional geological and paleontological evidence further define the tropical marine paleo-region of origin as the eastern Tethys Sea region. The Cretaceous fossil record of the Clupeoidei is partially incongruent with the results here as it contains taxa found outside this region. We discuss three possible causes of conflict between our biogeographical hypothesis and the distributions of the Cretaceous clupeoid fossils: regional extinction, incomplete taxonomic sampling and incorrect timescale estimation. PMID:23431379

Lavoué, Sébastien; Miya, Masaki; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Chen, Wei-Jen; Nishida, Mutsumi

2013-01-01

185

Karyotype diversity and patterns of chromosomal evolution in Eigenmannia (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Sternopygidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Conventional (Giemsa, C-banding, Ag – NORs) and molecular [5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, (TTAGGG)n] cytogenetic techniques were employed to study six species of the genus Eigenmannia Jordan & Evermann, 1896. They exhibited diploid chromosome numbers ranging from 2n=28 (Eigenmannia sp.1) to 2n=38 (Eigenmannia virescens (Valenciennes, 1836)). The C-banding results revealed that species with the lowest 2n have less heterochromatin content and that morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes observed in two species showed distinct patterns of heterochromatin. While the X1, X2 and Y-chromosomes of Eigenmannia sp.2 showed only centromeric heterochromatin, the XY sex chromosomes of Eigenmannia virescens possessed large heterochromatic blocks in the terminal position, particularly on the X chromosome. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were located in different positions when compared to the 5S rDNA sites. Additionally, the presence of minor ribosomal gene sites on the sex chromosome pair of Eigenmannia virescens represented a new type of the sex chromosomes in this group. The telomeric probe (TTAGGG)n hybridized to the terminal portion of all chromosomes in all species examined however, interstitial telomeric sites were found in the metacentric pair No. 2 in Eigenmannia sp.1. The analyzes confirmed some hypotheses about karyotype evolution in the genus Eigenmannia, and brought new information about the distribution of the genetic material in the chromosomes of the samples analyzed providing new insights for understanding the process differentiation in the genomes of species under study. PMID:25610544

Sene, Viviani França; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

2014-01-01

186

Neoniphon pencei, a new species of holocentrid (Teleostei: Beryciformes) from Rarotonga, Cook Islands  

PubMed Central

Abstract Neoniphon pencei, n. sp., is described from thirteen specimens, 132-197 mm standard length (SL) collected from mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) at Rarotonga, Cook Islands by divers using mixed-gas closed-circuit rebreathers. It differs from all other species of the genus in number of lateral line scales, scales above and below lateral line, elements of life color, and in COI and cytochrome b DNA sequences. Of the five other known species of Neoniphon, it is most similar to the Indo-Pacific N. aurolineatus and the western Atlantic N. marianus both morphologically and genetically.

Pyle, Richard L.; Earle, John L.

2015-01-01

187

Goblet cell types in intestine of tiger barb and black tetra (Cyprinidae, Characidae: Teleostei).  

PubMed

Histochemical properties of goblet cells in intestine of a stomach-less teleost, tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona), and a stomach-containing teleost, black tetra (Gymnocorymbus ternetzi), are described and compared. The intestine goblet cells were mostly wide in both species, but in tiger barb, some of them were markedly thinner. In black tetra, all the intestine goblet cells displayed magenta colour after PAS, whereas in the tiger barb, only the thinner goblet cells displayed such affinity. The latter cell type was coloured strongly magenta when the tissue was treated with alcian blue (pH 2.5) followed by PAS, whereas the wide goblet cells in tiger barb and all goblet cells in black tetra displayed mainly a blue colour after such treatment. Further, the goblet cells in both species were coloured cleanly blue after high iron diamine followed by alcian blue (pH 2.5). The intestine goblet cells in both species displayed a moderate affinity to WGA and concanavalin A lectins and no affinity to DBA. Most of the goblet cells displayed no affinity to PNA, but some of them in the tiger barb displayed a moderate or strong affinity to this lectin. The affinity to WGA was somewhat strengthened after pre-treatment with neuraminidase. These results suggest that tiger barb contains two types or variants of intestinal goblet cells: high numbers of wide cells filled by acidic, non-sulphated mucin and some thinner cells filled by neutral mucin. The intestine goblet cells in black tetra were filled by variable amounts of neutral and acidic mucin, but the total number of such cells is much less than in tiger barb. The present lectin and neuraminidase results suggest that the intestinal mucins in both species contain significant amounts of N-acetylglucosamine, sialic acid and glucose/mannose, but seem to lack N-acetylgalactosamine. However, some of these cells in tiger barb contain moderate to large amounts of galactose. Together, these results suggest significant species-specific features of the intestine goblet cells and mucin types in tiger barb and black tetra. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the diet and feeding habits in stomach-less teleosts compared with stomach-containing teleosts, greatly influence the number of intestine goblet cells and type of mucin in these cells. PMID:23952769

Leknes, I L

2014-10-01

188

Kudoa inornata sp. n. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) from the skeletal muscles of Cynoscion nebulosus (Teleostei: Sciaenidae).  

PubMed

A new myxosporean species, Kudoa inornata sp. n. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida), is described from skeletal muscles of the spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier), collected in estuarine waters along the coast of South Carolina, USA. Light microscopic and ultrastructural characters rank this species to the group of Kudoa species with simple-shaped spores. The uniqueness of the SSU and LSU rDNA sequences justifies its status of a new species with sister relationship to Kudoa paniformis. The 100% prevalence in seatrout from four out of five localities sampled and pathogenicity of K. inornata recognized in this study should motivate further screening for infections in its host, which is considered a commercially important game fish with a wide distribution in the Western North Atlantic. PMID:19606785

Dyková, Iva; de Buron, Isaure; Fiala, Ivan; Roumillat, William A

2009-06-01

189

Adult habitat preferences, larval dispersal, and the comparative phylogeography of three Atlantic surgeonfishes (Teleostei: Acanthuridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many reef fishes of the tropical Atlantic are widely distributed, there are large discontinuities that may strongly influence phylogeographical patterns. The freshwater outflow of the Amazon basin is recognized as a major barrier that produces a break between Brazilian and Caribbean faunas. The vast oceanic distances between Brazil and the mid-Atlantic ridge islands represent another formidable barrier. To assess

LUIZ A. R OCHA; ANNA L. BASS; D. R OSS ROBERTSON; BRIAN W. B OWEN

2002-01-01

190

Morphological variation of the palatal organ and chewing pad of catostomidae (teleostei: cypriniformes).  

PubMed

We studied the morphology and shape variation of the palatal organ and chewing pad of sucker fishes, family Catostomidae. The palatal organ is a muscularized structure that forms a large mass on the roof of the posterior part of the buccopharyngeal cavity in cypriniform fishes. It functions in coordination with the branchial arches to separate food items from inorganic debris during feeding. The palatal organ exhibits considerable variability in morphology among catostomids. It is shorter, narrower, and thinner in species of the subfamily Cycleptinae (e.g., Cycleptus elongatus) than in other catostomid subfamilies. The thickest and widest palatal organ is seen in species of the subfamily Ictiobinae (e.g., Ictiobus cyprinellus). The shape and size of the palatal organ generally varies between these extremes in species of subfamily Catostominae (e.g., Catostomus and Moxostoma species). Principal components analysis and analysis of variance has differentiated means of various palatal organ measurements for each monophyletic subfamily and tribe of Catostomidae with statistical significance. These results corroborate previously established typological classification of catostomids based on pharyngeal tooth count, pharyngeal tooth morphology, and diet. A keratinized chewing pad forms on the posterior surface of the palatal organ in catostomids or on a skeletal process in cyprinids and serves as an occlusion surface for pharyngeal teeth. The chewing pad is lunate in catostomids and generally ovoid in cyprinids. It is absent from the species of loaches (e.g., botiids, cobitids, and nemacheilids) and gyrinocheilids examined. A synonymy of terms used in the past to describe the palatal organ and chewing pad of Cypriniformes is provided. PMID:21598291

Doosey, Michael H; Bart, Henry L

2011-09-01

191

Chromosomal location of retrotransposable REX 1 in the genomes in five Prochilodus (Teleostei  

PubMed Central

Transposable elements are repetitive DNA sequences comprising a group of segments able to move and carry sequences within the genome. Studies involving comparative genomics have revealed that most vertebrates have different populations of transposable elements with significant differences among species of the same lineage. Few studies have been conducted in fish, the most diverse group of vertebrates, with the objective to locate different types of transposable elements. Therefore, this study proposed to map the retrotransposable element Rex1 applying Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) in five species of the genus Prochilodus (Prochilodus argenteus, Prochilodus brevis, Prochilodus costatus, Prochilodus lineatus and Prochilodus nigricans). After the application of the Rex1 probe, scattered markings were found throughout the genome of analyzed species, and also the presence of small clusters located in the centromeric and telomeric regions coincident with the heterochromatin distribution pattern. This was the first description of the retrotransposable element Rex1 in Prochilodus genome seeking for a better understanding of the distribution pattern of these retrotransposons in the genome of teleost fish. PMID:24195015

Voltolin, Tatiana Aparecida; Mendonça, Bruna Bueno; Ferreira, Daniela Cristina; Senhorini, José Augusto; Foresti, Fausto; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

2013-01-01

192

Mitochondrial DNA variability to explore the relationship complexity of Schizothoracine (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

Despite numerous studies on the taxonomy of a highly complex group of schizothoracine (snow trouts), with over five recognized species from Kashmir, India (Schizothorax niger, Schizothorax esocinus, Schizothorax plagiostomus, Schizothorax curvifrons and Schizothorax labiatus) based on traditional morphological data, the relationships between these species is poorly understood and the taxonomic validity is still under debate. To resolve the evolutionary relationships among these species, we sequenced mitochondrial fragments, including 16Sr RNA, Cytb and the D-loop. Separate analyses of 16S and Cytb showed intermixing of the species and 16S was found more conserved than Cytb. The D-loop was found highly variable and showed length variation between and within species. Length variation was observed in di-nucleotide (TA)n microsatellite repeats with a variable number of repeat units (n = 7-14) that did not show heteroplasmy. Central conserved sequence blocks (CSBs) in D-loop sequences were found comparable to other vertebrate species. All phylogenetic reconstructions recovered the focal taxa as a monophyletic clade within the schizothoracines. Analyses with combined mitochondrial data sets showed close genetic relationships of all the five species. In addition to a close relationship between S. niger and S. curvifrons, two distinct groupings of S. ecoscinus and S. plagiostomus were supported by all the analyses. This study gives an insight into molecular phylogeny of the species and improves our understanding of historical and taxonomic relationships derived from morphological and ecological studies. PMID:25366848

Ahmad, Syed Mudasir; Bhat, Farooz Ahmad; Balkhi, Masood-Ul Hassan; Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

2014-12-01

193

The complete mitochondrial genome of Schizopygopsis chengi baoxingensis (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Schizopygopsis).  

PubMed

Abstract Schizopygopsis chengi baoxingensis is endemic to the Baoxing River in China and may become an endangered species due to its very narrow habitat and the construction of hydropower dams. In this study, we successfully sequenced the first mitochondrial genome of S. c. baoxingensis. The mitogenome is 16,787?bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region (D-loop). The overall base composition of the H-strand is 28.5% A, 26.2% T, 18.4% C, and 26.9% G, with a slight AT bias of 54.7%. The sequenced mtDNA genome of S. c. baoxingensis is similar in gene arrangement to that of other cyprinidaes except for a 191?bp non-coding region found between tRNA(Thr) and tRNA(Pro). PMID:25391033

Li, Hua; Huang, Yong; Li, Qiang; Chen, Yeyu; Liu, Ya; Liu, Guangxun

2014-11-12

194

Callionymus omanensis, a new species of dragonet from Oman, north-western Indian Ocean (Teleostei: Callionymidae).  

PubMed

A new species of deep-living dragonet Callionymus omanensis from Oman is described on the basis of a single male specimen collected in a trawl from 500 m depth off the coast of Oman. The new species is characterized within the subgenus Bathycallionymus by having a small branchial opening; head short (3·9 in proportion to standard length); eye large (2·4 in proportion to head length); preopercular spine with a long, upcurved main tip, with a small antrorse barb and a larger antrorse spine, and with a strong antrorse spine laterally at the preopercular-spine base, ventral margin smooth; first dorsal fin slightly higher than second dorsal fin (male); second dorsal fin distally straight; 17 pectoral fin rays; distal end of caudal fin slightly pointed, with two median unbranched rays bearing short filaments; first dorsal fin with basal black spot reaching from first to fourth membranes, third membrane with an ocellated distal black blotch; second dorsal fin with vertical dark grey bars; distal three-fourths of anal fin black; upper half of caudal fin with oblique dark grey bars; pelvic fin dark grey, second ray basally with a black blotch. The new species is compared with similar species. Revised keys to callionymid species of the western Indian Ocean and the Red Sea, as well as species of the subgenus Bathycallionymus, are presented. PMID:25098471

Fricke, R; Jawad, L A; Al-Mamry, J M

2014-11-01

195

Age and growth of Distichodus antonii (Schilthuis, 1891) (Pisces, Teleostei, Distichontidae) in Pool Malebo, Congo River  

Microsoft Academic Search

-1 . The growth parameters calculated from this method revealed that this fish has a slow growth rate and it reaches a large size. The analysis of marginal increase shows that the formation of annulus takes place to the dry season. During the dry season, the environmental conditions are disturbed and the access to food becomes difficult. This is probably

Victorine Mbadu Zebe; Jean Claude Micha; Jacques Moreau; Mbomba Nseu Bekeli

2010-01-01

196

Description of a new species of Labeo (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from the lower Congo River  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new labeonine cyprinid, Labeo fulakariensis, is described from material recently collected in rapids on the lower Congo River near the mouth of the Foulakari River, a large north bank tributary, in the Republic of Congo, and from the Yelala rapids in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The new species is readily distinguished from other Congolese Labeo except L. greenii

SINASELI M. TSHIBWABWA; ROBERT C. SCHELLY

197

Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17? induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17? (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

2010-03-01

198

Morphology-diet relationships in four killifishes (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae, Orestias) from Lake Titicaca.  

PubMed

This study explores the relationship between morphology and diet in four Andean killifishes (Orestias) from Lake Titicaca that are known to differ in habitat use. Species that fed preferentially on amphipods (Orestias albus) or molluscs (Orestias luteus) separated in multivariate space from other species that feed on cladocera and algae (Orestias agassii and Orestias jussiei). Generally, specimens feeding on cladocera were characterized by a short, blunt nose with a small mouth; whereas, specimens feeding on amphipods exhibited a long snout with a large mouth. Specimens including molluscs in their diet tended to have a larger posterior part of the head and the larger opercles than others; while the occurrence of substratum in gut content was generally related to a short but deep head. The present analysis suggests that the littoral O. jussiei has an intermediate phenotype and diet between the pelagic (O. agassii) and benthic (O. albus and O. luteus) species. Results suggest that resource partitioning was occurring and that several morphological traits relate to characteristics of the diet, and it is inferred that the benthic, the pelagic and the littoral zones in the lake host different prey communities constituting distinct adaptive landscapes. PMID:20735575

Maldonado, E; Hubert, N; Sagnes, P; De Mérona, B

2009-02-01

199

Feeding Habits of Whitebone Porgy, Calamus leucosteus (Teleostei: Sparidae), Associated with Hard Bottom Reefs off  

E-print Network

. and sipunculids. Polychaetes. pelecypods. barnacles, and fishes were also eaten. Fishes and echinoderms were three species fed on barnacles not consumed by other sparids examined. The whitebone porgy, Calam

200

Cobitis avicennae, a new species of spined loach from the Tigris River drainage (Teleostei: Cobitidae).  

PubMed

Cobitis avicennae, new species, from the Karkheh and Karun sub-drainages in the Tigris catchment is distinguished from other Cobitis species in the Persian Gulf, Kor and the southern Caspian Sea basins by having a single lamina circularis in males, a small comma-shaped black spot on the upper caudal-fin base, 5½ branched anal-fin rays, 5-6 rows of dark spots on the dorsal and caudal fins, scales below the dorsal-fin base with a small focal zone and pigmentation zone Z4 with 12-17 large, partly fused blotches. It is also distinguished from other Cobitis species in the comparison group by six fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region. PMID:25661962

Mousavi-Sabet, Hamed; Vatandoust, Saber; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Geiger, Matthias F; Freyhof, Jörg

2015-01-01

201

Ultrastructure of the sperm of blue sprat, Spratelloides gracilis; Teleostei, Clupeiformes, Clupeidae.  

PubMed

The general sperm structure of the investigated clupeoids possess an oliviform head with a distinct deep nuclear fossa, a midpiece with one mitochondrion and a posterior flagellum. They are characterized by two apomorphies: an annular or C-shaped mitochondrion and ITDs (intratubular differentiation) in the A tubules of the axonemal doublets. The fine structure of the spermatozoa of blue sprat, Spratelloides gracilis, was investigated to see if resulting data conformed to the current hypotheses of the taxonomy of the Clupeidae. The mature sperm is characterized by the following features: (1) the nucleus is oliviform; its prominent deep nuclear fossa encloses the initial portion of flagellum, (2) a proximal centriole has not been identified, (3) a single spherical mitochondrion is located laterally in relation to the flagellum and (4) no cytoplasmic canal is present. Our blue sprat-spermatozoan morphology data suggest that the blue sprat has Clupeomorpha affinities, while indicating no close affinity with Elopomorpha. Clupeoid sperm exhibit morphological variations with the nucleus and mitochondrion being particularly variable. This study provides useful systematic characters to the existing knowledge of comparative spermatology and may provide additional clue to Euteleost phylogeny. PMID:17005223

Gwo, J-C; Lin, C-Y; Yang, W-L; Chou, Y-C

2006-10-01

202

Mitogenomic Evidence for an Indo-West Pacific Origin of the Clupeoidei (Teleostei: Clupeiformes)  

PubMed Central

The clupeoid fishes are distributed worldwide, with marine, freshwater and euryhaline species living in either tropical or temperate environments. Regional endemism is important at the species and genus levels, and the highest species diversity is found in the tropical marine Indo-West Pacific region. The clupeoid distribution follows two general pattern of species richness, the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients. To test historical hypotheses explaining the formation of these two gradients, we have examined the early biogeography of the Clupeoidei in reconstructing the evolution of their habitat preferences along with their ancestral range distributions on a time-calibrated mitogenomic phylogeny. The phylogenetic results support the distinction of nine main lineages within the Clupeoidei, five of them new. We infer several independent transitions from a marine to freshwater environment and from a tropical to temperate environment that occurred after the initial diversification period of the Clupeoidei. These results combined with our ancestral range reconstruction hypothesis suggest that the probable region of origin and diversification of the Clupeoidei during the Cretaceous period was the tropical marine precursor to the present Indo-West Pacific region. Thus, our study favors the hypotheses of “Region of origin” and “Tropical conservatism” to explain the origins of the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients of clupeoid species richness, respectively. Additional geological and paleontological evidence further define the tropical marine paleo-region of origin as the eastern Tethys Sea region. The Cretaceous fossil record of the Clupeoidei is partially incongruent with the results here as it contains taxa found outside this region. We discuss three possible causes of conflict between our biogeographical hypothesis and the distributions of the Cretaceous clupeoid fossils: regional extinction, incomplete taxonomic sampling and incorrect timescale estimation. PMID:23431379

Lavoué, Sébastien; Miya, Masaki; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Chen, Wei-Jen; Nishida, Mutsumi

2013-01-01

203

Petroscirtes pylei, a new saber-toothed blenny from the Fiji Islands (Teleostei: Blenniidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Petroscirtes pylei is described from three specimens, 20.3-40.9 mm SL, obtained from a deep-water reef off Suva, Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. It is distinguished from all other congeners by its color pattern, including the presence of two dark body stripes, the lower one broadly extending onto the anal fin, and the dorsal fin with a broad, dark basal stripe, superimposed by a conspicuous white spot centered on the 4th spine. Among Petroscirtes, only the new species and P. springeri typically have 12 dorsal-fin spines but they are not closely related. The holotype was collected in 104-110 m, the second deepest depth record for a species of Petroscirtes. Discovery of this new species, and an apparently second new deep-water Petroscrites (uncollected), at a different Fijian reef indicates that our knowledge of the biodiversity of this habitat and of the saber-toothed blennies is very incomplete. Copyright ?? 2005 Magnolia Press.

Smith-Vaniz, W.F.

2005-01-01

204

The complete mitogenome of the Murray Cod, Maccullochella peelii (Mitchell, 1838) (Teleostei: Percichthyidae).  

PubMed

Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the iconic Australian freshwater fish, the Murray Cod, Maccullochella peelii, was recovered from partial genome sequencing data using the HiSeq platform (Illumina, San Diego, CA). The mitogenome consists of 16,442?bp (58% A?+?T content) containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 768?bp non-coding AT-rich region. This is the first mitogenome sequence for the genus Maccullochella, and the fourth for the family Percichthyidae. PMID:24779601

Austin, Christopher M; Tan, Mun Hua; Lee, Yin Peng; Croft, Laurence J; Gan, Han Ming

2014-04-29

205

The complete mitogenome of the Macquarie perch, Macquaria australasica Cuvier, 1830 (Teleostei: Percichthyidae).  

PubMed

Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the conservationally significant Macquarie perch (Macquaria australasica) was obtained from low-coverage shotgun sequencing using the MiSeq sequencer. The M. australasica mitogenome has 16,496 base pairs (55% A?+?T content) made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 819?bp non-coding AT-rich region. This is the first mitogenome sequence for the genus Macquaria, and the third to be reported for the family Percichthyidae. PMID:24617484

Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Austin, Christopher M

2014-03-11

206

A new cryptic species of Aponurus Looss, 1907 (Digenea: Lecithasteridae) from Mediterranean goatfish (Teleostei: Mullidae).  

PubMed

The status of the trematode Aponurus laguncula Looss, 1907 in the western Mediterranean is re-assessed by means of a comparative morphological study and rDNA sequences based on newly collected material. A. laguncula (sensu stricto) is redescribed from Trachinus draco L. and a new cryptic species of the 'A. laguncula complex', Aponurus mulli n. sp., is described on the basis of abundant material from Mullus barbatus L. (type-host) and M. surmuletus L. off the Spanish Mediterranean coasts. The new species is differentiated from A. laguncula (sensu stricto) by its: significantly larger, elongate body, with maximum width at the level of the ventral sucker; shorter forebody; distinctly larger sinus-sac, seminal receptacle and seminal vesicle, with the latter also being more elongate; vesicular pars prostatica; more anteriorly located vitellarium, which consists of eight globular follicles; and distinctly smaller eggs, which are also smaller in relation to body size and have both their opercular and anopercular poles rounded. The variability and the allometric growth of the morphological characters in the new species were studied in detail, resulting in additional distinguishing features. Sequences of the large subunit rRNA (28S) gene (domains D1-D3) and ITS2 rRNA gene region for the new species have been submitted to GenBank in order to enhance future studies on species differentiation within the 'A. laguncula complex'. PMID:21544713

Carreras-Aubets, Marta; Repullés-Albelda, Aigües; Kostadinova, Aneta; Carrassón, Maite

2011-06-01

207

Moments of induced spawning and embryonic development of Brycon amazonicus (Teleostei, Characidae).  

PubMed

Based on the economic and ecological relevance of Brycon amazonicus, the goal of this work was to describe the diameter of oocytes and eggs of this species, as well as the chronological embryonic development. The material was provided by Buriti fish farm, Nova Mutum - MT, Brazil. Samples of both oocytes and eggs were obtained from extrusion to hatching. The material was fixed and measured under stereomicroscope, and the samples were divided for light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. At extrusion, the oocytes were bluish green. The frequency distribution of oocytes revealed that 87.7% of them ranged from 1.11-1.30 mm in diameter. During incubation, the total diameter of the eggs increased from 1.22 ± 0.04 mm to 3.06 ± 0.46 mm in the first 60 min post fertilization (PF), and growth ceased at 180 min PF. Between 10-30 s PF, most eggs were fertilized and fertilization cones were observed from 10 s onwards after gamete activation. The main fertilization events took place asynchronically and spermatozoa were visualized in the micropyle vestibule up to 90 s PF. The first cell was formed in the centre of the blastodisc 20 min PF. The morula stage was identified 2 h PF and, 3 h later, 70% of the yolk was covered by the blastoderm; the blastopore was almost entirely closed at 6 h PF. The cephalic and caudal regions of the embryo could be defined 8 h PF and hatching occurred after 13 h of embryonic development. The larvae hatched with undifferentiated organic systems and with a large yolk sac, free from swimming abilities or visual acuity. PMID:23659693

Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika; Faustino, Francine; Mendes, José Mário Ribeiro; de Braga, Francisco Manoel

2014-11-01

208

Paleoclimatic history and vicariant speciation in the "sand goby" group (Gobiidae, Teleostei).  

PubMed

Vicariant and climatic cycling speciation hypotheses of the 'sand gobies' belonging to the genera Pomatoschistus, Gobiusculus, Knipowitschia, and Economidichthys are tested using molecular phylogenies constructed of nuclear DNA (ITS1 locus) and mitochondrial DNA (12S and 16S fragments). These gobies are among the most abundant in the Eastern Atlantic-Mediterranean region, and play an important role in the ecosystem. Considerable ITS1 length differences, primarily due to the presence of several tandem repeats, were found between species and even within individuals. Therefore, phylogenetic analyses focused on fragments of the 12S and 16S mtDNA region that have been sequenced for 16 goby taxa. The 'sand gobies' clustered as a monophyletic group as proposed on morphological grounds. However, G. flavescens, E. pygmaeus, and K. punctatissima clustered within the Pomatoschistus species, pointing to a paraphyletic origin of these genera. Furthermore, the genetic divergence between P. minutus from the Adriatic Sea versus the Atlantic-Mediterranean region was as high as the divergence within the P. minutus complex, suggesting that P. minutus from the Adriatic Sea should be considered as a distinct species. The "star" phylogeny might suggest that these gobies evolved in a very short time period, possibly linked to the drastic alterations in the Mediterranean Sea during and immediately after the Messinian salinity crisis at the end of the Miocene. The freshwater life-style appeared monophyletic; equating its origin with the salinity crisis resulted in a molecular clock estimate of 1.4% divergence per million years. The last common ancestor probably occupied sandy bottoms and a coastal niche while several species subsequently adapted to new habitats (pelagic, freshwater or stenohaline). The origin of the shallowest clades dated back to the glacial cycling during the Pleistocene epoch. PMID:15186817

Huyse, Tine; Houdt, Jeroen Van; Volckaert, Filip A M

2004-07-01

209

Genetic population structure of sympatric and allopatric populations of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, Teleostei, Coregonidae)  

PubMed Central

Background Teleost fishes of the Coregonidae are good model systems for studying postglacial evolution, adaptive radiation and ecological speciation. Of particular interest is whether the repeated occurrence of sympatric species pairs results from in-situ divergence from a single lineage or from multiple invasions of one or more different lineages. Here, we analysed the genetic structure of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex), examining 271 individuals from 8 lakes in northern Germany using 1244 polymorphic AFLP loci. Six lakes had only one population of C. albula while the remaining two lakes had C. albula as well as a sympatric species (C. lucinensis or C. fontanae). Results AFLP demonstrated a significant population structure (Bayesian ?B = 0.22). Lower differentiation between allopatric (?B = 0.028) than sympatric (0.063-0.083) populations contradicts the hypothesis of a sympatric origin of taxa, and there was little evidence for stocking or ongoing hybridization. Genome scans found only three loci that appeared to be under selection in both sympatric population pairs, suggesting a low probability of similar mechanisms of ecological segregation. However, removal of all non-neutral loci decreased the genetic distance between sympatric pairs, suggesting recent adaptive divergence at a few loci. Sympatric pairs in the two lakes were genetically distinct from the six other C. albula populations, suggesting introgression from another lineage may have influenced these two lakes. This was supported by an analysis of isolation-by-distance, where the drift-gene flow equilibrium observed among allopatric populations was disrupted when the sympatric pairs were included. Conclusions While the population genetic data alone can not unambiguously uncover the mode of speciation, our data indicate that multiple lineages may be responsible for the complex patterns typically observed in Coregonus. Relative differences within and among lakes raises the possibility that multiple lineages may be present in northern Germany, thus understanding the postglacial evolution and speciation in the C. albula complex requires a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of several potential founder lineages. PMID:20350300

2010-01-01

210

Patterns of brain morphology in mid-European Cyprinidae (Pisces, Teleostei): a quantitative histological study.  

PubMed

The present study considers patterns of brain morphology in 14 common species of mid-European Cyprinidae. Sixteen areas per brain were measured on serial cryostat sections by computer-aided planimetry. The volumes of these areas were expressed as % of the total brain volume. These brain centres (ranked according to falling values of the coefficient of variation VR, of the interspecific mean) are: Lobus facialis, L. vagus, central acustic area, Crista cerebellaris, Bulbus olfactorius, Eminentia granularis, Stratum opticum (of the optic tectum), Torus longitudinalis, Nucleus habenularis, Valvula cerebelli, Corpus cerebelli, Telencephalon, Tectum opticum, Diencephalon, Torus semicircularis, mesencephalic tegmentum. Seven primary sensory areas are leading in VR; highest in interspecific variability were the two special viscerosensory brainstem lobes for external (L. facialis) and internal (L. vagus) taste. Low in interspecific variability were integration centres (see above). By plotting the relative volumina of those brain centres which represent three major sensory modalities: brain stem chemosense, acoustico-lateralis and sense of vision, species are separated into three groups: 1) Most species scatter along an axis from moderately (Aspius aspius, Rutilus rutilus, Leuciscus cephalus, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Alburnus alburnus, Chondrostoma nasus) to highly developed chemo- and acustico-lateralis centres (Vimba vimba, Abramis brama, Abramis ballerus). Blicca bjoercna is situated in the middle of this axis. Within the latter group the optic centres are evenly well developed. 2) Carassius carassius, Gobio gobio and Tinca tinca are characterized by relatively small acoustico-lateralis and optic areas, but highly developed chemocentres. 3) Pelecus cultratus is monotypic among the species investigated by having large acoustico-lateralis and optic, but modestly developed chemocentres. The brain patterns relative to life style are discussed. PMID:3418119

Kotrschal, K; Junger, H

1988-01-01

211

Glugea vincentiae n. sp. (Microsporidia: Glugeidae) infecting the Australian marine fish Vincentia conspersa (Teleostei: Apogonidae).  

