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1

Surviving historical Patagonian landscapes and climate: molecular insights from Galaxias maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The dynamic geological and climatic histories of temperate South America have played important roles in shaping the contemporary distributions and genetic diversity of endemic freshwater species. We use mitochondria and nuclear sequence variation to investigate the consequences of mountain barriers and Quaternary glacial cycles for patterns of genetic diversity in the diadromous fish Galaxias maculatus in Patagonia (~300 individuals

Tyler S Zemlak; Evelyn M Habit; Sandra J Walde; Cecilia Carrea; Daniel E Ruzzante

2010-01-01

2

Post-settlement migratory behaviour and growth-related costs in two diadromous fish species, Galaxias maculatus and Galaxias brevipinnis.  

PubMed

The physiological challenges incurred during the transition from sea to fresh water and the constraints they place on the rate at which the common galaxiid Galaxias maculatus and the climbing galaxiid Galaxias brevipinnis can migrate from marine to freshwater habitats were examined. The duration of the marine to freshwater transition, the relationship between post-settlement age (PSA) and standard length (L(S)) as a proxy for energetic costs incurred during settlement and the potential effects of estuary geomorphology on migratory behaviour was investigated. Rate of upstream migration after settlement was not uniform. Upstream migration rate was slowest directly after settlement and increased with increasing PSA and distance from the river mouth, indicating a delay in upstream migration by newly recruited galaxiids. L(s) did not increase with age, at least within the first 21 days post settlement. These patterns were consistent for both species, in spite of differences in their life histories, across the recruitment season, despite seasonal variation in recruit size, and among estuaries with different properties. The results suggest that the timing and speed of migratory behaviour primarily reflect physiological constraints. Given the duration of residency of these species in estuaries, this study indicates that estuaries are critical transitional habitats for diadromous fishes during their migration from marine to freshwater habitats. PMID:20738553

Jung, C A; Barbee, N C; Swearer, S E

2009-08-01

3

The influence of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) on habitat use of inanga (Galaxias maculatus) in a stream simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced salmonid fishes may have affected native galaxiid fishes in New Zealand by forcing alterations in their use of spatial resources. A stream simulator was used to test the effects of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) (fork length range 66–115 mm) on habitat use of inanga (Galaxias maculatus) (fork length range 51–100 mm) during autumn. The stream simulator consisted of

Martin L. Bonnett; Angus R. McIntosh

2004-01-01

4

Surviving historical Patagonian landscapes and climate: molecular insights from Galaxias maculatus  

PubMed Central

Background The dynamic geological and climatic histories of temperate South America have played important roles in shaping the contemporary distributions and genetic diversity of endemic freshwater species. We use mitochondria and nuclear sequence variation to investigate the consequences of mountain barriers and Quaternary glacial cycles for patterns of genetic diversity in the diadromous fish Galaxias maculatus in Patagonia (~300 individuals from 36 locations). Results Contemporary populations of G. maculatus, east and west of the Andes in Patagonia, represent a single monophyletic lineage comprising several well supported groups. Mantel tests using control region data revealed a strong positive relationship when geographic distance was modeled according to a scenario of marine dispersal. (r = 0.69, P = 0.055). By contrast, direct distance between regions was poorly correlated with genetic distance (r = -0.05, P = 0.463). Hierarchical AMOVAs using mtDNA revealed that pooling samples according to historical (pre-LGM) oceanic drainage (Pacific vs. Atlantic) explained approximately four times more variance than pooling them into present-day drainage (15.6% vs. 3.7%). Further post-hoc AMOVA tests revealed additional genetic structure between populations east and west of the Chilean Coastal Cordillera (coastal vs. interior). Overall female effective population size appears to have remained relatively constant until roughly 0.5 Ma when population size rapidly increased several orders of magnitude [100× (60×-190×)] to reach contemporary levels. Maximum likelihood analysis of nuclear alleles revealed a poorly supported gene tree which was paraphyletic with respect to mitochondrial-defined haplogroups. Conclusions First diversifying in the central/north-west region of Patagonia, G. maculatus extended its range into Argentina via the southern coastal regions that join the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. More recent gene flow between northern populations involved the most ancient and most derived lineages, and was likely facilitated by drainage reversal(s) during one or more cooling events of the late Pleistocene. Overall female effective population size represents the end result of a widespread and several hundred-fold increase over approximately 0.5 Ma, spanning several climatic fluctuations of the Pleistocene. The minor influence of glacial cycles on the genetic structure and diversity of G. maculatus likely reflects the access to marine refugia during repeated bouts of global cooling. Evidence of genetic structure that was detected on a finer scale between lakes/rivers is most likely the result of both biological attributes (i.e., resident non-migratory behavior and/or landlocking and natal homing in diadromous populations), and the Coastal Cordillera as a dispersal barrier.

2010-01-01

5

Modelo de galaxia disco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la formación de galaxias anillo, a través de simulaciones numéricas. En el estudio numérico es necesario construir el modelo de una galaxia disco normal, en condición de equilibrio estable, que se ajuste a los parámetros observacionales disponibles de estos objetos. En dicho modelo se considera la galaxia constituída por un halo de materia oscura, un bulge y el disco propiamente dicho. A partir de perfiles de densidad obtenidos de las observaciones, se lleva a cabo la distribución espacial de las partículas, a través del ``Método del rechazo". La asignación de velocidades se realiza considerando que las partículas del disco están aproximadamente en equilibrio rotacional, y se agregan dispersiones de velocidad de acuerdo con el parámetro de Toomre Q=1.5.

Ledesma, M.; Mosconi, M.

6

"Nuestra Galaxia" & "Adler En Español"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Nuestra Galaxia" is an Emmy-nominated weekly astronomy news segment and a collaboration between the Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum and Noticias Univision Chicago. The two-minute segment hosted by José Francisco Salgado covers astronomy news and topics, skywatching information as well as questions submitted by viewers. "Nuestra Galaxia" is part of an Adler initiative called "Adler en Español" which explores opportunities to interact with the Spanish-speaking community in the Chicago area which numbers more than one million people. Other Spanish-language components of this initiative include audio tours, courses, special programs, sky shows, and interactive exhibits. A review of these components, challenges encountered, and lessons learned so far are presented here.

Salgado, Jose F.

2007-05-01

7

Curva de rotación de la Galaxia Eso 321-25  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se presenta la curva de rotación de esta galaxia, generada a partir de espectros obtenidos con el Espectrógrafo Multifunción del telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre. El análisis de las curvas de velocidad radial obtenidas muestra que el núcleo no coincide con el centro de simetría de las mismas, lo que es consistente con el aspecto morfológico exhibido por la galaxia en imágenes de banda ancha. En estas últimas, el núcleo muestra una estructura peculiar y no coincidiría con el centro geométrico del disco aparente. Los flujos relativos de líneas (H? /[NII]? 6583 y [SII]? 6731/? 6716) indicarían niveles de excitación y densidad electrónica normales en regiones HII, aún en la zona nuclear. Este trabajo forma parte de un programa de estudio de cinemática, excitación y densidad electrónica del gas ionizado en galaxias peculiares del Atlas de Galaxias Australes de Sérsic.

Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.; Ahumada, J.; Arreguine, V.

8

Kolbenzellen in der Epidermis der Galaxiidae, Galaxias attenuatus (Salmoniformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The epidermis ofGalaxias attenuatus (Galaxiidae, Salmoniformes) was found to contain club cells that are like the alarm substance cells of the Gonorhynchiformes and Cypriniformes. Whether they are alarm substance cells, can be decided only by experiments on the fright reaction. The existence of club cells in the Galaxiidae confirms the opinion that both the Gonorhynchiformes and the Ostariophysi derived

Wolfgang Pfeiffer

1969-01-01

9

Effects of Habitat Structure and the Presence of Brown Trout on the Population Density of Galaxias truttaceus in Tasmania, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the effect of introduced brown trout Salmo trutta on populations of native Galaxias truttaceus (Galaxiidae), known locally as spotted galaxias, population abundance models based on the habitat use patterns of G. truttaceus were used to compare streams with and without brown trout. In selected streams in southeast Tasmania, habitat use by G. truttaceus was examined with respect to

T. R. Ault; R. W. G. White

1994-01-01

10

Geologic map of the Galaxias quadrangle (MTM 35217) of Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Galaxias region (MTM 35217) is one of a series of 1:500,000-scale science study areas on Mars sponsored by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program. Situated near the northern limit of lava flows associated with Elysium Mons, this region includes a mixture of volcanic and nonvolcanic terrains. The region is also of interest for the fluvial systems that originate along the distal margins of the Elysium lava flows. Resolution of Viking Orbiter images used to prepare the base map ranges from 40 to 160 m/pixel. High-resolution frames (40 to 80 m/pixel) are found in the southeastern part of the map area and along the north edge of the quadrangle, but over half the quadrangle is included in medium-resolution frames (150 m/pixel). Two 8 m/pixel, very high resolution scenes are available (see fig. 1). Interpretation is complicated by variable resolution and sun angles that vary from east to west illumination on different images. Mapping methods and principles are adapted from those developed for lunar photogeologic mapping by Shoemaker and Hackman (1962), refined by Wilhelms (1972), and successfully applied by many workers to a variety of planetary surfaces. Mapping units are distinguished by topography and texture and are ranked by relative age on the basis of superposition and transection relations. Material units are assigned to time-stratigraphic systems defined by Scott and Carr (1978) and Tanaka (1986). This area is included within earlier maps that used Mariner 9 images at 1:5,000,000 scale (Elston, 1979) and globally at 1:25,000,000 scale (Scott and Carr, 1978). Regional maps based on the much higher resolutions of Viking Orbiter allowed more detailed discrimination of materials by Greeley and Guest (1987) at 1:15,000,000 scale and Tanaka and others (1992) at 1:5,000,000 scale. Some map units on this 1:500,000-scale map correspond to, or are partially equivalent to, units on the larger scale maps of Greeley and Guest (1987) and Tanaka and others (1992). Established terminology is used where feasible, but the scale of this map requires that some new units be introduced and that some previous terminology be redefined. Photogeologic methods are limited; therefore, more than one geologic explanation is given for some material units that do not readily lend themselves to an unequivocal interpretation.

De Hon, Rene A.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Brick, Eugene E.

1999-01-01

11

Evidencia de alta concentración de masa en la región nuclear de una galaxia liner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Usando técnicas de espectroscopía bidimensional en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre, se obtuvo el campo de velocidades de la región nuclear de NGC 1672, galaxia LINER con un anillo circumnuclear de regiones HII. La curva de rotación media para los 2 kpc centrales sugiere la presencia de una gran concentración de masa (?c~ 1011Msolar /kpc3). Este resultado es respaldado por la presencia de ciertos caracteres morfológicos detectados en imágenes obtenidas con el mencionado telescopio. Según recientes simulaciones hidrodinámicas de galaxias barreadas, estos caracteres sugieren la presencia de altas densidades en las regiones nucleares. El análisis espectrofotométrico indicaría, además, la presencia de dos componentes en la emisión nuclear, con una diferencia de velocidades de ~ 200 km/s. La velocidad circular del gas ionizado a 125 pc del centro señalaría la existencia de una masa interior de ~ 7× 108Msolar .

Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.; Dottori, H.; Goldes, G.

12

Organ Growth in the Puffer Fish, Sphaeroides Maculatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following organs from male and female specimens of Sphaeroides maculatus were weighed: heart, liver, spleen, gut, brain, eyes. Prediction equations for organ weight in terms of total body weight were derived. Best correlation was found when logarithms...

C. G. Wilber R. Schneider

1967-01-01

13

Chaos formation by sublimation of volatile-rich substrate: Evidence from Galaxias Chaos, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxias Chaos deviates significantly from other chaotic regions due to the lack of associated outflow channels, lack of big elevation differences between the chaos and the surrounding terrain and due to gradual trough formation. A sequence of troughs in different stages is observed, and examples of closed troughs within blocks suggest that the trough formation is governed by a local stress field rather than a regional stress field. Moreover, geomorphic evidence suggests that Galaxias Chaos is capped by Elysium lavas, which superpose an unstable subsurface layer that causes chaotic tilting of blocks and trough formation. Based on regional mapping we suggest a formation model, where Vastitas Borealis Formation embedded between Elysium lavas is the unstable subsurface material, because gradual volatile loss causes shrinkage and differential substrate movement. This process undermines the lava cap, depressions form and gradually troughs develop producing a jigsaw puzzle of blocks due to trough coalescence. Observations of chaos west of Elysium Rise indicate that this process might have been widespread along the contact between Vastitas Borealis Formation and Elysium lavas. However, the chaotic regions have probably been superposed by Elysium/Utopia flows to the NW of Elysium Rise, and partly submerged with younger lavas to the west.

Pedersen, G. B. M.; Head, J. W.

2011-01-01

14

Disappearance of koaro, Galaxias brevipinnis , from Lake Rotopounamu, New Zealand, following the introduction of smelt, Retropinna retropinna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Koaro, Galaxias brevipinnis, were once the only fish present in Lake Rotopounamu but, after a comprehensive survey in 1990, none were found in the lake or its tributary streams. Introduced native fish, specifically smelt, Retropinna retropinna, and the common bully, Gobiomorphus cotidianus, now occur in this lake. As koaro co-exist with bullies in other lakes, but have declined in landlocked

David K. Rowe

1993-01-01

15

Toxicity of hydrolyzed vicilins toward Callosobruchus maculatus and phytopathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that vicilins (7S storage proteins) from seeds were able to bind to the surface of the Callosobruchus maculatus larval midgut and to the peritrophic matrices of the midguts of Diatraea saccharalis and Tenebrio molitor , inhibiting larval development. Vicilins were also shown to inhibit yeast growth and bind to yeast cells through the association with chitin-containing structures. The present work studies the association of peptides from vicilins of genotypes of Vigna unguiculata (susceptible and resistant to bruchid) with acetylated chitin and the toxicity of vicilin fragments and chitin-binding vicilin fragments to C. maculatus and phytopathogenic fungi. Hydrolysis of vicilins with alpha-chymotrypsin results in a complex mixture of fragments that were separated by chitin-affinity chromatography. Chitin-binding peptides from both genotypes were toxic to C. maculatus larvae, and alpha-chymotrypsin-hydrolyzed vicilins were deleterious to the above insect and to Fusarium oxysporum , Colletotrichum musae , and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi. PMID:19658384

Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; de Miranda, Maria Raquel Alcântara; de Souza, Amanda Jardim; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Lemos, Francisco José Alves; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir Amancio; Xavier-Filho, José

2009-09-01

16

Estudio de la formación de galaxias espirales en un modelo de agregación jerárquica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El estudio de formación de galaxias espirales ha llevado al desarrollo de numerosos modelos teóricos (e.g. White & Rees 1978). En la actualidad, el modelo más aceptado predice la formación de una galaxia espiral a partir del colapso disipativo del gas en el pozo de potencial de un halo oscuro, conservando su momento angular específco (Fall & Efstathiou 1980). En los últimos años, ha sido posible realizar simulaciones numéricas hidrodinámicas, las cuales describen la evolución conjunta de la materia oscura y los bariones. Estos experimentos han señalado la dificultad de formar estructuras discoidales con propiedades consistentes con las observaciones, en modelos de agregación jerárquica. El problema principal se origina en la pérdida catastrófica de momento angular de la componente disipativa, durante el proceso de ensamblaje de los objetos, a través de la fusión de subestructura (Navarro & Steinmetz 1997). Estos experimentos no incluían procesos de formación estelar. En este trabajo, se expondrán resultados de simulaciones hidrodinámicas cosmológicas, incluyendo formación estelar (Tissera et al 1997), donde ha sido posible reproducir objetos discoidales con contrapartida observacional. El elemento fundamental ha sido la formación de bulbos estelares, los cuales han evitado la pérdida catastrófica de momento angular de los bariones. Se encontró que los discos exponenciales puramente gaseosos son altamente inestables y suceptibles de generar barras, responsables de la pérdida de momento angular y la caída violenta del gas hacia la región central. Estas inestabilidades son fácilmente inducidas durante interacciones y fusiones con objetos vecinos (Barnes & Hernquist 1996). Un bulbo estelar (o un objeto masivo y compacto) estabiliza el disco ante perturbaciones externas, asegurándole un potencial simétrico (Sellwood & Moore 1998, Van der Bosch 1998). En este caso, el gas en el disco no pierde completamente su momento angular intrínseco durante las fusiones, sino que, las sobrevive aportando una contribución distinta de cero, a partir de la cual el disco se regenera acretando en una segunda etapa, gas del halo de acuerdo al modelo tradicional de Fall & Efstathiou.

Tissera, P.; Saiz, A.; Dominguez-Tenreiro, R.

17

POPULATION GENETIC STRUCTURE OF ANOPHELES MACULATUS IN THAILAND  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anopheles (Cellia) maculatus Theobald is major malaria vector in southern Thailand and peninsular Malaysia, and previous studies on the population genetics of this mosquito suggested that mountain ranges reduced gene flow among some populations. In this study we examine the genetic variance among 5...

18

POPULATION GENETIC STRUCTURE OF ANOPHELES MACULATUS IN THAILAND  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anopheles (Cellia) maculatus Theobald is a major malaria vector in southern Thailand and peninsular Malaysia, and previous studies on the population genetics of this mosquito suggested that mountain ranges reduced gene flow among some populations. In this study we examine the genetic variance among...

19

The sensory basis of olfactory search behavior in banded kokopu ( Galaxias fasciatus).  

PubMed

The sensory basis of olfactory search behavior was investigated in the banded kokopu, Galaxias fasciatus, using a flow tank. In the presence of a 2 cm s(-1) current flow, banded kokopu use both water current and chemical information to locate a food odor source. The superficial neuromasts of the lateral line system mediate the rheotactic component of the odor search. A physical block of one olfactory nostril did not affect the olfactory search strategy employed by banded kokopu in still water or in the presence of a current flow. Thus, there is no evidence that banded kokopu perform a bilateral comparison of the olfactory stimulus during their odor search. Previously, olfaction and gustation have been the only sensory systems shown to directly mediate orientation and movement towards odor sources in fish. The use of hydrodynamic cues by fish in location of an olfactory source has been previously proposed, but without direct experimental identification of the sensory systems employed. This study identifies the contributing roles of both olfactory and hydrodynamic sensory systems to the olfactory search repertoire of fish. PMID:12209343

Baker, Cindy F; Montgomery, John C; Dennis, Todd E

2002-08-08

20

Assessment of frozen larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus as hosts for rearing Pteromalus cerealellae (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of frozen host larvae for rearing Pteromalus cerealellae (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), an ectoparasitoid of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and other stored-product insects was investigated. The reproductive potential (number and sex ratio of progeny) of female P. cerealellae was compared on live (fresh) C. maculatus larvae (concealed within cowpea seeds) versus frozen larvae (obtained by freezing infested cowpea

Ebenezer O. Onagbola; Henry Y. Fadamiro

2009-01-01

21

Distribution and biology of Galaxias truttaceus (Galaxiidae) in south-western Australia, including first evidence of parasitism of fishes in Western Australia by Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater trout minnow, Galaxias truttaceus, is restricted to the small catchments of the Goodga and Kalgan Rivers in Western Australia. Its large geographic separation from populations in south-eastern Australia, and subsequent reproductive isolation and variation in the prevailing environmental conditions, has created marked differences in biology (and morphology) between the eastern and western populations of G. truttaceus. The biology

David Lloyd Morgan

2003-01-01

22

Effectiveness of spinosad (naturalytes) in controlling the cowpea storage pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The biopesticide Spinosad controls many insect pests of stored-food products. Laboratory and field trials were carried out to determine the efficacy of this pesticide against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the main storage pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, Walp, in West Africa. In the laboratory, Spinosad caused high mortality of adult C. maculatus and decreased the number of eggs laid by females. Spinosad, however, was less toxic in the 24 h treatment to C. maculatus than deltamethrin, an insecticide commonly used in Burkina Faso to control this insect. In "on-farm" experiments, Spinosad was effective in controlling C. maculatus. After 6 mo of storage, the number of insects emerging from cowpeas seeds was reduced by >80% by coating seeds with Spinosad but only by 43% by coating with deltamethrin. Less than 20% of the seeds were perforated in the Spinosad treatment compared with 29% for deltamethrin. Spinosad controlled C. maculatus throughout the 6 mo of cowpea storage whereas deltamethrin failed to control C. maculatus after 3 mo of storage. Spinosad has the potential to be more effective in controlling C. maculatus than deltamethrin. PMID:20214388

Sanon, Antoine; Ba, Niango M; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2010-02-01

23

Red blood cell osmotic fragility in the Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red cell osmotic fragility was studied in 50 blood samples of the fish Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill). High levels of mean corpuscular fragility were found and hypotheses are presented to explain this phenomenon.

M. S. Pitombeira; F. V. Barreto Gomes; J. M. Martins

1971-01-01

24

RFE Page 1 for Sphoeroides maculatus, Northern ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

This displays small images for one or more specimens of Sphoeroides maculatus (Northern Puffer, Puffer): whole fish and fillets (MPF) and links to ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/rfe

25

Heavy Metal Contamination of Spanish Mackerel, 'Scomberomorus maculatus', and King Mackerel, 'S. cavalla'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Heavy metals in the edible tissues of Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, and king mackerel, S. cavalla, may place constraints on the utilization of these migratory coastal pelagic species and on the development of the associated fisheries. Data ar...

G. M. Meaburn

1978-01-01

26

Crossing experiment of Anopheles maculatus form K and Anopheles willmori (James) (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

We recently reported crossing experiments between Anopheles maculatus form K and five members of the Maculatus group to support the specific status of form K. In the present study, we performed further crosses between form K and a sixth species of the Maculatus group, Anopheles willmori (James). Low viability was observed in hybrid males and females. All hybrid males were sterile with atrophied testes, or partially sterile with abnormal spermatozoa. The hybrid females showed normal ovaries. The ovarian nurse cell polytene chromosomes of the F1 hybrid females displayed complete asynapsis. Backcrossing showed low viability. All males were sterile with atrophied testes or partially sterile with abnormal spermatozoa, and the females showed varying degrees of atrophied ovaries. The results provide clear evidence that form K is not conspecific to A. willmori supporting previous studies that form K represents another species of the Maculatus group. PMID:18685865

Somboon, Pradya; Thongwat, Damrongpan; Morgan, Katy; Walton, Catherine

2008-08-07

27

Twelve new species of dactylogyrids (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) from West African barbels (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), with some biogeographical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen species of dactylogyrid monogeneans, belong to Dactylogyms and Dogielius were observed in seven different African species of Barbus and Varicorhiizus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae). The barbels examined in West Africa were: Barbus occideritalis Boulenger, 1911, known in the large Sahel-Sudan rivers and in Gabon; B. waldroni Nordman, 1935, B. petitjearii Daget. 1962, B. sacratus Daget, 1963, B. parawaldroni Lévêque, Thys van

Jean-Françoi Guégan; Alain Lambert

1990-01-01

28

The West African species of Eleotris and their systematic affinities (Teleostei: Gobioidei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sleeper genus Eleotris Bloch and Schneider, 1801 (Teleostei: Gobioidei) is defined and five species recognized in tropical West African waters: E. vittata Duméril, 1858, E. senegalensis Steindachner, 1870, E. feai Thys van den Audenaerde and Tortonese, 1974, E. daganensis Steindachner, 1870, and E. annobonensis Blanc, Cadenat and Stauch, 1968. These are defined by patterns of neuromast organs (sensory papillae)

P. J. Miller

1998-01-01

29

Alguns efeitos da radiacao gama em Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1792) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae). (Some effects of gamma radiation in Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1792) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of gamma irradiation from a Cobalt-60 source on Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) was studied in this work. Experiments showed that at a dose-rate of 9820 (+-) 300 rad/hour the LD sub(100) of egg embryos was 2,2 krad, of larvae 3 krad and of pup...

J. M. M. Walder

1974-01-01

30

Influence of substrate and relative humidity on the efficacy of three entomopathogenic fungi for the hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dermestes maculatus is carrion feeder that is also a pest of poultry houses, museums, silkworm culture, and many stored foods. The Hypocreales, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Isaria fumosorosea, were tested for efficacy against D. maculatus larvae on concrete, plastic, leather, and ...

31

The effect of male size, age, and mating behavior on sexual selection in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use laboratory mating experiments to examine the effect of male size, age, and mating behavior on fecundity selection and sexual selection in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera Bruchidae), a species in which females are larger than males. Female C. maculatus gain a fitness advantage, in the form of increased lifetime fecundity, from mating with large males (which contribute

U. M. Savalli; C. W. Fox

1999-01-01

32

The mimetic repertoire of the spotted bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Although vocal mimicry in songbirds is well documented, little is known about the function of such mimicry. One possibility is that the mimic produces the vocalisations of predatory or aggressive species to deter potential predators or competitors. Alternatively, these sounds may be learned in error as a result of their acoustic properties such as structural simplicity. We determined the mimetic repertoires of a population of male spotted bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus maculatus, a species that mimics predatory and aggressive species. Although male mimetic repertoires contained an overabundance of vocalisations produced by species that were generally aggressive, there was also a marked prevalence of mimicry of sounds that are associated with alarm such as predator calls, alarm calls and mobbing calls, irrespective of whether the species being mimicked was aggressive or not. We propose that it may be the alarming context in which these sounds are first heard that may lead both to their acquisition and to their later reproduction. We suggest that enhanced learning capability during acute stress may explain vocal mimicry in many species that mimic sounds associated with alarm. PMID:21494871

Kelley, Laura A; Healy, Susan D

2011-04-15

33

The mimetic repertoire of the spotted bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus maculatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although vocal mimicry in songbirds is well documented, little is known about the function of such mimicry. One possibility is that the mimic produces the vocalisations of predatory or aggressive species to deter potential predators or competitors. Alternatively, these sounds may be learned in error as a result of their acoustic properties such as structural simplicity. We determined the mimetic repertoires of a population of male spotted bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus maculatus, a species that mimics predatory and aggressive species. Although male mimetic repertoires contained an overabundance of vocalisations produced by species that were generally aggressive, there was also a marked prevalence of mimicry of sounds that are associated with alarm such as predator calls, alarm calls and mobbing calls, irrespective of whether the species being mimicked was aggressive or not. We propose that it may be the alarming context in which these sounds are first heard that may lead both to their acquisition and to their later reproduction. We suggest that enhanced learning capability during acute stress may explain vocal mimicry in many species that mimic sounds associated with alarm.

Kelley, Laura A.; Healy, Susan D.

2011-06-01

34

Talisia esculenta lectin and larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Bruchid larvae cause major losses in grain legume crops throughout the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil and the Mexican bean weevil, are pests that damage stored seeds. Plant lectins have been implicated as antibiosis factors against insects, particularly the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. Talisia esculenta lectin (TEL) was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus larvae. TEL produced ca. 90% mortality to these bruchids when incorporated in an artificial diet at a level of 2% (w/w). The LD(50) and ED(50) for TEL was ca. 1% (w/w) for both insects. TEL was not digested by midgut preparations of C. maculatus and Z. subfasciatus. The transformation of the genes coding for this lectin could be useful in the development of insect resistance in important agricultural crops. PMID:12049788

Macedo, Maria Ligia R; das Graças Machado Freire, Maria; Novello, José Camillo; Marangoni, Sérgio

2002-06-01

35

Phylogeographical population structure of tiger quolls Dasyurus maculatus (Dasyuridae: Marsupialia), an endangered carnivorous marsupial.  

PubMed

Tiger quolls, Dasyurus maculatus, are the largest carnivorous marsupials still extant on the mainland of Australia, and occupy an important ecological niche as top predators and scavengers. Two allopatric subspecies are recognized, D.m. gracilis in north Queensland, and D.m. maculatus in the southeast of the mainland and Tasmania. D.m. gracilis is considered endangered while D.m. maculatus is listed as vulnerable to extinction; both subspecies are still in decline. Phylogeographical subdivision was examined to determine evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) and management units (MUs) among populations of tiger quolls to assist in the conservation of these taxa. Ninety-three tiger quolls from nine representative populations were sampled from throughout the species range. Six nuclear microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (471 bp) were used to examine ESUs and MUs in this species. We demonstrated that Tasmanian tiger quolls are reciprocally monophyletic to those from the mainland using mtDNA analysis, but D.m. gracilis was not monophyletic with respect to mainland D.m. maculatus. Analysis of microsatellite loci also revealed significant differences between the Tasmanian and mainland tiger quolls, and between D.m. gracilis and mainland D.m. maculatus. These results indicate that Tasmanian and mainland tiger quolls form two distinct evolutionary units but that D.m. gracilis and mainland D.m. maculatus are different MUs within the same ESU. The two marker types used in this study revealed different male and female dispersal patterns and indicate that the most appropriate units for short-term management are local populations. A revised classification and management plan are needed for tiger quolls, particularly in relation to conservation of the Tasmanian and Queensland populations. PMID:10583825

Firestone, K B; Elphinstone, M S; Sherwin, W B; Houlden, B A

1999-10-01

36

Copulation, genital damage and early death in Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Antagonistic sexual coevolution stems from the notion that male and female interests over reproduction are in conflict. Such conflicts appear to be particularly obvious when male genital armature inflicts damage to the female reproductive tract resulting in reduced female longevity. However, studies of mating frequency, genital damage and female longevity are difficult to interpret because females not only sustain more genital damage, but also receive more seminal fluid when they engage in multiple copulations. Here, we attempt to disentangle the effects of genital damage and seminal fluid transfer on female longevity in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Males copulating for the sixth time in succession inflicted greater levels of genital damage, but transferred smaller ejaculates in comparison with virgin males. The number of copulations performed by males was negatively related to female fecundity and positively related to female longevity, suggesting a trade-off between fecundity and longevity. However, inclusion of fecundity as a covariate revealed sperm and/or seminal fluid transfer to have a negative impact on female longevity above that caused by the fecundity-longevity trade-off. The consequences of multiple copulations on female longevity were examined. Females that mated twice laid more eggs and died sooner than those that mated once. However, incorporation of fecundity as a covariate into our statistical model removed the effect of female mating frequency on female longevity, indicating that double-mated females suffer greater mortality owing to the trade-off between fecundity and longevity. Males of this species are known to transfer very large ejaculates (up to 8% of their body weight), which may represent a significant nutritional benefit to females. However, the receipt of large ejaculates appears to carry costs. Thus, the interpretation of multiple mating experiments on female longevity and associated functional explanations of polyandry in this species are likely to be complex. PMID:17035168

Eady, Paul E; Hamilton, Leticia; Lyons, Ruth E

2007-01-22

37

Evolutionary genetics of lifespan and mortality rates in two populations of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age at which individuals die varies substantially within and between species, but we still have little understanding of why there is such variation in life expectancy. We examined sex-specific and genetic variation in adult lifespan and the shape of mortality curves both within and between two populations of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, that differ in a suite of

C W Fox; M L Bush; D A Roff; W G Wallin

2004-01-01

38

Maternal age affects offspring lifespan of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Offspring from older parents often have shorter adult lifespans than offspring of younger mothers. We examine the effects of offspring genotype, maternal age and paternal age on offspring survival, development and adult lifespan in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus . 2. Females took about a quarter of a day longer to develop from an egg to an adult

C. W. Fox; M. L. Bush; W. G. Wallin

2003-01-01

39

Sex pheromone production in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): Electroantennographic and behavioral responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral and electroantennogram (EAG) assays were used to determine rhythmicity and dynamics of the sex pheromone biology of the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Beetles were sexually active throughout the photophase. Virgin females entrained to a 16:8 L:D light cycle emitted more sex pheromone during the first half of photophase than during the second half of photophase or during scotophase.

Shengqiang Shu; Wendy L. Koepnick; George N. Mbata; alan Cork; Sonny B. Ramaswamy

1996-01-01

40

Sex pheromone biology and behavior of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female cowpea weevils,Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), emitted a pheromone which excited males. Pheromone release began soon after emergence and continued for one week. Synchronization of pheromone release with calling behavior was demonstrated. Mating reduced pheromone release but not male response. Pheromone obtained by aeration collection was utilized for determining a quantitative dose-response relationship.

Yun-Tai Qi; W. E. Burkholder

1982-01-01

41

Size-mediated onset of genetically determined maturation in the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus  

PubMed Central

A single sex-lined gene that controls the maturation process had previously been identified in Xiphophorus maculatus. It was presumed that this gene controls the age of onset of maturation. We demonstrate that the gene is either activated or not inhibited from activity by the attainment of a critical weight rather than age.