PubMed

A parasite of the marine fish Vincentia conspersa was examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This parasite develops in the subcutaneous tissue of the body and fins, forming spherical xenomas about 1-2 mm in diameter surrounded by a layer of amorphous material. The observed characteristics of the new parasite are in line with those of the other Glugea species; merogony takes place in the outer zone of the cytoplasm of the host cell, sporogony takes place in sporophorous vesicles, and mature spores are located in the central part of the xenoma. Meronts were cylindrical uninucleate or occasionally triradiate multinucleate, with plasmodia in direct contact with the host cytoplasm. Sporogonic plasmodia divided by multiple cleavage to produce sporoblast mother cells, which after binary fission became sporoblasts. Two types of spores were recognized, both uninucleate, i.e., ovoid or slightly ovoid microspores with a mean size of 5.1 x 2.2 microm and much less frequent as elongated oval macrospores with a mean size of 8.9 x 3.1 microm. The polar tube has between 12 and 14 coils arranged in 1, 2, or 3 layers. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that this microsporidian infecting V. conspersa is a new species of Glugea, which we have named Glugea vincentiae. PMID:15856891

Vagelli, A; Paramá, A; Sanmartín, M L; Leiro, J

2005-02-01

212

Karyotypic diversity and evolutionary trends in the Neotropical catfish genus Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The family Loricariidae with 813 nominal species is one of the largest fish families of the world. Hypostominae, its more complex subfamily, was recently divided into five tribes. The tribe Hypostomini is composed of a single genus, Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, which exhibits the largest karyotypic diversity in the family Loricariidae. With the main objective of contributing to a better understanding of the relationship and the patterns of evolution among the karyotypes of Hypostomus species, cytogenetic studies were conducted in six species of the genus from Brazil and Venezuela. The results show a great chromosome variety with diploid numbers ranging from 2n=68 to 2n=76, with a clear predominance of acrocentric chromosomes. The Ag-NORs are located in terminal position in all species analyzed. Three species have single Ag-NORs (Hypostomus albopunctatus (Regan, 1908), Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758), and Hypostomus prope paulinus (Ihering, 1905)) and three have multiple Ag-NORs (Hypostomus ancistroides (Ihering, 1911), Hypostomus prope iheringi (Regan, 1908), and Hypostomus strigaticeps (Regan, 1908)). In the process of karyotype evolution of the group, the main type of chromosome rearrangements was possibly centric fissions, which may have been facilitated by the putative tetraploid origin of Hypostomus species. The relationship between the karyotype changes and the evolution in the genus is discussed. PMID:24260683

Alves, Anderson Luis; de Borba, Rafael Splendore; Oliveira, Claudio; Mauro Nirchio; Granado, Angel; Foresti, Fausto

2012-01-01

213

Phylogeny and biogeography of a shallow water fish clade (Teleostei: Blenniiformes)  

PubMed Central

Background The Blenniiformes comprises six families, 151 genera and nearly 900 species of small teleost fishes closely associated with coastal benthic habitats. They provide an unparalleled opportunity for studying marine biogeography because they include the globally distributed families Tripterygiidae (triplefin blennies) and Blenniidae (combtooth blennies), the temperate Clinidae (kelp blennies), and three largely Neotropical families (Labrisomidae, Chaenopsidae, and Dactyloscopidae). However, interpretation of these distributional patterns has been hindered by largely unresolved inter-familial relationships and the lack of evidence of monophyly of the Labrisomidae. Results We explored the phylogenetic relationships of the Blenniiformes based on one mitochondrial (COI) and four nuclear (TMO-4C4, RAG1, Rhodopsin, and Histone H3) loci for 150 blenniiform species, and representative outgroups (Gobiesocidae, Opistognathidae and Grammatidae). According to the consensus of Bayesian Inference, Maximum Likelihood, and Maximum Parsimony analyses, the monophyly of the Blenniiformes and the Tripterygiidae, Blenniidae, Clinidae, and Dactyloscopidae is supported. The Tripterygiidae is the sister group of all other blennies, and the Blenniidae is the sister group of the remaining blennies. The monophyly of the Labrisomidae is supported with the exclusion of the Cryptotremini and inclusion of Stathmonotus, and we elevate two subgenera of Labrisomus to establish a monophyletic classification within the family. The monophyly of the Chaenopsidae is supported with the exclusion of Stathmonotus (placed in the Stathmonotini) and Neoclinus and Mccoskerichthys (placed in the Neoclinini). The origin of the Blenniiformes was estimated in the present-day IndoPacific region, corresponding to the Tethys Sea approximately 60.3 mya. A largely Neotropical lineage including the Labrisomidae, Chaenopsidae and Dactyloscopidae (node IV) evolved around 37.6 mya when the Neotropics were increasingly separated from the IndoPacific, but well before the closure of the Tethys Sea. Conclusions Relationships recovered in this study are similar to those of earlier analyses within the Clinidae and Chaenopsidae, and partially similar within the Blenniidae, but tripterygiid relationships remain poorly resolved. We present the first comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for a monophyletic Labrisomidae with five tribes (Labrisomini, Mnierpini, Paraclinini, Stathmonotini and Starksiini). Global distributions of blenny genera included in our analysis support the evolution of a largely Neotropical clade whose closest relatives (clinids and cryptotremines) are temperate in distribution. PMID:24067147

2013-01-01

214

Devario deruptotalea, a new species of cyprinid fish from Manipur, India (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

Devario deruptotalea, a new cyprinid fish, is described from Dutah Stream, a tributary of the Yu River (Chindwin drainage) in Manipur, India. It is distinguished from all its congeners by a unique colour pattern consisting of the following combination of pigmented elements: 4?6 dark brown irregularly shaped and arranged bars that are partly confluent with adjacent bars at different levels on the anterior one-third of the side of the body, followed by three distinct dark brown stripes posteriorly, a P stripe that is darker and about twice as broad as other stripes and extending to the tip of the median caudal-fin rays. PMID:25081148

Ramananda, Yumnam; Vishwanath, Waikhom

2014-01-01

215

The dusky rockfishes (Teleostei: Scorpaeniformes) of the North Pacific Ocean: resurrection of  

E-print Network

in body color, ranging from light yellow to a more usual tan or greenish brown to a nearly uniform dark dusky and dark dusky rockfishes. From morphological evidence correlated with color differences in some and Gilbert, 1881; Eigenmann and Beeson, 1894; Jordan and Evermann, 1898; Blanc and Hureau, 1968). Two color

216

Pempheris bexillon, a new species of sweeper (Teleostei: Pempheridae) from the Western Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

Pempheris bexillon new species is described from the 129 mm SL holotype and 11 paratypes (119-141 mm SL) from the Comoro Islands. Twelve other specimens have been examined from the Agaléga Islands, Mascarene Islands, and Bassas da India (Madagascar). It is differentiated from other Pempheris by the following combination of characters: a yellow dorsal fin with a black, distal margin along its full length, broadest on anterior rays (pupil-diameter width) and gradually narrowing posteriorly, the last ray with only a black tip; large, deciduous cycloid scales on the flank; dark, oblong spot on the pectoral-fin base; anal fin with a dark margin; segmented anal-fin rays 38-45 (usually >40); lateral-line scales 56-65; and total gill rakers on the first arch 31-35; iris reddish-brown. Tables of standard meristic and color data for type material of all nominal species of cycloid-scaled Pempheris in the Indo-Pacific are provided. PMID:24871843

Mooi, Randall D; Randall, John E

2014-01-01

217

A new species of Didogobius (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the Canary Islands.  

PubMed

Didogobius helenae is described from the Canary Islands. It has a sensory papillae pattern that is consistent with the current diagnosis for Didogobius, but lacks all head canals and pores that are present in other members of the genus. Pores, in general, are replaced by large papillae.  The species is defined by first dorsal fin VI; second dorsal fin I,10; anal fin I,9; pectoral fin 16-17; pelvic fin I,5 and disk shaped; lateral scales 28-30, cycloid at anterior, becoming ctenoid posteriorly; cycloid scales present on belly and posterior breast; predorsal region, cheek, operculum and base of pectoral fin without scales; lower most scale on the caudal fin-base with elongate, thickened ctenii along the upper and lower posterior edges. Color in life consists of four mottled, wide brown-orange bars separated by narrower white bars on the trunk, the cheek whitish with 5 more or less circular blotches of orange, outlined in dark brown and a black spot on ventral operculum. A key to the species is provided.  PMID:24870184

Van Tassell, James L; Kramer, Annemarie

2014-01-01

218

A revision of the species of Saturnius Manter, 1969 (Digenea: Hemiuridae), parasites of mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).  

PubMed

The genus Saturnius Manter, 1969 is defined, its species re-examined and a key to the species presented. S. overstreeti n. sp. is described from Mugil soiuy Basilewsky and M. cephalus L. from the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan and distinguished from the morphologically related S. papernai Overstreet, 1977 and S. maurepasi Overstreet, 1977. S. segmentatus Manter, 1969 is redescribed on the basis of the type- and newly collected material from M. cephalus on the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan. The morphometric variation of S. papernai is studied based on newly collected material from Liza aurata (Risso) in the Ebro Delta and off Santa Pola, Spain. The comparisons reveal lower ranges of most metrical features than previously known. A principal component analysis, carried out after adding the new data to those of Blasco-Costa et al. (2006), confirms the species identification. Other valid species recognised are S. mugilis (Yamaguti, 1970), S. maurepasi, S. belizensis Fischthal, 1977, S. dimitrovi Blasco-Costa et al., 2006 and S. minutus Blasco-Costa et al., 2006. Forms considered species inquirendae are S. valamugilis Rekharani & Madhavi, 1984, Bunocotyle constrictus Domnich & Sarabeev, 1999 [=S. papernai of Domnich & Sarabeev (2000a, b, c, d)], B. mugilis Yamaguti, 1970 of Solonchenko (1976) and S. mugilis of Dmitrieva & Gaevskaya (2001). Host and locality information is given in detail for all species. Lisa ramado (Risso) and Chelon labrosus (Cuvier) are new host records for S. papernai (sensu stricto) and S. dimitrovi. L. aurata is a new host record for S. dimitrovi and S. minutus, and L. saliens (Risso) is a new host record for S. minutus. PMID:18661254

Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Montero, Francisco E; Gibson, David I; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Raga, Juan Antonio; Shvetsova, Ludmila S; Kostadinova, Aneta

2008-09-01

219

Descriptions of three new species of Marcusenius Gill, 1862 (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from South Africa and Mozambique.  

PubMed

Morphological and genetic studies of mormyrid fishes belonging to the genus Marcusenius from South Africa and Mozambique revealed four species of which three are described as new. Marcusenius pongolensis is widespread throughout the Incomati, Pongola and Kosi river systems, and sparsely represented in the Limpopo River system in South Africa. Marcusenius krameri sp. nov. is endemic to the Limpopo River system, and is the sister taxon of M. caudisquamatus sp. nov. from the Nseleni and Mhlatuze river systems in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. The Ruvuma specimens were well differentiated from all southern and eastern African species of Marcusenius, and are therefore recognised as M. lucombesi sp. nov. Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene showed that the three new species and M. altisambesi form a monophyletic lineage that is sister to a group containing M. pongolensis and M. macrolepidotus. Marcusenius krameri and M. lucombesi seems to prefer slow flowing reaches of rivers, whereas M. pongolensis and M. caudisquamatus seems to mainly inhabit rapid flowing sections of rivers with a rocky substrate. A key to the southern African species of Marcusenius is provided. PMID:24871846

Maake, Pholoshi A; Gon, Ofer; Swartz, Ernst R

2014-01-01

220

Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Diphterostomum brusinae (Digenea, Zoogonidae), a parasite of Diplodus annularis (Pisces, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper constitutes the first ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of a Digenea belonging to the family Zoogonidae, Diphterostomum brusinae. Spermiogenesis follows the general pattern found in the digeneans. It begins with the formation of a differentiation zone in the spermatid. The two centrioles give rise to flagella. These two flagella undergo a rotation of 90° and fuse

Céline Levron; Sonia Ternengo; Bernard Marchand

2004-01-01

221

Response of eosinophilic granule cells of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata, Teleostei) to bacteria and bacterial products.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic granule cells in the gills and peritoneal exudate of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) are characterized by the presence of prominent eosinophilic granules in their cytoplasm and are here described for the first time. The oval granules of these cells contain an electron-dense inclusion surrounded by a less dense filamentous matrix and are peroxidase- and acid phosphatase-negative. Unlike other granulocytes of gilthead seabream, eosinophilic granule cells do not ingest bacteria in vivo. The intraperitoneal injection of extracellular products of Pasteurella piscicida induces mobilization of eosinophilic granule cells to the blood and other tissues and causes changes in their structure. Shortly after injection, the granules of eosinophilic granule cells become swollen and some fuse with the cell membrane. From 7 h post-injection, many eosinophilic granule cells in the gills degenerate and are then phagocytosed by macrophages, which are especially abundant after 24 h. From 24 h to 72 h, eosinophilic granule cells from the gills contain abundant autolysosomes together with granules of a normal morphology. PMID:9011398

Noya, M; Lamas, J

1997-01-01

222

Molecular systematics and population structure in the North American endemic fish genus Cycleptus (Teleostei: Catostomidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overarching theme of this research was to investigate hierarchical levels of relatedness in natural populations of the cycleptid fishes (blue suckers), a widespread genus in North America that is of conservation concern throughout. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed that the two described Cycleptus species, C. elongatus and C. meridionalis are not reciprocally monophyletic, yet do not share

Michael Lee Bessert

2006-01-01

223

Sinocyclocheilus brevifinus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), a new species of cavefish from Guangxi, China.  

PubMed

Sinocyclocheilus brevifinus sp. nov. is described from a subterranean river at Maohedong Village, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Southern China. The new species can be distinguished from all congeners in having functional eyes, last simple dorsal fin ray soft and without serrations along posterior margin, eye diameter small (3.4-5.0 %SL), tip of depressed dorsal fin not reaching vertical at anal fin origin, tip of depressed pelvic fin far from anus, maxillary barbel not reaching anterior edge of operculum, rostral barbel not reaching posterior edge of operculum, scales of lateral line row significantly larger than those of scale rows immediately above and below lateral line, and flanks with distinct black spots and blotches.  PMID:25544204

Li, Jie; Li, Xinhui; Mayden, Richard L

2014-01-01

224

Chalinochromis cyanophleps, a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika.  

PubMed

Chalinochromis cyanophleps is described from nine specimens, the largest 129 mm SL, from Namansi. It differs from other species of Chalinochromis in plain trunk colouration, absence of black stripes on the head, relatively narrow lips, presence of tricuspid jaw teeth, and presence of five rather than four dentary lateralis foramina. The blue iridescent stripe below the eye is shared with other lamprologin cichlids, but is broader and more conspicuous in C. cyanophleps. Chalinochromis cyanophleps occurs at depths between 6 and 45 m in rocky habitats along the Tanzanian coast of Lake Tanganyika, from Mvuna Island south to Kalala Island, a stretch of about 90 km. Field observations were made of specimens up to 18 cm total length. The COI DNA barcode sequence differs by 1.8% from that of C. popelini. PMID:24869876

Kullander, Sven O; Karlsson, Mikael; Karlsson, Magnus; Norén, Michael

2014-01-01

225

Uric Acid in the Tapetum Lucidum of Mooneyes Hiodon (Hiodontidae Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tapeta lucida (ocular reflectors) of mooneyes, Hiodon tergisus and H. alosoides, lie in the pigment epithelium, the processes of which are packed with reflecting particles and also contain melanin granules. The reflecting particles are tiny birefringent crystals. On the basis of chromatography, u.v. spectroscopy and enzymic degradation (with uricase), it is concluded that the reflecting material contains uric acid. Mooneye

E. S. Zyznar; F. B. Cross; J. A. C. Nicol

1978-01-01

226

The cryopreservation of spermatozoa of the burbot, Lota lota (Gadidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cryopreservation of spermatozoa of a teleost fish, the burbot, Lota lota (Gadidae) was investigated. Cryopreserved semen had the highest motility rate (46.6±8.0%, fresh semen control 86.5±8.2%) and fertility (78.1±2.7% embryo survival in hatching stage, fresh semen control 82.2±2.9%) when 10% methanol, 1.5% glucose and 7% hen egg yolk were used as cryoprotectants. Freezing was performed in 0.5-ml straws in

Franz Lahnsteiner; Nabil Mansour; Thomas Weismann

2002-01-01

227

Genetic admixture of burbot (Teleostei: Lota lota) in Lake Constance from two European glacial refugia.  

PubMed

The burbot, Lota lota, is the only freshwater species of the codfish family and has a Holarctic distribution. Pleistocene glaciations caused significant geographical differentiation in the past, but its life history characterized by winter spawning migrations over large distances is likely to homogenize populations by contemporary gene flow. We investigated the population genetic structure of 541 burbots from Lake Constance and adjacent Rhine and Danube tributaries in Europe using the entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and 11 microsatellites. Microsatellites revealed considerable population divergence (F(ST) = 0.26) and evidenced recent bottlenecks in two Central European rivers. In accordance to previous evidence two main phylogeographic lineages (Atlantic and Danubian) were found co-occurring at similar frequencies in Lake Constance, where they currently undergo random mating as indicated by microsatellites. The Danubian lineage contributed only a small proportion to the lake's mtDNA diversity, and probably expanded within the lake shortly after its formation approximately 10,000-15,000 BP. The larger Atlantic haplotype diversity suggested a population expansion older than the lake itself. Levels of admixture at microsatellite loci were less obvious due to their high variability, and coalescence methods were used to estimate past admixture proportions. Our results reinforce a model of a two-step colonization of Europe by burbot from an ancestral Danubian refuge, and confirm the persistence of a secondary Atlantic refuge, as proposed to exist for other freshwater fish. We conclude that the present-day burbot population in Lake Constance bears the genetic signature of both contemporary gene flow and historical separation events. PMID:17032259

Barluenga, Marta; Sanetra, Matthias; Meyer, Axel

2006-10-01

228

Microsatellites from the burbot ( Lota lota ), a freshwater gadoid fish (Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed 21 polymorphic dinucleotide microsatellite loci, (CA) n and (CT) n , for the Holarctic freshwater fish, Lota lota , using an enriched genomic library protocol. The species has an interesting life history because winter-spawning adults migrate over long distances to form spawning aggregations, a behaviour which should maintain genetic homogeneity across large spatial scales. Availability of the reported

MATTHIAS SANETRA; AXEL MEYER

229

Genetic admixture of burbot (Teleostei: Lota lota ) in Lake Constance from two European glacial refugia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burbot, Lota lota , is the only freshwater species of the codfish family and has a Holarctic distribution. Pleistocene glaciations caused significant geographical differentiation in the past, but its life history characterized by winter spawning migrations over large distances is likely to homogenize populations by contemporary gene flow. We investigated the popu- lation genetic structure of 541 burbots from

MARTA BARLUENGA; MATTHIAS SANETRA; AXEL MEYER

230

Swimming ability and its rapid decrease at settlement in wrasse larvae (Teleostei: Labridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wrasses are abundant reef fishes and the second most speciose marine fish family, yet little is known of their larval swimming\\u000a abilities. In August 2010 at Moorea, Society Islands, we measured swimming ability (critical speed, Ucrit) of 80 settlement-stage\\u000a larvae (11–17 mm) of 5 labrid species (Thalassoma quinquevittatum [n = 67], Novaculichthys taeniourus [n = 6], Coris aygula [n = 5], Halichoeres trimaculatus [n = 1] and H. hortulanus

Jeffrey M. Leis; Amanda C. Hay; Michelle R. Gaither

2011-01-01

231

Differentiated ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in Apareiodon ibitiensis (Teleostei, Parodontidae): cytotaxonomy and biogeography.  

PubMed

Conventional and molecular chromosomal analyses were carried out on three populations of Apareiodon ibitiensis sampled from the hydrographic basins of the São Francisco River and Upper Paraná River (Brazil). The results reveal a conserved diploid number (2n = 54 chromosomes), a karyotype formula consisting of 50 m-sm + 4st and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system that has not been previously identified for the species. C-banding analysis with propidium iodide staining revealed centromeric and terminal bands located in the chromosomes of the specimens from the three populations and allowed the identification of heteromorphism of heterochromatin regions in the Z and W chromosomes. The number of 18S sites located through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) varied between the populations of the São Francisco and Upper Paraná Rivers. The location of 5S rDNA sites proved comparable in one pair of metacentric chromosomes. Thus, the present study proposes a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system for A. ibitiensis among the Parodontidae, and a hypothesis is presented regarding possible W chromosome differentiation stages in this species through DNA accumulation, showing geographical variations for this characteristic, possibly as a consequence of geographical reproductive isolation. PMID:20738689

Bellafronte, E; Vicari, M R; Artoni, R F; Margarido, V P; Moreira-Filho, O

2009-12-01

232

A new Pseudophoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) species from Asi River Drainage (Turkey)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Pseudophoxinus turani sp. n. is described from the ?ncesu Spring (Hassa-Hatay) drainage of Asi River, Turkey. It is distinguished from other Eastern Mediterranean Region Pseudophoxinus species by a combination of characters: lateral line incomplete, with 12–25 (commonly 16–21) perforated scales and 38–46+2-3 scales in lateral series (commonly 41–44+2-3); 10–11 scale rows between the lateral line and dorsal-fin origin; 3–4 scale rows between the lateral line and the pelvic–fin origin; dorsal fin with 7½ branched rays; anal fin commonly with 7½ branched rays; 8-11gill rakers on the first branchial arch; dorsal profile markedly convex with marked hump at the nape, ventral profile less convex than dorsal profile; a small, irregular, black blotch on the base of the caudal fin; mouth terminal, with slightly distinct chin, its corner not reaching vertical through anterior margin of eye; snout somewhat long, with rounded tip; and its length greater than eye diameter. PMID:24899855

Küçük, Fahrettin; Güçlü, Salim Serkan

2014-01-01

233

Early development of the zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) pharyngeal dentition (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to build a reference system to assess ongoing in vitro and in situ hybridisation experiments on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions governing odontogenesis in the zebrafish, we describe here the generation of the pharyngeal dentition, and the histological development of teeth up to fourteen days post-fertilization, using serial semithin sections, handmade and computer-assisted reconstructions and transmission electron microscopy. The tooth pattern

A. Huysseune; C. Van der heyden; J.-Y. Sire

1998-01-01

234

Stages in the early and larval development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei, Clariidae).  

PubMed

The African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822 is a favourite aquaculture fish in many parts of Africa and Asia because of its hardiness and fast growth rate. In this study, early, post-embryonic and larval developmental stages of C. gariepinus were examined chronologically and described. Photomicrographs of unfertilized matured oocytes from 0 min of fertilization through all cell stages to alevin, to complete yolk absorption, to free swimming larval stages are shown and documented live from lateral and top views, with the aid of a light microscope. Extruded oocytes had a mean diameter of 1 ± 0.1 mm, and possessed a thin perivitelline membrane whose space was filled with a protoplasmic layer. Heartbeat was in the range of 115-160/min prior to hatching. Hatchability rate was 85% and hatching occurred at 17 h at a controlled temperature of 28.5 ± 0.5°C, while ontogeny of the eyes and other organs were discernible. At day 4, larvae mean length was 9.3 ± 0.5 mm, exogenous feeding had commenced fully and melanophores spread cephalocaudally but were concentrated significantly on the head parts. This paper, for the first time, presents the significant chronological developmental stages of C. gariepinus embryology that will have significant implications for genetic manipulation and catfish seed production for aquaculture. PMID:23534899

Olaniyi, Wasiu Adekunle; Omitogun, Ofelia Galman

2014-08-01

235

The visual cells and retinal tapetum of the foveate deep-sea fish Scopelosaurus lepidus (Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The electron microscopic structure of the visual cells and retinal tapetum of the foveate deep-sea teleostScopelosaurus lepidus is described. The retina ofS. lepidus contains two spatially separate classes of visual cells, viz. cones, mostly twin cones, in the temporal (caudal) region subserving\\u000a binocular vision in the rostral direction, and rods grouped in bundles in the rest of the retina. A

Ole Munk

1977-01-01

236

The reproduction of Blennius pavo (Teleostei, Blenniidae). I. Ovarial cycle, environmental factors and feeding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blennius (Salaria) pavo is a very common coastal fish in the Mediterranean Sea. The development of the ovary was studied over a period of one year; seven stages of oogenesis are described. Ripe eggs are carried during the spawning season from Juni to August. The ovary shows a resting period of more than half a year (September to March). Environmental factors of the study area such as surface water temperature and daylength are described as well as the condition factors of male and female fish. Observations on food and behaviour during the winter months are also included.

Patzner, Robert A.

1983-03-01

237

Boxfishes (Teleostei: Ostraciidae) as a model system for fishes swimming with many fins: kinematics.  

PubMed

Swimming movements in boxfishes were much more complex and varied than classical descriptions indicated. At low to moderate rectilinear swimming speeds (<5 TL s(-1), where TL is total body length), they were entirely median- and paired-fin swimmers, apparently using their caudal fins for steering. The pectoral and median paired fins generate both the thrust needed for forward motion and the continuously varied, interacting forces required for the maintenance of rectilinearity. It was only at higher swimming speeds (above 5 TL s(-1)), when burst-and-coast swimming was used, that they became primarily body and caudal-fin swimmers. Despite their unwieldy appearance and often asynchronous fin beats, boxfish swam in a stable manner. Swimming boxfish used three gaits. Fin-beat asymmetry and a relatively non-linear swimming trajectory characterized the first gait (0--1 TL s(-1)). The beginning of the second gait (1--3 TL s(-1)) was characterized by varying fin-beat frequencies and amplitudes as well as synchrony in pectoral fin motions. The remainder of the second gait (3--5 TL s(-1)) was characterized by constant fin-beat amplitudes, varying fin-beat frequencies and increasing pectoral fin-beat asynchrony. The third gait (>5 TL s(-1)) was characterized by the use of a caudal burst-and-coast variant. Adduction was always faster than abduction in the pectoral fins. There were no measurable refractory periods between successive phases of the fin movement cycles. Dorsal and anal fin movements were synchronized at speeds greater than 2.5 TL s(-1), but were often out of phase with pectoral fin movements. PMID:11273807

Hove, J R; O'Bryan, L M; Gordon, M S; Webb, P W; Weihs, D

2001-04-01

238

Gaidropsarus (Gadidae, Teleostei) of the North Atlantic Ocean: a brief phylogenetic review.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic relationships among the North Atlantic Gaidropsarus and between the three Gaidropsarinae genera Gaidropsarus, Ciliata and Enchelyopus are reviewed with the hitherto most comprehensive taxonomic sampling of this group. Phylogenetic results (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference) based on nuclear (rhodopsin) and concatenated mitochondrial (12s, 16s and cytb) markers clearly support this subfamily. For the north-eastern Atlantic species of Gaidropsarus, two previously unreported clades were strongly supported, clarifying the relationships within the genus, and revealing fewer distinct taxa in the north Atlantic Gaidropsarus than previously stipulated. The data challenge the specific status of Gaidropsarus mediterraneus and Gaidropsarus guttatus and raise doubts concerning the distinctiveness of other species. A taxonomic revision of the genus is suggested. PMID:24961593

Francisco, S M; Robalo, J I; Stefanni, S; Levy, A; Almada, V C

2014-08-01

239

A thermal denaturation study of genomic DNAs from North American minnows (Cyprinidae: Teleostei).  

PubMed

Base compositions and differential melting rate profiles of genomic DNAs from twenty species of North American cyprinid fishes were generated via thermal denaturation. Base pair composition expressed as % GC values ranged among the twenty species from 36.1-41.3%. This range is considerably broader than that observed at comparable taxonomic levels in other vertebrate groups. Both the range and average difference in base pair composition between species in the diverse and rapidly evolving genus Notropis were considerably greater than those between species in other North American cyprinid genera. This may indicate that genomic changes at the level of base pair composition are frequent and possibly important events in cyprinid evolution. Compositional heterogeneity and asymmetry values among the twenty species were uniform and low, respectively, suggesting that most of the species lacked DNA components in their genomes which differed substantially from their main-band DNAs in base pair composition. The melting rate profiles revealed a prominent and distinct heavy or GC-rich DNA component in the genomes of three species belonging to the subgenus Cyprinella of Notropis. These and other data suggest that the heavy melting component may reflect a large, comparatively GC-rich family of highly repeated or satellite DNA sequences common to all three genomes. PMID:3506535

Karel, W J; Gold, J R

1987-10-30

240

Brain morphology and turbidity preference in Notropis and related genera (Cyprinidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The size of seven neural structures was compared in 51 species of Notropis, Pteronotropis, Cyprinella, Luxilus, Lythrurus, and Hybopsis, and related to the turbidity of the species& habitat. This last parameter was assessed for each species by personal communication with 42 ichthyologists. To control for size differences among species, all analyses were performed on the residuals from a regression

Robert Huber; Michael K. Rylander

1992-01-01

241

Conservation genetic studies of the endangered Cape Fear Shiner, Notropis mekistocholas (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation at ten microsatellite loci and one anonymous-nuclear locus was assayed for three geographic samples of the critically endangered North American cyprinid Notropis mekistocholas (Cape Fear shiner). Despite low abundance of this species, there was little suggestion of small population effects; allele diversity and hetero- zygosity were relatively high, FIS values within samples were non-significant, and genotypes were distributed

Christopher P. Burridge; John R. Gold

2003-01-01

242

Quantitative histological studies of the optic tectum in six species of Notropis and Cyprinella (Cyprinidae, Teleostei).  

PubMed

Significant differences in stratification and size of the visual layers of the optic tectum were found between three clear-water minnows (Notropis amabilis, N. boops, Cyprinella venustas) and three turbid-water minnows (N. atherinoides, N. bairdi, and C. lutrensis). Correlations among a variety of neural structures suggested the importance of stratum marginale (SM), stratum opticum (SO), and stratum fibrosum et griseum superficiale (SFGS), stratum griseum centrale (SGC) and stratum periventriculare (SPV) in vision, of stratum album centrale (SAC) and SGC for olfaction, and of SPV for the processing of acoustico-lateral information. PMID:1779132

Huber, R; Rylander, M K

1991-01-01

243

Nuclear gene-inferred phylogenies resolve the relationships of the enigmatic Pygmy Sunfishes, Elassoma (Teleostei: Percomorpha).  

PubMed

Elassoma, the Pygmy Sunfishes, has long proven difficult to classify among the more than 15,000 species of percomorph fishes. Hypotheses dating to the 19th Century include Elassoma in Centrarchidae or in the monogeneric Elassomatidae, and more recent phylogenetic hypotheses have classified Elassoma in Smegmamorpha that also contained Synbranchiformes, Mugiliformes, Gasterosteiformes, and Atherinomorpha. No published phylogenetic analysis of morphological or molecular data has supported the monophyly of Smegmamorpha, or a consistent resolution of Elassoma relationships. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of Elassoma and test the monophyly of Smegmamorpha with a nucleotide dataset comprising 10 protein-coding nuclear genes sampled from 65 percomorph species. Maximum likelihood analyses of each individual gene and the concatenated 10 genes all result in strong support for a clade composed of Elassoma and Centrarchidae, and no analysis supports monophyly of Smegmamorpha. Based on these results, a rank-free phylogenetic definition of Centrarchidae is presented that includes Elassoma, and the continued recognition of Smegmamorpha is discouraged. We discuss the implications of these phylogenetic analyses for relationships of several other percomorph lineages, including Kyphosidae, Terapontidae, Kuhliidae, Cheilodactylidae, Percichthyidae, Howellidae, Enoplosidae, Sinipercidae, and Cirrhitidae. PMID:22293156

Near, Thomas J; Sandel, Michael; Kuhn, Kristen L; Unmack, Peter J; Wainwright, Peter C; Smith, Wm Leo

2012-05-01

244

A fourth teleost lineage possessing extra-oral teeth: the genus atherion (teleostei; atheriniformes).  

PubMed

In the course of an evolutionary and developmental study on the dermal skeleton, our attention was drawn to the existence of denticles located outside the oral cavity in the atheriniform species Atherion elymus. These denticles, attached to the surface of most dermal bones of the head, are especially numerous on the snout, chin and the undersides of the lower region of the head, where they are aligned forming a crenulated keel. Using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, we clearly demonstrate the dental (vs bony) nature of these denticles. They are small, conical elements mostly oriented backwards and are not ankylosed to the bone support. Ligaments originating from the internal and external surface of the base of the dentine cone link the denticles to the attachment bone, which itself merges with the bone support below. The denticles have the same form and structure as teeth, from which they differ only in having a larger base and a pulp cavity that is nearly completely filled with secondary dentine by centripetal deposition. This suggests that the denticles have a longer functional history than teeth. Atherion is now the fourth teleost lineage found to develop such denticles on the head. PMID:12221511

Sire, J Y; Allizard, F

2001-12-01

245

The identity of Pethia punctata, a senior synonym of P. muvattupuzhaensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

Francis Day described Pethia punctata from Cochin, on the Malabar (south western) coast of India. Although, the species is now recovered from its synonymy with P. ticto, an accurate diagnosis and description have been lacking. A redescription of P. punctata based on external morphology, osteology and genetics is provided, which revealed that P. muvattupuzhaensis, described from Muvattupuzha River, Ernakulam District, Kerala, India, is its junior synonym. Pethia punctata can be diagnosed from other known species in the genus by a combination of characters including lateral line complete, with 23-25 pored scales; 8 predorsal scales; ½4/1/3½ scales in transverse line; dorsal fin originating almost opposite to, or slightly before pelvic-fin origin; gill rakers 7 on first ceratobranchial; 4+26 total vertebrae; a small black humeral spot covering anterior half of the fourth scale of the row below the lateral-line row; two minute dark spots below the humeral spot; a prominent spot on the caudal peduncle, surrounded by a golden hoop covering scales 19-21 of the lateral-line row; and dorsal fin with 2-3 longitudinal rows of black spots, third row occupying only anterior portion of the fin.  PMID:25543780

Katwate, Unmesh; Baby, Fibin; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh

2014-01-01

246

Gonadal morphogenesis and sex differentiation in the viviparous fish Chapalichthys encaustus (Teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes, Goodeidae).  