Sohn, Joel Jay; Crews, David

1977-01-01

42

Genetic Modification of Host Acceptance by a Seed Beetle, Callosobruchus Maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful host shifts by herbivorous insects may require the modiÞcation of multiple larval and adult traits. The seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) rarely attacks lentil (Lensculinaris Medikus), which is distantly related to its typical hosts. In a previous study, larval survival in lentil seeds increased from 2t o85% in fewer than 20 generations of laboratory selection. However, lentil

Frank J. Messina; Jake C. Jones; Michelle Mendenhall; Amberleigh Muller

2009-01-01

43

Ontogenetic Diet Shifts of a Neotropical Catfish, Pimelodus maculatus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae): An Ecomorphological Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses the ontogenetic diet shifts of a Neotropical catfish, Pimelodus maculatus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae), from an ecomorphological standpoint. We collected 241 individuals in the Piracicaba River (Brazil) and, in the laboratory, seven morphometric variables were recorded from each specimen: standard length (SL), body depth, head length, snout length, eye diameter, mouth height and mouth width. After standardizing these measurements

Sidnei Eduardo Lima-Junior; Roberto Goitein

2003-01-01

44

Differential Giemsa staining of heterochromatic B-chromosomes in Myrmeleotettix maculatus (Thunb.) ( Orthoptera: Acrididae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified Giemsa staining technique has been used to investigate the karyotype of the grasshopper Myrmeleotettix maculatus, since this stain appears to be diagnostic for certain repetitive DNAs. The centromeric regions are densely heterochromatic, and further heterochromatic bands occur on the X-chromosome and on both arms of the B-chromosome. The significance of these results is discussed in relation to centromeric

A. Gallagher; G. Hewitt; I. Gibson

1972-01-01

45

Some gamma Radiation Effects on Callosobruchus Maculatus (Fabr., 1775) (Col. Bruchidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of gamma irradiation from a Cobalt-60 source on Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) was studied. Experiments showed that at a dose-rate of 9820 rad/hour the LD sub 75 of egg embryos was 2 Krad the LD sub 100 of larvae was 3 Krad and the LD sub 90 ...

J. M. M. Walder

1975-01-01

46

Extreme positive selection on a new highly-expressed larval glycoprotein (LGP) gene in Galaxias fishes (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae).  

PubMed

We describe the intron-exon structure and DNA/protein sequences of a new larval glycoprotein (LGP) gene from nine species of galaxiid fish. The gene has a distant similarity to Danio THP (Tamm-Horsfall urinary glycoprotein; uromodulin) and cichlid SPP120 (seminal plasma glycoprotein) due to conserved features of its zona pellucida (ZP) domain, including eight highly conserved cysteines and a consensus furin cleavage site. Using a combination of 454 sequencing of cDNA and exon-primed intron-spanning sequencing of genomic DNA, we obtained full sequences of the coding region (996 bp) and its intervening sequences (1,459 bp). LGP shows an exceptionally strong signal of positive selection over the entire coding region, as evidenced by d(N)/d(S) values >1. Across nine species of Galaxias, 87/332 (26%) amino acid residues are variable, compared with 9/386 (2%) for mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) in the same group of species. Across 36 interspecific pairwise comparisons, genetic distances are in all cases larger for coding region than for introns, by a factor of 2.4-fold on average. Reading frame, gene structure, splice sites, and many ZP motifs are conserved across all species. Together with the fact that the gene is expressed in all species, these results argue clearly against the possibility of a pseudogene. We show by 454 sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction that the transcript is abundant (ca. 0.5%) in newly hatched larvae and appears to be almost absent from a range of adult tissues. We postulate that the strong Darwinian evolution exhibited by this protein may reflect some type of immunoprotection at this vulnerable larval stage. PMID:20696791

Wallis, Lise J; Wallis, Graham P

2010-08-09

47

Proteomic analysis of Metarhizium anisopliae secretion in the presence of the insect pest Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Crop improvement in agriculture generally focuses on yield, seed quality and nutritional characteristics, as opposed to resistance to biotic stresses. Consequently, natural antifeedant toxins are often rare in seed material, with commercial crops being prone to insect pest predation. In the specific case of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), smallholder cropping is affected by insect pests that reproduce inside the stored seeds. Entomopathogenic organisms can offer an alternative to conventional pesticides for pest control, producing hydrolases that degrade insect exoskeleton. In this study, protein secretions of the ascomycete Metarhizium anisopliae, which conferred bioinsecticidal activity against Callosobruchus maculatus, were characterized via 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Proteases, reductases and acetyltransferase enzymes were detected. These may be involved in degradation and nutrient uptake from dehydrated C. maculatus. Proteins identified in this work allowed description of metabolic pathways. Their potential applications in biotechnology include both novel compound development and production of genetically modified plants resistant to insect pests. PMID:19047744

Murad, André M; Noronha, Eliane F; Miller, Robert N G; Costa, Fabio T; Pereira, Caroline D; Mehta, Angela; Caldas, Ruy A; Franco, Octávio L

2008-12-01

48

Mechanisms of the insecticidal action of TEL (Talisia esculenta lectin) against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Plant lectins have insecticidal activity that is probably mediated through their ability to bind carbohydrates. To examine the influence of sugars on the insecticidal activity of a lectin from Talisia esculenta seeds (TEL), the lectin was mixed with mannose, glucose, or mannose plus glucose. Mannose abolished the insecticidal activity. Affinity chromatography showed that TEL bound to midgut proteins of the insect Callosobruchus maculatus. Immunoblotting showed that TEL recognized some proteins, probably glycoproteins, present in the midgut membrane of this insect. The principal proteases responsible for digestive proteolysis in fourth instar larvae of C. maculatus were purified by chromatography on activated thiol-Sepharose. These purified proteases were unable to digest TEL after a 15-h incubation. These results suggest that the insecticidal activity of TEL involves a specific carbohydrate-lectin interaction with glycoconjugates on the surface of digestive tract epithelial cells, as well as binding to assimilatory glycoproteins present in midgut extracts and resistance to enzymatic digestion by cysteine proteinases. PMID:15146543

Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; de Castro, Márcia Mota; Freire, Maria das Graças Machado

2004-06-01

49

Twelve new species of dactylogyrids (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) from West African barbels (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), with some biogeographical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen species of dactylogyrid monogeneans, belong to Dactylogyrus and Dogielius were observed in seven different African species of Barbus and Varicorhinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae). The barbels examined in West Africa were: Barbus occidentalis Boulenger, 1911, known in the large Sahel-Sudan rivers and in Gabon: B. waldroni Nordman, 1935, B. petitjeani Daget, 1962, B. sacratus Daget, 1963, B. parawaldroni Lévêque, Thys van

Jean-François Guégan; Alain Lambert

1990-01-01

50

Female seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus, remate for male-supplied water rather than ejaculate nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus, mate multiply even though association with males and copulations carry costs, such as injury to the genital tract. Multiple\\u000a mating (polyandry) may, however, offset these costs through the acquisition of food and water, two material benefits hypothesized\\u000a to be obtained from the large ejaculates produced by males. The material benefits hypothesis can be tested by

Claudia Ursprung; Michelle den Hollander; Darryl T. Gwynne

2009-01-01

51

Effect of ascorbic acid on longevity, catalase and lipid peroxidation in Callosobruchus maculatus F  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural defense against peroxidative damages inflicted by oxygen derived free radicals is provided by antioxygenic enzymes.\\u000a Feeding of exogenous antioxidants increases the life span of insects by decreasing age-independent susceptibility to death.\\u000a The present study describes the effect of L-ascorbic acid on the life span, catalase activity, and lipid peroxidation in Callosobruchus maculatus, a non-feeding insect. Life span studies

S. K. Garg; S. Mahajan

1993-01-01

52

Repellent and fumigant toxicity of essential oil from Thymus persicus against Tribolium castaneum and Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Repellent and insecticidal activity of the essential oil extracted from Thymus persicus (Roniger ex Reach. F.) Jalas was evaluated against two stored-product beetles Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Dry flowering aerial parts of the plant were subjected to hydro distillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The repellent and fumigant toxicity were tested against 1-7 days old adult beetles at 27 +/- 1 degrees C and 65 +/- 5% RH in dark condition. The repellency on C. maculatus and T. castaneum at highest concentration (2 microL/mL acetone) was 82.40% and 70.40% respectively. Fumigation bioassays showed that C. maculatus adults were significantly more susceptible (LC50 = 2.39 microL/L air) to the essential oil than T. castaneum adults (LC50 = 234.42 microL/L air). It could be concluded that T. persicus may have potential for applications in management of stored-product pests because of its safety, strong repellency and fumigant toxicity. PMID:19226805

Moharramipour, S; Taghizadeh, A; Meshkatalsadat, M H; Talebi, A A; Fathipour, Y

2008-01-01

53

Life history of flight morph females of Callosobruchus maculatus F.: evidence of a reproductive diapause.  

PubMed

Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera : Bruchidae) is a tropical beetle that develops in the seeds of Vigna unguiculata. C. maculatus adults show an imaginal polymorphism with differences in morphological, behavioral and reproductive characteristics. Adults of the flight morph that emerge in cowpea storage systems were studied under natural climatic conditions. A large number of the flight morph females were in reproductive diapause and had a long imaginal life. These females did not synthesize vitellogenin, produced a specific diapause protein and possessed significant protein reserves. This suggests that the beetles survived in the tropical ecosystem for a long time and colonized the crops during the cowpea growing and flowering phases. Analysis of reproductive activity in females captured in the V. unguiculata crops indicates that they terminated their reproductive diapause and began to lay eggs as soon as the pods were formed. Few females of the flight morph were sexually active at the beginning of imaginal life. In this paper we discuss the adaptive significance of these two reproductive strategies in females of C. maculatus. PMID:12804717

Zannou, E T; Glitho, I A; Huignard, J; Monge, J P

2003-06-01

54

Global proteome changes in larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) following ingestion of a cysteine proteinase inhibitor.  

PubMed

The seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is an important cowpea pest (Vigna unguiculata) as well as an interesting model to study insect digestive physiology. The larvae of C. maculatus rely on cysteine and aspartic peptidases to digest proteins in their diet. In this work, the global proteomic changes induced in the intestinal tract of larval C. maculatus challenged by the ingestion of cystatin, a cysteine peptidase inhibitor, was investigated by a nanoLC-MS/MS approach. The ingestion of cystatin caused a delay in the development of the larvae, but the mortality was not high, indicating that C. maculatus is able to adapt to this inhibitor. This proteomic strategy resulted in the identification of 752 and 550 protein groups in the midgut epithelia and midgut contents, respectively, and quantitative analyses allowed us to establish relative differences of the identified proteins. Ingestion of cystatin led to significant changes in the proteome of both the midgut epithelia and midgut contents. We have observed that proteins related to plant cell wall degradation, particularly the key glycoside hydrolases of the families GH5 (endo-?-1,4-mannanase) and GH 28 (polygalacturonase) were overexpressed. Conversely, ?-amylases were downexpressed, indicating that an increase in hemicelluloses digestion helps the larvae to cope with the challenge of cystatin ingestion. Furthermore, a number of proteins associated with transcription/translation and antistress reactions were among the cystatin-responsive proteins, implying that a substantial rearrangement in the proteome occurred in C. maculatus exposed to the inhibitor. PMID:22833537

Nogueira, Fábio C S; Silva, Carlos P; Alexandre, Daniel; Samuels, Richard I; Soares, Emanoella L; Aragão, Francisco J L; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Domont, Gilberto B; Roepstorff, Peter; Campos, Francisco A P

2012-07-26

55

Preliminary results on evaluation of chickpea, Cicer arietinum, genotypes for resistance to the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Abstract The chickpea, Cicer arietinum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), seeds are vulnerable, both in the field and in storage, to attack by seed-beetles. Beetles of the genus Callosobruchus are major storage pests of chickpea crops and cause considerable economic losses. In the present study, a total of 11 chickpea genotypes including five 'kabuli' (Mexican white, Diyar, CA 2969, ILC 8617 and ACC 245) and six 'desi' chickpeas (ICC 1069, ICC 12422, ICC 14336, ICC 4957, ICC 4969 and ICC 7509) were evaluated for resistance to the pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Resistance was evaluated by measuring percent damage to seeds. Damage to seeds by C. maculatus was manifested by the round exit holes with the 'flap' of seed coat made by emerging adults. Of the 11 genotypes tested, only one (ICC 4969) exhibited a complete resistance to C. maculatus in both free-choice and no-choice tests; no seed damage was found over the test period. In general, the 'desi' chickpeas were more resistant to C. maculatus than the 'kabuli' chickpeas. Among the tested chickpea genotypes, only ICC 4969 can be used as a source of C. maculatus resistance in breeding programmes that could then be grown in organic cultivation free from pesticides. PMID:20050777

Erle, F; Ceylan, F; Erdemir, T; Toker, C

2009-01-01

56

Sex pheromones of Callosobruchus subinnotatus and C. maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): congeneric responses and role of air movement.  

PubMed

Females of Callosobruchus spp. are known to produce sex pheromones that attract males. These sex pheromones cannot be adopted for use in pest management without first investigating the responses of the males in the windless conditions of storage environments. Consequently, behavioural bioassays of Callosobruchus subinnotatus Pic males were conducted in an olfactometer in the absence of air-flow. Under these conditions males were found to be able to follow odour trails to the source. However, the latency period was longer in diffusional bioassays than for insects in a Y-tube olfactometer that provided directional wind cues. The highest percentage of males reached the pheromone source when components of the pheromones, (E)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid (E32A) and (Z)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid (Z32A), were formulated in a 50:50 or 25:75 ratio. Males of C. maculatus (Fabricius) responded to sex pheromone of C. subinnotatus, but males of C. subinnotatus did not respond to that of C. maculatus. The two sex pheromone components of C. subinnotatus are also constituents of C. maculatus sex pheromone. These two components may be potentially useful in monitoring the populations of both species in stored beans. It is postulated that (Z)-3-methyl-3-heptenoic acid (Z33A), the major component of the sex pheromone of C. maculatus, must have acted as an antagonist inhibiting response of C. subinnotatus to the sex pheromone of C. maculatus. PMID:10948374

Mbata, G N; Shu, S; Ramaswamy, S B

2000-04-01

57

Preliminary Results on Evaluation of Chickpea, Cicer arietinum, Genotypes for Resistance to the Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

The chickpea, Cicer arietinum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), seeds are vulnerable, both in the field and in storage, to attack by seed-beetles. Beetles of the genus Callosobruchus are major storage pests of chickpea crops and cause considerable economic losses. In the present study, a total of 11 chickpea genotypes including five ‘kabuli’ (Mexican white, Diyar, CA 2969, ILC 8617 and ACC 245) and six ‘desi’ chickpeas (ICC 1069, ICC 12422, ICC 14336, ICC 4957, ICC 4969 and ICC 7509) were evaluated for resistance to the pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Resistance was evaluated by measuring percent damage to seeds. Damage to seeds by C. maculatus was manifested by the round exit holes with the ‘flap’ of seed coat made by emerging adults. Of the 11 genotypes tested, only one (ICC 4969) exhibited a complete resistance to C. maculatus in both free-choice and no-choice tests; no seed damage was found over the test period. In general, the ‘desi’ chickpeas were more resistant to C. maculatus than the ‘kabuli’ chickpeas. Among the tested chickpea genotypes, only ICC 4969 can be used as a source of C. maculatus resistance in breeding programmes that could then be grown in organic cultivation free from pesticides.

Erle, F.; Ceylan, F.; Erdemir, T.; Toker, C.

2009-01-01

58

Intron-loss evolution of hatching enzyme genes in Teleostei  

PubMed Central

Background Hatching enzyme, belonging to the astacin metallo-protease family, digests egg envelope at embryo hatching. Orthologous genes of the enzyme are found in all vertebrate genomes. Recently, we found that exon-intron structures of the genes were conserved among tetrapods, while the genes of teleosts frequently lost their introns. Occurrence of such intron losses in teleostean hatching enzyme genes is an uncommon evolutionary event, as most eukaryotic genes are generally known to be interrupted by introns and the intron insertion sites are conserved from species to species. Here, we report on extensive studies of the exon-intron structures of teleostean hatching enzyme genes for insight into how and why introns were lost during evolution. Results We investigated the evolutionary pathway of intron-losses in hatching enzyme genes of 27 species of Teleostei. Hatching enzyme genes of basal teleosts are of only one type, which conserves the 9-exon-8-intron structure of an assumed ancestor. On the other hand, otocephalans and euteleosts possess two types of hatching enzyme genes, suggesting a gene duplication event in the common ancestor of otocephalans and euteleosts. The duplicated genes were classified into two clades, clades I and II, based on phylogenetic analysis. In otocephalans and euteleosts, clade I genes developed a phylogeny-specific structure, such as an 8-exon-7-intron, 5-exon-4-intron, 4-exon-3-intron or intron-less structure. In contrast to the clade I genes, the structures of clade II genes were relatively stable in their configuration, and were similar to that of the ancestral genes. Expression analyses revealed that hatching enzyme genes were high-expression genes, when compared to that of housekeeping genes. When expression levels were compared between clade I and II genes, clade I genes tends to be expressed more highly than clade II genes. Conclusions Hatching enzyme genes evolved to lose their introns, and the intron-loss events occurred at the specific points of teleostean phylogeny. We propose that the high-expression hatching enzyme genes frequently lost their introns during the evolution of teleosts, while the low-expression genes maintained the exon-intron structure of the ancestral gene.