PubMed

This study describes the structural and ultrastructural characteristics of gonadal sex differentiation and expression of Vasa, a germline marker, in different developmental stages of embryos and newborn fry of the barred splitfin Chapalichthys encaustus, a viviparous freshwater teleost endemic to Mexico. In stage 2 embryos, the gonadal crest was established; gonadal primordia were located on the coelomic epithelium, formed by scarce germ and somatic cells. At stage 3, the undifferentiated gonad appeared suspended from the mesentery of the developing swimbladder and contained a larger number of germ and somatic cells. At stages 4 and 5, the gonads had groups of meiotic and non-meiotic germ cells surrounded by somatic cells; meiosis was evident from the presence of synaptonemal complexes. These stages constituted a transition towards differentiation. At stage 6 and at birth, the gonad was morphologically differentiated into an ovary or a testis. Ovarian differentiation was revealed by the presence of follicles containing meiotic oocytes, and testicular differentiation by the development of testicular lobules containing spermatogonia in mitotic arrest, surrounded by Sertoli cells. Nuage, electron-dense material associated with mitochondria, was observed in germ cells at all gonadal stages. The Vasa protein was detected in all of the previously described stages within the germ-cell cytoplasm. This is the first report on morphological characteristics and expression of the Vasa gene during sexual differentiation in viviparous species of the Goodeidae family. Chapalichthys encaustus may serve as a model to study processes of sexual differentiation in viviparous fishes and teleosts. PMID:22380554

Guerrero-Estévez, S; Moreno-Mendoza, N

2012-03-01

247

Molecular phylogeny and conservation priorities of the subfamily Acheilognathinae (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

It is increasingly accepted that conservation work should consider the evolutionary history of target species. Fishes in the subfamily Acheilognathinae, family Cyprinidae, are, with the exception of three species exclusively distributed in Europe, restricted to Asia and show a distinct spawning behavior in laying their eggs in gill chambers of freshwater mussels. At present, many of the 70 species recognized in this group are facing with serious population decline in China and Japan, and their phylogenetic relationships are not well resolved. In the present study, based on mtDNA cyt b and 12S rRNA gene sequences, we reconstructed a more detailed species-level phylogenetic tree of this group, and assessed species conservation priorities based on their evolutionary distinctiveness. Molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that the Acheilognathinae contains two major clades: Acheilognathus clade and Tanakia-Rhodeus clade. Based on this phylogenetic result, conservation priority analyses were conducted using ED (evolutionary distinctiveness)/HED (heightened evolutionary distinctiveness), and EDGE (evolutionary distinctiveness and global endangeredness)/HEDGE (heightened evolutionary distinctiveness and global endangeredness) methods. The results suggested that T. himantegus, T. lanceolata, A. gracilis, A. imberbis, T. tanago, and A. longipinnis should be ranked as the top-priority species for conservation. According to our results, we also discussed the current conservation efforts of the bitterling fishes and gave suggestions for future work. PMID:24832903

Cheng, Peilin; Yu, Dan; Liu, Siqing; Tang, Qiongying; Liu, Huanzhang

2014-05-01

248

Molecular phylogeny and evolution of Scomber (Teleostei: Scombridae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus Scomber was conducted based on mitochondrial (COI, Cyt b and control region) and nuclear (5S rDNA) DNA sequence data in multigene perspective. A variety of phylogenetic analytic methods were used to clarify the current taxonomic Classification and to assess phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history of this genus. The present study produced a well-resolved phylogeny that strongly supported the monophyly of Scomber. We confirmed that S. japonicus and S. colias were genetically distinct. Although morphologically and ecologically similar to S. colias, the molecular data showed that S. japonicus has a greater molecular affinity with S. australasicus, which conflicts with the traditional taxonomy. This phylogenetic pattern was corroborated by the mtDNA data, but incompletely by the nuclear DNA data. Phylogenetic concordance between the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA regions for the basal nodes Supports an Atlantic origin for Scomber. The present-day geographic ranges of the species were compared with the resultant molecular phylogeny derived from partition Bayesian analyses of the combined data sets to evaluate possible dispersal routes of the genus. The present-day geographic distribution of Scomber species might be best ascribed to multiple dispersal events. In addition, our results suggest that phylogenies derived from multiple genes and long sequences exhibited improved phylogenetic resolution, from which we conclude that the phylogenetic reconstruction is a reliable representation of the evolutionary history of Scomber.

Cheng, Jiao; Gao, Tianxiang; Miao, Zhenqing; Yanagimoto, Takashi

2011-03-01

249

A comparative chromosome study of the North American species of sticklebacks (Teleostei: Gasterosteidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The five North American species of the stickleback family Gasterosteidae were studied karyologically. They constitute two diploid-count groups; one with 46 includes ?peltes quadracus and Culaea inconstans, and the other with 42 consists of Gasterosteus aculeatus, G. wheatlandi and Pungitius pungitius. The common occurrence of a distinctly large submetacentric pair in complements of all five species suggests a monophyletic origin

T.-R. Chen; H. M. Reisman

1970-01-01

250

Feeding Morphology, Diet, and Ecomorphological Relationships among Five Caribbean Labrids (Teleostei, Labridae)  

E-print Network

Feeding Morphology, Diet, and Ecomorphological Relationships among Five Caribbean Labrids and extend access to Copeia. http://www.jstor.org #12;Copeia,1998(4),pp. 953-966 Feeding Morphology, Diet The ecomorphologicalrelationshipbetweenoralandpharyngealjawmorphology and diet was investigated for five labrids: Lachnolaimusmaximus,Halichoeresgarnoti, H. bivittatus

Motta, Philip J.

251

Etheostoma erythrozonum, a new species of darter (teleostei: Percidae) from the Meramec River drainage, missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new species of darter, Etheostoma erythrozonum, is described from the Meramec River drainage of Missouri, USA. Etheostoma erythrozonum is the first known fish species endemic to the Meramec River drainage. It differs morphologically and genetically from populations of its sister species, Etheostoma tetrazonum, from the Gasconade River, Osage River, and Moreau River drainages. Copyright ?? 2009 ?? Magnolia Press.

Switzer, J.F.; Wood, R.M.

2009-01-01

252

A new species of Saturnius Manter, 1969 (Digenea: Hemiuridae) from Mediterranean mullet (Teleostei: Mugilidae).  

PubMed

A new hemiurid digenean, Saturnius gibsoni n. sp., is described from the stomach lining of Mugil cephalus L. off Oran, Mediterranean coast of Algeria. Characteristic morphological features of the new species include small size of the body which is comprised of six pseudosegments, small ventral sucker, weakly developed mound-shaped flange at the level of the ventral sucker, and eggs being large in relation to the size of the body. Saturnius gibsoni n. sp. resembles S. minutus Blasco-Costa, Pankov, Gibson, Balbuena, Raga, Sarabeev & Kostadinova, 2006 and two unidentified Saturnius spp. in the small size of the body and most metrical features. However, in spite of the presence of five transverse septa resulting in six pseudosegments and the range overlap of some metrical features, the ventral sucker in S. minutus is much larger, the ventral sucker muscular flange is more prominent, the last pseudosegment is narrower in relation to body width and more rounded, and the eggs are smaller (mean 21 × 10 vs 25 × 12 ?m). Furthermore, the partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene region (domains D1-D3; 1,195 nt) obtained from two isolates of S. gibsoni n. sp. differed by 11 nt (0.9%) from that of S. minutus. Both unidentified forms of Saturnius are clearly distinguishable from S. gibsoni n. sp. by the presence of six stout, transverse muscular septa, forming seven pseudosegments (vs five septa forming six pseudosegments). Bayesian inference analysis of partial 28S rDNA sequences based on a total of 15 species from the families Hemiuridae and Lecithasteridae depicted the Bunocotylinae Dollfus, 1950 as a strongly supported basal clade, with Bunocotyle progenetica (Markowski, 1936) as the closest sister taxon to Saturnius spp. PMID:24474036

Marzoug, Douniazed; Rima, Mohamed; Boutiba, Zitouni; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Pérez-del-Olmo, Ana

2014-02-01

253

Genetic differentiation among natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei, cichlidae).  

PubMed

We analysed the genetic differentiation among 17 natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) using allozymes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The populations studied, from the River Senegal to Lake Tana and from Lake Manzalla to Lake Baringo, represent all subspecies which have been previously described. Sixteen variable nuclear loci showed that these populations can be clustered in three groups: (1) West African populations (Senegal, Niger, Volta and Chad drainages), (2) Ethiopian Rift Valley populations (Lakes Awasa, Ziway, Koka and the Awash River) and (3) Nile drainage (Manzalla, Cairo, Lake Edward) and Kenyan Rift Valley populations (Lakes Turkana, Baringo and River Suguta). Nine different mtDNA haplotypes were found in the RFLP analysis of a 1 kb portion of the D-loop region. The network obtained showed that there are three geographically distinct groups; all West African populations and O. aureus are clustered, the two Ethiopian Rift Valley populations are distinct and between these two groups are the Kenyan and Ugandan Rift Valley populations. Nile populations show affinities both with West African populations and with specimens from Lakes Tana and Turkana. Taxonomic and biogeographical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:9253615

Agnèse, J F; Adépo-Gourène, B; Abban, E K; Fermon, Y

1997-07-01

254

Ultrastructure of hepatocytes in golden ide ( Leuciscus idus melanotus L.; Cyprinidae: Teleostei) during thermal adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological alterations of hepatocytes of golden ide, Leuciscus idus melanotus, following adaptation to low and high temperatures (14 and 28°C) were investigated by means of light and electron microscopy. The temperature-dependent behaviour of peroxisomes was visualized cytochemically with the alkaline diaminobenzidine medium; the morphological studies were supplemented by the biochemical determination of catalase activity.

Thomas Braunbeck; Karin Gorgas; Volker Storch; Alfred Völkl

1987-01-01

255

Sexual Ornaments, Body Morphology, and Swimming Performance in Naturally Hybridizing Swordtails (Teleostei: Xiphophorus)  

PubMed Central

Determining the costs of sexual ornaments is complicated by the fact that ornaments are often integrated with other, non-sexual traits, making it difficult to dissect the effect of ornaments independent of other aspects of the phenotype. Hybridization can produce reduced phenotypic integration, allowing one to evaluate performance across a broad range of multivariate trait values. Here we assess the relationship between morphology and performance in the swordtails Xiphophorus malinche and X. birchmanni, two naturally-hybridizing fish species that differ extensively in non-sexual as well as sexual traits. We took advantage of novel trait variation in hybrids to determine if sexual ornaments incur a cost in terms of locomotor ability. For both fast-start and endurance swimming, hybrids performed at least as well as the two parental species. The sexually-dimorphic sword did not impair swimming performance per se. Rather, the sword negatively affected performance only when paired with a sub-optimal body shape. Studies seeking to quantify the costs of ornaments should consider that covariance with non-sexual traits may create the spurious appearance of costs. PMID:25329558

Johnson, James B.; Macedo, Danielle C.; Passow, Courtney N.; Rosenthal, Gil G.

2014-01-01

256

Modeling prey consumption by native and non-native piscivorous fishes: implications for competition and impacts on shared prey in an ultraoligotrophic lake in Patagonia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined trophic interactions of the nonnative salmonids Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalisand the main native predator Creole Perch Percichthys trucha in Lake Nahuel Huapi (Patagonia, Argentina) to determine the relative impact of each predator on their forage base and to evaluate the potential vulnerability of each predator to competitive impacts by the others. Using bioenergetics simulations, we demonstrated the overall importance of galaxiids and decapods to the energy budgets of nonnative salmonids and Creole Perch. Introduced salmonids, especially Rainbow Trout, exerted considerably heavier predatory demands on shared resources than did the native Creole Perch on both a per capita basis and in terms of relative population impacts. Rainbow Trout consumed higher quantities and a wider size range of Small Puyen (also known as Inanga) Galaxias maculatus than the other predators, including early pelagic life stages of that prey; as such, this represents an additional source of mortality for the vulnerable early life stages of Small Puyen before and during their transition from pelagic to benthic habitats. All predators were generally feeding at high feeding rates (above 40% of their maximum physiological rates), suggesting that competition for prey does not currently limit either Creole Perch or the salmonids in this lake. This study highlights the importance of keystone prey for the coexistence of native species with nonnative top predators. It provides new quantitative and qualitative evidence of the high predation pressure exerted on Small Puyen, the keystone prey species, during the larval to juvenile transition from pelagic to littoral-benthic habitat in Patagonian lakes. This study also emphasizes the importance of monitoring salmonid and Creole Perch population dynamics in order to detect signs of potential impacts through competition and shows the need to carefully consider the rationale behind any additional trout stocking.

Juncos, Romina; Beauchamp, David A.; Viglianoc, Pablo H.

2013-01-01

257

Nudaciraxine imperium sp. n. (Monogenea: Axinidae) from the gills of Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (Teleostei: Belonidae).  

PubMed

Nudaciraxine imperium sp. n. (Monogenea: Axinidae) is described from the gills of the needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (Rafinesque) caught in the Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia. This new species mainly differs from both previously described species, Nudaciraxine gracilis (Linton, 1940) Price, 1962 from Strongylura marina (Walbaum) and Nudaciraxine cabosanlucensis Payne, 1990 from Ablennes sp., by having more testes (42 vs. 20-22 and 32, respectively). Nudaciraxine imperium also differs from N. gracilis by having a median vaginal pore (submedian in N. gracilis), narrower clamps (52-70 microm vs. 75-100 microm) and differently shaped haptoral lateral hamuli. From N. cabosanlucensis it can be distinguished by a J-shaped rather than U-shaped ovary, a longer cirrus pouch (125-190 microm vs. 64-70 microm), an oesophageal bifurcation slightly anterior to genital complex (immediately after pharynx in N. cabosanlucensis) and a wider guard on the lateral hamuli. In agreement with Payne (1990), the diagnosis of the genus Nudaciraxine Price, 1962 is amended as follows: vaginal pore dorsal, median to submedian, armed or not with horn-like spines. This is the first report of the genus Nudaciraxine in the Mediterranean Sea. The potential use of axinid monogeneans as biological tags for subspecies of belonid fishes is discussed. PMID:20449997

Châari, Manel; Derbel, Hela; Neifar, Lassâd

2010-03-01

258

Geophagus crocatus, a new species of geophagine cichlid from the Berbice River, Guyana, South America (Teleostei: Cichlidae).  

PubMed

We describe a new Geophagus from the Berbice River of Guyana, bringing the total number of described species in the genus to 19, and of Guianese species to six.. Geophagus crocatus, new species, is distinguished from all species of Geophagus outside of the G. surinamensis group by the presence of an incomplete suborbital stripe (vs. complete), and the presence of six lateral bars, with bars 2 and 3 slightly sloping toward each other and fusing dorsally at the base of the dorsal fin. Geophagus crocatus is the only Geophagus species known from the Berbice River, and it is present above and below the Itabru Falls. PMID:25277570

Hauser, Frances E; López-Fernández, Hernán

2013-01-01

259

Development Of The Cranial Lateral-Line System And Canal Related Bones In Salmo Letnica Kar. (Teleostei: Salmonidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the ontogenetic development of the cranial lateral line and the canal related bones of Ohrid trout, Salmo letnica were studied from hatching until the age of 92 days posthatching (PH). Samples at the age of 200 days PH and one-year-old trout's were included in this study. Most of the samples were in toto trypsine cleared and stained;

Milica Ristovska; Biljana Karaman

260

Development of the splanchnocranium in Prochilodus argenteus (Teleostei: Characiformes) with a discussion of the basal developmental patterns in the Otophysi.  

PubMed

Development of the mandibular, hyoid and gill arches, which constitute the splanchnocranium, are described for Prochilodus argenteus, order Characiformes, one of the basal lineages of the Otophysi. Development was examined from just hatched larvae through juveniles using whole specimens cleared and counterstained for cartilage and bone as well as histological preparations. Observations are compared with the developmental trends reported for Cypriniformes, the basalmost clade of the Otophysi. Shortened developmental sequences for Prochilodus compared to the cypriniform Catostomus were discovered in the ontogeny of the ceratohyals, ceratobranchials 1-5, epibranchials 1-4 and the symplectic portion of the hyosymplectic. Prochilodus also differs from Catostomus in having the basihyal plus the anterior copula appearing at different stages of ontogeny rather than simultaneously. Contrary to previous assumptions, developmental information indicates that hypobranchial 4 as well as likely basibranchial 5 are present in Prochilodus. Various developmental patterns in Prochilodus considered basal for the Otophysi, the predominant component of the Ostariophysi, are likely conserved from patterns prevalent in basal groups in the Actinopterygii. PMID:25595854

Carvalho, Murilo; Vari, Richard P

2015-02-01

261

Phylogeographic structure in the threatened Yarra pygmy perch Nannoperca obscura (Teleostei: Percichthyidae) has major implications for declining populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular genetic information should be a pre-requisite when evaluating conservation priorities in highly structured species\\u000a such as freshwater fishes. Nuclear (allozyme) and mitochondrial (cytochrome b) markers were used to investigate phylogeographic structure in the Yarra pygmy perch Nannoperca obscura (Klunzinger), a threatened freshwater fish endemic to mainland south-eastern Australia. Complementary patterns of strong,\\u000a geographically defined sub-structure were observed including a

Michael P. Hammer; Peter J. Unmack; Mark Adams; Jerald B. Johnson; Keith F. Walker

2010-01-01

262

Ontogenetic allometry of the bluemouth, Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae), in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean based on geometric morphometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bluemouth, Helicolenus dactylopterus, is a deep-sea scorpionfish widely distributed in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean. It is a common by-catch associated\\u000a to many demersal fisheries. However, there is little information about the stock structure, stock dynamics and life history\\u000a parameters of the bluemouth. From the perspective of stock identification, it is important to study growth in fish populations

Rebeca Rodríguez-Mendoza; Marta Muñoz; Fran Saborido-Rey

2011-01-01

263

Otolith morphology and hearing abilities in cave- and surface-dwelling ecotypes of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei: Poeciliidae).  

PubMed

Cave fish have rarely been investigated with regard to their inner ear morphology, hearing abilities, and acoustic communication. Based on a previous study that revealed morphological differences in the saccular otolith between a cave and two surface populations of Poecilia mexicana, we checked for additional differences in utricular and lagenar otoliths and tested whether different populations have similar hearing sensitivities. We found pronounced differences in the shape of all three otoliths. Otoliths of the saccule and lagena from cave fish differed from those of surface fish in the features of the face oriented towards the sensory epithelium. In addition, otoliths of the utricle and lagena were significantly heavier in cave fish. Auditory sensitivities were measured between 100 and 1500Hz, utilizing the auditory evoked potential recording technique. We found similar hearing abilities in cave and surface fish, with greatest sensitivity between 200 and 300Hz. An acoustic survey revealed that neither ecotype produced species-specific sounds. Our data indicate that cave dwelling altered the otolith morphology in Atlantic mollies, probably due to metabolic differences. Different otolith morphology, however, did not affect general auditory sensitivity or acoustic behavior. PMID:20430090

Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Ladich, Friedrich; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

2010-08-01

264

Interacting effects of diet and environmental temperature on biochemical parameters in the liver of Leuciscus idus melanotus (Cyprinidae: Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One year old golden ide (Leuciscus idus melanotus) were starved for 2 weeks at 20°C (time zero) and then they were fed either freeze-dried mosquito larvae (natural diet) or a commercial fish chow (artificial diet) at an ambient temperature of 14°C and 20°C, respectively. Growth parameters and biochemical data in the liver were measured at time zero and after 3

Johannes Rafael I; Thomas Braunbeck

1988-01-01

265

The role of continental shelf width in determining freshwater phylogeographic patterns in south-eastern Australian pygmy perches (Teleostei: Percichthyidae).  

PubMed

Biogeographic patterns displayed by obligate freshwater organisms are intimately related to the nature and extent of connectivity between suitable habitats. Two of the more significant barriers to freshwater connections are seawater and major drainage divides. South-eastern Australia provides a contrast between these barriers as it has discrete areas that are likely influenced to a greater or lesser extent by each barrier type. We use continental shelf width as a proxy for the potential degree of river coalescence during low sea levels. Our specific hypothesis is that the degree of phylogeographic divergence between coastal river basins should correspond to the continental shelf width of each region. This predicts that genetic divergences between river basins should be lowest in regions with a wider continental shelf and that regions with similar continental shelf width should have similar genetic divergences. Pygmy perches (Nannoperca australis and Nannoperca 'flindersi') in south-eastern Australia provide an ideal opportunity to test these biogeographic hypotheses. Phylogeographic patterns were examined based on range-wide sampling of 82 populations for cytochrome b and 23 polymorphic allozyme loci. Our results recovered only limited support for our continental shelf width hypothesis, although patterns within Bass clade were largely congruent with reconstructed low sea-level drainage patterns. In addition, we identified several instances of drainage divide crossings, typically associated with low elevational differences. Our results demonstrate high levels of genetic heterogeneity with important conservation implications, especially for declining populations in the Murray-Darling Basin and a highly restricted disjunct population in Ansons River, Tasmania. PMID:23398527

Unmack, Peter J; Hammer, Michael P; Adams, Mark; Johnson, Jerald B; Dowling, Thomas E

2013-03-01

266

Kudoa unicapsula n. sp. (Myxosporea: Kudoidae) a parasite of the Mediterranean mullets Liza ramada and L. aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).  

PubMed

A new multivalvulid myxozoan parasite, Kudoa unicapsula n. sp., is described from the intestinal mesentery, intestine and pyloric caeca of the thin-lipped grey mullet Liza ramada (Risso 1826) and the golden grey mullet L. aurata (Risso, 1810) from the Mediterranean coastal waters of Spain. It is characterized by the presence of elongated, rice corn-like white cysts of 0.47-0.56 x 0.18-0.38 mm, filled with tetracapsulate, slightly asymmetric spores, rectangular in apical view and tear-shaped in lateral view with four polar capsules of considerably different size and slightly unequal spore valves with rounded edges, overlapping each other on the apex of the spore. One large polar capsule includes a polar filament coiled in two to three turns, and the other three polar capsules, which are very small, posses only a rudimental filament. Both light and electron microscopy data showed that this species differs from all previously described Kudoa spp. with unequal polar capsules. The molecular analysis based on 18S and 28S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid DNA sequence data of K. unicapsula n. sp. indicates a close relationship and thus phylogenetic clustering together with K. trifolia, a myxozoan from the same host and the same geographical location. PMID:17846792

Yurakhno, V M; Ovcharenko, M O; Holzer, A S; Sarabeev, V L; Balbuena, J A

2007-11-01

267

Kudoa ogawai n. sp. (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from the trunk muscle of Pacific barrelfish Hyperoglyphe japonica (Teleostei: Centrolophidae) in Japan.  

PubMed

Kudoa ogawai n. sp. (Myxozoa; Multivalvulida) is described from the trunk muscle of Pacific barrelfish Hyperoglyphe japonica caught in Japan. Oval to ellipsoidal cysts, white to yellowish in colour, 1-2 mm in size, were filled with numerous spores having four polar capsules. Spores were stellate with rounded peripheral edges in apical view, and garlic shaped with four prominent apical projections in side view. Average (range) spore size was 13.3 (12.0-14.2) ?m in width and 9.0 (8.3-9.7) ?m in length. The spore dimensions and the apical projections of K. ogawai n. sp. were clearly distinguishable from the other muscle-infecting species. Molecular analyses of 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA sequences showed that K. ogawai n. sp. is closely related to Kudo iwatai and Kudoa hemiscylli (95% and 92% genetic similarity, respectively), but the present species is morphologically distinct from the two species. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S and 28S rDNA placed K. ogawai n. sp. sister to all Kudoa spp. available in GenBank. PMID:22173453

Yokoyama, H; Yanagida, T; Shirakashi, S

2012-06-01

268

Myxobolus albi n. sp. (Myxozoa) from the Gills of the Common Goby Pomatoschistus microps Krøyer (Teleostei: Gobiidae).  

PubMed

A recent investigation into the myxozoan fauna of common gobies, Pomatoschistus microps, from the Forth Estuary in Scotland, revealed numerous myxosporean cysts within the gill cartilage. They were composed of polysporous plasmodia containing myxobolid spores that were morphologically different from the other known species of Myxobolus and from the myxosporeans previously recorded from this host (i.e. the ceratomyxid Ellipsomyxa gobii, infecting the gall bladder, and the kudoid Kudoa camarguensis, infecting the muscle tissues). Spores were ovoid, 9.4 x 9.1 microm with a thickness of 6.6 microm, with two pyriform polar capsules, the polar filaments of which had four to five turns. Molecular analysis of the parasite's small subunit rDNA region, based upon a contiguous sequence of 1,558 base pairs, discriminated it from other myxosporean species that have been characterized so far. A comparison of the spore morphology and the molecular sequences determined for this new isolate with other myxozoans described to date, confirmed its identity as a previously unknown myxobolid supporting the proposal that this isolate be elevated to the species level as a new species within the genus Myxobolus. A phylogenetic analysis places this new myxobolid, Myxobolus albi n. sp., in a basal position of a clade containing the majority of Henneguya spp. sequenced to date and various Myxobolus spp. PMID:19737194

Picon-Camacho, Sara M; Holzer, Astrid S; Freeman, Mark A; Morris, David J; Shinn, Andrew P

2009-01-01

269

Haemopoiesis in the head kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae): a morphological (optical and ultrastructural) study  

PubMed Central

The present work focused on the histological and ultrastructural studies on haemopoiesis in the kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Haemopoietic tissue was found mainly in the head kidney and a small amount occurred in the mesonephros. The haemopoiesis of tilapia had the following series: erythropoiesis, granulopoiesis, thrombopoiesis, monopoiesis and lymphoplasmopoiesis. Erythropoiesis includes proerythroblasts, basophilic erythroblasts, polychromatic erythroblasts, acidophilic erythroblasts and young and mature erythrocytes. The proerythroblasts were the largest cells in the erythropoietic series. During the maturation process both the nuclear and cellular size decreased gradually due to the chromatin condensation and the progressive substitution of cytoplasmic matrix with a large amount of haemoglobin. Granulopoietic series consisted of cells with variable shape and size at different stages of maturity from myeloblasts to mature granulocytes. The promyelocytes were the largest cells in the series and were characterised by the appearance of primary (azoruphilic) granules. The maturation process involved the appearance of specific granules in the heterophilic, eosinophilic and basophilic series. It is important to mention that eosinophilic granulocytes were the dominant granulopoietic series in the haemopoietic tissue (Ht) of tilapia. Lymphopoietic series consisted of lymphoblasts, large lymphocytes, small lymphocytes and active and inactive plasma cells. Thrombopoietic series consisted of thromboblasts, prothromboblasts and thrombocytes. Thrombocytes of tilapia were nucleated and possessed a spindle shape. Melanomacrophage centres were dominant among the Ht of the head kidney. Also, monocytes were detected and shown to be large cells with an indented nucleus and cytoplasm containing numerous vesicles of different sizes and a few lysosomes. PMID:19152117

Abdel-Aziz, El-Saydah H.; Abdu, Suzan B. S.; Fouad, Huda F.

2009-01-01

270

Relationship between urotensin II- and somatostatin-immunoreactive spinal cord neurons of Catostomus commersoni and Oncorhynchus kisutch (Teleostei).  

PubMed

This immunocytochemical study describes the presence of separate immunoreactive (IR)-urotensin II (UII) and IR-somatostatin (SOM) systems in the spinal cord of two species of teleost fish. Both systems are arranged in a close spatial interrelationship in which IR-SOM fibres apparently innervate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting IR-UII neurons. Specimens of Oncorhynchus kisutch also display CSF-contacting IR-SOM neurons located in the lateral ependymal walls of the central canal, in addition to CSF-contacting IR-UII neurons located ventrally. It is suggested that, in this species, CSF-contacting IR-SOM and IR-UII neurons perceive different stimuli from the CSF and are integrated in such a way that one peptidergic system may modulate the function of the other. PMID:2906818

Yulis, C R; Lederis, K

1988-01-01

271

Adaptive radiation in the Congo River: An ecological speciation scenario for African weakly electric fish (Teleostei; Mormyridae; Campylomormyrus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate aim of this study is to better understand the diversification of African weakly electric fish in the Congo River. Based on a robust phylogenetic hypothesis we examined the radiation within the mormyrid genus Campylomormyrus. Morphological traits relevant for the divergence between the identified species were detected. Among them, the variation in the shape of the trunk-like elongated snout

Philine G. D. Feulner; Frank Kirschbaum; Ralph Tiedemann

2008-01-01

272

Adaptive radiation in the Congo River: an ecological speciation scenario for African weakly electric fish (Teleostei; Mormyridae; Campylomormyrus).  

PubMed

The ultimate aim of this study is to better understand the diversification of African weakly electric fish in the Congo River. Based on a robust phylogenetic hypothesis we examined the radiation within the mormyrid genus Campylomormyrus. Morphological traits relevant for the divergence between the identified species were detected. Among them, the variation in the shape of the trunk-like elongated snout suggested the presence of different trophic specializations. Furthermore, the chosen model taxon, the genus Campylomormyrus, exhibits a wide diversity of electric organ discharge (EOD) waveforms. A comparison of EOD waveform types and phylogenetic relationships showed major differences in EOD between closely related species. This indicates that the EOD might function as a reproductive isolation mechanism. In conclusion, we provide a plausible scenario of an adaptive radiation triggered by sexual selection and assortative mating based on EOD characteristics, but caused by a divergent selection on the feeding apparatus. These findings point towards an adaptive radiation of at least some Campylomormyrus species occurring in the Lower Congo River. PMID:18984043

Feulner, Philine G D; Kirschbaum, Frank; Tiedemann, Ralph

2008-01-01

273

Fish passage ladders from Canoas Complex - Paranapanema River: evaluation of genetic structure maintenance of Salminus brasiliensis (Teleostei: Characiformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study, utilizing RAPD techniques, was to determine the genetic variability of Salminus brasiliensis groups collected at passage ladders of the hydroelectric plants (HEP) Canoas I and Canoas II - Paranapanema River (Brazil), as well as to estimate the population structure through different parameters of genetic diversity. The data obtained allowed us to conclude that S. brasiliensis

Carla Martins Lopes; Fernanda Simões de Almeida; Mário Luís Orsi; Sandro Geraldo de Castro Britto; Rodolfo Nardez Sirol; Leda Maria Koelblinger Sodré

2007-01-01

274

Phylogenetic patterns in populations of Chilean species of the genus Orestias (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae): results of mitochondrial DNA analysis.  

PubMed

Patterns of molecular genetic differentiation among taxa of the "agassii species complex" (Parenti, 1984) were analysed based on partial mtDNA control region sequences. Special attention has been paid to Chilean populations of Orestias agassii and species from isolated lakes of northern Chile, e.g., O. agassii, Orestias chungarensis, Orestias parinacotensis, Orestias laucaensis, and Orestias ascotanensis. Orestias tschudii, Orestias luteus, and Orestias ispi were analysed comparatively. Our findings support the utility of mtDNA control region sequences for phylogenetic studies within the "agassii species complex" and confirmed the monophyly of this particular lineage, excluding O. luteus. However, the monophyly of further morphologically defined lineages within the "agassii complex" appears doubtful. No support was found for the utility of these data sets for inferring phylogenetic relationships between more distantly related taxa originating from Lake Titicaca. PMID:12967616

Lüssen, Arne; Falk, Thomas M; Villwock, Wolfgang

2003-10-01

275

Experimentally induced pigment changes in small African 'Barbus' (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): Synonymy of 'Barbus' amphigramma and 'Barbus' taitensis with 'Barbus' paludinosus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pigmentation in fishes is known to be variable both among individuals of a species and within individuals over time. Use of pigment characters for taxonomic diagnoses must, therefore, be carefully considered. I present experimental evidence showing that pigment characters previously considered diagnostic for three small African 'Barbus' species may differ between living and preserved specimens and that lasting changes in these characters can be induced experimentally by placing fishes in a different, less turbid environment. Lateral line pigmentation and presence of a spot on the caudal peduncle showed significant changes that resulted in different species identifications before and after the experiment. These pigment patterns are thereby shown to be labile, nontrenchant characters having little or no diagnostic utility. 'Barbus' amphigramma Boulenger, 1903, and 'Barbus' taitensis Gu??nther, 1894, are thus shown to be junior synonyms of 'Barbus' paludinosus Peters, 1852.

Farm, B.P.

2001-01-01

276

Cytogenetic and morphometric analysis in the species Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae) from the Iguatemi River Basin, Brazil.  

PubMed

The genus Astyanax is relatively common and encompasses various similar taxa forming a highly complex group that is difficult to precisely delimit. The present study aims to analyze cytogenetically and morphologically specimens of A. altiparanae belonging to distinct populations of the Iguatemi River Basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, for a better understanding of the evolutionary processes in this fish group. This study analysed 32 specimens of Astyanax altiparanae from Iguatemi River basin, MS, Brazil: 24 from the Agua Boa stream and 8 from the Santa Maria stream. All specimens showed a diploid number equal to 50 chromosomes with differences in the karyotypic formula and types of chromosomes bearing the NOR between the two localities. The constitutive heterochromatin showed interstitial markings evident in the region of some chromosomes in both populations. In the morphometric analysis, the first three axes were retained for interpretation which together explained 81% of variance, showing morphometric distinction between populations. Chromosomal and morphometric data obtained may be useful for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies in this group of fish. PMID:25403073

Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Da Rocha, Rafael Henrique; Bailly, Dayani; Guterres, Zaira Da Rosa; Alves, Diandra Soares; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina

2014-01-01

277

Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae) do not seem to hybridize in natural populations.  

PubMed

Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil) and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept) easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers. PMID:24260650

Ferreira-Neto, Maressa; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Camacho, Juan Pedro Martínez; Bakkali, Mohammed; de Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

2012-01-01

278

Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters.  

PubMed

A study was carried out on the gastrointestinal helminth communities of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from the Portuguese mainland and island waters. Fifteen helminth parasite species were detected, including the following new records in this host: the digeneans Accacladocoelium petasiporum, Brachyenteron helicoleni, Glomericirrus macrouri, Lecithocladium excisum, Lepocreadium album and Pachycreadium carnosum; the nematode Camallanus sp. and the acanthocephalan Rhadinorhynchus pristis. Infection levels were generally low. Samples from mainland waters had a significantly higher prevalence of digeneans than those from the islands, probably due to the greater availability of invertebrate intermediate hosts on the continental slope. The helminth community of P. bogaraveo from Azores was diverse but mostly composed of species that infected no more than a single host, whereas in Madeira the helminth community was very depauperate. Most helminth species exhibited niche preferences within the gastrointestinal tract of the host. Higher functional richness and evenness were obtained in helminth communities of P. bogaraveo from mainland waters, indicating a balanced use of available resources, which is suggestive of more stable gastrointestinal helminth communities in these waters. PMID:23182041

Hermida, M; Cruz, C; Saraiva, A

2014-06-01

279

Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra (Teleostei) in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic  

PubMed Central

Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. is described from the gills of the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra caught off Senegal, Tunisia and Libya (type-locality: off Dakar, Senegal). The species is distinguished from its congeners by the structure of its sclerotised vagina (length 26–35 ?m), which exhibits a trumpet in continuity with the primary canal, a straight primary canal, and primary and secondary chambers included in a common sclerotised mass along the primary canal. The species is also characterised by small squamodiscs (length 20–40 ?m) with 10–11 rows of rodlets. Its closest relatives (based on the structure of the sclerotised vagina) are species mostly found in the Mediterranean Sea and parasites on species of Mycteroperca. A second species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is reported from the same host and localities but not described. A list of diplectanids from groupers in the Mediterranean Sea is provided. We point out that a recent article was not compliant with the new Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; for this reason, three species, P. nhatrangensis Dang, Bristow, Schander & Berland, 2013, P. vietnamensis Dang et al., 2013 and P. brunei Dang et al., 2013, are invalid. PMID:25674913

2015-01-01

280

[Association of sardine fishery, Sardinella aurita (Teleostei: Clupeidae) and environmental variability of the coastal upwelling ecosystem of Nueva Esparta, Venezuela].  

PubMed

The present research is an analysis of Spanish sardine fishing (Sardinella aurita) associated with some climatic and meteorologic parameters of the ecosystem from El Morro Nueva Esparta, Venezuela. The catch and environmental data from the area were taken in the period 1996-2000. Catch data as a function of wind speed, sea surface temperature, air temperature and rain were analyzed by means of simple lineal regression and multiple models. We found a positive correlation of catch with wind speed, and a negative correlation with sea surface temperature, air temperature, and rain. The multiple regression model with intercept had a poor fit, therefore, we made a model without intercept, which improve greatly the fit. A selection of the variables using the forward procedure verified that the independent variables "wind speed" and "air temperature" have a significant relation with catch (p < 0.001) at real time. This method suggests that sea surface temperature and rain have little influence on the catch, and suggests a major availability of resources in the months with low air temperature and the highest wind speed (January-June). Rev. PMID:18457137

Gonz?lez, Leo W; Euán, Jorge; Eslava, Nora; Suniaga, Jesús

2007-03-01

281

Phylogenetic relationships between tuna species of the genus Thunnus (Scombridae: Teleostei): Inconsistent implications from morphology, nuclear and mitochondrial genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to infer phylogenetic relationships between tuna species of the genus Thunnus, partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b and ATPase genes were determined in all eight species. Supplemental restriction analysis on the nuclear rRNA gene was also carried out. Pacific northern bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus orientalis) was found to have mtDNA distinct from that of the Atlantic subspecies

Seinen Chow; Hirohisa Kishino

1995-01-01

282

Local ecological knowledge of the artisanal fishers on Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822) (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) on Ilhéus coast – Bahia State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) of traditional fishermen may be the only source of information regarding the conservation of the marine ecosystem and its endangered species. One of these species is Epinephelus itajara, which can exceed 2 m in length and 400 kg weight, is classified by the IUCN as a critically endangered. In Brazil, there is currently a moratorium that prohibits the capture of this specie, and in the northeastern coast, a Marine Protected Area was recently established properly justified by the existence a one spawning aggregation. The scope of the present study was the analysis the LEK of fishers with the goal of contributing to the conservation of E. Itajara. Methods The Knowledge of 24 “experts” was recorded through semi-structured interviews with fishermen selected based on their expertise. LEK regarding some aspects of the life history of E. itajara, such as its morphology, spatial distribution, feeding, breeding and conservation, was systematized. The interviews were conducted in synchronic and diachronic situations. The data analysis followed the model of unity of the various individual skills, while the consistency of the analysis was tested using a matrix of methods employed in comparative cognitive science. Potential reproductive aggregation sites were identified by experts through projective interviews conducted based on a cartographic database and transferred to a geographic information system (GIS). Results The LEK of these specialists in relation to the biological and ecological characteristics of E. itajara showed a high level of detail and a high agreement with the scientific literature. Projective interviews are presented as a promising tool allowing spatialization of the information generated through the registration of LEK. Therefore, the visualization of information from the fishermen, as well as its analysis and comparison with other databases, is simplified, thereby contributing to the decision-making process concerning the conservation of marine ecosystem in Brazil. Conclusions Integration of LEK with scientific knowledge is an efficient strategy for the conservation of endangered species, as it provides important additional biological information that can be used in the process of participative and sustainable management of marine resources. PMID:24965849

2014-01-01

283

Light and ultrastructural description of Meglitschia mylei n. sp. (myxozoa) from Myleus rubripinnis (Teleostei: Serrasalmidae) in the Amazon River system.  

PubMed

Meglitschia mylei n. sp. found in the gall bladder of the teleostean fish Myleus rubripinnis (Serrasalmidae) from the middle Amazonian region of Brazil is described using light and transmission electron microscopy. The spores observed in the bile averaged 24.6±0.8 ?m long, 8.7±0.4 ?m wide and 5.1±0.3 ?m thick and were strongly furcate and arcuate ?-shaped composed of two symmetric equal-sized valves, up to ?70 nm thick. Each valve possessed one opposed tapering appendage, 20.1±0.7 ?m long, oriented parallel towards the basal tip of the appendages and joined along a right suture line forming a thick strand. The strand goes around the central part of the spore, which in turn surrounds two equal and symmetric spherical polar capsules (PC), 2.1±0.3 ?m in diameter, located at the same level. Each capsule contains a polar filament with five (rarely six) coils. The binucleate sporoplasm was irregular in shape, contained several sporoplasmosomes, ?175 nm in diameter and filled all the space of the two caudal appendages. Based on the arc shape of the spore with two tapering caudal appendages oriented to the basis of spores, on the number and position of the PC and of the polar filament coils and arrangements, and on the host specificity, we propose the name M. mylei n. sp. for this new myxozoan. Accordingly, this is the second described species of this genus. PMID:21895844

Azevedo, Carlos; Ribeiro, Mariana; Clemente, Sérgio C S; Casal, Graça; Lopes, Leila; Matos, Patrícia; Al-Quraishy, Saleh A; Matos, Edilson

2011-01-01

284

Clinal variation at microsatellite loci reveals historical secondary intergradation between glacial races of Coregonus artedi (Teleostei: Coregoninae).  

PubMed

Classical models of the spatial structure of population genetics rely on the assumption of migration-drift equilibrium, which is seldom met in natural populations having only recently colonized their current range (e.g., postglacial). Population structure then depicts historical events, and counfounding effects due to recent secondary contact between recently differentiated lineages can further counfound analyses of association between geographic and genetic distances. Mitochondrial polymorphisms have revealed the existence of two closely related lineages of the lake cisco, Coregonus artedi, whose significantly different but overlaping geographical distributions provided a weak signal of past range fragmentation blurred by putative subsequent extensive secondary contacts. In this study, we analyzed geographical patterns of genetic variation at seven microsatellite loci among 22 populations of lake cisco located along the axis of an area covered by proglacial lakes 12,000-8,000 years ago in North America. The results clearly confirmed the existence of two genetically distinct races characterized by different sets of microsatellite alleles whose frequencies varied clinally across some 3000 km. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium analyses of isolation by distance revealed historical signal of gene flow resulting from the nearly complete admixture of these races following neutral secondary contacts in their historical habitat and indicated that the colonization process occurred by a stepwise expansion of an eastern (Atlantic) race into a previously established Mississippian race. This historical signal of equilibrium contrasted with the current migration-drift disequilibrium within major extant watersheds and was apparently maintained by high effective population sizes and low migration regimes. PMID:11794787

Turgeon, J; Bernatchez, L

2001-11-11

285

Species Flock in the North American Great Lakes: Molecular Ecology of Lake Nipigon Ciscoes (Teleostei: Coregonidae: Coregonus)  

E-print Network

Species Flock in the North American Great Lakes: Molecular Ecology of Lake Nipigon Ciscoes #12;SPECIES FLOCK IN THE NORTH AMERICAN GREAT LAKES: MOLECULAR ECOLOGY OF LAKE NIPIGON CISCOES poly~norphismsobserved among the North American Great Lakes ciscoes suggest that this fish group has

Bernatchez, Louis

286

Resolving Taxonomy and Historic Distribution for Conservation of Rare Great Plains Fishes: Hybognathus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in Eastern Colorado Basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

(brassy minnow) and Hybognathus placitus (plains minnow) have made determination of their historic distributions and conservation status unclear in eastern Colorado basins. We developed logistic regression models from morphometric measurements to predict species identity of Hybognathus collections from Colorado and adjacent counties (n 5 1154 specimens in 134 lots). A model based on orbit diameter, stan- dard length, and eye

Julie A. Scheurer; Kevin R. Bestgen; Kurt D. Fausch; S. A. Schaefer

2003-01-01

287

Growth of marbled spinefoot Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775 (Teleostei: Siganidae) introduced to Antalya Bay, eastern Mediterranean Sea (Turkey)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age and growth of the marbled spinefoot, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775, were determined based on specimens collected from Antalya Bay (eastern Mediterranean), during the period from October 1996 to August 1998. Total length–weight relationship was estimated as W=0.0064L3.221 for females, W=0.0079L3.135 for males. Growth parameters of the von Bertalanffy equation were computed for females and males as: L?=22.55cm,W?=146.8g,k=0.267yr?1,t0=?0.47 and

Murat Bilecenoglu; Murat Kaya

2002-01-01

288

Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae) do not seem to hybridize in natural populations  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil) and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept) easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers. PMID:24260650

Ferreira-Neto, Maressa; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Camacho, Juan Pedro Martínez; Bakkali, Mohammed; de Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

2012-01-01

289

A new record of a flathead fish (Teleostei: Platycephalidae) from China based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new record of Platycephalus sp.1 (sensu Nakabo, 2002) was documented based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding. We collected 174 specimens of the genus Platycephalus from Chinese coastal waters of Dongying, Qingdao, Zhoushan, and Beihai. Samples were identified as Platycephalus sp.1 morphologically. The coloration, meristic traits, and morphometric measurements are consistent with previously published records. In brief, it is an orange-brown flathead fish with dark brown spots scattered on head and body, lateral line scales 83 to 99 with one or two spine-bearing anteriormost pored scale, no yellow blotch on the caudal fin. Cytochrome oxidase I subunit (COI) gene fragments were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The mean evolutionary distance within the species Platycephalus sp.1 was 0.1%. Net evolutionary distances between Platycephalus sp.1 and other species of Platycephalus ranged from 10.8% to 19.7%, which is much greater than the threshold for species delimitation. The COI sequence analysis strongly supports the validity of Platyceohalus sp.1 at genetic level.

Qin, Yan; Song, Na; Zou, Jianwei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Cheng, Guangping; Gao, Tianxiang; Zhang, Xiumei

2013-05-01

290

Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Monorchis parvus Looss, 1902 (Digenea, Monorchiidae), a parasite of Diplodus annularis (Pisces, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes the characteristic ultrastructural features of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Monorchis parvus (Trematoda, Digenea, Monorchiidae). This spermiogenesis is characterized by a flagellar rotation of about 120° and the formation of a novel ultrastructural element: a centriolar extension. It nevertheless follows the general pattern of digeneans. It begins with the formation of a differentiation zone, comprising striated

Céline Levron; Sonia Ternengo; Bernard Marchand

2004-01-01

291

Intergeneric Spawning Between Captive Female Sacramento Perch (Archoplites interruptus) and Male Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestrus), Teleostei: Centrarchidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North American freshwater fish family Centrarchidae is well known for extensive natural hybridization, but there are no reports of voluntary spawning between genera. We document courtship and spawning in an aquarium between two separate pairs of a male Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestris) and a female Sacramento Perch (Archoplites interruptus). One trial resulted in a low frequency of fertilized eggs,

Daniel I. Bolnick; Chris E. Miller

2006-01-01

292

Genetic and Morphological Evidence Implies Existence of Two Sympatric Species in Cyathopharynx furcifer (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika.  

PubMed

Although the cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika are treated as a textbook example of adaptive radiation, many taxonomic problems remain unresolved. Cyathopharynx furcifer, which belongs to the currently monospecific genus Cyathopharynx, contains two colour morphs at the southern end of the lake: one has a yellow anal fin, and the other has a black anal fin. Some books for hobbyists of ornamental fish treat these morphs as different species, but taxonomic studies have neither mentioned the existence nor addressed the status of these colour morphs. In the present paper, we analysed these two colour morphs using mitochondrial, microsatellite, morphometric, and meristic data sets. Both molecular and morphological data allowed clear discrimination between these morphs, suggesting the existence of two distinct sympatric species. Three taxonomic species have been described in this genus, and only C. furcifer is currently considered valid. Observations of type specimens of these three nominal species will be needed to determine the scientific names of these colour morphs. PMID:22675655

Takahashi, Tetsumi; Hori, Michio

2012-01-01

293

Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea) of Lake Tanganyika: II: description of the first Cichlidogyrus spp. parasites from Tropheini fish hosts (Teleostei, Cichlidae).  

PubMed

Although Lake Tanganyika hosts the most diverse endemic cichlid fish assemblage, its monogenean parasite fauna has hardly been documented. The cichlid tribe Tropheini has generated great interest because of its systematic position within the Haplochromini s.l. and its diversity in trophic morphology, reproductive behaviour and population structure. It has the potential to host a diverse Monogenea fauna. Here, we describe the first Cichlidogyrus spp.: Cichlidogyrus steenbergei sp. n., Cichlidogyrus irenae sp. n. and Cichlidogyrus gistelincki sp. n. The three host species, Limnotilapia dardennii, Ctenochromis horei and Gnathochromis pfefferi, are all infected by a single unique Cichlidogyrus sp. The genital and haptoral structure of the new species suggests a close relationship, which might mirror the close affinities between the hosts within the Tropheini. Based on haptoral configuration, the new species belong to a morphological group within the genus containing parasites both of West African cichlids and of Haplochromini, and hence, do not represent a new organisation of the attachment organ (as has recently been described of congeners infecting the ectodine cichlid Ophthalmotilapia). PMID:21710349

Gillardin, Céline; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Pariselle, Antoine; Huyse, Tine; Volckaert, Filip A M

2012-01-01

294

Evolutionary history of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Lamprologini (Teleostei: Perciformes) derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data.  

PubMed

Lake Tanganyika comprises a cichlid species flock with substrate-breeding and mouthbrooding lineages. While sexual selection via mate choice on male mating color is thought to boost speciation rates in mouthbrooding cichlids, this is not the case in substrate-breeding lamprologines, which mostly form stable pairs and lack sexual dichromatism. We present a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolution of the cichlid tribe Lamprologini, based upon mtDNA sequences and multilocus nuclear DNA (AFLP) markers. Twelve mtDNA clades were identified, seven of which were corroborated by the AFLP tree. The radiation is likely to have started about 5.3 MYA, contemporarily with that of the mouthbrooding C-lineage, and probably triggered by the onset of deep-water conditions in Lake Tanganyika. Neither the Congo- nor the Malagarazi River species form the most ancestral branch. Several conflicts in the mtDNA phylogeny with taxonomic assignments based upon color, eco-morphology and behavior could be resolved and complemented by the AFLP analysis. Introgressive hybridization upon secondary contact seems to be the most likely cause for paraphyly of taxa due to mtDNA capture in species involving brood-care helpers, while accidental hybridization best explains the para- or polyphyly of several gastropod shell breeders. Taxonomic error or paraphyly due to the survival of ancestral lineages appear responsible for inconsistencies in the genera Lamprologus and Neolamprologus. PMID:20601006

Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter; Duftner, Nina; Schelly, Robert; Koblmüller, Stephan

2010-10-01

295

Evidence for panmixia despite barriers to gene flow in the southern African endemic, Caffrogobius caffer (Teleostei: Gobiidae)  

PubMed Central

Background Oceanography and life-history characteristics are known to influence the genetic structure of marine species, however the relative role that these factors play in shaping phylogeographic patterns remains unresolved. The population genetic structure of the endemic, rocky shore dwelling Caffrogobius caffer was investigated across a known major oceanographic barrier, Cape Agulhas, which has previously been shown to strongly influence genetic structuring of South African rocky shore and intertidal marine organisms. Given the variable and dynamic oceanographical features of the region, we further sought to test how the pattern of gene flow between C. caffer populations is affected by the dominant Agulhas and Benguela current systems of the southern oceans. Results The variable 5' region of the mtDNA control region was amplified for 242 individuals from ten localities spanning the distributional range of C. caffer. Fifty-five haplotypes were recovered and in stark contrast to previous phylogeographic studies of South African marine species, C. caffer showed no significant population genetic structuring along 1300 km of coastline. The parsimony haplotype network, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses revealed panmixia. Coalescent analyses reveal that gene flow in C. caffer is strongly asymmetrical and predominantly affected by the Agulhas Current. Notably, there was no gene flow between the east coast and all other populations, although all other analyses detect no significant population structure, suggesting a recent divergence. The mismatch distribution suggests that C. caffer underwent a population expansion at least 14 500 years ago. Conclusion We propose several possible life-history adaptations that could have enabled C. caffer to maintain gene flow across its distributional range, including a long pelagic larval stage. We have shown that life-history characteristics can be an important contributing factor to the phylogeography of marine species and that the effects of oceanography do not necessarily suppress its influence on effective dispersal. PMID:19040766

2008-01-01

296

Cement gland apparatus of the angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (Teleostei, Cichlidae): Functional morphology in comparison with adhesive organs of other Chordata  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, the developmental stages of P. scalare are described, with particular attention to the functional morphology of the adhesive apparatus, composed of three pairs of glands, two dorsal and one ventral, which serve to attach the larvae to the substrate prior to their becoming free?swimming. The results show that this apparatus is a complex structure of remarkable dimensions.

Silvia Groppelli; Roberta Pennati; Cristina Sotgia; Fiorenza De Bernardi

2003-01-01

297

Molecular phylogeny of grunts (Teleostei, Haemulidae), with an emphasis on the ecology, evolution, and speciation history of New World species  

PubMed Central

Background The fish family Haemulidae is divided in two subfamilies, Haemulinae and Plectorhynchinae (sweetlips), including approximately 17 genera and 145 species. The family has a broad geographic distribution that encompasses contrasting ecological habitats resulting in a unique potential for evolutionary hypotheses testing. In the present work we have examined the phylogenetic relationships of the family using selected representatives of additional Percomorpha based on Bayesian and Maximum likelihood methods by means of three mitochondrial genes. We also developed a phylogenetic hypothesis of the New World species based on five molecular markers (three mitochondrial and two nuclear) as a framework to evaluate the evolutionary history, the ecological diversification and speciation patterns of this group. Results Mitochondrial genes and different reconstruction methods consistently recovered a monophyletic Haemulidae with the Sillaginidae as its sister clade (although with low support values). Previous studies proposed different relationships that were not recovered in this analysis. We also present a robust molecular phylogeny of Haemulinae based on the combined data of two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes. All topologies support the monophyly of both sub-families (Haemulinae, Plectorhinchinae). The genus Pomadasys was shown to be polyphyletic and Haemulon, Anisotremus, and Plectorhinchus were found to be paraphyletic. Four of seven presumed geminate pairs were indeed found to be sister species, however our data did not support a contemporaneous divergence. Analyses also revealed that differential use of habitat might have played an important role in the speciation dynamics of this group of fishes, in particular among New World species where extensive sample coverage was available. Conclusions This study provides a new hypothesis for the sister clade of Hamulidae and a robust phylogeny of the latter. The presence of para- and polyphyletic genera underscores the need for a taxonomic reassessment within the family. A scarce sampling of the Old World Pomadasys species prevents us to definitively point to a New World origin of the sub-familiy Hamulinae, however our data suggest that this is likely to be the case. This study also illustrates how life history habitat influences speciation and evolutionary trajectories. PMID:22537107

2012-01-01

298

[A metacercarial disease in the dogfish species Umbra limi (Teleostei) and a trematode infestation in a Physa sp. (Mollusca)].  

PubMed

A metacercarial infestation is reported in Canadian Umbra limi and a mass infestation by trematodes in Physa sp. from the same locality. Trials made by using parasitised snails showed that both parasites are not of the same species. PMID:6495318

Foersch, W; Reichenbach-Klinke, H H; Schaller, D; Schmidt, K

1984-01-01

299

Neoplecostomus doceensis: a new loricariid species (Teleostei, Siluriformes) from the rio Doce basin and comments about its putative origin  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Neoplecostomus is described from the rio Doce basin representing the first species of this genus in the basin. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by having enlarged, fleshy folds between dentaries, two or three series of developed papillae anterior to premaxillary teeth and a adipose-fin membrane present, and by lacking enlarged odontodes along snout lateral margins in mature males, a well-developed dorsal-fin spinelet wider than dorsal-fin spine base, lower number of lateral-line figs and developed membrane on the dorsal portion of the first, second and third pelvic-fin branched rays. Additionally, we present a brief discussion of biogeographic scenarios that may explain the distribution of the new species in the rio Doce basin. We suggested that the ancestral lineage of the new species reached the rio Doce from the upper portions of rio Paraná drainages about 3.5 Mya (95% HPD: 1.6–5.5) indicating a colonization route of the N. doceensis ancestral lineage from the south end of Serra do Espinhaço, probably as a result of headwater capture processes between the upper rio Paraná and rio Doce basins. PMID:25317064

Roxo, Fábio F.; Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Zawadzki, Cláudio H.; Oliveira, Claudio

2014-01-01

300

Ovarian follicular atresia is mediated by heterophagy, autophagy, and apoptosis in Prochilodus argenteus and Leporinus taeniatus (Teleostei: Characiformes).  

PubMed

We investigated apoptosis, cell proliferation antigen (PCNA), and heat shock protein (HSP70) during ovarian follicular atresia in two freshwater teleost species from the São Francisco River basin, Brazil: curimatã-pacu, Prochilodus argenteus and piau-jejo, Leporinus taeniatus. Fishes were maintained in captivity after the reproductive period and ovarian regression was assessed by gonadosomatic index for three stages: early, advanced, and late regression. Follicular atresia was analysed by light and transmission electron microscopy, as well as by TUNEL and immunohistochemistry for HSP70 and PCNA. During early regression, atretic follicles exhibited zona pellucida breakdown, yolk degeneration, and hypertrophied follicular cells (e.g., granulosa in mammals). Intense heterophagy to engulf the yolk, and autophagy were detected in the follicular cells during advanced and late atresia. The TUNEL assay detected DNA fragmentation, mainly in late follicular atresia. The apoptosis rate of the follicular cells increased up to 10% during follicular atresia in both species and was negatively correlated with follicular area. Immunohistochemistry reaction for HSP70 stained the follicular cells strongly during advanced atresia, when they are intensively involved in yolk engulfment, whereas the reaction for PCNA labelled theca cells. We inferred that heterophagy, autophagy, and apoptosis contributed to follicular atresia in teleost ovaries, thereby achieving a more efficient removal of the degenerating oocyte and dying follicular cells. Additionally, HSP70 may protect the follicular cells before apoptosis when they are involved in yolk engulfment, and cell proliferation in the theca contributed to ovarian remodelling. PMID:18701155

Santos, H B; Thomé, R G; Arantes, F P; Sato, Y; Bazzoli, N; Rizzo, E

2008-12-01

301

Two new species of protogyrodactylus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) from the gills of Gerres nigri (Teleostei: Gerreidae) from Senegal.  

PubMed

Protogyrodactylus ethiopicus sp. n. and P. kritskyi sp. n. are described from the gills of Gerres nigri Günther (Gerreidae, Perciformes) captured from the estuary of the Sine-Saloum River (Senegal, West Africa). These new species differ from previously described species within the genus by a mid- or dextro-ventral vaginal opening (dextral in all other species). They are part of a morphological species group within Protogyrodactylus Johnston et Tiegs, 1922 that has the tip of the superficial root of the ventral anchor resembling a hook and two anterior projections on the anterior margin of the ventral bar. Protogyrodactylus ethiopicus differs from the remaining species in this group mainly by the morphology of the base of the male copulatory organ (MCO), which is disk-shaped, and the shape of the anterior projections of the ventral bar (round in the new species and relatively elongate in the other species of the group). The other new species, P. kritskyi, differs from all others in the same morphological group in having a MCO with a greatly expanded base that bears a heel-like subterminal sclerotization. PMID:22439429

Boeger, Walter A; Diamanka, Arfang; Pariselle, Antoine; Patella, Luciana

2012-02-01

302

Monogeneans from the gills of glassfishes (Teleostei: Perciformes: Ambassidae) in India, with the proposal of Chandacleidus n. g. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae).  

PubMed

Chandacleidus n. g. (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) is proposed to include three species collected from the gills of Indian glassfishes (Ambassidae): Chandacleidus recurvatus (Jain, 1961) n. comb. (syn. Urocleidus recurvatus Jain, 1961) from Chanda nama and C. ranga (new host record) is redescribed; and Chandacleidus saiensis n. sp. and C. lucknowensis n. sp., both from Chanda nama and C. baculis, are described. Chandacleidus n. g. is characterised by species possessing: posteriorly united intestinal caeca; overlapping gonads (testis dorsal to ovary); a counterclockwise male copulatory organ; a grooved accessory piece; a dextro-marginal vaginal pore; a haptor with two lateral flaps and armed with dissimilar dorsal and ventral anchor/bar complexes and 14 similar hooks (dissimilar in size); and hook shanks comprised of two subunits. PMID:16612663

Agrawal, Nirupama; Tripathi, Amit; Devak, Amita

2006-03-01

303

Embryonic and larval developmental stages of African giant catfish Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1809) (Teleostei, Clariidae).  

PubMed

The dearth of African giant catfish Heterobranchus bidorsalis seeds poses great threat to its aquaculture and biodiversity, hence detailed knowledge and understanding of its embryology is indispensable for its artificial propagation and conservation programmes. Photomicrographs of extruded oocyte through all developmental cell stages of live embryo to larval stage are documented with the aid of a light microscope. The optical transparency of the developing embryo enabled us to describe its deep structures, distinctive features and characterize the stages pictorially. Extruded oocyte had a mean diameter of 1?±?0.1 mm, ~20% increase when hydrated, and bounded by double thin perivitelline membranes. The first mitotic cleavage occurred at 69 min post-fertilization (pf) resulting in 2, 4 (2?×?2 array of cells), 8 (2?×?4), 16 (4?×?4), 32 (4?×?8), 64 (2?×?4?×?8) blastomeres, then developed to morula, blastula and gastrula stages. Blastula was featured by formation of enveloping layer and yolk syncytial layer. Onset of epiboly at 3 h 57 min depicted the commencement of gastrula while closure of blastopore at 11 h 8 min marked its completion. Neurulation period was distinct from segmentation where organogenesis was fully active. Embryo sudden muscular contraction was noticed at ~17 h pf, increased prior to hatching with caudal locomotion firstly at 42 s interval. Heartbeat of embryo commenced at ~1 h before its unique eclosion at average of 72 beats/min while first larva emerged at 21 h at a controlled temperature of 28.5?±?0.5°C. Mean total length (TL) of larvae and their pouch thickness were 5?±?1 mm and 0.05?±?0.02 mm respectively. 1 -day old larvae revealed 8 distinctive neuromeres and by day 3, epicanthus folds of the eyes were fully uncovered; and thereafter commenced exogenous feeding. At day 4, larvae recorded mean TL of 9?±?1 mm and 15 caudal fin rays. The fin bifurcation to dorsal and adipose fins was observed at third and half weeks post-hatchability with the dorsal fin length to adipose fin was 1.7:1. This study, for the first time, presents significant morpho-sequential developmental stages of H. bidorsalis and registers its unique form of eclosion. PMID:25512884

Olaniyi, Wasiu Adekunle; Omitogun, Ofelia Galman

2014-01-01

304

The demersal eggs and planktonic larvae of Chromis dispilus (Teleostei: Pomacentridae) in north?eastern New Zealand coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demersal eggs and planktonic larvae of Chromis dispilus are described. Information is provided on egg hatching times and the abundance of larvae in surface waters. Eggs reared in the laboratory, and monitored in the field, took 5.5 days to hatch. Pigmentation patterns on the eggs, which change during development, allow the eggs to be staged in situ. Recognition of

M. J. Kingsford

1985-01-01

305

Male mate choice and sperm allocation in a sexual/asexual mating complex of Poecilia (Poeciliidae, Teleostei)  

PubMed Central

Male mate choice is critical for understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual/asexual mating complexes involving sperm-dependent, gynogenetic species. Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa) require sperm to trigger embryogenesis, but the males (e.g. Poecilia mexicana) do not contribute genes. Males benefit from mating with Amazon mollies, because such matings make males more attractive to conspecific females, but they might control the cost of such matings by providing less sperm to Amazon mollies. We examined this at the behavioural and sperm levels. P. mexicana males preferred to mate with, and transferred more sperm to conspecific females. However, if males mated with P. formosa, sperm was readily transferred. This underscores the importance of male choice in this system. PMID:17148157

Schlupp, I; Plath, M

2005-01-01

306

Some aspects of the biology and ecology of Knipowitschia caucasica (Teleostei: Gobiidae) in the Evros Delta (North Aegean Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some aspects of the biology and ecology of the goby Knipowitschia caucasica were studied over a period of 13 months in a poly-to euhaline area in the Evros Delta (North Aegean Sea). This fish grows rapidly in the summer and autumn after hatching, matures after its first winter, breeds from the end of April to the end of July, and grows rapidly again in July September. The older males perish after their second February, whereas some females have a second breeding season at the end of April/beginning of May, shortly before their death. The fish grows to about 40 mm in total length. There is a positive correlation between the total length (TL) and the standard length (SL) or the cleaned body weight (CW). SL increases slower than TL, whereas CW increases slower than TL in immature individuals and faster in males and females. There is no difference between immature individuals, males and females, in the growth rate of SL, TL and CW, TL. The mean monthly values of the condition factor varies from 0.289 to 0.576 in females and from 0.313 to 0.548 in males. The overall sex ratio of females to males is 1: 1.46. Fecundity ranges from 60 to 217 eggs with a mean value of 109.8 and depends upon size, whereas relative fecundity varies between 968 and 2170 with a mean of 1558. The fish feeds predominantly on benthic amphipods and polychaetes.

Kevrekidis, T.; Kokkinakis, A. K.; Koukouras, A.

1990-06-01

307

The Inner Ear and its Coupling to the Swim Bladder in the Deep-Sea Fish Antimora rostrata (Teleostei: Moridae)  

PubMed Central

The inner ear structure of Antimora rostrata and its coupling to the swim bladder were analyzed and compared with the inner ears of several shallow-water species that also have similar coupling. The inner ear of Antimora has a long saccular otolith and sensory epithelium as compared to many other fishes. Some parts of the membranous labyrinth are thick and rigid, while other parts are thinner but attached tightly to the bony capsule. The partially rigid membranous labyrinth, along with its intimate connection to the swim bladder, may help the inner ear follow the sound oscillations from the swim bladder with better precision than would occur in a less rigid inner ear. In addition, the saccular sensory epithelium has an elaborate structure and an anterior enlargement that may be correlated with increased hearing sensitivity. Some of the features in the inner ear of Antimora may reflect the functional specialization of deep-water living and support the hypothesis that there is enhanced inner ear sensitivity in some deep-sea fishes. PMID:21532967

Deng, Xiaohong; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Popper, Arthur N.

2011-01-01

308

Evolutionary history of Otophysi (Teleostei), a major clade of the modern freshwater fishes: Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Freshwater harbors approximately 12,000 fish species accounting for 43% of the diversity of all modern fish. A single ancestral\\u000a lineage evolved into about two-thirds of this enormous biodiversity (? 7900 spp.) and is currently distributed throughout\\u000a the world's continents except Antarctica. Despite such remarkable species diversity and ubiquity, the evolutionary history\\u000a of this major freshwater fish clade, Otophysi, remains largely

Masanori Nakatani; Masaki Miya; Kohji Mabuchi; Kenji Saitoh; Mutsumi Nishida

2011-01-01

309

Quantitative histological study of the optic nerve in species of minnows (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inhabiting clear and turbid water.  

PubMed

Quantitative analysis of the optic nerve of minnows using light- and electron microscopy demonstrated that anatomical characteristics of the visual system are closely related to habitat turbidity. Species in the genera Notropis and Cyprinella inhabiting predominantly clear water had larger eyes and almost twice as many optic nerve fibers compared to minnows of turbid habitats. No differences were detected in the thickness of myelination, the axon diameter profile, or the number of optic nerve fibers per retinal area, indicating that the relative number of fibers, as well as their anatomical characteristics, are similar in all species and independent of habitat turbidity. It is therefore hypothesized that quantitative differences in the number of visual elements available for sampling and processing in the retina, optic nerve, and optic tectum are sufficient to account for presumed differences in visual performance. PMID:1450899

Huber, R; Rylander, M K

1992-01-01

310

Biogeography of the New Zealand Torrentfish, Cheimarrichthys fosteri (Teleostei: Pinguipedidae): A Distribution Driven Mostly by Ecology and Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cheimarrichthys fosteri is an endemic New Zealand freshwater fish that has its closest common ancestry with the blue cod, Parapercis colias, a species found in New Zealand coastal seas. Cheimarrichthys fosteri is amphidromous, and widely distributed around New Zealand. The fact that it has marine-living juvenile has a strong impact on the species' distribution. Upstream\\/inland penetration in river systems is

Robert M. McDowall

2000-01-01

311

An evaluation of fossil tip-dating versus node-age calibrations in tetraodontiform fishes (Teleostei: Percomorphaceae).  