2010-01-01

59

Characterization of eight microsatellite markers in the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae).  

PubMed

The white sea bream, Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae), is a species with a high commercial importance in Mediterranean aquaculture. There is currently little information available about the genetic characteristics of cultured populations. In this survey, we have developed eight polymorphic microsatellites for the white sea bream using an enriched genome library protocol. All of them were polymorphic in the 67 individuals tested, 32 of which were wild specimens, and 35 were individuals from a captive F(1) broodstock. These markers can potentially be useful tools for use in population genetic studies. PMID:21586024

Pérez, L; Infante, C; Ponce, M; Crespo, A; Zuasti, E; Funes, V; Catanese, G; Manchado, M

2008-09-15

60

Biochemical characterization of the alpha-amylase inhibitor in mungbeans and its application in inhibiting the growth of Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The insect Callosobruchus maculatus causes considerable damage to harvested mungbean seeds every year, which leads to commercial losses. However, recent studies have revealed that mungbean seeds contain alpha-amylase inhibitors that can inhibit the protein C. maculatus, preventing growth and development of the insect larvae in the seed, thus preventing further damage. For this reason, the use of alpha-amylase inhibitors to interfere with the pest's digestion process has become an interesting alternative biocontrolling agent. In this study, we have isolated and purified the alpha-amylase inhibitor from mungbean seeds (KPS1) using ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase HPLC. We found that the alpha-amylase inhibitor, isolated as a monomer, had a molecular weight of 27 kDa. The alpha-amylase inhibitor was purified 750-fold with a final yield of 0.4 mg of protein per 30 g of mungbean seeds. Its specific activity was determined at 14.5 U (mg of protein)(-1). Interestingly, we found that the isolated alpha-amylase inhibitor inhibits C. maculatus alpha-amylase but not human salivary alpha-amylase. After preincubation of the enzyme with the inhibitor, the mungbean alpha-amylase inhibitor inhibited C. maculatus alpha-amylase activity by decreasing V(max) while increasing the K(m) constant, indicating that the mungbean alpha-amylase is a mix noncompetitive inhibitor. The in vivo effect of alpha-amylase inhibitor on the mortality of C. maculatus shows that the alpha-amylase inhibitor acts on C. maculatus during the development stage, by reducing carbohydrate digestion necessary for growth and development, rather than during the end laying/hatching stage. Our results suggest that mungbean alpha-amylase inhibitor could be a useful future biocontrolling agent. PMID:20099823

Wisessing, Anussorn; Engkagul, Arunee; Wongpiyasatid, Arunee; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee

2010-02-24

61

Variation in lipid composition of some deep-sea fish (Teleostei: Oreosomatidae and Trachichthyidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid, fatty acid and fatty alcohol compositions were determined for muscle samples from six species of deep-sea oreo collected from Australian waters; namely Neocyttus rhomboidalis, Neocyttus sp., Allocyttus verrucosus, Allocyttus niger, Pseudocyttus maculatus, and Oreosoma atlanticum. Neocyttus helgae, landed in North Atlantic waters, was also analysed. Similar analyses were also carried out on the muscle and swim bladder of

Michael J. Bakes; Nicholas G. Elliott; Graham J. Green; Peter D. Nichols

1995-01-01

62

Bio-efficacy evaluation of nanoformulations of ?-cyfluthrin against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

In the present investigation, bioefficacy of developed ?-cyfluthrin formulations, utilizing laboratory synthesized poly(ethylene glycols) based amphiphilic copolymers, were evaluated against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The bioefficacy data indicated that the formulations developed by utilizing polymers having PEG - 1500 (3c) and PEG - 2000 (3d) as the hydrophilic segment showed greater efficacy after 14 days as evident from EC(50) values (2.2 and 1.58 mg L(-1) respectively). Also, release from the commercial SC formulation was faster than developed formulations as the commercial formulation had the lowest EC(50) value on the first day (0.51 mg L(-1)). The mean EC(50) of the commercial formulation against C. maculatus was quite high as compared to those of developed formulations. The results suggest that depending upon the polymer matrix used, the application rate of ?-cyfluthrin can be optimized to achieve insect control at the desired level and period. The results described in this paper are promising and provide a comparison of developed formulations with the commercial one showing an earlier degradation of ?-cyfluthrin in the latter and relatively prolonged activity in the former. PMID:22560031

Loha, Kumelachew Mulu; Shakil, Najam A; Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Manish K; Srivastava, Chitra

2012-01-01

63

Female mating receptivity after injection of male-derived extracts in Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The effects of male-derived extracts on female receptivity were investigated in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Injection of aqueous extracts of the male reproductive tract into the abdomen of females reduced receptivity. Aqueous extracts of male reproductive tracts were divided to three molecular weight (MW) fractions by ultrafiltration: Fractions: (I) MW<3 kDa, (II) 3-14 kDa, and (III)>14 kDa. Fraction II reduced female receptivity from 3h after injection, and Fraction III reduced female receptivity from 2 days after injection. On the other hand, no effect on receptivity was found for Fraction I. Furthermore, male reproductive tract organs were divided into accessory gland, testis, and seminal vesicle including the ejaculatory duct. Aqueous extracts of the seminal vesicle reduced receptivity of females immediately following injection, while aqueous extracts of the accessory gland reduced receptivity at the second day. The results suggest that the components of Fraction II existed in the seminal vesicle, and those of Fraction III in the accessory gland. The results of the present and the previous studies in Callosobruchus chinensis, a species closely related to C. maculatus, were compared and are discussed from the viewpoint of the significance of ejaculation in the two species. PMID:18831977

Yamane, Takashi; Miyatake, Takahisa; Kimura, Yoshinobu

2008-09-10

64

Presence of the storage seed protein vicilin in internal organs of larval Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Variant vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) are considered as the main resistance factor present in some African genotypes against the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. It has been suggested that the toxic properties of vicilins may be related to their recognition and interaction with glycoproteins and other membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the insect. However, the possibility of a systemic effect has not yet been investigated. The objective of this work was to study the fate of 7S storage globulins of V. unguiculata in several organs of larvae of the cowpea weevil C. maculatus. Results demonstrated binding of vicilins to brush border membrane vesicles, suggesting the existence of specific receptors. Vicilins were detected in the haemolymph, in the midgut, and in internal organs, such as fat body and malpighian tubules. There is evidence of accumulation of vicilins in the fat body of both larvae and adults. The absorption of vicilins and their presence in insect tissues parallels classical sequestration of secondary compounds. PMID:16288905

Uchôa, Adriana F; DaMatta, Renato A; Retamal, Claudio A; Albuquerque-Cunha, José M; Souza, Sheila M; Samuels, Richard I; Silva, Carlos P; Xavier-Filho, José

2005-11-09

65

Oviposition Sites of the Cypress Seed Bug Orsillus maculatus and Response of the Egg Parasitoid Telenomus gr. Floridanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophagous insects have many strategies to escape parasitoids, for example by hiding eggs into plant tissues, but oviposition\\u000a in holes made by another insect is rather scarce. The cypress seed bug Orsillus maculatus Fieber (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) is strictly dependent on the availability of cones of Cupressus sempervirens L. to oviposit. Females lay eggs either in exit holes cut through the

Gaëlle Rouault; Andrea Battisti; Alain Roques

2007-01-01

66

Effect of different gamma sterilizing doses on the fertility and progeny production of pulse beetle (callosobruchus maculatus).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of gamma radiation doses on fertility and progeny production of c. maculatus was studied and sexed adults were ex-posed to various radiation doses. After irradiation, six pairs replicates were selected from each radiation dose and released into...

S. U. Khattak

1989-01-01

67

Cost of reproduction in Callosobruchus maculatus: effects of mating on male longevity and the effect of male mating status on female longevity  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most studied life-history trade-offs is that resulting from the cost of reproduction: a trade-off arises when reproduction diverts limited resources from other life-history traits. We examine the cost of reproduction in male, and the effect of male mating status on female Callosobruchus maculatus seed beetles. Cost of reproduction for male C. maculatus was manifested as reduced longevity.

Satu Paukku; Janne S. Kotiaho

2005-01-01

68

A new allocreadiid (Trematoda) species from freshwater fish Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae) in Southeastern Mexico.  

PubMed

Paracreptotrema heterandriae n. sp. (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) is described from the intestine of the freshwater fish Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae) from the upper basin of Río La Antigua, in Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is distinguished from the 3 others in the Paracreptotrema Choudhury, Pérez-Ponce de León, Brooks, and Daverdin, 2006 , mainly by having a feeble membranous cirrus sac containing an uncoiled seminal vesicle, instead of a well-developed muscular cirrus sac that encloses coiled seminal vesicle, pars prostatica, and ejaculatory duct as in the previously 3 nominal species. Moreover, eggs of the new species are larger than all others ([measurements in micrometers] eggs of P. heterandriae n. sp. 72.5 [70-75] × 40 [35-41]; P. blancoi 55.4 [52.5-62.5] × 38.5 [32.5-42.5]; P. mendezi 46 × 37; P. profundulusi 57 [52-60] × 27.8 [25-30]). PMID:22059430

Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Vázquez, Gabriela

2011-11-07

69

Phylogenetic Relationships of Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Gobioninae) Inferred from Multiple Nuclear Gene Sequences  

PubMed Central

Gobionine species belonging to the genera Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae) have been heavily studied because of problems on taxonomy, threats of extinction, invasion, and human health. Nucleotide sequences of three nuclear genes, that is, recombination activating protein gene 1 (rag1), recombination activating gene 2 (rag2), and early growth response 1 gene (egr1), from Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia species residing in China, Japan, and Korea, were analyzed to elucidate their intergeneric and interspecific phylogenetic relationships. In the phylogenetic tree inferred from their multiple gene sequences, Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia and Pungtungia species ramified into three phylogenetically distinct clades; the “tenuicorpa” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa, the “parva” clade composed of all Pseudorasbora species/subspecies, and the “herzi” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia nigra, and Pungtungia herzi. The genus Pseudorasbora was recovered as monophyletic, while the genus Pseudopungtungia was recovered as polyphyletic. Our phylogenetic result implies the unstable taxonomic status of the genus Pseudopungtungia.

Kim, Keun-Yong; Ko, Myeong-Hun; Liu, Huanzhang; Tang, Qiongying; Chen, Xianglin; Bang, In-Chul

2013-01-01

70

Sperm competition and maternal effects differentially influence testis and sperm size in Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The evolutionary factors affecting testis size are well documented, with sperm competition being of major importance. However, the factors affecting sperm length are not well understood; there are no clear theoretical predictions and the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Recently, maternal effects have been implicated in sperm length variation, a finding that may offer insights into its evolution. We investigated potential proximate and microevolutionary factors influencing testis and sperm size in the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus using a combined approach of an artificial evolution experiment over 90 generations and an environmental effects study. We found that while polyandry seems to select for larger testes, it had no detectable effect on sperm length. Furthermore, population density, a proximate indicator of sperm competition risk, was not significantly associated with sperm length or testis size variation. However, there were strong maternal effects influencing sperm length. PMID:19309491

Gay, L; Hosken, D J; Vasudev, R; Tregenza, T; Eady, P E

2009-03-20

71

Larval competition reduces body condition in the female seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Early body condition may be important for adult behavior and fitness, and is impacted by a number of environmental conditions and biotic interactions. Reduced fecundity of adult females exposed to larval competition may be caused by reduced body condition or shifts in relative body composition, yet these mechanisms have not been well researched. Here, body mass, body size, scaled body mass index, and two body components (water content and lean dry mass) of adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) females exposed to larval competition or reared alone were examined. Experimental females emerged at significantly smaller body mass and body size than control females. Additionally, scaled body mass index and water content, but not lean dry mass, were significantly reduced in experimental females. To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate a potential mechanism for previously documented direct effects of competition on fecundity in female bruchine beetles. PMID:22954282

Schade, Daynika J; Vamosi, Steven M

2012-01-01

72

Larval Competition Reduces Body Condition in the Female Seed Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Early body condition may be important for adult behavior and fitness, and is impacted by a number of environmental conditions and biotic interactions. Reduced fecundity of adult females exposed to larval competition may be caused by reduced body condition or shifts in relative body composition, yet these mechanisms have not been well researched. Here, body mass, body size, scaled body mass index, and two body components (water content and lean dry mass) of adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) females exposed to larval competition or reared alone were examined. Experimental females emerged at significantly smaller body mass and body size than control females. Additionally, scaled body mass index and water content, but not lean dry mass, were significantly reduced in experimental females. To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate a potential mechanism for previously documented direct effects of competition on fecundity in female bruchine beetles.

Schade, Daynika J.; Vamosi, Steven M.

2012-01-01

73

Fumigant toxicity of citrus oils against cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

In the present study, the effects of volatile components of Citrus paradisi, C. aurantium, C. limonium and C. sinensis peel essential oils were investigated on the cowpea adult bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). The oils were extracted from the fruit peels using hydrodistillation. The results indicated that the citrus oils had high fumigant activity against adult beetles. The mortality of 1-2 day-old adults increased with concentration and exposure time from 3 to 24 h. The oil of C. paradisi was more effective than those of C. aurantium and C. limonium (The LC50 values were 125, 145 and 235 microl L(-1) at 24 h exposure, respectively). The oil of C. sinensis proved to be least toxic (LC50 = 269 microl L(-1). The results suggested that citrus peel oils can be used as potential control measure against cowpea beetles. PMID:18819592

Moravvej, G; Abbar, S

2008-01-01

74

A female parasitoid wasp (Euplemus vuilletti) feeds from its host, a beetle larva (Callosobruchus maculatus).  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A female parasitoid wasp (Euplemus vuilletti) feeds on its host, a beetle larva (Callosobruchus maculatus), by puncturing the beetle's cuticle with its ovipositor. The wasp creates a feeding tube to extract fluids from its host. In this picture the host beetle (bottom) is housed in an artificial seed made of a gelatin capsule, which allows observation of the feeding tube (white tube) without altering the wasp's feeding behavior. The feeding tube begins at the host surface and ends at the surface of the capsule. Females of this parasitoid species can either feed on a host or lay an egg on it. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecology (86:3) in March of 2005.

Giron, David

2010-02-16

75

The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)].  

PubMed

We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat) of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin), detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus) we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants. PMID:15048195

Silva, Luciana B; Sales, Maurício P; Oliveira, Antônia E A; Machado, Olga L T; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Xavier-Filho, José

2004-03-04

76

THE EFFECT OF EXTERNAL POTASSIUM IONS ON THE ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL MEASURED ACROSS THE GILLS OF THE TELEOST, DORMITATOR MACULATUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. A technique has been developed for the measurement of electrical potentials (TGP's) across the gills of free-swimming, Dormitator maculatus. 2. Transfer of fish to various KC1 solutions is correlated with changes in the TGP, which are not of sufficient magnitude to account for the known potassium stimulation of sodium efflux from this species. 3. Transfer to potassium-free sea

DAVID H. EVANS; JEFFREY C. CARRIER; MARGARET B. BOGAN

77

Susceptibility of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to three essential oils.  

PubMed

The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of seeds of Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) in West Africa. An endemic parasitoid, the pteromalid Dinarmus basalis (Rond.) reduces the increase in bruchid populations in stores and could be used for biological control. African farmers often introduce essential oils into granaries at harvest time. In Togo, essential oils were extracted from two Gramineae, Cymbopogon nardus (L.) and Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) and from a Lamiaceae, Ocimum basilicum (L.). The major components of these essential oils were citronellal in C. nardus, carene-2 and piperitone in C. schoenanthus and estragol in O. basilicum. Cymbopogon schoenanthus was the most toxic oil for C. maculatus adults. D. basalis adults were more susceptible to the three essential oils than the adults of their hosts C. maculatus. In the presence of cowpea seeds, the LC50s of the three essential oils were lower than in their absence, suggesting that the seeds may absorb a part of the volatiles. High doses of three essential oils slightly affected the survival of the fourth instar or the pupae of C. maculatus. This high survival was due to protection of larvae from volatiles by the surrounding seeds. The D. basalis were more affected by the oil volatiles than their hosts. Sub-lethal doses of essential oils reduced the duration of the adult life of both insect species and fecundity of the females. The differences in sensitivity of the host and its parasitoid could influence their population dynamics. The introduction of the essential oils into storage systems potentially could reduce density of parasitoid populations and increase seed losses. PMID:11942754

Ketoh, Guillaume K; Glitho, Adole I; Huignard, Jacques

2002-02-01

78

Habitat characterization and mapping of Anopheles maculatus (Theobald) mosquito larvae in malaria endemic areas in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia.  

PubMed

In Peninsular Malaysia, a large proportion of malaria cases occur in the central mountainous and forested parts of the country. As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, we conducted entomological surveys to determine the type of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats of the vector Anopheles maculatus in malaria endemic areas in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus mosquitoes were collected from 49 breeding sites in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus preferred to breed in water pockets formed on the bank of rivers and waterfalls. The most common larval habitats were shallow pools 5.0-15.0 cm deep with clear water, mud substrate and plants or floatage. The mosquito also preferred open or partially shaded habitats. Breeding habitats were generally located at 100-400 m from the nearest human settlement. Changes in breeding characteristics were also observed. Instead of breeding in slow flowing streams, most larvae bred in small water pockets along the river margin. PMID:21073056

Rohani, A; Wan Najdah, W M A; Zamree, I; Azahari, A H; Mohd Noor, I; Rahimi, H; Lee, H L

2010-07-01

79

The fate of vicilins, 7S storage globulins, in larvae and adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).  

PubMed

The fate of vicilins ingested by Callosobruchus maculatus and the physiological importance of these proteins in larvae and adults were investigated. Vicilins were quantified by ELISA in the haemolymph and fat body during larval development (2nd to 4th instars), in pupae and adults, as well as in ovaries and eggs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the majority of absorbed vicilins were degraded in the fat body. Tracing the fate of vicilins using FITC revealed that the FITC-vicilin complex was present inside cells of the fat body of the larvae and in the fat bodies of both male and female adult C. maculatus. Labelled vicilin was also detected in ovocytes and eggs. Based on the results presented here, we propose that following absorption, vicilins accumulate in the fat body, where they are partially degraded. These peptides are retained throughout the development of the insects and eventually are sequestered by the eggs. It is possible that accumulation in the eggs is a defensive strategy against pathogen attack as these peptides are known to have antimicrobial activity. Quantifications performed on internal organs from larvae of C. maculatus exposed to extremely dry seeds demonstrated that the vicilin concentration in the haemolymph and fat body was significantly higher when compared to larvae fed on control seeds. These results suggest that absorbed vicilins may also be involved in the survival of larvae in dry environments. PMID:20230826

Souza, Sheila M; Uchôa, Adriana F; Silva, José R; Samuels, Richard I; Oliveira, Antônia E A; Oliveira, Eliana M; Linhares, Ricardo T; Alexandre, Daniel; Silva, Carlos P

2010-03-20

80

Scanning electron microscopy studies of antennal sensilla of bruchid beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and C. maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), are important stored-product insects of stored legume seeds. In this study, the external morphologies of the antennal sensilla on the antennae of both female and male adults of these two species were described using scanning electron microscopy. Antennae of both species are made up of the scape, pedicel, and nine segments of flagellomeres. Antennae of female and male C. maculatus and female of C. chinensis are serrate in shape, while those of male C. chinensis are pectinate. Eight morphological sensilla types were recorded in both sexes, including Böhm bristles (BB), two types of sensilla trichoid (ST1, ST2), sensilla chaetica (SC), two types of sensilla basiconic (SB1, SB2), grooved pegs (GP), and sensilla cavity (SCa). The number of ST1 and SB1 of the male were significantly greater than those of the female of C. chinensis, and the number of ST2 and SB1 of the male were significantly more abundant than those of the female of C. maculatus. The possible functions of the above sensilla types are discussed in light of previously published literature. PMID:19101159

Hu, Fei; Zhang, Guo-Na; Wang, Jin-Jun

2008-11-08

81

Control of stored grain pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) using the essential oil isolated from Plectranthus zeylanicus.  

PubMed

The bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of cowpea seeds [Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp.] in Sri Lanka. Essential oil isolated from Plectranthus zeylanicus plant was tested for potential insecticidal activity against C. maculatus. The gas chromatography studies of the essential oil of P. zeylanicus showed that ?-cymene (3.5%), ?-caryophyllene (0.2%), geranyl acetate (9.3%) and geraniol (7.2%) were the major constituents. The adults of C. maculatus were susceptible to both fumigant and contact toxicity of P. zeylanicus plant oil. LC(50) values of 0.927 and 0.010?g?L(-1) were obtained for fumigant toxicity and contact toxicity assays, respectively. Oviposition and F(1) adult emergence were significantly inhibited by P. zeylanicus plant oil at a concentration higher than 0.001?g?L(-1) in both fumigant and contact toxicities. The analysis of olfactometer and choice camber bioassays revealed the repellent effects of the oil of P. zeylanicus plant. PMID:22188569

Balachandra, B A H E; Pathirathna, P U; Paranagama, P A

2011-12-21

82

Insecticidal action of Bauhinia monandra leaf lectin (BmoLL) against Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Zabrotes subfasciatus and Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Bruchid beetle larvae cause major losses in grain legume crops throughout the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) and the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus), are pests that damage stored seeds. The Mediterranean flour moth (Anagasta kuehniella) is of major economic importance as a flour and grain feeder; it is often a severe pest in flour mills. Plant lectins have been implicated as antibiosis factors against insects. Bauhinia monandra leaf lectin (BmoLL) was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus, Z. subfasciatus and A. kuehniella larvae. BmoLL produced ca. 50% mortality to Z. subfaciatus and C. maculatus when incorporated into an artificial diet at a level of 0.5% and 0.3% (w/w), respectively. BmoLL up to 1% did not significantly decrease the survival of A. kuehniella larvae, but produced a decrease of 40% in weight. Affinity chromatography showed that BmoLL bound to midgut proteins of the insect C. maculatus. 33 kDa subunit BmoLL was not digested by midgut preparations of these bruchids. BmoLL-fed C. maculatus larvae increased the digestion of potato starch by 25% compared with the control. The transformation of the genes coding for this lectin could be useful in the development of insect resistance in important agricultural crops. PMID:16488638

Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; das Graças Machado Freire, Maria; da Silva, Maria Barbosa Reis; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso

2006-02-20

83

The importance of carcass volatiles as attractants for the hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (De Geer).  

PubMed

A decaying cadaver emits volatile organic compounds that are used by necrophilous and necrophagous insects in order to find their brood substrate. Although volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are released by carcasses have been identified, little is known about the specific compounds that are used by these insects while searching for a brood substrate. Therefore, we have investigated the chemical ecology involved in the attraction of the necrophagous hide beetle Dermestes maculatus, which feeds as an adult and larva upon decomposing carcasses. Our aims have been to identify the responsible compounds in the odours of the carcass that are important for the attraction of the beetles. Furthermore, we have studied sex- and age-related differences in beetle attraction and tested whether the hide beetle can distinguish between various stages of decomposition by means of the emitted odours. Headspace collection of volatiles released from piglet carcasses (bloated stage, post-bloating stage, advanced decay and dry remains), coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and bioassays were conducted to identify the volatiles responsible for the attraction of the beetles. Freshly emerged male beetles were attracted by the odour of piglets in the post-bloating stage (9 days after death; T(mean) = 27 °C) and the EAD-active compound benzyl butyrate. Statistical analysis revealed a higher relative proportion of benzyl butyrate in the odour bouquet of the post-bloating stage in comparison with the other stages. We therefore conclude that this compound plays an important role in the attraction of hide beetles to carcass odour. This underlines the potential use of D. maculatus for the estimation of the post mortem interval. The decomposition stage at which the female beetles are attracted to the odour of a cadaver remains unknown, as does the nature of this attraction. Pheromones (sexual or aggregation pheromones) might play an essential role correlated with their attraction to carrion and consequently with their attraction to the substrate for mating and ovipositioning. PMID:21741784

von Hoermann, C; Ruther, J; Reibe, S; Madea, B; Ayasse, M

2011-07-08

84

Transcriptome Analysis of Female and Male Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 A  

PubMed Central

Background Xiphophorus models are important for melanoma, sex determination and differentiation, ovoviviparity and evolution. To gain a global view of the molecular mechanism(s) whereby gene expression may influence sexual dimorphism in Xiphophorus and to develop a database for future studies, we performed a large-scale transcriptome study. Methodology/Principal Findings The 454-FLX massively parallel DNA sequencing platform was employed to obtain 742,771 and 721,543 reads from 2 normalized cDNA libraries generated from whole adult female and male X. maculatus Jp 163 A, respectively. The reads assembled into 45,538 contigs (here, a "contig" is a set of contiguous sequences), of which, 11,918 shared homology to existing protein sequences. These numbers estimate that the contigs may cover 53% of the total number of Xiphophorus transcriptome. Putative translations were obtained for 11,918 cDNA contigs, of which, 3,049 amino acid sequences contain Pfam domains and 11,064 contigs encode secretory proteins. A total of 3,898 contigs were associated with 2,781 InterPro (IPR) entries and 5,411 contigs with 132 KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways. There were 10,446 contigs annotated with 69,778 gene ontology (GO) terms and the three corresponding organizing principles. Fifty-four potential sex differentially expressed genes have been identified from these contigs. Eight and nine of these contigs were confirmed by real-time PCR as female and male predominantly expressed genes respectively. Based on annotation results, 34 contigs were predicted to be differentially expressed in male and female and 17 of them were also confirmed by real-time PCR. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of an annotated overview of the transcriptome of X. maculatus and identification of sex differentially expressed genes. These data will be of interest to researchers using the Xiphophorus model. This work also provides an archive for future studies in molecular mechanisms of sexual dimorphism and evolution, and can be used in comparative studies of other fish.

Zhang, Ziping; Wang, Yilei; Wang, Shuhong; Liu, Jingtao; Warren, Wesley; Mitreva, Makedonka; Walter, Ronald B.

2011-01-01

85

Heat stress but not inbreeding affects offensive sperm competitiveness in Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Environmental and genetic stress have well-known detrimental effects on ejaculate quality, but their concomitant effect on male fitness remains poorly understood. We used competitive fertilization assays to expose the effects of stress on offensive sperm competitive ability in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a species where ejaculates make up more than 5% of male body mass. To examine the effects of environmental and genetic stress, males derived from outcrosses or sib matings were heat shocked at 50°C for 50 min during the pupal stage, while their siblings were maintained at a standard rearing temperature of 28°C. Heat-shocked males achieved only half the offensive paternity success of their siblings. While this population exhibited inbreeding depression in body size, sperm competitiveness was unaffected by inbreeding, nor did the effect of heat shock stress on sperm competitiveness depend on inbreeding status. In contrast, pupal emergence success was increased by 34% among heat-stressed individuals, regardless of their inbreeding status. Heat-shocked males' ejaculate size was 19% reduced, but they exhibited 25% increased mating duration in single mating trials. Our results highlight both the importance of stress in postcopulatory sexual selection, and the variability among stressors in affecting male fitness.

Lieshout, Emile; Tomkins, Joseph L; Simmons, Leigh W

2013-01-01

86

Lipid Status of the Two High Latitude Fish Species, Leptoclinus maculatus and Lumpenus fabricii  

PubMed Central

A comparative study of the lipid status (i.e., the total lipid and phospholipid concentrations and the percentage of fatty acids of the total lipids) of adult specimens of daubed shanny (Leptoclinus maculatus) from Svalbard waters (Isfjord) and slender eel blenny (Lumpenus fabricii) from the White Sea (Onega Bay and Tersky shore) was performed to study the metabolism and functions of lipids of these fishes in ontogeny and under various ecological conditions. Slender eel blenny from both areas of the White Sea were distinguished by a high level of sphingomyelin compared with the daubed shanny from Svalbard, and the amount of total phospholipids was higher in slender eel blenny from Onega Bay than in slender eel blenny from the Tersky shore. The extent of saturation and the signature of polyenic fatty acids varied according to the specific species of the Stichaeidae family under study. These results demonstrate the differences in the trophoecological and hydrobiological conditions of habitations of these species and highlighted the importance of considering certain trends in the lipid profiles of these fishes as specific features of the organization of the ecological and biochemical mechanisms of adaptation.

Murzina, Svetlana A.; Nefedova, Zinaida A.; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Ripatti, Pauli O.; Ruokolainen, Tatiana R.; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N.; Nemova, Nina N.

2013-01-01

87

Lipid Status of the Two High Latitude Fish Species, Leptoclinus maculatus and Lumpenus fabricii.  

PubMed

A comparative study of the lipid status (i.e., the total lipid and phospholipid concentrations and the percentage of fatty acids of the total lipids) of adult specimens of daubed shanny (Leptoclinus maculatus) from Svalbard waters (Isfjord) and slender eel blenny (Lumpenus fabricii) from the White Sea (Onega Bay and Tersky shore) was performed to study the metabolism and functions of lipids of these fishes in ontogeny and under various ecological conditions. Slender eel blenny from both areas of the White Sea were distinguished by a high level of sphingomyelin compared with the daubed shanny from Svalbard, and the amount of total phospholipids was higher in slender eel blenny from Onega Bay than in slender eel blenny from the Tersky shore. The extent of saturation and the signature of polyenic fatty acids varied according to the specific species of the Stichaeidae family under study. These results demonstrate the differences in the trophoecological and hydrobiological conditions of habitations of these species and highlighted the importance of considering certain trends in the lipid profiles of these fishes as specific features of the organization of the ecological and biochemical mechanisms of adaptation. PMID:23535338

Murzina, Svetlana A; Nefedova, Zinaida A; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Ripatti, Pauli O; Ruokolainen, Tatiana R; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N; Nemova, Nina N

2013-03-27

88

The relative importance of genetic and nongenetic inheritance in relation to trait plasticity in Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

A trait's response to natural selection will reflect the nature of the inheritance mechanisms that mediate the transmission of variation across generations. The relative importance of genetic and nongenetic mechanisms of inheritance is predicted to be related to the degree of trait plasticity, with nongenetic inheritance playing a greater role in the cross-generational transmission of more plastic traits. However, this prediction has never been tested. We investigated the influence of genetic effects and nongenetic parental effects in two morphological traits differing in degree of plasticity by manipulating larval diet quality within a cross-generational split-brood experiment using the seed beetle Callososbuchus maculatus. In line with predictions, we found that the more plastic trait (elytron length) is strongly influenced by both maternal and paternal effects whereas genetic variance is undetectable. In contrast, the less plastic trait (first abdominal sternite length) is not influenced by parental effects but exhibits abundant genetic variance. Our findings support the hypothesis that environment-dependent parental effects may play a particularly important role in highly plastic traits and thereby affect the evolutionary response of such traits. PMID:23163327

Hallsson, L R; Chenoweth, S F; Bonduriansky, R

2012-12-01

89

The genetic architecture of sexual conflict: male harm and female resistance in Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Males harm females during mating in a range of species. This harm is thought to evolve because it is directly or indirectly beneficial to the male, despite being costly to his mate. The resulting sexually antagonistic selection can cause sexual arms races. For sexually antagonistic co-evolution to occur, there must be genetic variation for traits involved in female harming and susceptibility to harm, but even then intersexual genetic correlations could facilitate or impede sexual co-evolution. Male Callosobruchus maculatus harm their mates during copulation by damaging the female's reproductive tract. However, there have been no investigations of the genetic variation in damage or in female susceptibility to damage, nor has the genetic covariance between these characters been assessed. Here, we use a full-sib/half-sib breeding design to show that male damage is heritable, whereas female susceptibility to damage is much less so. There is also a substantial positive genetic correlation between the two, suggesting that selection favouring damaging males will increase the prevalence of susceptible females. We also provide evidence consistent with intralocus sexual conflict in this species. PMID:21126275

Gay, L; Brown, E; Tregenza, T; Pincheira-Donoso, D; Eady, P E; Vasudev, R; Hunt, J; Hosken, D J

2010-12-03

90

Sexual dimorphism is associated with population fitness in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The population consequences of sexual selection remain empirically unexplored. Comparative studies, involving extinction risk, have yielded different results as to the effect of sexual selection on population densities make contrasting predictions. Here, we investigate the relationship between sexual dimorphism (SD) and population productivity in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using 13 populations that have evolved in isolation. Geometric morphometric methods and image analysis are employed to form integrative measures of sexual dimorphism, composed of variation in weight, size, body shape, and pigmentation. We found a positive relationship between SD and adult fitness (net adult offspring production) across our study populations, but failed to find any association between SD and juvenile fitness (egg-to-adult survival). Several mechanisms may have contributed to the pattern found, and variance in sexual selection regimes across populations, either in female choice for "good genes" or in the magnitude of direct benefits provided by their mates, would tend to produce the pattern seen. However, our results suggest that evolutionary constraints in the form of intralocus sexual conflict may have been the major generator of the relationship seen between SD and population fitness. PMID:18182072

Rankin, Daniel J; Arnqvist, Göran

2007-12-25

91

Can preference for oviposition sites initiate reproductive isolation in Callosobruchus maculatus?  