PubMed

Time-calibrated phylogenies based on molecular data provide a framework for comparative studies. Calibration methods to combine fossil information with molecular phylogenies are, however, under active development, often generating disagreement about the best way to incorporate paleontological data into these analyses. This study provides an empirical comparison of the most widely used approach based on node-dating priors for relaxed clocks implemented in the programs BEAST and MrBayes, with two recently proposed improvements: one using a new fossilized birth-death process model for node dating (implemented in the program DPPDiv), and the other using a total-evidence or tip-dating method (implemented in MrBayes and BEAST). These methods are applied herein to tetraodontiform fishes, a diverse group of living and extinct taxa that features one of the most extensive fossil records among teleosts. Previous estimates of time-calibrated phylogenies of tetraodontiforms using node-dating methods reported disparate estimates for their age of origin, ranging from the late Jurassic to the early Paleocene (ca. 150-59Ma). We analyzed a comprehensive dataset with 16 loci and 210 morphological characters, including 131 taxa (95 extant and 36 fossil species) representing all families of fossil and extant tetraodontiforms, under different molecular clock calibration approaches. Results from node-dating methods produced consistently younger ages than the tip-dating approaches. The older ages inferred by tip dating imply an unlikely early-late Jurassic (ca. 185-119Ma) origin for this order and the existence of extended ghost lineages in their fossil record. Node-based methods, by contrast, produce time estimates that are more consistent with the stratigraphic record, suggesting a late Cretaceous (ca. 86-96Ma) origin. We show that the precision of clade age estimates using tip dating increases with the number of fossils analyzed and with the proximity of fossil taxa to the node under assessment. This study suggests that current implementations of tip dating may overestimate ages of divergence in calibrated phylogenies. It also provides a comprehensive phylogenetic framework for tetraodontiform systematics and future comparative studies. PMID:25462998

Arcila, Dahiana; Alexander Pyron, R; Tyler, James C; Ortí, Guillermo; Betancur-R, Ricardo

2015-01-01

312

Phylogenetic relationships and timing of diversification in gonorynchiform fishes inferred using nuclear gene DNA sequences (Teleostei: Ostariophysi).  

PubMed

The Gonorynchiformes are the sister lineage of the species-rich Otophysi and provide important insights into the diversification of ostariophysan fishes. Phylogenies of gonorynchiforms inferred using morphological characters and mtDNA gene sequences provide differing resolutions with regard to the sister lineage of all other gonorynchiforms (Chanos vs. Gonorynchus) and support for monophyly of the two miniaturized lineages Cromeria and Grasseichthys. In this study the phylogeny and divergence times of gonorynchiforms are investigated with DNA sequences sampled from nine nuclear genes and a published morphological character matrix. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses reveal substantial congruence among individual gene trees with inferences from eight genes placing Gonorynchus as the sister lineage to all other gonorynchiforms. Seven gene trees resolve Cromeria and Grasseichthys as a clade, supporting previous inferences using morphological characters. Phylogenies resulting from either concatenating the nuclear genes, performing a multispecies coalescent species tree analysis, or combining the morphological and nuclear gene DNA sequences resolve Gonorynchus as the living sister lineage of all other gonorynchiforms, strongly support the monophyly of Cromeria and Grasseichthys, and resolve a clade containing Parakneria, Cromeria, and Grasseichthys. The morphological dataset, which includes 13 gonorynchiform fossil taxa that range in age from Early Cretaceous to Eocene, was analyzed in combination with DNA sequences from the nine nuclear genes and a relaxed molecular clock to estimate times of evolutionary divergence. This "tip dating" strategy accommodates uncertainty in the phylogenetic resolution of fossil taxa that provide calibration information in the relaxed molecular clock analysis. The estimated age of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of living gonorynchiforms is slightly older than estimates from previous node dating efforts, but the molecular tip dating estimated ages of Kneriinae (Kneria, Parakneria, Cromeria, and Grasseichthys) and the two paedomorphic lineages, Cromeria and Grasseichthys, are considerably younger. PMID:25087656

Near, Thomas J; Dornburg, Alex; Friedman, Matt

2014-11-01

313

Composition and structure of the parasite faunas of cod, Gadus morhua L. (Teleostei: Gadidae), in the North East Atlantic  

PubMed Central

Background Although numerous studies on parasites of the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. have been conducted in the North Atlantic, comparative analyses on local cod parasite faunas are virtually lacking. The present study is based on examination of large samples of cod from six geographical areas of the North East Atlantic which yielded abundant baseline data on parasite distribution and abundance. Materials and Methods A total of 826 fish was sampled in the Baltic, Celtic, Irish and North seas, Icelandic waters and Trondheimsfjord (Norway) in 2002 (spring and autumn) and 2003 (spring). The gills and internal organs (oesophagus, stomach, intestine, pyloric caeca, liver, heart, spleen, gall bladder and gonads) were examined for macroparasites following a standardised protocol. The taxonomic consistency of the identification was ensured thorough the entire study. Results We discuss some problems in parasite identification, outline the composition of the parasite faunas in cod in the six North East Atlantic regions, provide novel data on parasite prevalence and abundance and a comparative assessment of the structure of the regional parasite faunas with respect to the higher-level taxonomic groupings, host specificity and zoogeographical distribution of the parasites. Altogether 57 different parasite forms were found including seven new host records (Diclidophora merlangi, Rhipidocotyle sp., Fellodistomum sp., Steringotrema sp., Cucullanus sp., Spinitectus sp., and Chondracanthus ornatus). The predominant groups of cod parasites were trematodes (19 species) and nematodes (13 species) including larval anisakids which comprised 58.2% of the total number of individuals. Conclusion Our study reveals relatively rich regional parasite faunas in cod from the North East Atlantic which are dominated by generalist parasites with Arcto-Boreal distribution. Further, it provides more detailed data on the distribution in the North East Atlantic of the majority of cod parasites which may serve as baselines for future studies on the effect of climate change. Based on the faunal comparisons, predictions can be made in relation to the structure and diversity of the parasite communities in the North East Atlantic regions studied. PMID:18638387

Perdiguero-Alonso, Diana; Montero, Francisco E; Raga, Juan Antonio; Kostadinova, Aneta

2008-01-01

314

Taste preferences and taste thresholds to classical taste substances in the carnivorous fish, kutum Rutilus frisii kutum (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the taste preferences in the closely related sympatric fish species with different feeding patterns. For this purpose, palatability for four classical taste substances was evaluated for carnivorous kutum Rutilus frisii kutum and the results were compared with the taste preferences of the omnivorous roach Rutilus rutilus which had been studied earlier. In addition, the threshold concentration and the dose-response relationship of the most palatable tastants were evaluated and the ability of kutum to differentiate food with tastants in different concentrations was estimated. It was found that citric acid significantly increases the agar gel pellet consumption within the range of concentrations from 0.01M to 0.52M; the pellets with a concentration of 0.026M were the most palatable. The pellet consumption is significantly different if the concentration of citric acid in the pellets differs more than two times. The absolute threshold concentration is 0.01M, or 2.74?g of citric acid per pellet. Sucrose and NaCl have deterrent taste at the highest concentrations tested (0.29 and 1.73M, respectively). Both substances are palatable at 10 times lower concentrations and become indifferent after further gradual decrease in their concentration. CaCl2 decreases the pellets consumption at 0.9M but is an indifferent tastant at lower concentrations (0.45, 0.09 and 0.045M). The number of rejections and repeated grasps of a food pellet is fewness and is not related to the pellet's palatability, while the retention time of pellet in the oral cavity positively and highly correlates with the pellet's palatability. Kutum have opposite taste preferences for most substances tested in comparison with the roach. It indicates that the taste preferences mediated by the oral taste receptors are different in closely related sympatric fish displayed diet divergences. PMID:25497081

Goli, Sheyda; Jafari, Valiollah; Ghorbani, Rassol; Kasumyan, Alexander

2015-03-01

315

Experimental Transmission of Enterobacteriaceae by Insects. I. Fate of Salmonella Fed to the Hide Beetle Dermestes maculatus and a Novel Method for Mounting Insects1  

PubMed Central

A method of mounting insects was devised. The procedure is simple to perform and facilitates quantitative bacteriological studies of feces with a minimal possibility of cross contamination. By this method, it was observed that approximately 107 cells of Salmonella were required for passage through the intestinal tract. Multiple doses of this magnitude were necessary to initiate intestinal infection. The numerical considerations cast doubt that Dermestes is involved significantly in the dissemination of Salmonella in the environment of food and feed plants. Images PMID:5785953

Julseth, R. M.; Felix, Jacob K.; Burkholder, Wendell E.; Deibel, R. H.

1969-01-01

316

Species profiles: Life history and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. [Scomberomorus cavalla; Scomberomorus maculatus  

SciTech Connect

This Species Profile on king and Spanish mackerel summarizes the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, fishery descriptions, ecological role, and environmental requirements of these coastal pelagic fish to assist environmental impact assessment. King and Spanish mackerel support major commercial and sport fisheries in south Florida. In 1974 to 1983, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic commercial landings of king mackerel declined from 10.4 to 4.3 million lb.; Spanish mackerel have fluctuated between 4.9 to 17.4 million lb. Both inhabit coastal waters, but Spanish mackerel are generally found closer to beaches and in outer estuarine waters. Both species feed principally on estuarine-dependent species. They are highly migratory, exhibiting seasonal migrations to winter feeding grounds off south Florida and summer spawning/feeding grounds in the northern Gulf of Mexico and off the Atlantic coast of the Southeastern US. Spawning occurs from March/April through September/October between the middle and Outer Continental Shelf (35 to 183 mi) for king mackerel and the inner shelf (12 to 34 mi) for Spanish mackerel. King mackerel reach sexual maturity in their 3rd and 4th years and Spanish, between their 2nd and 3rd. Female king mackerel live longer and grow larger and faster than males. Spanish mackerel live to 8 years; females also grow faster than males. King and Spanish mackerel feed principally on schooling fishes. Larvae and juveniles of both species are prey to little tunny and dolphin; adults are prey for sharks and bottlenose dolphin. Temperature and salinity are important factors regulating mackerel distribution.

Godcharles, M.F.; Murphy, M.D.

1986-06-01

317

Evaluation of neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil obtained by different methods and neem powder for the management of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored cowpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neem seed oil obtained by extraction with analytical grade acetone using a Soxhlet apparatus, NSO(S) and that obtained by the traditional kneading method, NSO(K) were compared with the powder equivalent weights (PEW, the neem seed powder capable of yielding the equivalent amounts of the oil used for the treatments) for their relative efficacy in reducing the reproductive potential of the

N. E. S Lale; H. T Abdulrahman

1999-01-01

318

Cloning of the dmrt1 gene of Xiphophorus maculatus: dmY\\/dmrt1Y is not the master sex-determining gene in the platyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the situation observed in mammals and birds, a switching between different sex determination systems frequently occurred during the evolution of the teleost fish lineage. This might be due to a frequent turnover of sex-determining signals at the top of the sex determination cascade (master sex-determining genes in the case of genetic sex determination). Alternatively, different variations of

Anne-Marie Veith; Alexander Froschauer; Cornelia Körting; Indrajit Nanda; Reinhold Hanel; Michael Schmid; Manfred Schartl; Jean-Nicolas Volff

2003-01-01

319

Conservation Genetics 4: 6781, 2003. 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-print Network

and phylogenetic analyses have resulted in major polytomy among the 8 taxa of the "Coregonus artedi" species. 67 Reticulate evolution and phenotypic diversity in North American ciscoes, Coregonus ssp. (Teleostei words: conservation, Coregonus, ESU, microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA, reticulate evolution Abstract

Bernatchez, Louis

320

An invasive lineage of sculpins, Cottus sp. (Pisces, Teleostei) in the Rhine with new habitat adaptations has originated from hybridization between old phylogeographic groups  

PubMed Central

Fish abundance surveys in the Rhine system have shown in the past two decades that there is a rapid upriver invasion of a freshwater sculpin of the genus Cottus. These fish are found in habitats that are atypical for the known species Cottus gobio, which is confined to small cold streams within the Rhine drainage. Phylogeographic analysis based on mitochondrial haplotypes and diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms indicates that the invasive sculpins are hybrids between two old lineages from the River Scheldt drainage and the River Rhine drainage, although it is morphologically more similar to the Scheldt sculpins. Most importantly, however, the invasive population possesses a unique ecological potential that does not occur in either of the source populations from the Rhine or the Scheldt, which allows the colonization of new habitats that have previously been free of sculpins. Microsatellite analysis shows that the new lineage is genetically intermediate between the old lineages and that it forms a distinct genetic group across its whole expansion range. We conclude that hybridization between long separated groups has lead to the fast emergence of a new, adaptationally distinct sculpin lineage. PMID:16243698

Nolte, Arne W; Freyhof, Jörg; Stemshorn, Kathryn C; Tautz, Diethard

2005-01-01

321

The relationship between the position of the retinal area centralis and feeding behaviour in juvenile black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri (Sparidae: Teleostei).  

PubMed Central

The topography of the neurons in the retinal ganglion cell layer of juvenile black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri changes during development. The region of high cell density the area centralis (AC), relocates from a temporal (central) to a dorsal (peripheral) position within the dorso-temporal retinal quadrant. To ascertain whether the differences in the position of the AC during development are related to feeding behaviour, we monitored fishes that were given a choice of food. A range of feeding behaviour patterns was recorded in individual fishes. The smallest fishes (8-15 mm standard length (SL)) took live food from the water column. Following weaning onto pellets, fishes exhibited a preference for taking food from either the substrate or the surface (but not both). When greater than 20 mm SL, a number of individuals then divided their time between surface and substrate feeding before all fishes became exclusive benthic feeders at a stage between 50 and 80 mm SL. Three individual fishes, for which behaviour patterns were categorized, were killed and the topography of the retinal ganglion cell layer analysed. A range of positions for the AC was found with the smallest fish (12 mm SL) possessing a region of high cell density in the temporal retina. In a larger fish (70 mm SL), feeding from both the substrate and the surface, the AC was found in an intermediate dorso-temporal position. The AC of a fish (51 mm SL) preferentially taking food from the substrate was located in a dorsal position. PMID:11079394

Shand, J; Chin, S M; Harman, A M; Collin, S P

2000-01-01

322

Variation patterns of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene with secondary structure constraints and their application to phylogeny of cyprinine fishes (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).  

PubMed

The mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences from 93 cyprinid fishes were examined to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships within the diverse and economically important subfamily Cyprininae. Within the subfamily a biased nucleotide composition (A>T, C>G) was observed in the loop regions of the gene, and in stem regions apparent selective pressures of base pairing showed a bias in favor of G over C and T over A. The bias may be associated with transition-transversion bias. Rates of nucleotide substitution were lower in stems than in loops. Analysis of compensatory substitutions across these taxa demonstrates 68% covariation in the gene and a logical weighting factor to account for dependence in mutations for phylogenetic inference should be 0.66. Comparisons of varied stem-loop weighting schemes indicate that the down-weightings for stem regions could improve the phylogenetic analysis and the degree of non-independence of stem substitutions was not as important as expected. Bayesian inference under four models of nucleotide substitution indicated that likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses were more effective in improving the phylogenetic performance than was weighted parsimony analysis. In Bayesian analyses, the resolution of phylogenies under the 16-state models for paired regions, incorporating GTR + G + I models for unpaired regions was better than those under other models. The subfamily Cyprininae was resolved as a monophyletic group, as well as tribe Labein and several genera. However, the monophyly of the currently recognized tribes, such as Schizothoracin, Barbin, Cyprinion + Onychostoma lineages, and some genera was rejected. Furthermore, comparisons of the parsimony and Bayesian analyses and results of variable length bootstrap analysis indicates that the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene should contain important character variation to recover well-supported phylogeny of cyprinid taxa whose divergences occurred within the recent 8 MY, but could not provide resolution power for deep phylogenies spanning 10-19 MYA. PMID:18378468

Li, Junbing; Wang, Xuzhen; Kong, Xianghui; Zhao, Kai; He, Shunping; Mayden, Richard L

2008-05-01

323

Hypocreadium caputvadum sp. nov. (Digenea, Lepocreadiidae), an intestinal parasite of the grey triggerfish, Balistes capriscus (Teleostei, Balistidae) from the Gulf of Gabès, Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypocreadium caputvadum sp. nov. (Digenea, Lepocreadiidae) is described from the intestine of Balistes capriscus Gmelin collected from the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia) in the southern Mediterranean Sea. This new species can be distinguished\\u000a by a combination of characteristics shared by no other described species of Hypocreadium Ozaki, 1936. These characteristics include the presence of a distinct anterior notch, the follicular

Hichem Kacem; Hela Derbel; Lassâd Neifar

2011-01-01

324

Karyotype, C-banding and AgNORs of two endemic leuciscine fish, Pseudophoxinus crassus (Ladiges, 1960) and P. hittitorum Freyhof & Özulug, 2010 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The genus Pseudophoxinus Bleeker, 1860 is found in a wide range of habitats in central Anatolia, but it is not well known from a cytogenetic aspect. In this study the first karyotypic description of the spring minnows Pseudophoxinus crassus (Ladiges, 1960) and Pseudophoxinus hittitorum Freyhof & Özulug, 2010 by means of conventional methods (Giemsa staining, C-banding, silver nitrate impregnation (Ag-NORs)) was performed. Both species are endemic and have restricted distributions in Central Anatolia. Pseudophoxinus crassus and Pseudophoxinus hittitorum have the same diploid chromosome number, 2n = 50, patterns of distribution of constitutive heterochromatin (CH), and localization of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs), but differ in their karyotypic formulae (KFs). The C-banding technique revealed clear pericentromeric blocks of CH in many chromosomes; Ag-NORs treatment revealed consistent positive signals at the end of the short arms of a submetacentric chromosome pair, likely homologous in both species. The karyotypic differences found between these species can be used for their taxonomical study. PMID:25610540

Unal, Sevgi; Gaffaro?lu, Muhammet; Ayata, Muradiye Karasu; Yüksel, E?ref

2014-01-01

325

Temperature and gender influences on the hepatic stroma (and associated pancreatic acini) of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei, Cichlidae): a stereological analysis by light microscopy.  

PubMed

The normal organ morphology and function in fishes varies according to several natural factors, and such variability is found in liver. Knowledge about the normal liver microanatomy is fundamental to pathological evaluation. Even though gender and temperature are important factors for modulating morphophysiological processes in fishes, their influences on liver stroma are virtually unknown. Because temperature- and gender-related changes exist in liver parenchyma, we predict both factors should also influence the normal stromal structure. Using Nile tilapia as a model, we undertook a study to: 1) establish baseline quantitative structural data on the hepatic stroma (and intimately associated pancreatic acini); 2) compare data with those available from other species, namely, salmonids that do not have a liver with pancreatic acini; and 3) test our hypothesis that, within normal healthy limits, the stroma and its structural components may vary significantly with temperature and gender. We used 1-year-old male and female specimens acclimated to 17 degrees C (breeding noncompatible) and 27 degrees C (breeding compatible) for 45 days. Basic morphometric fish parameters were recorded. After estimation of liver volume, the organ was sliced and pieces systematically sampled for light microscopy. Stereology allowed estimation of the relative volumes of organ components. The total volumes were computed by combining the relative volumes with the total liver volumes. Nile tilapia of both genders, held at 17 vs. 27 degrees C, showed structural quantitative differences in the relative volumes of stroma and most of its components, and in the total volumes of certain stromal elements. The total volume of the stroma and of associated pancreatic acini did not differ. We first established that, in fishes, the total amount (volume) of liver biliary ducts and of eosinophilic granule cells might significantly change (increase and decrease, respectively) with a higher acclimation temperature. Indeed, virtually all the stereological changes were, essentially, temperature- and not gender-related. At 27 degrees C, parallel changes in the parenchyma caused a decreased liver volume and hepatic-somatic index (HSI). The relative volumetric proportion of stroma vs. parenchyma in tilapia is higher than in salmonids. The differences found in this study could not be detected with a qualitative approach, thus stressing the importance of using stereology for analyzing histological patterns and for establishing reliable baseline values in healthy conditions. It was also anticipated that in experimental settings with fish the baseline liver stromal architecture may be different according to temperature and breeding status; in consequence, the effects of the tested variable may also diverge. Our data do not fully explain the lower liver volume and HSI at 27 degrees C, thus justifying studies on the parenchyma, particularly on cell size and number. PMID:16292772

Figueiredo-Fernandes, António M; Fontaínhas-Fernandes, António A; Monteiro, Rogério A F; Reis-Henriques, Maria A; Rocha, Eduardo

2006-02-01

326

Ontogeny of corticotropin-releasing factor and of hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis responsiveness to stress in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus; Teleostei).  

PubMed

The ontogeny of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system and of the ability of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis to respond to stressors (capture or confinement), or to cortisol treatment was investigated in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). In 2 days post hatching (dph) larvae, the first developmental stage used for immunohistochemistry, CRF-immunoreactivity (ir) was observed in the nucleus preopticus (npo), and in two hypothalamic nuclei (nlt and nrl). In this stage, CRF- and AVT-ir was found in the neural part of the pituitary, and endocrine cells in the pars distalis and pars intermedia contained POMC-derived peptides. In the ventral telencephalon, CRF-ir cells were first observed 5 dph, whereas projections from these cells into the anterior part of the latero-dorsal telencephalon (Dla) from 7 dph onwards. CRF, ACTH, alpha-MSH, and cortisol were quantified by radioimmunoassays in homogenates of the anterior-cranial region of the larvae containing brain, pituitary, and headkidneys. CRF contents increased from 43 +/- 3 to 1070 +/- 70 pg/larvae between 5 and 110 dph. Larvae of age 5, 12, 24, and 42 dph were captured sequentially from a group. All life stages were able to rapidly increase their cortisol content in response to this stressor (ANOVA: P < 0.001). Overall, the developmental stage affected cortisol content (ANOVA: P < 0.001), but developmental stage did not influence the cortisol reaction to stress (ANOVA: P > 0.162). Whole brain CRF content did not change during the 20 min stress period and the relationship between CRF-producing neurons and the initial HPI stress response in early life stages remains to be established. Cortisol feeding of 18 and 29 dph larvae for periods ranging from 2 to 24 days resulted in elevations of the CRF content (P < 0.003) in comparison to controls. In 18 dph larvae cortisol feeding abolished the cortisol response to capture stress as observed in control fed larvae (P < 0.008). We propose that cortisol induced upregulation of CRF takes place in the telencephalon and is restricted to a time period during larval development, characterised by the absence of glucocortoid receptor (GR) expression in the telencephalic Dm region in these larvae. Finally, the stress response to 24 h confinement was compared between saltwater adapted and freshwater adapted juveniles (age 77 dph). Confinement stress (24 h) affected cortisol and CRF content (ANOVA: P < 0.001, P < 0.008, respectively), but not ACTH content. Interactions were observed between salinity and confinement regarding cortisol and alpha-MSH contents (ANOVA: P < 0.02), but not regarding CRF and ACTH contents. The increase in cortisol levels induced by confinement was remarkably high in freshwater adapted larvae (five times higher than in saltwater adapted larvae). Regarding the cortisol response it is concluded that during and after the period of mouth breeding tilapia larvae respond to capture stress in a similar fashion (onset and height) as adults. Previously, we reported that the initial plasma cortisol response to capture stress in adult tilapia occurred independently from changes in plasma ACTH levels. The current finding that also brain CRF contents do not alter during the initial cortisol response in larvae further indicates that the initial cortisol response in this species may be regulated independently from CRF and ACTH. PMID:15560872

Pepels, Peter P L M; Balm, Paul H M

2004-12-01

327

Delimiting species by reproductive isolation: the genetic structure of epigean and hypogean Trichomycterus spp. (Teleostei, Siluriformes) in the restricted area of Torotoro (Upper Amazon, Bolivia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variability of Trichomycterus from the region of Torotoro (Bolivia, Upper Amazon), distributed in the same watershed where the habitat is structured by\\u000a waterfalls, canyons and a cave, was studied by allozyme (twelve putative loci) and RFLP-mtDNA (DLoop and cytochrome b) analyses. Alloenzymatic variation studied by Correspondence Analysis and Maximum Likelihood Analysis revealed a four-group\\u000a structure, which was largely congruent

Jean-François Renno; Claude Gazel; Guido Miranda; Marc Pouilly; Patrick Berrebi

2007-01-01

328

Salinity tolerance of non-native Asian swamp eels (Teleostei: Synbranchidae) in Florida, USA: Comparison of three populations and implications for dispersal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three populations of non-native Asian swamp eels are established in peninsular Florida (USA), and comprise two different genetic lineages. To assess potential for these fish to penetrate estuarine habitats or use coastal waters as dispersal routes, we determined their salinity tolerances. Swamp eels from the three Florida populations were tested by gradual (chronic) salinity increases; additionally, individuals from the Miami population were tested by abrupt (acute) salinity increases. Results showed significant tolerance by all populations to mesohaline waters: Mean survival time at 14 ppt was 63 days. The Homestead population, a genetically distinct lineage, exhibited greater tolerance to higher salinity than Tampa and Miami populations. Acute experiments indicated that swamp eels were capable of tolerating abrupt shifts from 0 to 16 ppt, with little mortality over 10 days. The broad salinity tolerance demonstrated by these experiments provides evidence that swamp eels are physiologically capable of infiltrating estuarine environments and using coastal waters to invade new freshwater systems. ?? 2009 US Government.

Schofield, P.J.; Nico, L.G.

2009-01-01

329

Primer registro de Saurodon (Teleostei: Ichthyodectiformes) en la cantera La Mula, Formación Eagle Ford (Cretácico Superior: Turoniano), Múzquiz, Estado de Coahuila, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the fi rst fossil fi sh of the genus Saurodon found in Mexico. The description is based on a specimen from La Mula quarry, located to the northwest of Múzquiz, Coahuila State. Vertebrates and invertebates of Turonian age had been collected in this outcrop of marble strata belonging to Eagle Ford Formation. The Saurodon specimen preserves a pectoral

Jesús Alvarado-Ortega; Alberto Blanco-Piñón; Héctor Porras Múzquiz

330

Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Acanthocephaloides incrassatus (Molin, 1858) (Acanthocephala, Paleacanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae) from Anguilla anguilla (Pisces, Teleostei) in Urbino ponds (Corsica Island).  

PubMed

This study deals with first ultrastructure features of Acanthocephaloides incrassatus (Paleacanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae), a parasite of the fish Anguilla anguilla, reported for the first time in a Mediterranean pond. The spermiogenesis of A. incrassatus shows original specificities which have never been pointed out to this day in ultrastructural studies on spermiogenesis: the centriolar derivative is divided into two parts of different densities: an electron-dense, and the other, electron-lucent; a ring form has been observed on each side of the axoneme; a centriole with one central element. After the elaboration of a flagellum of 9+2 pattern, the centriole migrates in a nuclear groove. Rapidly, the centriole disappears. Then, the flagellum migration occurs by a series of processes and gives rise to a spermatozoon. The spermatozoon of A. incrassatus presents its own specificities: it exhibits an evolution of the centriolar derivative characterized by only nine peripheral elements deprived of a central element in the anterior part, then nine peripheral and one central element, and finally, nine peripheral elements with two central elements. An assumption is emitted on a probable correspondence of the evolution of the derivative centriolar during the spermiogenesis and the evolution that occurs in the spermatozoon. Protein granules also show different sizes and forms, full or emptied of their contents compared with data on other Acanthocephala. PMID:22307764

Foata, J; Quilichini, Y; Dal Pos, N; Greani, S; Marchand, B

2012-07-01

331

Redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) and description of a new species from freshwater cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in Mexico.  

PubMed

A redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado (An Inst Biol Univ Nal Autón Méx, Ser Zool 49:35-47, 1978) is presented, based on adult specimens collected from the type host Paraneetroplus fenestratus from the type location, the Lago de Catemaco lake, Veracruz state, Mexico, and its presence is recorded in other cichlids. Detailed studies of N. (N.) golvani using light microscopy revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported features, such as the size and shape of fully developed adult males and females, and the structure of the eggs. Morphological variability in N. (N.) golvani is described. Based on these data, the geographic distribution of this species is documented. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) panucensis n. sp. is described from Herichthys labridens (Pellegrin), Amatitlania nigrofasciata (Günther), and Herichthys cyanoguttatus Baird and Girard (all of them Cichlidae), collected in the Río Atlapexco, a tributary to the upper Río Panuco basin, Hidalgo State, Mexico. This new species stand up alone because of its minute proboscis (? 50?×?60, ? 42-55 (48.5)?×?48-63 (57.7)) and anterior hooks (? 27-30 (28.8)?×?3-5 (4), ? 28-32 (30)?×?5 (5)). A key to the species of Neoechinorhynchus recorded from freshwater fishes in Central and South America is included. PMID:23532542

Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo

2013-05-01

332

Infrapopulations of Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 (Trematoda: Gyliauchenidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei: Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea  

PubMed Central

In hermaphroditic helminth parasites, infrapopulation size or mating group size mostly affects some processes acting within the infrapopulation. Here, 30 natural infrapopulations (12-154 individuals) of the intestinal trematode Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 from the fish Siganus rivulatus consisting of newly excysted juveniles, immature and mature worms were found distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (anterior 40 % of the intestine). In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were alive. In larger infrapopulations, differential mortality was only and consistently observed among newly excysted juveniles, and gradually increased to include most or all juveniles in the largest infrapopulations. Among mature worms, the mean worm length seemed unaffected by the infrapopulation size. However, the ratio mean testis size-mean ovary size, a reliable indicator of resource allocation to the male function and of opportunities for crossfertilization, significantly increased with mating group size. In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were scattered along the niche, and never seen in mating pairs (possibly reproduced by selffertilization). In larger infrapopulations, newly excysted juveniles and immature worms were scattered along the anterior two thirds of the niche, while mature worms were constantly found aggregated in its posterior third (narrow microhabitat), where some were arranged in mating pairs. The probability of mating reciprocally or unilaterally was dependent on body size. The mean number of uterine eggs per worm significantly decreased and their mean sizes significantly increased with mating group size. The results are statistically significant and suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is greatly associated with its size. PMID:22910665

Al-Jahdali, M.O.

2012-01-01

333

New record of the short-tailed pipefish, Microphis brachyurus brachyurus (Teleostei: Syngnathidae), with a key to the species of the family Syngnathidae from Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single specimen of Microphis brachyurus brachyurus, belonging to the family Syngnathidae, was collected for the first time in Korea (Busan) on July 10, 2013. This specimen had 35 dorsal fin rays, 20 pectoral fin rays and 9 caudal fin rays. M. brachyurus brachyurus differs from Syngnathus schlegeli, the most common pipefish in Korean waters, in its body proportions (longer trunk than tail in M. brachyurus brachyurus vs shorter trunk than tail in S. schlegeli), configuration of the lateral ridge (confluent with the inferior tail ridge vs confluent with the lateral tail ridge, respectively) and the number of caudal fin rays (9 vs 10, respectively). We suggest the new Korean names "Zzal-beun-ggo-ri-sil-go-gi-sok" for the genus Microphis and "Zzal-beun-ggo-ri-sil-go-gi" for the species M. brachyurus brachyurus.

Han, Sang-Yun; Lee, Jun Mo; Kim, Jin-Koo

2014-12-01

334

Two new species of the tooth-carp Aphanius (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) and the evolutionary history of the Iranian inland and inland-related Aphanius species .  

PubMed

Two new species of Aphanius are described from the Kol drainage in southern Iran (Aphanius darabensis n. sp.) and the endorheic Kavir Basin in northern Iran (A. kavirensis n. sp.), and compared with eight closely related species. Aphanius darabensis n. sp. is sister to A. shirini, from which it is distinguished by molecular characters (cytochrome b) and the combination of three morphological characters: 9-18 flank bars in males (vs. 7-10), females with irregular vertical patches of brown color on the flank (vs. prominent dark brown blotches of round or irregular shape), and symmetrically-shaped triangular to trapezoid otoliths with a rostrum distinctly longer than the antirostrum (vs. quadrangular to trapezoid otoliths with short and equally sized rostrum and antirostrum). Aphanius kavirensis n. sp. is closely related to a group containing A. sophiae, A. mesopotamicus and A. pluristriatus, from which it is distinguished by cytochrome b characters and the combination of three morphological characters: females with irregularly arranged large blotches of dark brown color on the flank, short pectoral fin in both sexes (13.4-18.1% SL in males, 11.2-18.3% SL in females), and asymmetrically shaped triangular to trapezoid otoliths with a pronounced predorsal region. Our tree based on the cytochrome b data demonstrates that the Iranian inland and inland-related Aphanius species (IIRAS) form a monophyletic clade with three subclades (A. vladykovi -, A. shirini -, A. sophiae subclades). The A. sophiae subclade, which is the most diverse of the three subclades, can be further divided into three lineages (A. isfahanensis -, A. farsicus -, A. sophiae lineages). The temporal diversification of the IIRAS clade is discussed and two evolutionary groups of Aphanius are depicted. Aphanius vladykovi, together with A. shirini, A. darabensis n. sp. and A. isfahanensis characterize the "old" evolutionary group. Their divergences may have happened 10-5 m.y. ago (Late Miocene-Early Pliocene). Aphanius farsicus, A. arakensis, A. sophiae, A. mesopotamicus, and A. pluristriatus, together with Aphanius kavirensis n. sp., represent the "young" evolutionary group, which developed in the Late Pleistocene (100,000-11,700 y. ago) and Early to Middle Holocene (c. 11,700-4,000 y. ago). PMID:24869537

Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Teimori, Azad; Gholami, Zeinab; Reichenbacher, Bettina

2014-01-01

335

New species of Rhabdosynochus Mizelle and Blatz 1941 (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae) from the gills of centropomid fishes (Teleostei) off the Pacific Coast of Mexico.  