PubMed

Theory has identified a variety of evolutionary processes that may lead to speciation. Our study includes selection experiments using different host plants and test key predictions concerning models of speciation based on host plant choice, such as the evolution of host use (preference and performance) and assortative mating. This study shows that after only ten generations of selection on different resources/hosts in allopatry, strains of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus develop new resource preferences and show resource-dependent assortative mating when given the possibility to choose mates and resources during secondary contact. The resulting reduced gene flow between the different strains remained for two generations after contact before being overrun by disassortative mating. We show that reduced gene flow can evolve in a population due to a link between host preference and assortative mating, although this result was not found in all lines. However, consistent with models of speciation, assortative mating alone is not sufficient to maintain reproductive isolation when individuals disperse freely between hosts. We conclude that the evolution of reproductive isolation in this system cannot proceed without selection against hybrids. Other possible factors facilitating the evolution of isolation would be longer periods of allopatry, the build up of local adaptation or reduced migration upon secondary contact. PMID:21297947

Rova, Emma; Björklund, Mats

2011-01-31

92

Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the number of eggs laid, in the percentage of eggs hatched and in the number of emerged adults in infested seeds. The fumigant insecticidal effect of 2-tridecanone was mainly due to its ovicidal activity. PMID:17401472

Braga, Yussef F B; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, Eder A; Lopes, Helano L; Bezerra, José N S; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Lima, Mary Anne S

2007-03-01

93

Functional incompatibility between the fertilization systems of two allopatric populations of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that postcopulatory sexual selection may represent an important component of the speciation process by initiating reproductive isolation via the evolutionary divergence of fertilization systems. Using two geographically isolated populations of the polyandrous beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, we investigated divergence in fertilization systems by determining the extent of postcopulatory functional incompatibility. Through reciprocal, cross-population matings we were able to separately estimate the effects of male and female population origin and their interaction on the extent of last-male sperm precedence, female receptivity to further copulation and female oviposition. Our results indicate partial incompatibility between the fertilization systems of the two populations at all three functional levels. Males derived from the same population as females outcompete rival, allopatric males with respect to sperm preemption, sperm protection, and ability to stimulate female oviposition. This pattern is reciprocated in both populations indicating that postcopulatory, prezygotic events represent important mechanisms by which between-population gene flow is reduced. We suggest the partial gametic isolation observed is a by-product of the coevolution of male and female fertilization systems by a process of cryptic female choice. Our results are consistent with a mechanism akin to conventional mate choice models although they do not allow us to reject antagonistic sexual coevolution as the mechanism of cryptic female choice. PMID:11794785

Brown, D V; Eady, P E

2001-11-11

94

Can Preference for Oviposition Sites Initiate Reproductive Isolation in Callosobruchus maculatus?  

PubMed Central

Theory has identified a variety of evolutionary processes that may lead to speciation. Our study includes selection experiments using different host plants and test key predictions concerning models of speciation based on host plant choice, such as the evolution of host use (preference and performance) and assortative mating. This study shows that after only ten generations of selection on different resources/hosts in allopatry, strains of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus develop new resource preferences and show resource-dependent assortative mating when given the possibility to choose mates and resources during secondary contact. The resulting reduced gene flow between the different strains remained for two generations after contact before being overrun by disassortative mating. We show that reduced gene flow can evolve in a population due to a link between host preference and assortative mating, although this result was not found in all lines. However, consistent with models of speciation, assortative mating alone is not sufficient to maintain reproductive isolation when individuals disperse freely between hosts. We conclude that the evolution of reproductive isolation in this system cannot proceed without selection against hybrids. Other possible factors facilitating the evolution of isolation would be longer periods of allopatry, the build up of local adaptation or reduced migration upon secondary contact.

Rova, Emma; Bjorklund, Mats

2011-01-01

95

Use of commercial freezers to control cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), in organic garbanzo beans.  

PubMed

One California processor of organic garbanzo beans (Cicer arietinum L.), unable to use chemical fumigants, relies on 30-d storage at -18 degrees C to disinfest product of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F). To determine whether the storage period may be shortened, the most cold-tolerant life stage of the cowpea weevil was identified. Laboratory studies showed that the egg stage was most tolerant to -18 degrees C and that adults were most susceptible. To examine the efficacy of cold storage disinfestation, bags of black-eyed peas, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., infested with cowpea weevil eggs were buried within garbanzo bean bins placed in a commercial cold storage facility kept at approximately -18 degrees C and removed after 7, 14, and 21 d. Survival was highest in eggs located at the center of the bins and coincided with the slowest cooling rate. Although temperatures within the bins did not reach -18 degrees C until after 14-19 d, egg mortality was estimated to be >98% after just 7 d of exposure. Complete mortality of eggs occurred after 14 d of cold storage. A 2-wk treatment regimen may be sufficient for control of cowpea weevil in organic legumes. PMID:14977138

Johnson, J A; Valero, K A

2003-12-01

96

Evaluation of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus zeamais (Mots).  

PubMed

Insecticidal effects of different doses of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae on Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais were tested. The dust had no significant effect on the two insects; none of them died even at 3 d after treatment. The methanol extracts, however, had rapid lethal effects on both C. maculatus and S. zeamais. The mortality of C. maculatus by the lowest concentration of methanol extracts ranged from 95%~100% whereas in S. zeamais, the mortality ranged from 87.5% to approximately 100% and 70% to approximately 100% in concentrations of 1 g extract+3 ml methanol and 1 g extract+5 ml methanol, respectively, from 24 to 48 h. The least concentration of 1 g extract+15 ml methanol had no significant lethal effect on Sitophilus zeamais. PMID:18257127

Ogunleye, R F; Adefemi, S O

2007-12-01

97

Variation in responses to susceptible and resistant cowpeas among West African populations of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The cowpea seed beetle, sometimes also known as the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), is a major pest of stored cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata Walpers) in West Africa. Control methods have included development of 'resistant' varieties as an environmentally benign alternative to insecticides, but there is concern over their effectiveness because of population variation among the insects and the possibility of adaptation overcoming seed resistance. Populations of C. maculatus from Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, and Niger, were used to examine variation in response to resistant and susceptible cowpea varieties at two geographical scales. Among seven Nigerian populations, there were significant differences in development times, the pattern of adult emergence, adult weights, and female fecundity when reared under identical conditions. Development in the resistant variety was retarded, produced higher mortality and lower adult weights. Significant interactions between variety and population were evident in terms of their effects on adult weight and development time; development times in the resistant variety were longer and emergences occurred over a longer period in some populations than in others. Population responses to resistant seeds were therefore unpredictable, but there was no evidence to suggest adaptation to overcome seed resistance within three generations. On a larger geographical scale, variation in performance was much greater and therefore, even less predictable. Mortality in resistant seeds was also higher among populations collected from outside Nigeria and may be explained by significant adaptation among Nigerian populations to previous release of resistant varieties. The findings are discussed in relation to understanding the extent of intraspecific variation in C. maculatus and its implications for future pest management. PMID:14994820

Appleby, J H; Credland, P F

2003-04-01

98

[Ultrastructural study of spermatogenesis in silversides Oncorhynchus kisutch and cherry salmon O. masou (Salmonidae, Teleostei)].  

PubMed

Spermatogenesis in the silversides Oncorhynchus kisutch and cherry salmon O. masou, was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. It has been shown that male germ cells of both species had no difference in dimensional and ultrastructural parameters. The characteristic feature of spermatogonia was the presence of germ determinant substance, a cytoplasmic barker of sex line cells. Primary and secondary spermatocytes, as well as early spermatids were arranged in clusters consisted of synchronously developing cells. The spermiogenesis was peculiar in arising of electron-lucent vesicle which formed a structural complex with apical dense part of nuclear envelope. This complex has clear similarity with unformed spermatid acrosomes in many Metazoa and has been termed by the authors as an acrosome-like structure (AS). Disappearance of AS occurring at the final stage of the spermiogenesis allows considering AS as a temporary existing structure recapitulating the ancestral morphotype of salmonid sperm. Spermatozoa of both species are typical acrosome lacking cells which are characteristic of many representatives of Teleostei having external fertilization. PMID:20141034

Neznanova, S Iu; Reunov, A A

2009-01-01

99

Effects of a chitin binding vicilin from Erythrina velutina seeds on bean bruchid pests (Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus).  

PubMed

Erythrina velutina vicilin, EvV, is a dimeric glycoprotein with Mr of 124.6 kDa. EvV was tested for anti-insect activity against bean bruchid larvae. EvV had LD(50) of 0.10% and ED(50) of 0.14% for Z. subfasciatus and LD(50) of 0.26% and ED(50) of 0.19% for C. maculatus. EvV was not digested by bean larvae enzymes until 12 h of incubation, and at 24 h EvV was more resistant to Z. subfasciatus enzymes. PMID:18336356

Teixeira, Fabiano M; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Santos, Elizeu A; de Sales, Mauricio P

2008-01-01

100

Effect of plant volatile oils in protecting stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation.  

PubMed

Adult Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were introduced into cowpea seeds which were stored in containers with volatile oils derived from Mentha arvensis, M. piperata, M. spicata and Cymbopogon nardus. The numbers of eggs laid, adult mortality, adult emergence and subsequent seed damage were studied for four months. All oils significantly influenced all parameters (P<0.05) and results with different parameters were generally parallel. Significant differences for at least some time/parameters combinations indicated an order of potency of M. spicata>M. piperata>M. arvensis>C. nardus. PMID:11124376

Raja; Albert; Ignacimuthu; Dorn

2001-04-01

101

Genetic architecture of differences between populations of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) evolved in the same environment.  

PubMed

We investigated the genetic architecture underlying differentiation in fitness-related traits between two pairs of populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). These populations had geographically distant (> 2000 km) origins but evolved in a uniform laboratory environment for 120 generations. For each pair of populations (Nigeria x Yemen and Cameroon x Uganda) we estimated the means of five fitness-related characters and a measure of fitness (net reproductive rate R0) in each of the parental populations and 12 types of hybrids (two F1 and two F2 lines and eight backcrosses). Models containing up to nine composite genetic parameters were fitted to the means of the 14 lines. The patterns of line means for all traits in the Nigeria x Yemen cross and for four traits (larval survival, developmental rate, female body weight, and fecundity) in the Cameroon x Uganda cross were best explained by models including additive, dominance, and maternal effects, but excluding epistasis. We did not find any evidence for outbreeding depression for any trait. An epistatic component of divergence was detected for egg hatching success and R0 in the Cameroon x Uganda cross, but its sign was opposite to that expected under outbreeding depression, that is, additive x additive epistasis had a positive effect on the performance of F2 hybrids. All traits except fecundity showed a pattern of heterosis. A large difference of egg-hatching success between the two reciprocal F1 lines in that cross was best explained as fertilization incompatibility between Cameroon females and sperm carrying Uganda genes. The results suggest that these populations have not converged to the same life-history phenotype and genetic architecture, despite 120 generations of uniform natural selection. However, the absence of outbreeding depression implies that they did not evolve toward different adaptive peaks. PMID:12683524

Bieri, Jonas; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

2003-02-01

102

Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Coriandrum sativum Seeds against Tribolium confusum and Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1–7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357??L/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24?h. In the probit analysis, LC50 values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC50 = 1.34??L/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC50 = 318.02??L/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides.

Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere

2012-01-01

103

Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Coriandrum sativum Seeds against Tribolium confusum and Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1-7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357??L/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24?h. In the probit analysis, LC(50) values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC(50) = 1.34??L/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC(50) = 318.02??L/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides. PMID:23227365

Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere

2012-11-25

104

A NEW LOW-COST HAIRTUBE DESIGN FOR THE DETECTION OF THE SPOTTED-TAILED QUOLL DASYURUS MACULATUS IN SOUTH EASTERN AUSTRALIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

trialed a number of survey techniques to detect the presence of quolls, and suggested that hairtubing might be an appropriate technique. Jones and Rose (1996) used the hairtube technique to survey for D. maculatus and the eastern quoll (Dasyurus viverrinus) in Tasmania. Using a different design to that detailed in this study, Jones and Rose (1996) recorded a success rate

ANDREW J. MURRAY

105

The use of the anaesthetic, enflurane, for determination of metabolic rates and respiratory parameters in insects, using the ant, Camponotus maculatus (Fabricius) as the model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of the anaesthetic, enflurane, on metabolic rates and ventilation patterns in the spotted sugar ant, Camponotus maculatus, using flow-through respirometry. The standard metabolic rate was not affected by the anaesthetic. While the ants were anaesthetised they exhibited a similar discontinuous gas exchange cycle to that observed when they were voluntarily motionless, but their spiracles remained

Frances D. Duncan; Ryan D. Newton

2000-01-01

106

Dinámica global en galaxias elípticas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Con el propósito de determinar propiedades dinámicas globales en sistemas triaxiales no integrables, utilizamos una nueva herramienta conocida como ``Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits'' (MEGNO), introducida por Cincotta y Simó (2000). Esta técnica no sólo resulta eficiente para investigar ambas componentes del espacio fase, regular y caótica, sino que también, provee una medida de la hiperbolicidad en el dominio caótico que coincide con la dada por el Lyapunov Characteristic Number (LCN). Previamente este método ha sido aplicado al estudio de modelos simples, y últimamente en el campo de la Mecánica Celeste, al estudio de sistemas planetarios extrasolares. En esta presentación, ilustraremos algunas de las propiedades más importantes del MEGNO, aplic& acute;andolo al potencial tridimensional de Stäckel perturbado.

Pérez, M. J.; Cincotta, P. M.; Giordano, C. M.

107

The importance of gobies (Gobiidae, Teleostei) as hosts and transmitters of parasites in the SW Baltic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parasite fauna of five goby species (Gobiidae, Teleostei) was investigated in the Baltic Sea during the period 1987 to 1990. 13 parasite species were found in samples from the Lübeck Bight: Bothriocephalus scorpii, Schistocephalus sp. (Cestoda); Cryptocotyle concavum, Cryptocotyle lingua, Podocotyle atomon, Derogenes varicus (Digenea); Hysterothylacium sp. (cf. auctum), Contracaecum sp., Anisakis simplex (Nematoda); Corynosoma sp., Echinorhynchus gadi, Neoechinorhynchus rutili, Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala). The number of parasite species were: 10 in the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, 8 in the black goby Gobius niger, 7 in the two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens, 6 in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and 5 in the painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus. Neoechinorhynchus rutili occurred only in P. minutus, and Corynosoma sp. only in G. niger. The extent to which the gobies were parasitized clearly depended on the respective ways of life and, moreover, on the kind of prey ingested by the hosts. Additionally, the age of the hosts might be important. The highest rate of parasitism, more than 60%, was reached by Hysterothylacium sp. in G. niger and by Cryptocotyle concavum in P. microps. Infestation incidence lay mostly below 40% which means a satellite species status (Holmes, 1991). The number of parasite species was highest in summer; the highest intensities of single parasites occurred in spring ( Podocotyle atomon) or autumn ( Crytocotyle concavum). Bothriocephalus scorpii, Hysterothylacium sp. and Podocotyle infested their juvenile hosts very early, but only Hysterothylacium was accumulated by G. niger during its whole life span, whereas Bothriocephalus persisted also in older gobies in low intensities. The cercariae of Cryptocotyle spp. penetrate actively into their hosts; all the other parasites named were transmitted in larval form by prey organisms which consisted mainly of planktonic and benthic crustaceans. The gobies were final hosts for only 5 parasites; but two species may be transmitted to larger fish, and 6 species to sea birds or mammals. The parasite community of the five gobies may possibly be taken to characterize the ecological quality of the environment of the Lübeck Bight.

Zander, C. D.; Strohbach, U.; Groenewold, S.

1993-02-01

108

Cytotype-specific ISSR profiles and karyotypes in the Neotropical genus Eigenmannia (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes).  

PubMed

The genus Eigenmannia (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes), a widely distributed fish genus from the Neotropical region, presents very complex morphological patterns and many taxonomic problems. It is suggested that this genus harbors a species complex that is hard to differentiate using only morphological characteristics. As a result, many species of Eigenmannia may be currently gathered under a common name. With the objective of providing new tools for species characterization in this group, an analysis of the polymorphism of DNA inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR), obtained by single primer amplification reaction (SPAR), combined with karyotype identification, was carried out in specimens sampled from populations of the Upper Paraná, São Francisco and Amazon river basins (Brazil). Specific ISSR patterns generated by primers (AAGC)(4) and (GGAC)(4) were found to characterize the ten cytotypes analyzed, even though the cytotypes 2n = 38 and 2n = 38 XX:XY, from the Upper Paraná basin, share some ISSR amplification patterns. The geographical distribution of all Eigenmannia specimens sampled was inferred, showing the cytotype 2n = 31/2n = 32 as the most frequent and largely distributed in the Upper Paraná basin. The cytotype 2n = 34 was reported for the first time in the genus Eigenmania, restricted to the São Francisco basin. Polymorphic ISSR patterns were also detected for each cytotype. Considering our results and the data reported previously in the literature, it is suggested that many of the forms of Eigenmannia herein analyzed might be regarded as different species. This work reinforces the importance of employing diverse approaches, such as molecular and cytogenetic characterization, to address taxonomic and evolutionary issues. PMID:19779835

Moysés, Cinthia Bachir; Daniel-Silva, Maria de Fatima Zambelli; Lopes, Carlos Eduardo; de Almeida-Toledo, Lurdes Foresti

2009-09-25

109

Nodavirus associated with pathological changes in adult spotted coralgroupers (Plectropomus maculatus) in Thailand with viral nervous necrosis.  

PubMed

The present study characterized viral nervous necrosis in sea cage-reared adult spotted coralgroupers (Plectropomus maculatus). Histopathological study showed extensive vacuolation and neuronal necrosis of the olfactory bulb and the optic lobe of the forebrain and the inner and outer nuclear layer of retina. Mild necrosis was observed in the spinal cord. Homogeneous intranuclear inclusion bodies were noted in the hyperplastic and hypertrophic glandular epithelial cells of the swim bladder suggesting viral etiology. Etiological diagnosis of VNN was confirmed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization gave strongly positive staining in the same area of the infected cells of the brain, spinal cord and retina correlating with histopathological changes. No positive reaction was detectable in the affected gas glandular epithelium and other organs, confirming the consistent neurotropism of this nodavirus. Nodavirus was mainly detected in the olfactory bulb of the brain. The result suggests nasal transmission was the major route of infection. PMID:19232654

Nopadon, Pirarat; Aranya, Ponpornpisit; Tipaporn, Traithong; Toshihiro, Nakai; Takayuki, Katagiri; Masashi, Maita; Makoto, Endo

2009-02-20

110

Effect of host quality of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on performance of the egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).  

PubMed

Development and reproductive success of the solitary egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga Steffan were examined after development in eggs of the bruchid storage pest Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius reared at either low or high densities on cowpea seeds and laid at day 1 and 4 of maternal life. Both bruchid larval competition and maternal age negatively affected egg size, but the latter more than the former. Uscana lariophaga reared in small hosts developed slower, were smaller and produced fewer eggs compared to parasitoids reared in large hosts. Fecundity of the parasitoid was heavily influenced by host egg size. This was reflected in the values for the intrinsic rate of increase of U. lariophaga, which differed for wasps that developed in host eggs laid by bruchid females of different age. Wasps allocated marginally more female offspring to larger hosts. PMID:16048682

Spitzen, J; van Huis, A

2005-08-01

111

Alternative protection of cowpea seeds against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) using hermetic storage alone or in combination with Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam ex Poir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hermetic storage alone or in combination with Boscia senegalensis has been evaluated against Callosobruchus maculatus. Analysis of gas concentrations within a 7-day period indicated that O2 declined from 19.2 to 2.3% and CO2 rose from 1.2 to 22.8%. Prolonged storage durations increased adult mortality, significantly increased the developmental time and induced 60–80% reduction in the F1 progeny.

D. Seck; G. Lognay; E. Haubruge; M. Marlier; C. Gaspar

1996-01-01

112

Purification, partial characterization and role in lipid transport to developing oocytes of a novel lipophorin from the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Lipid transport in arthropods is achieved by highly specialized lipoproteins, which resemble those described in vertebrate blood. Here we describe purification and characterization of the lipid-apolipoprotein complex, lipophorin (Lp), from adults and larvae of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. We also describe the Lp-mediated lipid transfer to developing oocytes. Lps were isolated from homogenates of C. maculatus larvae and adults by potassio bromide gradient and characterized with respect to physicochemical properties and lipid content. The weevil Lp (465 kDa) and larval Lp (585 kDa), with hydrated densities of 1.22 and 1.14 g/mL, contained 34 and 56% lipids and 9 and 7% carbohydrates, respectively. In both Lps, mannose was the predominant monosaccharide detected by paper chromatography. SDS-PAGE revealed two apolipoproteins in each Lp with molecular masses of 225 kDa (apolipoprotein-I) and 79 kDa (apolipoprotein-II). The lipids were extracted and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. The major phospholipids found were phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in adult Lp, and phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin in larval Lp. Hydrocarbons, fatty acids and triacylglycerol were the major neutral lipids found in both Lps. Lps labeled in the protein moiety with radioactive iodine (125I-iodine) or in the lipid moiety with fluorescent lipids revealed direct evidence of endocytic uptake of Lps in live oocytes of C. maculatus. PMID:18038102

Ximenes, A A; Oliveira, G A; Bittencourt-Cunha, P; Tomokyo, M; Leite, D B; Folly, E; Golodne, D M; Atella, G C

2007-12-17

113

Characterization of resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in mungbean variety VC6089A and its resistance-associated protein VrD1.  

PubMed

Characteristics of resistance of VC6089A, a mungbean, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek, bred by using a wild Vigna species, V. sublobata (Roxburgh) Verdcourt (accession no. TC1966), and containing a novel protein, VrD1, were investigated against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). The seeds of VC6089A showed high level of resistance; > 96% of the bruchid eggs failed to develop into adults, whereas 85% of eggs laid on susceptible cultivar VC1973A became adults. Mortality of surviving bruchids raised for five generations on VC6089A remained higher than 96%; however, female adults maintained high fecundity and thus showed a positive population growth through these generations. We therefore cannot exclude the possibility that the beetles could develop resistance to the resistant mungbean VC6089A. The protein VrD1 purified from seeds of VC6089A showed marked toxicity to C. maculatus when beetles were reared on artificial seeds containing varying levels of VrD1. Thorough inhibition of development was observed when artificial seeds containing 0.2% (wt:wt) VrD1 was provided for insect feeding. Our findings demonstrated the insecticidal activity of VC6089A mungbean seeds and VrD1 protein against C. maculatus. These results may facilitate safer control against bruchid infestation. PMID:16156592

Lin, Chan; Chen, Ching-San; Horng, Shwu-Bin

2005-08-01

114

Purification of legumin-like proteins from Coffea arabica and Coffea racemosa seeds and their insecticidal properties toward cowpea weevil ( Callosobruchus maculatus ) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Legumin-like proteins from seeds of Coffea arabica (CaL-1 and CaL-2) and Coffea racemosa (CrL-1 and CrL-2) were characterized and isolated by gel filtration and reverse-phase chromatography. The insecticidal properties of the purified proteins were tested against Callosobruchus maculatus using artificial diets. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analyses indicated that CaL-1 is composed of two subunits of 33 and 24 kDa, while CaL-2, CrL-1, and CrL-2 were monomeric with a single band of 14 kDa. The LD(50) values were 0.5% (w/w) for CaL-1 and 0.3% (w/w) for CaL-2, CrL-1, and CrL-2. ED(50) at 0.3% was assessed for all protein concentrations. The legumin-like proteins were not digested by midgut homogenates of C. maculatus until 8 h of incubation. CaL-1 and CaL-2 ( C. arabica ) and CrL-1 and CrL-2 ( C. racemosa ) are chitin-binding proteins, and their insecticidal properties toward C. maculatus larvae might be related to their capacity to bind chitin present in the larval gut and their associated low digestibility. PMID:20141142

Coelho, Mirela Batista; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; Marangoni, Sérgio; Silva, Desiree Soares da; Cesarino, Igor; Mazzafera, Paulo

2010-03-10

115

Sex-specific genetic variances in life-history and morphological traits of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of heritability and genetic correlations are of central importance in the study of adaptive trait evolution and genetic constraints. We use a paternal half-sib-full-sib breeding design to investigate the genetic architecture of three life-history and morphological traits in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Heritability was significant for all traits under observation and genetic correlations between traits (rA) were low. Interestingly, we found substantial sex-specific genetic effects and low genetic correlations between sexes (rMF) in traits that are only moderately (weight at emergence) to slightly (longevity) sexually dimorphic. Furthermore, we found an increased sire () compared to dam () variance component within trait and sex. Our results highlight that the genetic architecture even of the same trait should not be assumed to be the same for males and females. Furthermore, it raises the issue of the presence of unnoticed environmental effects that may inflate estimates of heritability. Overall, our study stresses the fact that estimates of quantitative genetic parameters are not only population, time, environment, but also sex specific. Thus, extrapolation between sexes and studies should be treated with caution.

Hallsson, Lara R; Bjorklund, Mats

2012-01-01

116

Selection in a fluctuating environment and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Temperature changes in the environment, which realistically include environmental fluctuations, can create both plastic and evolutionary responses of traits. Sexes might differ in either or both of these responses for homologous traits, which in turn has consequences for sexual dimorphism and its evolution. Here, we investigate both immediate changes in and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in response to a changing environment (with and without fluctuations) using the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We investigate sex differences in plasticity and also the genetic architecture of body mass and developmental time dimorphism to test two existing hypotheses on sex differences in plasticity (adaptive canalization hypothesis and condition dependence hypothesis). We found a decreased sexual size dimorphism in higher temperature and that females responded more plastically than males, supporting the condition dependence hypothesis. However, selection in a fluctuating environment altered sex-specific patterns of genetic and environmental variation, indicating support for the adaptive canalization hypothesis. Genetic correlations between sexes (r(MF) ) were affected by fluctuating selection, suggesting facilitated independent evolution of the sexes. Thus, the selective past of a population is highly important for the understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of sexual dimorphism. PMID:22594940

Hallsson, L R; Björklund, M

2012-05-18

117

Sex-specific genetic variances in life-history and morphological traits of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Knowledge of heritability and genetic correlations are of central importance in the study of adaptive trait evolution and genetic constraints. We use a paternal half-sib-full-sib breeding design to investigate the genetic architecture of three life-history and morphological traits in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Heritability was significant for all traits under observation and genetic correlations between traits (r(A)) were low. Interestingly, we found substantial sex-specific genetic effects and low genetic correlations between sexes (r(MF)) in traits that are only moderately (weight at emergence) to slightly (longevity) sexually dimorphic. Furthermore, we found an increased sire ([Formula: see text]) compared to dam ([Formula: see text]) variance component within trait and sex. Our results highlight that the genetic architecture even of the same trait should not be assumed to be the same for males and females. Furthermore, it raises the issue of the presence of unnoticed environmental effects that may inflate estimates of heritability. Overall, our study stresses the fact that estimates of quantitative genetic parameters are not only population, time, environment, but also sex specific. Thus, extrapolation between sexes and studies should be treated with caution. PMID:22408731

Hallsson, Lára R; Björklund, Mats

2012-01-01

118

Effects of Enteromyxum leei (Myxozoa) infection on gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) (Teleostei) intestinal mucus: glycoprotein profile and bacterial adhesion.  

PubMed

The intestinal myxosporean parasite Enteromyxum leei causes severe desquamative enteritis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) (Teleostei) that impairs nutrient absorption causing anorexia and cachexia. In fish, as in terrestrial vertebrates, intestinal goblet cells are responsible for the adherent mucus secretion overlying epithelial cells, which constitutes a first line of innate immune defense against offending microorganisms but serves also as substrate and nutrient source for the commensal microflora. The secreted intestinal mucus of parasitized (n = 6) and unexposed (n = 8) gilthead sea bream was isolated, concentrated, and subjected to downward gel chromatography. Carbohydrate and protein contents (via PAS and Bradford stainings), terminal glycosylation (via lectin ELISA), and Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio alginolyticus adhesion were analyzed for the isolated intestinal mucins. Parasitized fish, compared with unexposed fish, presented intestinal mucus mucins with a lower glycoprotein content and glycosylation degree at the anterior and middle intestine, whereas both glycoprotein content and glycosylation degree increased at the posterior intestine section, though only significantly for the total carbohydrate content. Additionally, a slight molecular size increase was detected in the mucin glycoproteins of parasitized fish. Terminal glycosylation of the mucus glycoproteins in parasitized fish pointed to an immature mucin secretion (N-acetyl-?-D-galactosamine increase, ?-L-fucose, and neuraminic-acid-?-2-6-galactose reduction). Bacterial adhesion to large-sized mucus glycoproteins (>2,000 kDa) of parasitized fish was significantly lower than in unexposed fish. PMID:23086443

Estensoro, Itziar; Jung-Schroers, Verena; Álvarez-Pellitero, Pilar; Steinhagen, Dieter; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna

2012-10-20

119

Effect of diatomaceous earths Fossil Shield and Silico-Sec on the egg laying behaviour of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) is a destructive pest of pulses in both storage and field. It is well known that diatomaceous earth (DE) kill the insects by locally absorbing the epicuticular lipid layers leading to high rate of water loss through the cuticle. However, the effectiveness of DE depends on its ability to kill the adults before copulation and egg-laying. Newly emerged virgin males and females of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were exposed to the DEs, Fossil-Shield and Silico-Sec on 30 treated mungbeans (Vigna radita (L)). Fecundity, number of beans used for egg-laying and beans without eggs were evaluated after four days; the number of unhatched eggs was evaluated after ten days. It was determined, that the fecundity of female insects decreased sigmoidely with increasing rate of DE content. Percentages of unhatched eggs and seeds without eggs increased with increasing DE dosages. However, the maximum egg densities (eggs per used secd) occurred at 1200 mg DE/kg for Fossil-Shield and Silico-Sec. The reason for such DE-stimulated behaviour of egg laying expressed as a number of seeds with eggs of C. maculatus is not known, but it may be related to the stress caused by the inert dusts or to the reduction of both chemical and physical (tactile) stimuli. Treatment with DEs altered the surface texture of the beans and caused less cohesion between eggs and the seed surface. Only few larvae managed to penetrate into the grains, possibly due to increased grain roughness and repellent effect of DE. A relatively high number of eggs were laid on the surface of those beans where the amount of dust had been locally reduced by adults' movement and their pick up of DE. Therefore, several larvae tried to penetrate into these treated beans, causing a high larval density per partially cleaned bean. All these reasons lead to a progeny decline. PMID:12703482

Prasantha, B D Rohitha; Reichmuth, Ch; Büttner, C

2002-01-01

120

CO2 enhances effects of hypoxia on mortality, development, and gene expression in cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Modified atmosphere based on lack of O2 offers a safe, residue-free alternative to chemical fumigants for pest control in stored grains. In this study, we intended to determine whether elevated CO2 (at a biologically achievable level) has an enhanced suppressive effect over low O2 atmosphere alone on the cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus), a storage pest of cowpea and other legumes. Experiments were performed under two modified atmospheric conditions, (1) 2% O2+18% CO2+80% N2 and (2) 2% O2+98% N2. Both hypoxic environments significantly affected the development and survival of all insect developmental stages. Eggs were most vulnerable to hypoxia, particularly at the early stage (4-6h old), surviving only up to a maximum of 2 days in both treatments. These were followed by adults, pupae and larvae, in order of decreasing susceptibility. The 3rd and 4th instar larvae were most resilient to hypoxia and could survive up to 20days of low O2. The presence of 18% CO2 significantly increased the mortality of adults, the later stage of eggs, as well as 1st and 4th instar larvae caused by hypoxia. However, the surviving insects exhibited faster development, evidenced by their earlier emergence from cowpea seeds compared to those without CO2. One interesting observation was the frequent, premature opening of the emergence windows in the 4th instar larvae when CO2 was involved. This phenomenon was not observed at all in insects stressed by low O2 alone. Differential expression profiling of metabolic genes and proteolytic activity of midgut digestive enzymes suggested that the rate of metabolic activity could contribute in part to the difference in insect development and survival under hypoxia in the presence and absence of CO2. PMID:24001922