PubMed

In the course of the investigations into the fish parasites in the Tres Palos Lagoon in the State of Guerrero off the Pacific coast of Mexico, the following diplectanid species (Monogenoidea) from the gills of centropomids were found: Rhabdosynochus alterinstitus n. sp. from Centropomus nigrescens; Rhabdosynochus lituparvus n. sp., Rhabdosynochus volucris n. sp., and Rhabdosynochus siliquaus n. sp. from Centropomus robalito (Centropomidae). The apparent synapomorphic character supporting a sister relationship of these diplectanids is a single, sheathlike accessory piece comprising 3 distal branches of the male copulatory organ. The origin of the present diplectanid on centropomids is discussed, and it is suggested that this may be the result of allopatric speciation as a result of the uplift of the Panamanian Isthmus, thereby separating the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans during Pleistocene (3-5 million yr ago). PMID:18372618

Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Violante-González, Juan; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor M

2008-02-01

336

A phylogenetic analysis of pygmy perches (Teleostei: Percichthyidae) with an assessment of the major historical influences on aquatic biogeography in southern Australia.  

PubMed

The biogeography of southern Australia is characterized by a repeated pattern of relatedness between the biota of southwestern and southeastern Australia. Both areas possess a temperate climate but are separated by a vast arid region, currently lacking permanent freshwater habitats, which has become increasingly drier since about 15 Ma. Aquatic organisms have thus potentially remained isolated for a considerable time. Pygmy perches (Nannatherina and Nannoperca, Percichthyidae) provide an excellent scenario for investigating biogeographic relationships between southwestern and southeastern regions as multiple species occur on either side of Australia. This allows us to potentially differentiate between "Multiple Invasion" and "Endemic Speciation," the two major hypotheses proposed to account for current distributions. The first suggests that multiple east-west movements have occurred, whereas the second suggests a single east-west split, with current biodiversity in each region being reciprocally monophyletic. Systematic relationships within this group were investigated with the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene; nuclear intron and exon sequences from S7, RAG1, and RAG2; and 53 allozyme loci. Our data supported the hypothesis of multiple movements across southern Australia based on a consistent lack of support for reciprocal monophyly of eastern and western species. This study appears to be the first example of an animal group displaying clear multiple east-west movement in southern Australia, as all other aquatic and terrestrial fauna previously examined displayed a single east-west split. Despite a high degree of sympatry within each region, the only evidence for hybridization was found between Nannoperca australis and N. obscura, with the latter having its mitochondrial genome completely replaced by that of N. australis, with no evidence for nuclear introgression. This is one of only a few confirmed examples of complete replacement of the mitochondrial genome in one species with that of another. Cryptic differentiation was also evident within the two most widespread species, N. australis and N. vittata, indicating that these likely consist of multiple species. We also highlight the need for multiple molecular markers with different strengths in order to obtain a more robust phylogeny, despite problems resulting from potential incongruences between data sets. PMID:21551126

Unmack, Peter J; Hammer, Michael P; Adams, Mark; Dowling, Thomas E

2011-12-01

337

Cryptic Speciation Within the Neotropical Cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Teleostei Cichlidae): A New Paradigm in Karyotypical and Molecular Evolution.  

PubMed

The family Cichlidae is one of the most species-rich taxa in the Neotropics. However, the factors that determine these high levels of biodiversity remain unexplored. We have analyzed the morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular data from 62 specimens of a widespread cichlid, Geophagus brasiliensis, from three adjacent basins in southeastern Brazil. Morphological analyses did not show differences among specimens. The cytogenetic data indicate the occurrence of multiple nucleolar organizer regions and four sympatric karyotypes that differ in the first pair of chromosome morphology, in the Doce River Basin; whereas the karyotype from the Paraíba do Sul Basin is widely divergent. The molecular data-616?bp fragment of cytochrome oxidase subunit I-revealed two haplogroups with the deepest genetic divergence (6.4%) ever reported within a nominal species in the Neotropical Region: One of the haplogroups is restricted to the quaternary lakes in the middle portion of the Doce Basin and the Mucuri River, whereas the other haplogroup is composed of haplotypes from elsewhere in the Doce Basin and the Paraíba do Sul Basin. These patterns suggest that G. brasiliensis undergoes a cryptic speciation process involving three major lineages that differ from the African explosive cichlid radiation. PMID:25495140

Alves-Silva, Ana Paula; Dergam, Jorge Abdala

2015-02-01

338

Dynamics of Kudoa camarguensis (myxosporean) infection in two gobiid species, Pomatoschistus microps and P. minutus (Teleostei: Pisces), in the Rh?ne River delta, France.  

PubMed

The occurrence of the myxosporean parasite Kudoa camarguensis was surveyed monthly during 1997 in a brackish-water lagoon of the Rh?ne River delta (France). K. camarguensis was found on its typical host, Pomatoschistus microps, and on an additional host, P. minutus. Prevalence and mean abundance were higher in the typical host than in the additional host due to differences in the temporal occupancy of the lagoon by the 2 species. The temporal occurrence of this myxosporean parasite is discussed in relation to the migratory habits of P. minutus and the sedentary habits of P. microps. PMID:12078985

Pampoulie, C

2002-05-10

339

Long-term monitoring on the occurrence of a myxosporean parasite Kudoa camarguensis (Myxosporean) on the common goby (Teleostei, pisces) Pomatoschistus microps.  

PubMed

The evolution of a host-parasite system composed of Pomatoschistus microps-Kudoa camarguensis was investigated in the Vaccarès lagoon (Rh?ne river Delta, France) from 1993 to 1997. During this long-term monitoring, centennial flooding of the Rh?ne river occurred, leading to an inrush of about 110 million m3 of freshwater in the Vaccarès lagoon. The salinity drastically dropped from 14 to 5 g l(-1) in 1 wk. We observed that the annual prevalence and abundance of the myxosporean parasite decreased from 12.18 in 1993 to 3.7% in 1997 and from 1.10 in 1993 to 0.27 in 1997, respectively. Here, we discuss the possible reasons for the rapid decline of this host-parasite system following the flood. PMID:11411646

Pampoulie, C; Marques, A; Rosecchi, E; Bouchereau, J L; Crivelli, A J

2001-05-01

340

Characterization of Kudoa monodactyli n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) from the Muscle of Monodactylus argenteus (Teleostei: Monodactylidae) from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed

Kudoa monodactyli n. sp. is described from the somatic musculature of Monodactylus argenteus from several localities in southern Queensland, Australia. This is the first record of a myxozoan parasite from the family Monodactylidae. The spores typically have five polar capsules, making this species similar to the four other five-valved Kudoa species (K. neurophila, K. muscularis, K. shulmani, K. cutanea) that have been described to date. However, morphometric measurements particularly of spore length and width make the species from M. argenteus distinct from the other species. Comparison of the small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence of this species with its congeners for which sequence data are available, provides further evidence of novelty. Kudoa monodactyli n. sp. displays 38 (of 1,554) nucleotide differences compared with rDNA sequence of Kudoa neurophila, which on phylogenetic analysis places these species in clades exclusive of each other. Phylogenetic analyses also provide evidence that the number of valves per spore in this genus is an imperfect indicator of relatedness. PMID:16968455

Gunter, Nicole L; Cribb, Thomas H; Whipps, Christopher M; Adlard, Robert D

2006-01-01

341

A new Haptoclinus blenny (Teleostei, Labrisomidae) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships of the genus.  

PubMed

A second species of the blenniiform genus Haptoclinus is described from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Haptoclinus dropi sp. n. differs from the northwestern Caribbean Haptoclinus apectolophus Böhlke and Robins, 1974, in having 29 total dorsal-fin elements-III-I-XIII, 12 (vs. 31-III-I-XIV, 13 or III-I-XIII, 14); 19 anal-fin soft rays (vs. 20-21); 12 pectoral-fin rays (vs. 13); 12 precaudal vertebrae (vs. 13); and the first dorsal-fin spine longer than the second (vs. the second longer than the first). It further differs from Haptoclinus apectolophus in lacking scales (vs. three-quarters of body densely scaled), in having a distinctive pattern of spotting on the trunk and fins in preservative (vs. no spotting), and in lacking a fleshy flap on the anterior rim of the posterior nostril (vs. flap present). Color in life is unknown for Haptoclinus apectolophus, and the color description presented for the new species constitutes the first color information for the genus. Familial placement of Haptoclinus remains questionable, but the limited relevant information obtained from morphological examination of the new species provides additional support for a close relationship with the Chaenopsidae. Haptoclinus dropi represents one of numerous new teleost species emerging from sampling to 300 m off Curaçao as part of the Smithsonian Institution's Deep Reef Observation Project (DROP). PMID:23794919

Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

2013-01-01

342

Characithecium (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on the Neotropical fish Oligosarcus jenynsii (Teleostei: Characidae) from the Pampasic region, Argentina, with the emendation of the genus.  

PubMed

Presently, only 2 species of dactylogyrid monogeneans have been reported Characidae inhabiting lakes and streams from the Pampasic region (central Argentina). During a parasitological survey on the characid Oligosarcus jenynsii, from Nahuel Rucá Lake (Buenos Aires province, Argentina), dactylogyrids were found on the gills. Specimens were identified as members of Characithecium: C. chascomusensis n. comb, C. longianchoratum n. sp., C. robustum n. sp., C. quadratum n. sp. and C. chelatum n. sp. These species can be distinguished from each other mainly by differences in the shape of the accessory piece of the male copulatory organ, morphology of anchors and ventral bars as well as position of vaginal aperture. The observation of some additional features present in all species studied, such as the vaginal aperture position (as midventral, lateroventral or lateromarginal) and the variability in the morphology of ventral bar (posteromedial projection present or absent) justified an emended diagnosis of Characithecium.  PMID:25544528

Rossin, María Alejandra; Timi, Juan Tomás

2014-01-01

343

Variation in thermal tolerance and routine metabolism among spring- and stream-dwelling freshwater sculpins (Teleostei: Cottidae) of the southeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evolutionary theory predicts that some aquatic organisms may adapt by directional selection to limiting physical environmental conditions, yet empirical data are conflicting. We sought to test the assumption that sculpins (family Cottidae) inhabiting thermally stable springs of the southeastern United States differ in temperature tolerance and metabolism from populations inhabiting more thermally labile stream habitats. Spring populations of pygmy sculpins (Coitus pygmaeus) and Ozark sculpins (C. hypselurus) differed interspecifically in thermal tolerance from populations of stream-dwelling mottled (C. bairdi) and Tallapoosa sculpins (C. tallapoosae), and both stream and spring populations of banded sculpins (C. carolinae). No intra- or interspecific differences in thermal tolerance were found among populations of C. bairdi, C. tallapoosae, or C. carolinae. Coitus pygmaeus acclimated to 15??C differed intraspecifically in routine metabolism from fish acclimated to 20?? and 25??C. Cottus pygmaeus and stream-dwelling C. bairdi and C. carolinae acclimated to temperatures of 20?? and 25??C showed no interspecific differences in routine metabolism. Our results suggest that some spring-adapted populations or species may be more stenothermal than stream-dwelling congeners, but a greater understanding of the interactions of other physical and biological factors is required to better explain micro- and macrohabitat distributions of eastern North American sculpins.

Walsh, S.J.; Haney, D.C.; Timmerman, C.M.

1997-01-01

344

Molecular systematics and historical biogeography of the Nocomis biguttatus species group (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): Nuclear and mitochondrial introgression and a cryptic Ozark species.  

PubMed

The Nocomis biguttatus species group ranges widely across North America from the Red River in Oklahoma and Arkansas north to Minnesota and east-west from Wyoming to Ontario. The group includes three traditionally recognized allopatric species: the wide-ranging N. biguttatus and two geographically more restricted species, N. asper from the western Ozarks (Arkansas River system) and two disjunct locations in the Red River system, and N. effusus from the Green, Cumberland, and lower Tennessee rivers. Separate analyses of the mitochondrial cytb gene and two nuclear genes (S7 intron 1 and a portion of the gene for growth hormone, GH), each resolved a cryptic species previously treated as N. biguttatus from the southern Ozarks (White River). Relationships among the four species were unresolved because of conflicts between cytb and S7 and a lack of resolution for GH. A previously indicated N. biguttatus-N. effusus sister-relationship appears to reflect past hybridization and mtDNA capture by N. effusus. Nocomis biguttatus includes four primary cytb clades with unresolved inter-relationships. A Northern Ozarks-Great Plains-Upper Midwest Clade and an Ohio River-Eastern Great Lakes Clade presumably represent late Quaternary dispersal from glacial refugia in, respectively, the northern Ozarks and an unglaciated portion of the Ohio River system. Other clades include one from the Meramec River and a Black River-St. Francis River Clade. There was evidence in N. effusus for a phylogeographic break between the lower Tennessee River and the Green-Cumberland basins. Geographic structure is weak in N. asper, indicating relatively recent contact between now disjunct populations in the Arkansas and Red river basins. The Blue River population of N. asper appears to reflect late Pleistocene or Holocene hybridization and genetic swamping of a resident native population of N. biguttatus by an invading population of N. asper. This postulates past occurrence of N. biguttatus far south of its present range. PMID:25251937

Echelle, Anthony A; Schwemm, Michael R; Lang, Nicholas J; Nagle, Brett C; Simons, Andrew M; Unmack, Peter J; Fisher, William L; Hoagstrom, Christopher W

2014-12-01

345

Sequence and expression of an ?-amylase gene in four related species of prickleback fishes (Teleostei: Stichaeidae): ontogenetic, dietary, and species-level effects.  

PubMed

Partial ?-amylase gene sequences were determined and ?-amylase gene expression was quantified in four species of carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous prickleback fishes (family Stichaeidae) to assess the effects of ontogeny, diet, and species on expression of this gene. Pairwise comparison of ?-amylase nucleotide sequences revealed 96-98 % identity, and comparison of amino acid portions revealed 93-95 % similarity among the four prickleback species. Expression was determined using in situ hybridization and intensity of expression quantified using image analysis. Alpha-amylase expression level was compared in three feeding categories of the four species: (1) small, wild-caught carnivorous juveniles; (2) larger, wild-caught juveniles of the carnivorous species and the three that had shifted to herbivory or omnivory; and (3) larger, juveniles produced by feeding a low-starch artificial diet to small juveniles until they reached the size of the larger wild-caught juveniles. The results showed no dietary effect in any species but significant ontogenetic and species-level effects in Cebidichthys violaceus, as well as in the sister species Xiphister mucosus and X. atropurpureus. Based on a phylogeny for the Stichaeidae produced for this study using two mtDNA genes and one nuclear gene, the ontogenetic dietary shifts to herbivory/omnivory evolved independently in C. violaceus and in the clade containing the two species of Xiphister. All three of these species increased ?-amylase gene expression with increase in size and had higher expression than Anoplarchus purpurescens, which is a member of a third, stichaeid clade comprising carnivores. These results show the importance of ?-amylase in the herbivores and omnivores. PMID:24136006

Kim, Kelly H; Horn, Michael H; Sosa, Abraham E; German, Donovan P

2014-02-01

346

Channallabes sanghaensis sp. n., a new anguilliform catfish from the Congo River basin, with some comments on other anguilliform clariids (Teleostei, Siluriformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Channallabes sanghaensis sp. n., an anguilliform clariid from the vicinity of Ntchouo (Congo River drainage) is dis- tinguished from other Congolese anguilliform clariids by the following combination of characters : a large foramen on the fourth post-Weberian vertebra ; two large lateral processes on the second dorsal fin ray pterygiophore ; a small supraorbital process on infraorbital IV, not reaching

Stijn Devaere; Dominique Adriaens; Walter Verraes

2007-01-01

347

Lamprologus markerti, a new lamprologine cichlid (Teleostei: Cichlidae) endemic to the lower Congo River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, west-central Africa.  

PubMed

A new Lamprologus is described from the lower Congo River (LCR) in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Lamprologus markerti, new species, is readily distinguished from L. tigripictilis and L. werneri, the LCR endemic lamprologines with which it was once taxonomically conflated, in the possession of a reduced number of gill rakers on the first arch (9-11 versus 12-17), a longer head (32.1-34.7% SL versus 29.3-31.9 and 29.1-32.9% SL, respectively), and a longer predorsal length (33.0-35.9% SL versus 29.3-32.7 and 28.5-32.6% SL, respectively). Further, L. markerti lacks a second intestinal loop present in both L. tigripictilis and L. werneri, and has a highly reduced infraorbital series often consisting of a single first infraorbital (lachrymal) element.  PMID:25284407

Tougas, Stephanie; Stiassny, Melanie L J

2014-01-01

348

Comparative innervation of cephalic photophores of the loosejaw dragonfishes (Teleostei: Stomiiformes: Stomiidae): evidence for parallel evolution of long-wave bioluminescence.  

PubMed

Four genera of the teleost family Stomiidae, the loosejaw dragonfishes, possess accessory cephalic photophores (AOs). Species of three genera, Aristostomias, Malacosteus, and Pachystomias, are capable of producing far-red, long-wave emissions (>650nm) from their AOs, a character unique among vertebrates. Aristostomias and Malacosteus posses a single far-red AO, while Pachystomias possesses anterior and posterior far-red AOs, each with smaller separate photophores positioned in their ventral margins. The purpose of this study was to establish the primary homology of the loosejaw AOs based on topological similarity of cranial nerve innervation, and subject these homology conjectures to tests of congruence under a phylogenetic hypothesis for the loosejaw dragonfishes. On the basis of whole-mount, triple-stained specimens, innervation of the loosejaw AOs is described. The AO of Aristostomias and the anterior AO of Pachystomias are innervated by the profundal ramus of the trigeminal (Tpr), while the far-red AO of Malacosteus and a small ventral AO of Pachystomias are innervated by the maxillary ramus of the trigeminal (Tmx). The largest far-red AO of Pachystomias, positioned directly below the orbit, and the short-wave AO of Photostomias are innervated by a branch of the mandibular ramus of the trigeminal nerve. Conjectures of primary homology drawn from these neuroanatomical similarities were subjected to tests of congruence on a phylogeny of the loosejaws inferred from a reanalysis of a previously published morphological dataset. Optimized for accelerated transformation, the AO innervated by the Tpr appears as a single transformation on the new topology, thereby establishing secondary homology. The AOs innervated by the Tmd found in Pachystomias and Photostomias appear as two transformations in a reconstruction on the new topology, a result that rejects secondary homology of this structure. The secondary homology of AOs innervated by the Tmx found in Malacosteus and Pachystomias is rejected on the same grounds. Two short-wave cephalic photophores present in all four genera, the suborbital (SO) and the postorbital (PO), positioned in the posteroventral margin of the orbit and directly posterior to the orbit, respectively, are innervated by separate divisions of the Tmd. The primary homologies of the loosejaw PO and SO across loosejaw taxa are proposed on the basis of similar innervation patterns. Because of dissimilar innervation of the loosejaw SO and SO of basal stomiiforms, primary homology of these photophores cannot be established. Because of similar function and position, the PO of all other stomiid taxa is likely homologous with the loosejaw PO. Nonhomology of loosejaw long-wave photophores is corroborated by previously published histological evidence. The totality of evidence suggests that the only known far-red bioluminescent system in vertebrates has evolved as many as three times in a closely related group of deep-sea fishes. PMID:19924766

Kenaley, Christopher P

2010-04-01

349

Distinguishing between Incomplete Lineage Sorting and Genomic Introgressions: Complete Fixation of Allospecific Mitochondrial DNA in a Sexually Reproducing Fish (Cobitis; Teleostei), despite Clonal Reproduction of Hybrids  

PubMed Central

Distinguishing between hybrid introgression and incomplete lineage sorting causing incongruence among gene trees in that they exhibit topological differences requires application of statistical approaches that are based on biologically relevant models. Such study is especially challenging in hybrid systems, where usual vectors mediating interspecific gene transfers - hybrids with Mendelian heredity - are absent or unknown. Here we study a complex of hybridizing species, which are known to produce clonal hybrids, to discover how one of the species, Cobitis tanaitica, has achieved a pattern of mito-nuclear mosaic genome over the whole geographic range. We appplied three distinct methods, including the method using solely the information on gene tree topologies, and found that the contrasting mito-nuclear signal might not have resulted from the retention of ancestral polymorphism. Instead, we found two signs of hybridization events related to C. tanaitica; one concerning nuclear gene flow and the other suggested mitochondrial capture. Interestingly, clonal inheritance (gynogenesis) of contemporary hybrids prevents genomic introgressions and non-clonal hybrids are either absent or too rare to be detected among European Cobitis. Our analyses therefore suggest that introgressive hybridizations are rather old episodes, mediated by previously existing hybrids whose inheritance was not entirely clonal. Cobitis complex thus supports the view that the type of resulting hybrids depends on a level of genomic divergence between sexual species. PMID:24971792

Choleva, Lukas; Musilova, Zuzana; Kohoutova-Sediva, Alena; Paces, Jan; Rab, Petr; Janko, Karel

2014-01-01

350

Application of a fish health assessment index and associated parasite index to Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae) in the Vaal River system, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine if the fish health assessment index (HAI) developed in the USA and associated parasite index (PI), when applied to Clarias gariepinus at two localities in the upper and middle Vaal River system, could distinguish between localities on the grounds of water quality. Elevated HAI values, correlating with poorer chemical and physical water

D. Crafford; A. Avenant-Oldewage

2009-01-01

351

De novo assembly and characterization of the skeletal muscle and electric organ transcriptomes of the African weakly electric fish Campylomormyrus compressirostris (Mormyridae, Teleostei).  

PubMed

African weakly electric fishes (Mormyridae) underwent an outstanding adaptive radiation (about 200 species), putatively owing to their ability to communicate through species-specific weak electric signals. The electric organ discharge (EOD) is produced by muscle-derived electrocytes organized in piles to form an electric organ. Despite the importance of this trait as a prezygotic isolation mechanism, genomic resources remained limited. We present here a first draft of the skeletal muscle and electric organ transcriptomes from the weakly electric fish species Campylomormyrus compressirostris, obtained using the Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing technology. Approximately 6.8 Gbp of cDNA sequence data were produced from both tissues, resulting in 57,268,109 raw reads for the skeletal muscle and 46,934,923 for the electric organ, and assembled de novo into 46,143 and 89,270 contigs, respectively. About 50% of both transcriptomes were annotated after protein databases search. The two transcriptomes show similar profiles in terms of Gene Ontology categories composition. We identified several candidate genes which are likely to play a central role in the production and evolution of the electric signal. For most of these genes, and for many other housekeeping genes, we were able to obtain the complete or partial coding DNA sequences (CDS), which can be used for the development of primers to be utilized in qRT-PCR experiments. We present also the complete mitochondrial genome and compare it to those available from other weakly electric fish species. Additionally, we located 1671 SSR-containing regions with their flanking sites and designed the relative primers. This study establishes a first step in the development of genomic tools aimed at understanding the role of electric communication during speciation. PMID:24690394

Lamanna, Francesco; Kirschbaum, Frank; Tiedemann, Ralph

2014-11-01

352

A new Haptoclinus blenny (Teleostei, Labrisomidae) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships of the genus  

PubMed Central

Abstract A second species of the blenniiform genus Haptoclinus is described from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Haptoclinus dropi sp. n. differs from the northwestern Caribbean Haptoclinus apectolophus Böhlke and Robins, 1974, in having 29 total dorsal-fin elements—III-I-XIII, 12 (vs. 31—III-I-XIV, 13 or III-I-XIII, 14); 19 anal-fin soft rays (vs. 20-21); 12 pectoral-fin rays (vs. 13); 12 precaudal vertebrae (vs. 13); and the first dorsal-fin spine longer than the second (vs. the second longer than the first). It further differs from Haptoclinus apectolophus in lacking scales (vs. three-quarters of body densely scaled), in having a distinctive pattern of spotting on the trunk and fins in preservative (vs. no spotting), and in lacking a fleshy flap on the anterior rim of the posterior nostril (vs. flap present). Color in life is unknown for Haptoclinus apectolophus, and the color description presented for the new species constitutes the first color information for the genus. Familial placement of Haptoclinus remains questionable, but the limited relevant information obtained from morphological examination of the new species provides additional support for a close relationship with the Chaenopsidae. Haptoclinus dropi represents one of numerous new teleost species emerging from sampling to 300 m off Curaçao as part of the Smithsonian Institution’s Deep Reef Observation Project (DROP). PMID:23794919

Baldwin, Carole C.; Robertson, D. Ross

2013-01-01

353

Repeatability of clades as a criterion of reliability: a case study for molecular phylogeny of Acanthomorpha (Teleostei) with larger number of taxa.  

PubMed

Although much progress has been made recently in teleostean phylogeny, relationships among the main lineages of the higher teleosts (Acanthomorpha), containing more than 60% of all fish species, remain poorly defined. This study represents the most extensive taxonomic sampling effort to date to collect new molecular characters for phylogenetic analysis of acanthomorph fishes. We compiled and analyzed three independent data sets, including: (i) mitochondrial ribosomal fragments from 12S and 16s (814bp for 97 taxa); (ii) nuclear ribosomal 28S sequences (847bp for 74 taxa); and (iii) a nuclear protein-coding gene, rhodopsin (759bp for 86 taxa). Detailed analyses were conducted on each data set separately and the principle of taxonomic congruence without consensus trees was used to assess confidence in the results as follows. Repeatability of clades from separate analyses was considered the primary criterion to establish reliability, rather than bootstrap proportions from a single combined (total evidence) data matrix. The new and reliable clades emerging from this study of the acanthomorph radiation were: Gadiformes (cods) with Zeioids (dories); Beloniformes (needlefishes) with Atheriniformes (silversides); blenioids (blennies) with Gobiesocoidei (clingfishes); Channoidei (snakeheads) with Anabantoidei (climbing gouramies); Mastacembeloidei (spiny eels) with Synbranchioidei (swamp-eels); the last two pairs of taxa grouping together, Syngnathoidei (aulostomids, macroramphosids) with Dactylopteridae (flying gurnards); Scombroidei (mackerels) plus Stromatoidei plus Chiasmodontidae; Ammodytidae (sand lances) with Cheimarrhichthyidae (torrentfish); Zoarcoidei (eelpouts) with Cottoidei; Percidae (perches) with Notothenioidei (Antarctic fishes); and a clade grouping Carangidae (jacks), Echeneidae (remoras), Sphyraenidae (barracudas), Menidae (moonfish), Polynemidae (threadfins), Centropomidae (snooks), and Pleuronectiformes (flatfishes). PMID:12565036

Chen, Wei-Jen; Bonillo, Céline; Lecointre, Guillaume

2003-02-01

354

Revision of Allobenedenia Yamaguti, 1963 (Monogenoidea: Capsalidae) with the description of A. zhangi n. sp. from Epinephelus fasciatus (Teleostei: Serranidae) in the South China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allobenedenia Yamaguti, 1963 is revised to include capsalid species with five radial septa in the haptor. Megalocotyloides Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1967 and Allosprostonia Lawler & Hargis, 1968 are considered junior synonyms of Allobenedenia. Eight described species comprise the genus: A. convoluta (Yamaguti, 1937) Yamaguti, 1963 (type-species), A. epinepheli (Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1967) n. comb., A. patagonica (Evdokimova, 1969) n. comb.,

Yang Tingbao; Delane C. Kritsky; Sun Yuan

2004-01-01

355

A revision of the Rutilus complex from Mediterranean Europe with description of a new genus, Sarmarutilus, and a new species, Rutilus stoumboudae (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

By combining morphology, ecology, biology, and biogeography with the available molecular (sequence variation of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b gene; cyt-b) and karyology data, the taxonomy of several species of the Rutilus complex inhabiting southern Europe is revised. Rutilus stoumboudae, new species, is described from Lake Volvi, Greece. It differs from Rutilus rutilus in possessing more total GR and less branched rays in both dorsal and anal fins and in its placement in the cyt-b based phylogeny of the genus. The resurrected genus Leucos Heckel, 1843 (type species Leucos aula, Bonaparte, 1841), which according to molecular data diverged from Rutilus more than 5 million years ago, during the Messinian salinity crisis, includes five species of small size, without spinous tubercles on scales and head in reproductive males, pharyngeal teeth formula 5-5, and all show a preference for still waters. Leucos aula is the Italian species endemic in the Padany-Venetian district: L. basak is widespread in Croatia, Albania, Montenegro and former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM); L. albus, recently described from Lake Skadar, Montenegro, is also found in rivers Moraca and Zeta (Montenegro). L. albus differs from L. basak, its closest relative, in having more scales on the LL and less anal-fin rays; L. panosi is endemic to the western-Greece district, and L. ylikiensis is endemic to lakes Yliki and Paralimni in eastern Greece (introduced in Lake Volvi). Among the nominal species examined, Rutilus karamani, R. ohridanus, R. prespensis and R. prespensis vukovici are all junior synonyms of Leucos basak. Rutilus vegariticus is definitively regarded as junior synonym for R. rutilus. Sarmarutilus n.gen. is a monotypic genus, with Sarmarutilus rubilio as the type species. According to phylogenetic data, Sarmarutilus rubilio is basal to a cluster of species that includes Leucos basak, L. albus, L. aula, L. panosi and L. ylikiensis. Sarmarutilus possibly evolved in pre-Messinian time, in the Lago Mare, entered the Mediterranean area during the Messinian Lago Mare phase of the Mediterranean Sea and survived only in the Tuscany- Latium district. This genus differs from Leucos in having large pearl organs on the central part of head and body scales in mature males and for the habitat preference, being a riverine-adapted species. It differs from Rutilus in pharyngeal teeth formula (5-5 in Sarmarutilus and 6-5 in Rutilus), size (small in Sarmarutilus and large in Rutilus) and for the preferential habitat (riverine vs. still water). Finally, lectotypes for Leucos basak, Leucos aula, and Sarmarutilus rubilio are designated. PMID:25082046

Bianco, Pier Giorgio; Ketmaier, Valerio

2014-01-01

356

Pseudanthocotyloides heterocotyle (van Beneden, 1871) Euzet & Prost, 1969 (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea: Mazocraeidae), a parasite of herring Clupea harengus L. and sprat Sprattus sprattus L. (Teleostei: Clupeidae).  

PubMed

A total of 690 herring Clupea harengus L. and 88 sprat Sprattus sprattus L. caught off the west coast of Sweden, in the North Sea and off the west and south coasts of the United Kingdom, were examined for gill parasites. The monogenean Pseudanthocotyloides heterocotyle (van Beneden, 1871) Euzet & Prost, 1969 was found in 38 (5.5%) herring and one (1.1%) sprat. The parasite was significantly (P<0.05) more common off the west coast of Sweden than elsewhere and most specimens (62.5%) were found on the pseudobranchs. Only the smaller herring were infected. P. heterocotyle is redescribed and its taxonomy discussed, together with the possibility of host and parasite misidentification in previous reports. PMID:10613537

Rahimian, H; Longshaw, M; MacKenzie, K; Thulin, J

1999-03-01

357

Effects of orally administered chemotherapeutics (quinine, salinomycin) against Henneguya sp. Thelohán, 1892 (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), a gill parasite in the tapir fish Gnathonemus petersii Günther, 1862 (Teleostei).  

PubMed

When given orally, quinine or salinomycin cause irreversible damage to the plasmodial developmental stages of Henneguya sp., a gill parasite in the tapir fish Gnathonemus petersii. Naturally infected tapir fish measured 75-169 mm in total length and their total weight ranged over 4.3-11.7 g. The fish bore 7-77 plasmodia in their gill arches. Medicinal food containing either quinine (5 g/1000 g food) or salinomycin (0.075 g/1000 g food) was given once a day to naturally infected fish in a food chain via water fleas ( Daphnia spp) for a period of 3, 6, or 9 days. From the monitored feeding of the tapir fish and weight determinations of the water fleas, it was calculated that gross uptake was 18.5 micro g/kg body weight fish daily for pure salinomycin and was 1.25 mg/kg body weight daily for quinine. After the end of the experiments, the fish were sacrificed and the plasmodia were carefully prepared from the gill arches and processed for transmission electron microscopy. As seen by ultrastructure investigations, for both substances the grade of damage in the parasites correlated positively with the period of application. When quinine was given for a 3-day period, the trophozoite ecto- and endoplasm exerted numerous vacuoles, caused by the drug, and the presporogonous and the pansporoblastic stages were malformed. Following a 6-day period, numerous abortive polar capsules were found in the trophozoite cytoplasm. To a large extent, the limiting membranes of the polaroblasts and valvogenic cells were destroyed. In addition, deep clefts between the polaroblasts, the valvogenic cells and between the two sporoblasts were observed. Following a 9-day treatment, all damage increased and, in addition, generative cells and two-cell stages were no longer detectable. As a first sign for the effects of salinomycin, following a 3-day treatment, a shrinking of the whole plasmodia occurred and the sutures in the pansporoblasts were enlarged. The polar capsules were malformed and the zonar structures of the polar filament were no longer detectable. The sporoplasmosomes were more electron-pale than those of the control samples. After a 9-day treatment, the pansporoblasts were completely destroyed. Under the experimental conditions chosen, both compounds were very well tolerated by the fishes. PMID:12172820

Dohle, Angelika; Schmahl, Günter; Raether, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Hartmut; Ritter, Günter

2002-09-01

358

Effects of orally administered chemotherapeutics (quinine, salinomycin) against Henneguya sp. Thelohán, 1892 (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), a gill parasite in the tapir fish Gnathonemus petersii Günther, 1862 (Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

When given orally, quinine or salinomycin cause irreversible damage to the plasmodial developmental stages of Henneguya sp., a gill parasite in the tapir fish Gnathonemus petersii. Naturally infected tapir fish measured 75-169 mm in total length and their total weight ranged over 4.3-11.7 g. The fish bore 7-77 plasmodia in their gill arches. Medicinal food containing either quinine (5 g\\/1000

Angelika Dohle; Günter Schmahl; Wolfgang Raether; Hartmut Schmidt; Günter Ritter

2002-01-01

359

Partitioning of Habitat and Prey by Abundant and Similar-sized Species of the Triglidae and Pempherididae (Teleostei) in coastal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to determine whether certain co-occurring and abundant species of the teleost families Triglidae and Pempherididae are segregated spatially and/or by diet, and are thus less likely to be susceptible to competition for resources. Nocturnal otter trawling in shallow (5-15 m) and deeper (20-35 m) waters in four regions along ˜200 km of the south-western Australian coastline collected large numbers of a wide size range of the triglids Lepidotrigla modestaand Lepidotrigla papilioand the pempheridids Pempheris klunzingeriand Parapriacanthus elongatus. Although these four species frequently co-occurred at several sites, each species attained its highest density at different sites, thereby representing a partial segregation of these species by habitat. This even occurred with the congeneric triglid species, with L. modestabeing most abundant in the four deep, offshore sites, while L. papiliowas most numerous at three sites which varied in depth and distance from shore. Although triglids and pempheridids both consumed substantial amounts of amphipods and mysids, only the members of the latter family ingested a large amount of errant polychaetes. The latter difference is assumed to reflect the fact that, in comparison with triglids, pempheridids can swim faster, have a mouth adapted for feeding upwards in the water column and feed at night when errant polychaetes emerge from the substratum. Although the dietary compositions of L. modestaand L. papiliodid not differ significantly when analyses were based on dietary data for all sites, they did differ significantly when analyses were restricted to dietary data obtained when both species were abundant and co-occurred. The likelihood of competition for food is thus reduced in the latter circumstances. In comparison with P. klunzingeri, P. elongatusconsumed a relatively larger volume of amphipods and a relatively smaller volume of mysids, which are more mobile, implying that P. elongatusfeeds to a greater extent on rather than above the substratum surface. The diets of all species underwent ontogenetic changes, which were particularly marked in P. klunzingeriwhere an increase in body size was accompanied by a reduced consumption of mysids and an increased ingestion of errant polychaetes and amphipods. The fact that L. modesta, L. papilio, P. klunzingeriand P. elongatusare partially segregated by habitat and feed on suites of prey which differ in composition, allied with an interfamilial difference in the time of feeding, would reduce the likelihood of competition for resources amongst these four species, when they co-occur and are abundant. Furthermore, ontogenetic changes in diet would reduce the potential for intraspecific competition for food.

Platell, M. E.; Potter, I. C.

1999-02-01

360

Morphology and Phylogeny of Thelohanellus marginatus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), a Parasite Infecting the Gills of the Fish Hypophthalmus marginatus (Teleostei: Pimelodidae) in the Amazon River.  

PubMed

Thelohanellus marginatus n. sp., a new myxosporean parasite infecting the primary gill filaments of the teleost fish Hypophthalmus marginatus (Pimelodidae) in the Amazon River, is described on the basis of microscopic and molecular procedures. The parasite forms whitish and ellipsoidal cysts up to 250 ?m in diam. Myxospores ellipsoidal with a slightly more pointed anterior end, measuring 17.1 ± 0.6 ?m in length, 6.9 ± 0.4 ?m in width, and 5.1 ± 0.5 ?m in thickness. A single pyriform polar capsule, 9.0 ± 0.3 ?m long and 6.1 ± 0.4 ?m wide, positioned slightly right to the medial plane in valvular view, contains a polar filament arranged in 4-5 coils. Molecular analysis of the SSU rRNA gene by Maximum Parsimony, Neighbor-Joining, and Maximum Likelihood revealed the parasite clustering among other myxobolids, namely Henneguya and Myxobolus. Host affinity is supported as an important evolutionary signal for the phylogeny of myxobolids. The parasite here described represents the first record of the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 from the South American fauna. PMID:25039988

Rocha, Sónia; Casal, Graça; Velasco, Michele; Alves, Angela; Matos, Edilson; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Azevedo, Carlos

2014-11-01

361

Fine structure of the Plasmodia and Myxospore of Ellipsomyxa gobioides n. sp. (Myxozoa) found in the gallbladder of Gobioides broussonnetii (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the lower Amazon river.  

PubMed

A fish infecting myxosporean Ellipsomyxa gobioides n. sp. is described in the gallbladder of the Amazonian dragon fish Gobioides broussonnetii. Irregular disporous plasmodia (up to ~30 ?m in diameter) with long branched and anastomosed pseudopodia were found attached to the gallbladder wall. Mature ellipsoid myxospores occurring floating in the bile measured 6.8 (6.5-7.0) ?m (n = 30) long, 7.2 (6.9-7.5) ?m (n = 15) wide, and 13.1 (12.8-13.5) (n = 25) thick. They had smooth thin valves elongated in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the straight central transverse sutural line. The two ellipsoidal polar capsules (PC) opened some distance from the sutural line on opposite sides, each measuring 4.6 (4.3-4.8) ?m (n = 15) long and 2.5 (2.1-2.7) ?m (n = 20) wide. Distance between PC 3.5 (3.1-3.8) ?m (n = 15) in apical view. The polar filament was isofilar and consisted of a single coil with five or six turns. The objective of this study was to characterize this new species based on its morphological differences from the three previously described species. This is the first reported species of genus Ellipsomyxa from among the South American fauna. PMID:23869881

Azevedo, Carlos; Videira, Marcela; Casal, Graça; Matos, Patrícia; Oliveira, Elsa; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Matos, Edilson

2013-01-01

362

Speciation and host–parasite relationships in the parasite genus Gyrodactylus (Monogenea, Platyhelminthes) infecting gobies of the genus Pomatoschistus (Gobiidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using species-level phylogenies, the speciation mode of Gyrodactylus species infecting a single host genus was evaluated. Eighteen Gyrodactylus species were collected from gobies of the genus Pomatoschistus and sympatric fish species across the distribution range of the hosts. The V4 region of the ssrRNA and the internal transcribed spacers encompassing the 5.8S rRNA gene were sequenced; by including published sequences

Tine Huyse; Vanessa Audenaert; Filip A. M. Volckaert

2003-01-01

363

Phylogenetic structure of Zacco platypus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) populations on the upper and middle Chang Jiang (=Yangtze) drainage inferred from cytochrome b sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships of some Chinese populations from the Chang Jiang (=Yangtze) drainage of the cyprinid Zacco platypus. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 64 individuals from 6 upper and middle tributaries of the Sichuan and Hunan Provinces to assess their population structure and systematics. The combined analyses of the phylogenetic information

A Perdices; C Cunha; M. M Coelho

2004-01-01

364

Reticulate evolution and phenotypic diversity in North American ciscoes, Coregonus ssp. (Teleostei: Salmonidae): implications for the conservation of an evolutionary legacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coregonine fishes are notorious taxonomicproblems due to their extreme morphological andecological variation. In North America, diversity is particularly baffling among ciscoes, and both morphological and phylogenetic analyses have resulted in major polytomy among the 8 taxa of the ``Coregonus artedi'' species complex. Ciscoes arealso a devastated group, accounting for 10% ofthe fish species listed by the Committee on theStatus of

Julie Turgeon; Louis Bernatchez

2003-01-01

365

Localization of 18S ribosomal genes in suckermouth armoured catfishes Loricariidae (Teleostei, Siluriformes) with discussion on the Ag-NOR evolution  

PubMed Central

Abstract The family Loricariidae with about 690 species divided into six subfamilies, is one of the world’s largest fish families. Cytogenetic studies conducted in the family showed that among 90 species analyzed the diploid number ranges from 2n=38 in Ancistrus sp. to 2n=96 in Hemipsilichthys gobio Luetken, 1874. In the present study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was employed to determine the chromosomal localization of the 18S rDNA gene in four suckermouth armoured catfishes: Kronichthys lacerta (Nichols, 1919), Pareiorhaphis splendens (Bizerril, 1995), Liposarcus multiradiatus (Hancock, 1828) and Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758). All species analyzed showed one chromosome pair with 18S rDNA sequences, as observed in the previous Ag-NORs analyses. The presence of size and numerical polymorphism was observed and discussed, with proposing a hypothesis of the Ag-NOR evolution in Loricariidae. PMID:24260671

Alves, Anderson Luis; de Borba, Rafael Splendore; Pozzobon, Allan Pierre Bonetti; Oliveira, Claudio; Nirchio, Mauro; Granado, Angel; Foresti, Fausto

2012-01-01

366

Ortholinea saudii sp. nov. (Myxosporea: Ortholineidae) in the kidney of the marine fish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei) from the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Myxozoans, a diverse group of microscopic obligate endoparasites, can cause diseases in a number of economically important fish, including the marbled spinefoot Siganus rivulatus. To date, only 1 myxozoan, Zschokkella helmii, has been reported to infect S. rivulatus. Here we describe another myxozoan detected in S. rivulatus. Investigations of 40 marbled spinefoot fish caught from the Red Sea coast, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, revealed clusters of parasitic spores in the kidney. Light microscope examination of the native spores revealed sub-spherical, mature spores with smooth shell valves. The 2 polar capsules were equal in size, and the polar filament was perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the polar capsules. Histopathological examinations of the infected kidneys demonstrated the presence of both spores and developmental stages in the lumen of the renal tubules without any pathological effect. Electron microscopy investigations showed maturing spores composed of 2 valvogenic cells, each with a prominent nucleus. The valvogenic cells enclosed 2 polar capsules containing 3 filament coils as well as a binucleated sporoplasm cell filling the space between and beneath the 2 polar capsules. BLAST search analysis of the amplified sequence from the detected parasite indicated a high percent of identity to the 18S rDNA genes of different myxosporean species. Phylogenetic analysis placed the detected parasite within a clade of Ortholinea sp. (AL-2006). Based on the results of the light and electron microscopy, histopathological, and molecular investigations, the detected parasite was identified as a myxosporean parasite belonging to the genus Ortholinea and designated as O. saudii sp. nov. PMID:25667333

Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Soliman, Hatem; Saleh, Mona; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; El-Matbouli, Mansour

2015-02-10

367

Infrapopulations of Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 (Trematoda: Gyliauchenidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei: Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea.  

PubMed

In hermaphroditic helminth parasites, infrapopulation size or mating group size mostly affects some processes acting within the infrapopulation. Here, 30 natural infrapopulations (12-154 individuals) of the intestinal trematode Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 from the fish Siganus rivulatus consisting of newly excysted juveniles, immature and mature worms were found distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (anterior 40% of the intestine). In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were alive. In larger infrapopulations, differential mortality was only and consistently observed among newly excysted juveniles, and gradually increased to include most or all juveniles in the largest infrapopulations. Among mature worms, the mean worm length seemed unaffected by the infrapopulation size. However, the ratio mean testis size-mean ovary size, a reliable indicator of resource allocation to the male function and of opportunities for cross fertilization, significantly increased with mating group size. In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were scattered along the niche, and never seen in mating pairs (possibly reproduced by self-fertilization). In larger infrapopulations, newly excysted juveniles and immature worms were scattered along the anterior two thirds of the niche, while mature worms were constantly found aggregated in its posterior third (narrow microhabitat), where some were arranged in mating pairs. The probability of mating reciprocally or unilaterally was dependent on body size. The mean number of uterine eggs per worm significantly decreased and their mean sizes significantly increased with mating group size. The results are statistically significant and suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is greatly associated with its size. PMID:22910665

Al-Jahdali, M O

2012-08-01

368

Infrapopulations of Procamallanus elatensis Fusco & Overstreet, 1979 (Nematoda: Camallanidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei, Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea.  

PubMed

Factors regulating gastrointestinal nematode infrapopulations are to a great extent density-dependent. Here, 23 natural infrapopulations (41-281 individuals) of the viviparous nematode Procamallanus elatensis (Camallanidae) from the fish Siganus rivulatus were found distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (posterior 55% of the intestine). Immature worms were mostly found in the anterior third of this niche, while mature worms were found in aggregations posterior to them and followed by gravid females in the posterior 20% of the intestine. This distribution strongly suggests that worms migrate towards the posterior intestine while they mature, copulate and reproduce. In small infrapopulations, the sex ratios were distinctly female-biased and the number of gravid females was low. In large infrapopulations, the sex ratios were distinctly male-biased and the number of gravid females was high. However, the mean lengths of both immature males and females and mature females decreased dramatically as the infrapopulation size increased, while those of mature males increased significantly. These results strongly suggest intraspecific competition and density-dependent regulation of mean worm length, and the increase in the mean length of mature males strongly suggests intense sexual selection and competition between mature males. Production of larvae by female worms decreased significantly as the infrapopulation size increased, suggesting a density-dependent reduction in female worm fertility. The results are statistically significant and strongly suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is through density-dependent mechanisms, in which development of immature worms, infrapopulation size, sex ratio, sexual selection and carrying capacity of the fundamental niche play essential roles in shaping and regulating the infrapopulations. PMID:21944549

Al-Jahdali, Mohammed O

2012-09-01

369

Infrapopulations of Sclerocollum saudii Al-Jahdali, 2010 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei, Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea.  

PubMed

In infrapopulations of helminth parasites, density-dependent effects, through some form of intra- and interspecific competition, play an important role in shaping and regulating the infrapopulations. The mechanisms responsible for these processes have often been observed in laboratory studies and rarely studied under natural conditions. Here, 24 natural infrapopulations (77-447 individuals) of the acanthocephalan Sclerocollum saudii Al-Jahdali, 2010 from the fish Siganus rivulatus consisted of cystacanths, newly excysted juveniles, immature and mature worms, distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (anterior 60% of the intestine). Each of these stages exhibited a significantly different longitudinal distribution within this niche. In small infrapopulations, cystacanths and newly excysted juveniles were found in the sixth 10% of the intestine, immature worms in the fifth 10% and mature worms in the anterior 40% of the intestine. However, their proportions followed a clear ascending order in each infrapopulation, and the female-male ratios of both immature and mature worms were distinctly female-biased. In large infrapopulations, mature worms existed partially in the site of immature ones, where a differential mortality among immature females was constantly observed. However, the proportions of immature worms increased significantly and those of mature worms decreased significantly, the mean lengths of immature and mature females decreased dramatically and the female-male ratios were distinctly male-biased. The mean sizes of immature and mature males seemed stable through all infrapopulations. The distribution of mature males and females suggests intense male-male competition for access to females, and reveals that larger females are copulated prior to the smaller ones. The results are statistically significant and suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is through density-dependent mechanisms, in which immature females may play a key role. PMID:21396151

Al-Jahdali, M O; Hassanine, R M El-Said

2012-03-01

370

Omanicotyle heterospina n. gen. et n. comb. (Monogenea: Microcotylidae) from the gills of Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål) (Teleostei: Sparidae) from the Sea of Oman  

PubMed Central

Background The Sultanate of Oman’s aquaculture industry is expanding with an on-going assessment of potential new fish species for culture. The king soldier bream, Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål) (Sparidae), is one such species that is under consideration. During a routine health assessment of specimens caught in the Sea of Oman throughout the period November 2009 to March 2011, a number of gill polyopisthocotylean monogeneans were recovered. Methods A subsequent study of the monogeneans using a range of morphology-based approaches indicated that these were Bivagina heterospina Mamaev et Parukhin, 1974. In the absence of pre-existing molecular data, an expanded description of this species is provided, including a differential diagnosis with other species and genera belonging to the subfamily Microcotylinae Monticelli, 1892 with the subsequent movement of this species to a new genus to accommodate it. Results The polyopisthocotyleans collected from the gills of A. spinifer appear to be unique within the family Microcotylidae Taschenberg, 1879 in that, morphologically, they possess a pair of large, muscular vaginae each armed with a full crown of 16–18 robust spines and a unique dorsal region of folded tegument, which permits their discrimination from species of Bivagina Yamaguti, 1963. Sequencing of the SSU rDNA (complete 1968 bp) and LSU rDNA (partial 949 bp) places the specimens collected during this study within the subfamily Microcotylinae, but the LSU rDNA sequence differs from Bivagina and also from other microcotylid genera. Morphological features of B. heterospina sensu Mamaev et Parukhin, 1974 and the specimens collected from the current study are consistent with one another and represent a single species. The vaginal armature of these worms is unique and differs from all other genera within the Microcotylinae, including Bivagina, and its movement to Omanicotyle n. gen. to accommodate this species is proposed. Conclusions A new genus, Omanicotyle n. gen., is erected to accommodate Omanicotyle [Bivagina] heterospina n. comb. which represents the first monogenean to be described from Omani marine waters. Given the pathogenic potential of microcotylids on captive held fish stocks, a full assessment of Omanicotyle heterospina n. gen. et n. comb. is now required before large-scale production commences. PMID:23758894

2013-01-01

371

Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes) species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses.  

PubMed

Fighting fish species in the genus Betta are found in several Southeast Asian countries. Depending on the mode of paternal care for fertilized eggs and hatchlings, various species of the betta fish are classified as mouth brooders or nest builders whose members in turn have been grouped according to their similarities mainly in morphology. The mouth brooders as well as some nest builders involved in the present study include fishes discovered and identified subsequent to previous reports on species groupings and their positions on phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences that differ from those used by us in this study. From the mitochondrial COI gene and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences and more accurate analyses we conclude that the following members of the mouth-brooding pairs, named differently previously, are virtually identical, viz the Betta prima-Betta pallida pair and Betta ferox-Betta apollon pair. The Betta simplex, hitherto believed to be one species, could possibly be genetically split into 2 distinct species. In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships. PMID:25606468

Panijpan, Bhinyo; Kowasupat, Chanon; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Wanna, Warapond; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Kühne, Jens; Fasquel, Frédéric

2014-12-01

372

Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea) of Lake Tanganyika: III: Cichlidogyrus infecting the world's biggest cichlid and the non-endemic tribes Haplochromini, Oreochromini and Tylochromini (Teleostei, Cichlidae).  

PubMed

Lake Tanganyika is the deepest and oldest African Great Lake and of economic importance. While the diversity of its endemic cichlid radiations yielded scientific interest, a number of cichlid tribes have few representatives in the lake. Some of those, namely Oreochromini (ex-Tilapiini), Haplochromini and Tylochromini, reach higher species numbers in riverine systems. Conversely, the phylogenetic position of the monospecific and endemic Boulengerochromini is unclear. The oreochromines Oreochromis tanganicae and Oreochromis niloticus, the haplochromine Astatotilapia burtoni, the tylochromine Tylochromis polylepis and the boulengerochromine Boulengerochromis microlepis, the largest cichlid species worldwide, were surveyed for ancyrocephalid monogenean gill parasites. Five new species are proposed. Cichlidogyrus gillardinae sp. n. is described from A. burtoni, Cichlidogyrus mbirizei sp. n. from O. tanganicae and Cichlidogyrus nshomboi sp. n. from B. microlepis. T. polylepis harbours Cichlidogyrus mulimbwai sp. n., Cichlidogyrus muzumanii sp. n. and a third, presently undescribed species. Four species known from outside the Tanganyika Basin were retrieved on the oreochromines. The host species are scientific models or important in the sectors of fisheries or ornamental fish trade. Moreover, their phylogenetic positions render them well-suited to help elucidate the historic relationships between riverine and lacustrine African cichlids. In this framework, their Cichlidogyrus fauna is compared to congeners known from African rivers and to the few Tanganyika representatives described. While the parasites of Oreochromis, A. burtoni and T. polylepis are reminiscent of those infecting related hosts throughout Africa, B. microlepis hosts a Cichlidogyrus morphotype typical of Lake Tanganyika. This supports its placement within an endemic cichlid radiation. PMID:22983218

Muterezi Bukinga, Fidel; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Van Steenberge, Maarten; Pariselle, Antoine

2012-11-01

373

First description of monogenean parasites in Lake Tanganyika: the cichlid Simochromis diagramma (Teleostei, Cichlidae) harbours a high diversity of Gyrodactylus species (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea).  

PubMed

Lake Tanganyika harbours the most diverse endemic cichlid fish assemblage of Africa, but its monogenean fish parasites have not been investigated. Here we report, for the first time, on the Gyrodactylus parasites in this hotspot of fish biodiversity. Haptor morphometrics and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences revealed 3 new species on Zambian Simochromis diagramma: Gyrodactylus sturmbaueri n. sp., G. thysi n. sp. and G. zimbae n. sp. Their distinct morphology and strong genetic differentiation suggest that they belong to distant lineages within the genus Gyrodactylus, and phylogenetic reconstructions suggest affinities with other genera of gyrodactylids. Additional U-shaped haptoral plates in G. thysi n. sp. and a second large spine-like structure in the male copulatory organ of G. zimbae seem to represent new features for the genus. Such large diversity on a single host species can probably be explained by host-switching events during the course of evolution, in agreement with the generally accepted concept that ecological transfer is an important aspect of gyrodactylid speciation. Additional parasitological surveys on other host species, covering a broader phylogenetic and geographical range, should clarify the evolutionary history of Gyrodactylidae on cichlids in the African Great Lake and other parts of Africa. PMID:20946697

Vanhove, Maarten P M; Snoeks, Jos; Volckaert, Filip A M; Huyse, Tine

2011-03-01

374

Simultaneous analysis of five molecular markers provides a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the living bony-tongue fishes (Osteoglossomorpha: Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishes of the Superorder Osteoglossomorpha (the “bonytongues”) constitute a morphologically heterogeneous group of basal teleosts, including highly derived subgroups such as African electric fishes, the African butterfly fish, and Old World knifefishes. Lack of consensus among hypotheses of osteoglossomorph relationships advanced during the past 30 years may be due in part to the difficulty of identifying shared derived characters among

Sébastien Lavoué; John P. Sullivan

2004-01-01

375

An Eocene species of Hiodon from Montana, its phylogenetic relationships, and the evolution of the postcranial skeleton in the Hiodontidae (Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hiodon is a Recent genus of fishes endemic to the fresh waters of North America; it is represented by two species: Hiodon tergisus Lesueur and H. alosoides (Rafinesque). Two specimens of osteoglossomorph collected from the Eocene-Oligocene Kishenehn Formation of northwestern Montana represent a new fossil species that is more closely related to the Recent Hiodon than it is to the

Li Guo-Qing; Mark V. H. Wilson

1994-01-01

376

New data on the morphology of Comephoronema oschmarini (Nematoda, Cystidicolidae), a little-known gastrointestinal parasite of Lota lota (Teleostei) in Palaearctic Eurasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nematode Comephoronema oschmarini Trofimenko, 1974 (Cystidicolidae) was found in the stomach of the burbot Lota lota (Linnaeus) of Lake Geneva, Savoy, France, collected on 23 March 2000 [prevalence 60% (3\\/5); intensity of infection 2–66 (mean\\u000a 35)]. This material made it possible to study in detail the morphology of this so far little-known parasite, using both light\\u000a and scanning electron

František Moravec; Vladimíra Hanzelová; Daniel Gerdeaux

2007-01-01

377

New species of Diplectanum (Monogenoidea:Diplectanidae), and proposal of a new genus of the Dactylogyridae from the gills of gerreid fishes (Teleostei) from Mexico and Panama.  

PubMed

While investigating the parasites of several marine fishes from the Western Atlantic, the Southern Gulf of Mexico and Central America (Panama), the following monogenoidean species from the gills of gerreid fishes (Gerreidae) were found: Diplec-tanum gatunense sp. n. (Diplectanidae) and Octouncuhaptor eugerrei gen. et sp. n. (Dactylogyridae) in Eugerres brasilianus (Cuvier) from Gatun Lake in the Panama Canal Watershed, and Diplectanum mexicanum sp. n. in Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier) from the coast of Campeche State, Mexico. New diplectanid species are distinguished from other species of the genus by the general morphology of the copulatory complex and by the shape of the anchors and bars on the haptor. Octouncuhaptor gen. n. is proposed for its new species having slightly overlapping gonads (testis posterodorsal to the ovary), a dextrolateral vaginal aperture, a copulatory complex consisting of a coiled male copulatory organ with counterclockwise rings with the base articulated to the accessory piece, 8 pairs of hooks and the absence of anchors and bars on haptor. Our analysis of morphological features of Diplectanum species on gerreids evidences that these parasites more closely resemble each other than the known species from sciaenids suggesting that split between gerreids and sciaenids resulted in parasite speciation. PMID:19202675

Franco, Edgar F Mendoza; Roche, Dominique G; Torchin, Mark E

2008-09-01

378

Description of karyotype in Hypostomus regani (Ihering, 1905) (Teleostei, oricariidae) from the Piumhi river in Brazil with comments on karyotype variation found in Hypostomus.  

PubMed

The paper represents a comparative cytogenetic analysis of three populations of Hypostomus regani in Brazil.Two populations belong to the Upper Paraná River Basin and the third one, the karyotype of which is described for the first time, was probably introduced into the São Francisco River Basin through transposition from the Piumhi River. Karyotype features of populations of Hypostomus regani from the Piracicaba and Tietê River Basins are also discussed. The occurrence of Hypostomus regani in the São Francisco River Basin is reported for the first time here. The study also revealed distinct differences in the location of the Ag-NORs between the analyzed populations that enable individuals from the Piumhi River, Mogi-Guaçu River and Tietê River to be distinguished from one another. Thus, the data obtained indicate the possibility of geographic variation fixing different karyotypes even in the same basin of origin. PMID:24260625

Mendes-Neto, Ernani de Oliveira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Moreira-Filho, Orlando

2011-01-01

379

Three new species of Protogyrodactylus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) from the gills of the longtail silverbiddy Gerres longirostris (Teleostei: Gerreidae) in the Red Sea.  

PubMed

Twenty-one specimens of the longtailed silverbiddy Gerres longirostris (Gerreidae) were examined for dactylogyrid parasites from the Nabq Managed Resource Protected Area, Ras Mohammed National Park (Red Sea) near Sharm El-Sheikh, South Sinai, Egypt. The diagnosis of Protogyrodactylus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 was amended, and three new species, P. federicae n. sp., P. zullinii n. sp. and P. alatus n. sp., were recovered and described; the prevalence of each species was 100%. P. federicae most closely resembled P. alienus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1974, but differed from it by possessing two anteromedial projections on the ventral bar, a claw-like ventral anchor sclerite and spatulate dorsal bars. P. zullini was most similar to P. quadratus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922, from which it differed by having a distal hook on the superficial root of the dorsal anchor, an evenly curved ventral anchor shaft and point, and a flange on the bulbous base of the male copulatory organ. P. alatus was closest to P. youngi Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1974, from which it differed by having delicate anchors and two prominent anteromedial processes on the ventral bar. PMID:18210221

Galli, Paolo; Kritsky, Delane C

2008-03-01

380

Lamellodiscus euzeti n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae), a parasite from Dentex canariensis and D. gibbosus (Teleostei: Sparidae) in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea  

PubMed Central

Lamellodiscus euzeti n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) is described from the gills of two sparid fishes, Dentex canariensis (Steindachner) off Senegal and Ivory Coast and D. gibbosus (Rafinesque) off Senegal and Tunisia. The new species belongs to the “ignoratus” group, characterized by a lamellodisc with complete lamellae, a “lyre” shaped male copulatory organ type, and the “ignoratus” sensu stricto subgroup, characterized by a haptor with simple lateral dorsal bars. Lamellodiscus euzeti n. sp can be distinguished from all the congeneric species of the “ignoratus” subgroup by the presence of a prominent protuberance at the base of the curved part of the simple piece of the male copulatory organ (MCO), a large bulb at the base of the bifurcated piece of the MCO and the presence of 5-6 spines in the distal portion of the axial branch of the bifurcated piece of the MCO. Specificity and biogeography of Lamellodiscus species from sparid fishes are discussed. PMID:21678790

Diamanka, A.; Boudaya, L.; Toguebaye, B.S.; Pariselle, A.

2011-01-01

381

The Afro-Asian labeonine genus Garra Hamilton, 1822 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the Pliocene of Central Armenia: Palaeoecological and palaeobiogeographical implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fossil skeletal remains of the Afro-Asian labeonine genus Garra are described on the basis of more than 300 specimens from the Pliocene diatomites of Jradzor, Central Armenia. Extant species of the genus Garra exhibit a wide distribution ranging from China, South Asia, and Borneo, through Middle East, the Arabian Peninsula, and Africa, where these fishes inhabit a variety of freshwater biotopes. The Pliocene fossils from the Jradzor site provide the first evidence of Garra in the fossil record. The inadequate preservation of the available material did not allow a detailed taxonomic attribution at the species level. Remains of Garra sp. were found associated to a moderately diverse assemblage, which includes also remains of additional freshwater fishes (Capoeta sp., Leuciscus cf. souffia, Leuciscus sp.), amphibians (Pelophylax cf. ridibundus), and large mammals (Rhinocerotidae indet.), as well as of monocotyledon plants. According to the diatom flora, the diatomites of Jradzor can be assigned to the Pliocene and were deposited in a freshwater lacustrine setting that was characterized by high productivity, eutrophic conditions, and standing macrophyte vegetation along the littoral zone. The presence of abundant resorptive pharyngeal teeth suggests that the Pliocene palaeolake of Jradzor was characterized by resident populations of Garra. Extant species of this genus are currently absent in the freshwaters of Armenia. The record of the genus Garra from Jradzor suggests that the Araks-Kura River drainage was connected, at least in part, with the Euphrates and Tigris River drainage during the Pliocene. The extinction of Garra (and other thermophilous taxa) from Araks and Kura River drainage was probably due to Plio-Pleistocene tectonic uplift of the Armenian Highland and consequent progressive climate cooling.

Vasilyan, Davit; Carnevale, Giorgio

2013-01-01

382

Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes) species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses  

PubMed Central

Fighting fish species in the genus Betta are found in several Southeast Asian countries. Depending on the mode of paternal care for fertilized eggs and hatchlings, various species of the betta fish are classified as mouth brooders or nest builders whose members in turn have been grouped according to their similarities mainly in morphology. The mouth brooders as well as some nest builders involved in the present study include fishes discovered and identified subsequent to previous reports on species groupings and their positions on phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences that differ from those used by us in this study. From the mitochondrial COI gene and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences and more accurate analyses we conclude that the following members of the mouth-brooding pairs, named differently previously, are virtually identical, viz the Betta prima–Betta pallida pair and Betta ferox–Betta apollon pair. The Bettasimplex, hitherto believed to be one species, could possibly be genetically split into 2 distinct species. In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships. PMID:25606468

Panijpan, Bhinyo; Kowasupat, Chanon; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Wanna, Warapond; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Kühne, Jens; Fasquel, Frédéric

2014-01-01

383

Salmokottelati, a new species of trout from Alak?r Stream, draining to the Mediterranean in southern Anatolia, Turkey (Teleostei, Salmonidae).  

PubMed

Salmokottelati sp. n., is described from Alak?r Stream (Mediterranean basin) in Turkey. It is distinguished from other Anatolian Salmo species by a combination of the following characters (none unique to the species): general body colour greenish to silvery in life; 7-9 parr marks along lateral line; four dark bands on flank absent in both sexes; black ocellated spots few, present only on upper part of flank in individuals smaller than 160 mm SL but in larger both males and females black spots numerous and located on back and middle and upper part of flank; red spots few to numerous, scattered on median, and half of lower and upper part of flank; head long (length 29-33% SL in males, 26-32 in females); mouth large (length of mouth gape 13-19% SL in males, 12-15 in females); maxilla long (length 10-13% SL in males, 8-12 in females); 105-113 lateral line scales; 24-29 scale rows between lateral line and dorsal-fin origin, 17-19 scale rows between lateral line and anal-fin origin; 13-15 scales between lateral line and adipose-fin insertion. PMID:25589858

Turan, Davut; Do?an, Esra; Kaya, Cüneyt; Kany?lmaz, Mahir

2014-01-01

384

Recovering cryptic diversity and ancient drainage patterns in eastern North America: historical biogeography of the Notropis rubellus species group (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).  

PubMed

The Central Highlands of North America contain a strikingly diverse assemblage of temperate freshwater fishes and have long been a focus of biogeographic studies. The rosyface shiner complex, Notropis rubellus and related species, is a member of this fauna exhibiting a disjunct highlands distribution occurring in the unglaciated regions of the Central Highlands and glaciated regions of the Central Lowlands. Until recently, N. rubellus was considered a single, widespread species exhibiting geographic variation in morphological characters. However, several studies have revealed that N. rubellus is a multi-species complex with closely related species endemic to drainages within each highland region. We examined genetic variation of the N. rubellus complex using a complete mtDNA cytochrome b gene sequence data set and combined mtDNA and published allozyme data sets. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of the mitochondrial data set and parsimony analyses of a combined mitochondrial and allozyme data sets were largely consistent. Results of these analyses revealed ancient cryptic diversity within the N. rubellus complex that existed prior to the onset of Pleistocene glaciations. We identified seven strongly supported clades within the N. rubellus complex. Four clades are diagnosed as separate species (N. percobromus, N. rubellus, N. micropteryx and N. suttkusi) and three clades may represent undescribed forms. Relationships among these groups and their biogeographical patterns provided significant inferences on ichthyofaunal distributions in southeastern North America. These include the timing of the origin of the diversity, ancient drainage patterns and barriers to dispersal in the Central Highlands. The observation of increased diversity in N. rubellus suggests there may be greater diversity within other taxa with a similar distribution. PMID:17716926

Berendzen, Peter B; Simons, Andrew M; Wood, Robert M; Dowling, Thomas E; Secor, Carol L

2008-02-01

385

Post-glacial expansion into the Paleozoic Plateau: evidence of an Ozarkian refugium for the Ozark minnow Notropis nubilus (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).  

PubMed

Genetic variation was examined within the Ozark minnow Notropis nubilus using complete mtDNA cytochrome b gene sequences from 160 individuals representing 30 localities to test hypotheses on the origin of the distribution. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three strongly supported clades of haplotypes consistent with geographic distributions: a clade from the Western Ozarks, a clade from the Southern Ozarks and a clade from the Northern Ozarks and upper Mississippi River basin. The estimated mean ages of these clades indicated that they diverged during pre-Illinoian glacial cycles extending from the late Pliocene into the early Pleistocene. Results of demographic analyses based on coalescent approaches supported the hypothesis that the Paleozoic Plateau was not a refugium for N. nubilus during periodic glacial advances. There is evidence of a genetic signature of northern expansion into the Paleozoic Plateau from a Southern Ozarkian refugium. Populations expanded out of drainages in the Northern Ozarks into the Paleozoic Plateau during the late Pleistocene. Subsequently, the two regions were isolated due to the recent extirpation of intervening populations caused by the loss of suitable habitat. PMID:21039494

Berendzen, P B; Dugan, J F; Gamble, T

2010-10-01

386

Allozyme differentiation of two populations of the genus Neoplecostomus Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888 (Teleostei, Loricariidae) from the upper Paraná River basin, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Allozyme electrophoresis was used to examine 12 enzymatic systems in two populations of the genus Neoplecostomus from the Paraná River basin. Samples of Neoplecostomus sp. 1 were collected in Paraitinguinha stream of the Tietê River basin, in the municipality of Salesópolis, São Paulo State, and those of Neoplecostomus sp. 2 from São Domingos stream of the Rio Grande River basin, in the municipality of Muzambinho, Minas Gerais State. The genetic variability of the two populations was estimated by Nei’s expected heterozygosity and was considered lower than average for populations of freshwater fish. The proportion of polymorphic loci was low (only 5.26% for the locus Idh). The low frequency of heterozygosity for both populations revealed a high fixation of alleles for each locus. Homozygote excess was observed in both populations. The values of Nei’s genetic identity and the presence of loci with different allele frequencies in both populations may imply that the two populations belong to different species. The genetic variability between populations was compared to other data for loricariids. PMID:21931525

Reusing, Ana Flávia; Renesto, Erasmo; Roxo, Fábio F.; Zawadzki, Cláudio H.

2011-01-01

387

Rangewide microsatellite phylogeography of the endangered tidewater goby, Eucyclogobius newberryi (Teleostei: Gobiidae), a genetically subdivided coastal fish with limited marine dispersal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The federally endangered tidewater goby, Eucyclogobius newberryi, is the most locally differentiated vertebrate with marine dispersal on the California Coast. It inhabits seasonally closed\\u000a estuaries along the California coast; a habitat heavily impacted by anthropogenic filling and artificial opening, and exhibits\\u000a varied metapopulation behavior as a consequence of hydrologic variation and anthropogenic impact. We describe 19 taxon-specific\\u000a microsatellite loci, and

Dent A. Earl; Kristina D. Louie; Carolyne Bardeleben; Camm C. Swift; David K. Jacobs

2010-01-01

388

New observations on Myxozoa of the goldline sea bream Sarpa salpa L. 1758 (Teleostei : Sparidae) from the Mediterranean coast of Tunisia.  

PubMed

A member of the Sparidae family, the goldline sea bream Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus, 1758) collected from the Gulf of Tunis and the Bay of Bizerte in Northeast Tunisia, Western Mediterranean, were examined for the myxozoan parasites. During the parasitological exposure, a total of 7 myxosporean are found including 6 coelozoic species belong to the genus Ceratomyxa Thélohan, 1892 infected the gallbladder of their host of which 3 known species have been previously described, C. arcuata Thélohan, 1892, C. pallida Thélohan, 1895 and C. herouardi Georgévitch, 1916 and 3 species seem different in morphology to Ceratomyxa spp already known from Mediterranean Sea or from other localities in the wide world. These species are Ceratomyxa sp. 1, Ceratomyxa sp. 2 and Ceratomyxa sp. 3. Only one histozoic species belongs to the genus Henneguya Thélohan, 1892, Henneguya sp. identified for the first time infecting the mesentery vessels of S. salpa. The myxosporean parasite C. arcuata Thélohan, 1892 is reported for the first time in Tunisian waters from the goldline sea bream which represents as new host records. In addition to the Monoparasitism, the phenomenon of Polyparasitism was observed between the current species in both sampling sites with two types: Biparasitism and Triparasitism. The most frequent Polyparasitism was a Biparasitism-type between C. herouardi and C. pallida with frequency 16.97%. For all the species, no serious pathogenic changes have been recorded in the host organ or in the outward appearance of the fish. Morphological features, site of infection into the host, parasite prevalence and mean intensity of each myxosporean found during this survey are determined and their taxonomic affinities to other species are discussed. PMID:25543930

Laamiri, Sayef

2014-01-01

389

Developmental shifts in functional morphology of the retina in Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus (Elopomorpha: Teleostei) between four ecologically distinct life-history stages.  

PubMed

The Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus, is a large piscivorous fish that supports economically important recreational fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, and Florida Atlantic coast. Megalops atlanticus undergoes ontogenetic shifts in morphology, hatching in the open ocean as larvae (less than 1 cm in length), moving into hypoxic turbid mangrove marshes as juveniles (around 10 cm in length), and then moving into coastal oceanic waters as adults (over 100 cm in length). In this study, photoreceptor distributions, opsin distributions, and photoreceptor absorbance characteristics were studied with light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, antiopsin immunofluorescence, and microspectrophotometry, respectively, at four ecologically distinct life-history stages--premetamorphic larva, settlement stage, juvenile, and adult. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the extent to which the retina of M. atlanticus changes over the course of development and 2) to relate these retinal changes with ecological shifts between developmental stages. The new data presented here indicate that the M. atlanticus retina changes substantially in rod and cone distributions and absorbance characteristics over the course of development and that these changes correlate closely with those in habitat and behavior. We show that M. atlanticus has a rod-dominated retina at the larval stage (which is unusual for teleost larvae) and that the scotopic visual system becomes far better developed with maturity, adding a substantial tapetum and high densities of small, bundled, and stacked rod cells. We also show that there are shifts in cone and rod spectral sensitivities and an increase in the diversity of spectrally distinct cone classes, including the addition of ultraviolet cones as fish mature into adults. PMID:21156089

Taylor, Scott M; Loew, Ellis R; Grace, Michael S

2011-07-01

390

Salmo kottelati, a new species of trout from Alak?r Stream, draining to the Mediterranean in southern Anatolia, Turkey (Teleostei, Salmonidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Salmo kottelati sp. n., is described from Alak?r Stream (Mediterranean basin) in Turkey. It is distinguished from other Anatolian Salmo species by a combination of the following characters (none unique to the species): general body colour greenish to silvery in life; 7–9 parr marks along lateral line; four dark bands on flank absent in both sexes; black ocellated spots few, present only on upper part of flank in individuals smaller than 160 mm SL but in larger both males and females black spots numerous and located on back and middle and upper part of flank; red spots few to numerous, scattered on median, and half of lower and upper part of flank; head long (length 29–33% SL in males, 26–32 in females); mouth large (length of mouth gape 13–19% SL in males, 12–15 in females); maxilla long (length 10–13% SL in males, 8–12 in females); 105–113 lateral line scales; 24–29 scale rows between lateral line and dorsal-fin origin, 17–19 scale rows between lateral line and anal-fin origin; 13–15 scales between lateral line and adipose-fin insertion. PMID:25589858

Turan, Davut; Do?an, Esra; Kaya, Cüneyt; Kany?lmaz, Mahir

2014-01-01

391

Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences?  

PubMed Central

In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed. PMID:25606392

Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

2014-01-01

392

Gyrodactylus malalai sp. nov. (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) from Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and Redbelly tilapia, Tilapia zillii (Gervais) (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in the Lake Turkana, Kenya.  

PubMed

Gyrodactylus malalai sp. nov. is described from the fin surface of cichlid fishes Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and Tilapia zillii (Gervais) caught in Lake Turkana (Kenya). The new species morphologically resembles Gyrodactylus nyanzae Paperna, 1973, but can be readily distinguished by the shape of the marginal hook sickles and the size of its hamuli. The sequence data of rDNA spanning partial 18S, internal transcribe spacer 1 and 2 and the 5.8S gene is unique within GenBank. Genetically, as most similar Gyrodactylus ergensi P?ikrylová, Mat?jusová, Musilová et Gelnar, 2009 was found (97.5%). Moreover, a specimen of G. cichlidarum from O. niloticus, and a specimen G. ergensi from Sarotherodon galilaeus (L.) were collected during sampling in Kenya. Likewise, additional sampling of O. niloticus from the Blue Nile in Sudan revealed the presence of the newly described species. These findings represent the first records of gyrodactylids in both African countries. PMID:22807048

P?ikrylová, Iva; Radim, Blažek; Gelnar, Milan

2012-06-01

393

Redescription of Rhabdochona cotti (Nematoda, Rhabdochonidae) from Cottus caeruleomentum (Teleostei, Cottidae) in Maryland, USA, with remarks on the taxonomy of North American Rhabdochona spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nematode Rhabdochona cotti Gustafson, 1949 is redescribed from specimens collected from the intestine of the blue ridge sculpin Cottus caeruleomentum (a new host record), a recently described fish species, from Little Fishing Creek in Maryland, USA. The measurements of these\\u000a specimens, collected in November 2005, are generally smaller than those reported in the original description of R. cotti, this

František Moravec; Patrick Muzzall

2007-01-01

394

Supplement 16, Part 3, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Parasites: Trematoda And Cestoda  

E-print Network

maculati nov. sp. Hemibarbus maculatus (intestine) Allocreadium spindale n. sp. Mastacembalus armatus (intestine) Allocreadium transversale Carassius carassius (in- tes tine) Allocreadium transversale Gobio gobio Allocreadium transversales...

Segal, Dorothy B.; Humphrey, Judith M.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Kirby, Margie D.

1967-01-01

395

Hair Cell Heterogeneity in the Goldfish Saccule  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of cytological studies performed in the utricle and saccule of Astronotus ocellatus (Teleostei, Percomorphi, Cichlidae) identified two basic types of hair cells and others with some intermediate characteristics. This paper reports on applying the same techniques to the saccule of Carassius auratus (Teleostei, Otophysi, Cyprinidae) and demonstrates similar types of hair cells to those found in Astronotus. Since Carassius and Astronous are species of extreme taxonomic distance within the Euteteostei, two classes of mechanoreceptive hair cells are likely to represent the primitive condition for sensory receptors in the euteleost inner ear and perhaps in all bony fish ears.

Saidel, William M.; Lanford, Pamela J.; Yan, Hong Y.; Popper, Arthur N.

1995-01-01

396

Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies. PMID:24498750

Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

2013-12-01

397

2001 The Society for the Study of Evolution. All rights reserved. Evolution, 55(11), 2001, pp. 22742286  

E-print Network

GLACIAL RACES OF COREGONUS ARTEDI (TELEOSTEI: COREGONINAE) JULIE TURGEON1,2,3 AND LOUIS BERNATCHEZ1,4 1 the existence of two closely related lineages of the lake cisco, Coregonus artedi, whose significantly different and low migration regimes. Key words. Cline, Coregonus, disequilibrium, historical gene flow, isolation

Bernatchez, Louis

398

Dominant lethal mutations in Tilapia mossambica (Peters) elicited by myleran.  

PubMed

Tilapia mossambica (Peters) Teleostei, Cichlidae, is of commercial importance being farmed for human consumption. An effective means of sterilization would be of value since prolific breeding under farming conditions reduces growth rate. The possibility of using the antileukaemic drug myleran as a chemosterilant has been investigated previously, however the present study indicated that it can induce dominant lethal mutations in this species. PMID:7219436

Wardhaugh, A A

1981-02-01

399

The Braincase of Pholidophorid and Leptolepid Fishes, with a Review of the Actinopterygian Braincase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mesozoic pholidophorid and leptolepid fishes stand at the base of the Teleostei. In this paper the neurocranium and the dermal bones intimately associated with it, the roofing bones and the vomer and parasphenoid, are described more or less completely in six Jurassic pholidophorids (Pholidophoroides limbata, Pholidophorus bechei, P. germanicus, P. minor, P. macrocephalus and an unnamed Callovian Pholidophorus sp.)

C. Patterson

1975-01-01

400

Department of Biology. California State University Long Beach. California 90840-3702  

E-print Network

Ju-shey Ho Department of Biology. California State University Long Beach. California 90840-3702 Phylogeny and Biogeography of Hakes (Merluccius; TeleosteiJ: A Cladistic Analysis Abstract.-The phylogeny and historical biogeography of hakes (Merluccius) are reexamined using a cladistic analysis of Inada's (1981

401

The ecology of the visual pigments of snappers (Lutjanidae) on the Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visual pigments in the retinal photoreceptors of 12 species of snappers of the genus Lutjanus (Teleostei; Perciformes; Lutjanidae) were measured by microspectrophotometry. All the species were caught on the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) but differ in the colour of the water in which they live. Some live in the clear blue water of the outer reef, some in the

J. N. Lythgoe; W. R. A. Muntz; J. C. Partridge; J. Shand; D. Mc B. Williams

1994-01-01

402

The genus Sebastes, containing the live-bearing rockfishes, is the most  

E-print Network

- Genetic and morphological differences between Sebastes vulpes and S. zonatus (Teleostei: Scorpaeniformes the position of the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA. Abstract--The taxonomic status of Sebastes vulpes completely into two genetically distinct groups that cor- responded to S. vulpes and S. zonatus according

403

The barbs of Lake Tana, Ethiopia: morphological diversity and its implications for taxonomy, trophic resource partitioning, and fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rediscovery of a unique species flock of cyprinid fish, its taxonomy and its feeding-biology are described. Fourteen species of barbs (Barbus spp, Cyprinidae, Teleostei) were found in highland (1800 m) Lake Tana, in northwestern Ethiopia. Lake Tana is an isolated fresh-water system, because its only outflowing river, the Blue Nile, of which it is the source, drops over 40

L. A. J. Nagelkerke

1997-01-01

404

Pathological Studies on the Small Intestine of Wild Rabbit Fish (Siganus Rivulatus) Infected by Helminthes Parasite (Procamallanus Sp) in Red Sea Coast Area, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild rabbit fish (Siganus rivulatus) Forsskål (Teleostei, Siganidae) herbivores fish were collected from two sites (Dongnab and Swakin) on Sudanese Red Sea Coast during February 2010 - January 2011 and then examine for helminthes parasites. Microscopic anatomy of intestine with worms and without worms compared to each other. Helminth parasites belong to Procamallanus sp. The abundance of lymphocytes cell, eosinphils,

Salah Eldeen; Omer F. Idris; Murwan K. Sabahelkhier

2012-01-01

405

Cross-species amplification of 41 microsatellites in European cyprinids: A tool for evolutionary, population genetics and hybridization studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cyprinids display the most abundant and widespread species among the European freshwater Teleostei and are known to hybridize quite commonly. Nevertheless, a limited number of markers for conducting comparative differentiation, evolutionary and hybridization dynamics studies are available to date. FINDINGS: Five multiplex PCR sets were optimized in order to assay 41 cyprinid-specific polymorphic microsatellite loci (including 10 novel loci

Vincent Dubut; Melthide Sinama; Jean-François Martin; Emese Meglécz; Juliette Fernandez; Rémi Chappaz; André Gilles; Caroline Costedoat

2010-01-01

406

Intergeneric Spawning Between Captive Female Sacramento Perch (Archoplites interruptus) and Male Rock  

E-print Network

two separate pairs of a male Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestris) and a female Sacramento Perch to rivers of California's central valley (Moyle, 1976). The Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestris) is native Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestrus), Teleostei: Centrarchidae DANIEL I. BOLNICK1 Section of Integrative

Bolnick, Daniel I.

407

Population genetic structure of North American burbot ( Lota lota maculosa ) across the Nearctic and at its contact zone with Eurasian burbot ( Lota lota lota )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burbot, Lota lota (Teleostei: Gadidae), has a holarctic distribution, with one subspecies (Lota lota lota) liv- ing in the lakes and rivers of the Palaearctic and northwestern North America and the other (Lota lota maculosa) living in the Nearctic (except the northwest). We analysed nine microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial DNA control region of 350 burbot sampled across North

Kathryn R. Elmer; Jeroen K. J. Van Houdt; Axel Meyer; Filip A. M. Volckaert

2008-01-01

408

Reproductive behavior of the Lake Malawi cichlid fish, Tramitichromis intermedius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis We studied the reproductive behavior of wild caught and captive-born, first generation offspring of the Lake Malawi fish, Tramitichromis intermedius(Teleostei, Cichlidae), held in aquaria. Spawning behavior includes an exchange of actions with dominant males performing bower construction and courtship behaviors while females focus on oviposition and mouthbrooding. Egg counts per oviposition and brooding and interbrooding periods of wild caught

Jennifer L. Ripley; Phillip S. Lobel

2005-01-01

409

2004 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Copeia, 2004(4), pp. 868875  

E-print Network

­875 Notropis calabazas (Teleostei; Cyprinidae): New Species from the Ri´o Pa´nuco Basin of Central Me´xico JOHN LYONS AND NORMAN MERCADO-SILVA A new species of cyprinid, Notropis calabazas, is described from the Ri Me´xico. It belongs to the Notropis calientis complex, which is defined pri- marily on the occurrence

Mercado-Silva, Norman

410

Original article Metabolic effects of C21 steroids  

E-print Network

Original article Metabolic effects of C21 steroids in female Epinephelus akaara (Teleostei-dihydroprogesterone, or a combination of the last 2 steroids, were injected into different groups of immature female Epinephelus. None of the steroids tested had significant effects on ser- um electrolyte level, and hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic

Boyer, Edmond

411

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution xxx (2005) xxxxxx www.elsevier.com/locate/ympev  

E-print Network

Evolutionary history of the synbranchid eels (Teleostei: Synbranchidae) in Central America and the Caribbean for the Synbranchidae. The mtDNA lineages exhibited a remarkable geographic structure in Central America suggestingWshes (Rivulidae) provide exceptions to the extreme disparity in the species numbers of families ¤ Corresponding

Bermingham, Eldredge

412

Publications of the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology University of Hawaii  

E-print Network

map of the Galaxias Quadrangle (MTM 35217) of Mars. U. S. Geological Survey Misc. Map. I-2579, 1999. 8 of epileptics by weak-field magnetic stimulation, Bioelectromagnetics, 21, 94-99. 9. Fairall, C.W., et al. [P. W-14 July 1998; WCRP-107, January 1999, 116-138. 10. Fanale, F. P., 1999, Mars: Atmosphere and volatile

413

Larval horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from the tissues of native freshwater fish in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encysted larval horsehair worms (Phylum Nematomorpha) were recovered from the tissues of upland bullies (Gobiomorphus breviceps) and a galaxiid (Galaxias vulgaris) from the Seaward River, Canterbury. The cysts were mostly in the alimentary submucosa. A few occurred in the liver. An adult digenean fluke (Coitocaecum sp.), parasitic within the gut of a bully, also contained nematomorph larvae in its tissues.

David Blair

1983-01-01

414

New Zealand Natural Sciences (2002) 27: 1-14 Estimating the abundance of banded kokopu  

E-print Network

in streams in the North Island, New Zealand, to population estimates determined by removal electric fishingNew Zealand Natural Sciences (2002) 27: 1-14 Estimating the abundance of banded kokopu (Galaxias of Science and Technology, The University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. e-mail: b

Waikato, University of

415

Diel activity and home range size in relation to food supply in a drift-feeding stream fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals within a species often compete for resources in both space and time. In dominance hierarchies individuals with the greatest competitive ability will occupy prime locations during optimal periods. We compared spatial and temporal use of habitat, aggression, and feeding success among giant kokopu (Galaxias argenteus) in dominance hierarchies under normal and reduced food supply. Under normal food supply conditions

Eric A. Hansen; Gerard P. Closs

2005-01-01

416

Two new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) and a redescription of Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier and S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky (Teleostei: Characidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Three species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 are reported from the gills of Salminus spp. in Brazil. Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier is redescribed, based on examination of paratypes. The study revealed morphological differences from the original description, especially in the morphology of the cephalothorax and the ornamentation of antenna, antennule and legs. Ergasilus lacusauratus n. sp. described from S. brasiliensis in lake Lagoa Dourada (Paraná) differs from the only known species from this host group, E. salmini, in the shape and size of the cephalothorax and the general morphology of the egg-sacs. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. from S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky in River São Francisco (Minas Gerais) closely resembles E. pitalicus, E. coatiarus and E. leporinidis in the lack of a pectinate seta on the first exopodal segment, a feature common in species of Ergasilus in the Neotropics. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. differs from these species in the presence of a spiniform process on the coxae of legs 2, 3 and 4, an ornament never reported from freshwater species of Ergasilus in South America. PMID:25557749

Marques, Taísa Mendes; Boeger, Walter A; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marília

2015-01-01

417

SEM study of the oral cavity of members of the Kyphosidae and Girellidae (Pisces, Teleostei), with remarks on Crenidens (Sparidae), focusing on teeth and taste bud numbers and distribution.  

PubMed

The present study compares dental morphology and taste bud distribution in the oral cavity of four species of the teleost family Kyphosidae, five species of Girellidae and one species of Sparidae. Some of these species are predominantly herbivorous, while others are omnivorous with a high portion of invertebrates in their diets. All the kyphosids feature one row of frontal cusped teeth on their jaws and areas of miniature teeth on the tongue and palate; the girellid species feature 2-5 rows of denticulate teeth, and no teeth inside the oral cavity. The total number of taste buds in the oral cavity is higher in Girella spp. than in the kyphosids, and their number is species-specific, not correlated with fish size. For example, Kyphosus bigibbus of 500mm standard length bears 1780 taste buds, while the kyphosid Neoscorpis lithophilus of 80mm bears 3460. The maximum number of taste buds, 7900, is found in Girella punctata of 60mm standard length, and the minimum number, 1320, in Kyphosus vaigiensis of 175mm. The higher number of taste buds appears to characterize species that possess a more diversified diet. The present study contributes to our understanding of the differences between the two families Kyphosidae and Girellidae. In particular, it relates the eco-morphological adaptations to the type of diet consumed by the various species. PMID:24630699

Fishelson, Lev; Golani, Daniel; Diamant, Ariel

2014-04-01

418

A New Species of Raiamas (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from the Lower Congo River, with a Phylogenetic Assessment of the Generic Limits of the Predatory Cyprinid Genera Opsaridium, Raiamas, and Leptocypris  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of ongoing survey work in the lower Congo River, two collections of an undescribed species of the predatory cyprinid genus Raiamas have been made; one in the Congo main channel in the vicinity of Inga, and a second in the Inkisi River, a large south bank tributary of the Congo. Discovery of this new taxon has prompted

Melanie L. J. Stiassny; Robert C. Schelly; Ulrich K. Schliewen; D. Buth

2006-01-01

419

Gonadotropin-dependent oocyte maturational competence requires activation of the protein kinase A pathway and synthesis of RNA and protein in ovarian follicles of Nibe, Nibea mitsukurii (Teleostei, Sciaenidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Luteinizing hormone- (LH)-dependent ovarian follicle maturation has been recently described in two stages for teleost fishes. The oocyte's ability to respond to the steroidal maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), also known as oocyte maturational competence (OMC), is acquired during the first stage; whereas the MIH-dependent resumption of meiosis occurs during the second stage. However, studies directly addressing OMC have been performed with a limited number of species and therefore the general relevance of the two-stage model and its mechanisms remain uncertain. In this study, we examined the hormonal regulation of OMC and its basic transduction mechanisms in ovarian follicles of the sciaenid teleost, Nibe (Nibea mitsukurii). Exposure to MIH [17,20??-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one or 17,20??,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one] stimulated germinal vesicle breakdown (index of meiotic resumption) in full-grown follicles primed with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, an LH-like gonadotropin) but not in those pre-cultured in plain incubation medium. The induction of OMC by HCG was mimicked by protein kinase A (PKA) activators (forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP), and blocked by specific inhibitors of PKA (H89 and H8) as well as inhibitors of RNA (actinomycin D) and protein (cycloheximide) synthesis. Forskolin-induced OMC was also inhibited by actinomycin D and cycloheximide. A strong activator of protein kinase C, PMA, inhibited HCG-dependent OMC. In conclusion, OMC in Nibe ovarian follicles is gonadotropin-dependent and requires activation of the PKA pathway followed by gene transcription and translation events. These observations are consistent with the two-stage model of ovarian follicle maturation proposed for other teleosts, and suggest that Nibe can be used as new model species for mechanistic studies of ovarian follicle differentiation and maturation in fishes.

Yoshizaki, G.; Shusa, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Patino, R.

2002-01-01

420

Cytogenetic comparison between two allopatric populations of Astyanax altiparanae Garutti et Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae), with emphasis on the localization of 18S and 5S rDNA.  

PubMed

Two populations of Astyanax altiparanae (Garutti & Britski, 2000) of the Água dos Patos stream/SP and lake Igapó/PR were analyzed. All individuals showed 2n = 50, however, different karyotypic formulae were observed. The population of the Água dos Patos stream showed 8m +24sm+6st+12a (NF=88) and the population of lake Igapó, 8m+28sm+4st+10a (NF=90). Nucleolus organizing regions (AgNORs) were observed in the terminal position on the short and long arm of different chromosomes of both populations, showing a variation from 3 to 4 chromosomes. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using 18S rDNA probes revealed only one pair of chromosomes with fluorescent signals in the terminal site on the short arm in the Igapó lake population, while the population of Água dos Patos stream showed 4 fluorescence terminal signals, characterizing a system of simple and multiple NORs, respectively. 5S rDNA fluorescent signals were detected in the interstitial position of a pair of chromosomes in the two studied populations. Some AgNOR sites revealed to be GC-rich when stained with Chromomycin A3 (CMA3), however, AT positive regions were not observed. The data obtained show that, despite the conservation of the diploid number and location of 5S DNAr, differences in both the distribution of 18S rDNA and karyotypic formula among the populations were found, thus corroborating the existing data on chromosome variability in Astyanax altiparanae that can be significant for cytotaxonomy in this group. PMID:24260632

Pacheco, Rosiley Berton; da Rosa, Renata; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia; Júlio, Horácio Ferreira; Dias, Ana Lúcia

2011-01-01

421

Dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) parasitizing the gills of spinefoots (Teleostei, Siganidae): revision of Tetrancistrum Goto and Kikuchi, 1917, with descriptions of two new species from Siganus spp. of the Red Sea and Celebes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine species of Siganus (Siganidae) and Naso brevirostris (Acanthuridae) were examined for Tetrancistrum spp. (Monogenoidea, Dactylogyridae). Tetrancistrum Goto and Kikuchi, 1917 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) is redefined, and the following species are reported and\\/or described from Australia, Egypt, and\\/or China: T. sigani Goto and Kikuchi, 1917 from S. fuscescens in Australia and China, T. fusiforme (Yamaguti, 1953) Young, 1967 from S. lineatus

Delane C. Kritsky; Paolo Galli; Yang Tingbao

2007-01-01

422

Dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) parasitizing the gills of spinefoots (Teleostei: Siganidae): proposal of Glyphidohaptor n. gen., with two new species from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and G. plectocirra n. comb. from Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt.  

PubMed

Nine species of Siganus (Perciformes: Siganidae) were examined for dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) from the Red Sea, Egypt; the Great Barrier Reef, Australia; and the South China Sea, China. Species of Tetrancistrum were found on siganids from all 3 localities; Pseudohaliotrema spp. were restricted to siganids from the Great Barrier Reef; and species representing Glyphidohaptor n. gen. were found on siganids from the Red Sea and Great Barrier Reef. Siganus argenteus from the Red Sea and Siganus vulpinus from the Great Barrier Reef were negative for dactylogyrid parasites. Glyphidohaptor n. gen. is proposed for 3 species (2 species new to science) and the new species are described: Glyphidohaptor phractophallus n. sp. from Siganus fuscescens from the Great Barrier Reef; Glyphidohaptor sigani n. sp. from Siganus doliatus (type host), Siganus punctatus, Siganus corallinus, and Siganus lineatus from the Great Barrier Reef; and Glyphidohaptor plectocirra (Paperna, 1972) n. comb. (= Pseudohaliotrema plectocirra Paperna, 1972) from Siganus luridus and Siganus rivulatus from the Red Sea. PMID:17436940

Kritsky, Delane C; Galli, Paolo; Yang, Tingbao

2007-02-01

423

Neotropical Monogenoidea. 49. Four new species of the Diplectanidae (Dactylogyrinea) from the gills of some pachyurines (Teleostei: Sciaenidae) from the Rio Tocantins and Rio Doce Basins, with the proposal of Anoplectanum n. g. and Spinomatrix n. g.  

PubMed

Four new species of the Diplectanidae from the gills of freshwater sciaenid species (Pachyurinae) in Brazil are described and two new genera, Anoplectanum n. g. and Spinomatrix n. g., are proposed. These are: Diplectanum copiosum n. sp. from Pachyurus junki and Petilipinnis grunniens; Anoplectanum haptorodynatum n. g., n. sp. from Pachyurus junki and Petilipinnis grunniens, and A. microsoma n. g., n. sp. from Petilipinnis grunniens, all in the Tocantins Basin; and Spinomatrix penteormos n. g., n. sp. from Pachyurus adspersus in the Rio Doce Basin. Anoplectanum is proposed to accommodate diplectanids lacking squamodiscs and having a superficial root of the ventral anchor as long or longer than the deep root. Spinomatrix is proposed for species having a haptoral and peduncular armature composed of spines, hooks, anchors, squamodiscs and armed muscular pads. PMID:16612657

Boeger, Walter A; Fehlauer, Karin H; Marques, Elineide E

2006-05-01

424

Descriptions of four species of grenadier fishes of the genera Hymenocephalus and Hymenogadus (Teleostei, Gadiformes, Macrouridae) from the New Zealand region and Tasman Sea, including two new species of Hymenocephalus.  

PubMed

Two new species of Hymenocephalus are described from the New Zealand region and Tasman Sea. Hymenocephalus fuscus sp. n. has 11-12 pelvic fin rays, is darkly pigmented, with enlarged bony ridges on the dorsal aspects of head, lacks a chin barbel, has few (16-19) gill rakers on inner side of first arch and is similar to other species in the H. aterrimus species group. Hymenocephalus maculicaudus sp. n. has 8 pelvic fin rays, a mid-lateral line of melanophores on body and tail that extends about a head length posterior to anal fin origin, a short (7-16 % HL) chin barbel and is similar to other species in the H. megalops species group. Hymenocephalus nascens has 12-14 pelvic fin rays, lacks a chin barbel, has a mid-lateral stripe of silvery (fresh) or brownish (preserved) pigment running along trunk and tail. Hymenogadus gracilis has a serrated (weak, near tip) first dorsal fin spine, 7-9 pelvic fin rays, long (20-30% HL) chin barbel, and one row of enlarged melanophores along lateral mid-line of the tai