Cheng, Weining; Lei, Jiaxin; Ahn, Ji-Eun; Wang, Yu; Lei, Chaoliang; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

2013-08-31

121

Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins) with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitin-binding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation. PMID:22267002

Souza, A J; Ferreira, A T S; Perales, J; Beghini, D G; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J; Venancio, T M; Oliveira, A E A

2012-01-26

122

Vicilin-derived peptides are transferred from males to females as seminal nuptial gift in the seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The fate of vicilins ingested by Callosobruchus maculatus and the physiological importance of these proteins in larvae and adults have been recently investigated. Vicilins have been demonstrated to be absorbed through the midgut epithelium, circulate in their trimeric form in the haemolymph and are deposited in the fat body. In fat body cells of both sexes, vicilins are partially hydrolyzed and the fragments are eventually deposited in the eggs. Tracking the fate of FITC-labelled vicilins in adult males revealed that the labelled vicilin fragments were also detected in oöcytes and eggs, when the males copulated with non-labelled females. Based on the results presented here, we propose that following absorption, vicilins accumulate in the fat body, where they are partially degraded. These peptides are retained throughout the development of the males and are eventually sequestered by the gonads and passed to the female gonads during copulation. It is possible that accumulation in the eggs is a defensive strategy against pathogen attack, as these peptides are known to have antimicrobial activity. The contribution of vicilin-derived peptides from seminal fluids may be an investment that helps to increase the offspring survival. This study provides additional insights into the possible contributions of males to female fecundity following copulation in C. maculatus. PMID:21420973

Alexandre, Daniel; Linhares, Ricardo T; Queiroz, Bruna; Fontoura, Luisa; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Bezerra, Cezar S; Oliveira, Eliana M; Demartini, Diogo R; Carlini, Célia R; Silva, Carlos P

2011-03-21

123

Persistence and residual activity of an organophosphate, pirimiphos-methyl, and three IGRs, hexaflumuron, teflubenzuron and pyriproxyfen, against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Three insect growth regulators (IGR), the chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) teflubenzuron and hexaflumuron and the juvenile hormone mimic (JHM) pyriproxyfen, as well as the organophosphate (OP) pirimiphos-methyl, were evaluated for their activity against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F), in cowpea seeds stored for up to 8 months post-treatment. The initial activity data showed that, based on LC50 level, teflubenzuron had strong ovicidal activity (LC50 = 0.056 mg kg(-1)) followed by pirimiphos-methyl (1.82 mg kg(-1)) and pyriproxyfen (91.9 mg kg(-1)). The residual activity data showed that none of the IGRs tested had strong activity when applied at 200 mg kg(-1) in reducing the oviposition rates of C maculatus at various storage intervals up to 8 months post-treatment. However, teflubenzuron reduced adult emergence (F1 progeny), achieving control ranging from 96.2% at 1 month to 94.3% at 8 months. Hexaflumuron showed a similar trend in its residual activity, ranging between 93.8% control at 1 month to 88.2% control at 8 months post-treatment. However, pyriproxyfen was more active than the CSIs tested and caused complete suppression (100% control) of adult emergence at all storage intervals. Unlike the IGRs tested, pirimiphos-methyl applied at 25 mg kg(-1) was more effective in reducing oviposition rates of C maculatus up to 8 months post-treatment. A strong reduction of adult emergence was also observed at various bimonthly intervals (98.6% control at 1 month to 91.6% control at 8 months post-treatment). The persistence of hexaflumuron and pirimiphos-methyl in cowpea seeds was also studied over a period of 8 months. The loss of hexaflumuron residue in treated cowpeas (200 mg kg(-1)) was very slow during the first month post-treatment (4.43%). At the end of 8 months, the residue level had declined significantly to 46.4% of the initial applied rate. The loss of pirimiphos-methyl residue in treated cowpeas (25 mg kg(-1)) was relatively high during the first month post-treatment (36.7%) and increased to 81.6% after 8 months. PMID:14727746

Abo-Elghar, Gamal E; El-Sheikh, Anwar E; El-Sayed, Ferial M; El-Maghraby, Hamdi M; El-Zun, Hesham M

2004-01-01

124

A new variant of antimetabolic protein, arcelin from an Indian bean, Lablab purpureus (Linn.) and its effect on the stored product pest, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The anti-metabolic or insecticidal gene, arcelin (Arl) was isolated, cloned and sequenced using sequence specific degenerate primers from the seeds of Lablab purpureus collected from the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The L. purpureus arcelin nucleotide sequence was homologous to Arl-3 and Arl-4 alleles from Phaseolus spp. The protein it encodes has 70% amino acid identity with the amino acid sequences of Arl-3I, Arl-3III, Arl-4 precursor, Arl-4 and Arl-4I. The partially purified arcelin from the seeds of L. purpureus using an artificial diet confirmed the complete retardation of development of the stored product pest Callosobruchus maculatus at 0.2% w/w arcelin-incorporated artificial seeds. PMID:22980880

Janarthanan, Sundaram; Sakthivelkumar, Shanmugavel; Veeramani, Velayutham; Radhika, Dixit; Muthukrishanan, Subbaratnam

2012-07-25

125

Purification and characterization of a highly thermostable chitinase from the stomach of the red scorpionfish Scorpaena scrofa with bioinsecticidal activity toward cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

This present study is the first attempt to report on the purification and characterization of a chitinase from the stomach of the red scorpionfish Scorpaena scrofa. A 50-kDa chitinase (SsChi50) was purified to homogeneity, and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis showed that SsChi50 was a monomer with a molecular mass of 50,103 Da. The 25 N-terminal residues of SsChi50 displayed high homology with family-18 chitinases. Optimal activity was obtained at pH 5.0 at 80 °C. SsChi50 was stable at pH and temperature ranges of 3.0 to 7.0 and 70 to 90 °C for 48 and 4 h respectively. Among the inhibitors and metals tested, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, N-ethylmaleimide, Hg(2+), and Hg(+) completely inhibited enzyme activity. Chitinase activity was high on colloidal chitin, glycol chitin, glycol chitosane, chitotriose, and chitooligosaccharide. Chitinase activity towards synthetic substrates in the order of p-NP-(GlcNAc)(n) (n = 2-4) was p-NP-(GlcNAc)(2) > p-NP-(GlcNAc)(4) > p-NP-(GlcNAc)(3). Our results suggest that the SsChi50 enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed the second glycosidic link from the non-reducing end of (GlcNAc)(n). This enzyme obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, the K(m) and k(cat) values being 0.412 mg, colloidal chitin mL(-1) and 5.33 s(-1) respectively. An in vivo bioinsecticidal assay was developed for SsChi50 against Callosobruchus maculatus adults. The enzyme showed bioinsecticidal activity toward Callosobruchus maculatus, indicating the possibility of using it in biotechnological strategies for insect management for stored cowpea seeds. PMID:22972353

Laribi-Habchi, Hassiba; Dziril, Maya; Badis, Abdelmalek; Mouhoub, Samia; Mameri, Nabil

2012-09-07

126

Distribución de Masa en Galaxias Espirales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the relationship between Kinematics and Surface Brightness in a sample of 22 spiral galaxies. We pay attention on the uncertainties that are involved in the velocity and brightness interpretation in terms of mass and luminosities. Finally, we analyze how the observational bias could affect the determination of the dark halo potential. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Agüero, M. P.; Díaz, R. J.

127

Galaxias enanas: las voces de la mayoría  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than twenty years after photographic surveys of nearby clusters of galaxies revealed that low-luminosity, or ``dwarf'', galaxies (M_B ? -18 mag) are the numerically dominant population, research on these objects has been boosted by new instrumental and theoretical developments. Among several breakthroughs that have re-shaped our knowledge abut dwarf galaxies, we should point out: the detection of underlying spiral structure, disks/bars in dwarf ``elliptical'' galaxies; the possible evolutionary relation between (some?) dwarf ellipticals and spiral galaxies; the discoveries of ultra-compact and ultra-faint dwarfs; the universality of the color-luminosity relation extending along ˜ 10 mag. A brief review on these subjects is presented, with emphasis on early-type dwarfs and their possible evolutionary relations with other galaxy types. I will particularly address the controversy about which are the objects that extend the E sequence down to the lowest luminosities (if such objects really exist). FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Cellone, S. A.

128

Las Galaxias Enanas y la Red Cósmica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a cosmological numerical simulation of the Local Group formation, we identify a mechanism able to remove gas from low-mass halos, affecting dramatically their star formation histories. As the Local Group forms, matter bound to it develops an intrincate network of filaments and pancakes, which sweeps a large volume, overtaking and removing the gas of several halos, leaving their dark matter component unaffected. The gas loss is particulary pronunced for low-mass halos, which may help to explain the scarcity of dwarf galaxies observed when compared to the large number of low-mass halos expected in the ?CDM cosmological model. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Benítez Llambay, A.; Abadi, M. G.

129

Comparative morphology of the gonadal structure related to reproductive strategies in six species of neotropical catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes).  

PubMed

We studied the relationship between the morphology of the reproductive system and the reproductive strategies of six neotropical catfishes using macroscopic and microscopic analyses. The reproductive system of the examined Siluriformes showed diversified characteristics, but permitted their being grouped according to three reproductive strategies: pelagic spawning, demersal spawning, and internally fertilizing. The pelagic spawners Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Conorhynchos conirostris have testes that are characterized by filiform lobes, absence of testicular secretion, full-grown oocytes of small diameter, thin zona radiata, and cuboidal follicular cells. Pimelodus maculatus is morphologically distinct from the other two pelagic spawners catfishes due to the presence of testicular secretion. The demersal spawners Lophiosilurus alexandri and Rhinelepis aspera possess homogeneous testicular secretion, large mature oocytes, and columnar follicular cells. The most specialized reproductive system was observed in the internally fertilizing Trachelyopterus galeatus, which possesses a seminal vesicle accessory to the testes, spermatozoa with elongated nuclei that form spermatozeugmata, and a secretory ovarian lamellar epithelium that is associated with sperm storage. The reproductive system observed in Neotropical catfishes showed a relationship associated with the type of fertilization and the reproductive strategies of the six species studied. PMID:21246599

Melo, Rafael Magno Costa; Arantes, Fábio Pereira; Sato, Yoshimi; dos Santos, José Enemir; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo

2011-01-18

130

Purification and characterization of an N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectin from Koelreuteria paniculata seeds and its effect on the larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

This study describes the purification of an N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectin from Koelreuteria paniculata seeds and its effects on the larval development of Callobruchus maculatus and Anagasta kuehniella. The lectin (KpLec) was characterized and isolated by gel filtration, affinity column, and reverse phase chromatography. SDS-PAGE indicated that this lectin is a dimer composed of subunits of 22 and 44 kDa. The N terminus exhibited 40% similarity with Urtiga dioica agglutinin. KpLec was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus and A. kuehniella. With regard to C. maculatus, an artificial diet containing 0.7 and 1% KpLec produced LD(50) and ED(50) value, respectively. However, for A. kuenhiella, an artificial diet containing 0.65% KpLec produced an LD(50), whereas 0.2% KpLec produced an ED(50). The transformation of genes coding for this lectin could be useful in the development of insect resistance in important agricultural crops. PMID:12720380

Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; Damico, Daniela Carla S; Freire, Maria das Graças Machado; Toyama, Marcos H; Marangoni, Sérgio; Novello, José C

2003-05-01

131

Purification of a lectin from the marine red alga Gracilaria ornata and its effect on the development of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

A lectin from the marine red alga Gracilaria ornata (Gracilariaceae, Rodophyta) was purified and characterized. The purification procedure consisted of extracting soluble proteins in 0.025 M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5, followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation (70% saturation), ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and affinity chromatography on mucin-Sepharose 4B. The purified G. ornata lectin (GOL) showed a single protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 17 kDa when submitted to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. The native molecular mass of GOL determined by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column was 17.4 kDa and its carbohydrate content was estimated to be 2.9%. Therefore, GOL is a monomeric glycoprotein. The purified lectin agglutinated trypsin-treated erythrocytes from rabbit and chicken but not from human. Its activity was not inhibited by any of the mono- and disaccharides tested but by the complex glycoproteins porcine stomach mucin, lactotransferrin, asialofetuin and bovine and porcine thyroglobulins. Isoelectric focusing showed that GOL is an acidic protein with a pI of 5.4 with analysis of its amino acid composition revealing high contents of Asx, Glx, Ser, Glu, Ala and Cys. When incorporated in artificial seeds, GOL significantly affected the development of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, indicating the possibility of using this lectin in a biotechnological strategy for insect management of stored cowpea seeds. PMID:15869843

Leite, Yáskara Fabíola Monteiro Marques; Silva, Luana Maria Castelo Melo; Amorim, Rodrigo César das Neves; Freire, Eder Almeida; de Melo Jorge, Daniel Macedo; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Benevides, Norma Maria Barros

2005-04-13

132

Evolución en Núcleos Activos de Galaxias y QSOs I. Relación Starbursts y AGNs en Galaxias Próximas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have started a new part of our program: ``Study of Evolution of AGNs & QSOs''. This new part is mainly a study of the relation between Starbursts and AGNs-QSOs in nearby galaxies (using our model of Evolutive, Composite & Explosive AGNs-QSOs). In particular, we have started spectrophotometric and imaging observations at CASLEO, Bosque Alegre, Gemini, Calar Alto, etc. This study also includes the analysis of Archive Data. Here we show our first results for NGC 1097. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Lípari, S.; Merlo, D.; Moyano, M.

133

Insecticide activity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii against two stored product pests, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), ?-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC(50) values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC(50) = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC(50) = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

2012-01-01

134

Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), ?-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects.

Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

2012-01-01

135

Ultrastructure of the taste buds in the blind cave fish Astyanax jordani ("Anoptichthys") and the sighted river fish Astyanax mexicanus (Teleostei, Characidae).  

PubMed

This study describes the ultrastructure of the taste buds of the sighted river fish Astyanax mexicanus and of the blind cave fish Astyanax jordani (= Anoptichthys) (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae). In Astyanax and Anoptichthys, taste buds occur in the epithelia of the lips, oral cavity, and, in Anoptichthys, lower jaw. Both possess three types of taste buds: type I (elevated), type II (slightly elevated), and type III taste buds (not elevated or sunken). The taste buds are up to 60 microm high and up to 35 microm wide. The taste bud's sensory epithelium consists of 100--130 elongated cells: light cells, dense-cored-vesicles (dcv) -cells, dark cells, and degenerating cells. The dcv-cells are rich in dense-cored vesicles and are described for the first time in a teleostean taste bud. At the taste bud's base, there lie two to three basal cells. The basal cells of type I and type II taste buds have microvillus (spine)-like processes, in contrast to those of type III taste buds. The taste bud's nerve fiber plexus is situated between the bases of the elongated taste bud cells and the basal cells. Afferent synapses occur between dcv-cells and basal cells (presynaptic sides) and axons (postsynaptic side). Indistinct synapses occur between light cells and dark cells (presynaptic sides) and axons (postsynaptic side). The nerve fiber plexes of Anoptichthys type II and type III taste buds contain significantly more axon profiles than those of Astyanax. This may be associated with a compensatory improvement of the sense of taste in the blind, cave-dwelling fish. PMID:11343291

Boudriot, F; Reutter, K

2001-06-11

136

Performance of bean bruchids Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) reared on resistant (IT81D-1045) and susceptible (Epace 10) Vigna unguiculata seeds: relationship with trypsin inhibitor and vicilin excretion.  

PubMed

Callosobruchus maculatus (Cm) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Zs) were reared on resistant (IT81D-1045) and on susceptible (Epace 10) cowpea seeds. The emergence of adult insects, total developmental period (TDP) and excretion of trypsin inhibitor and vicilin were determined for both bruchid populations. Parameter evaluation showed that the Zs populations emerged from both seeds had no significant differences in emergence and TDP. The Cm population raised from resistant seeds had lower emergence (5.6+/-1.3%) and delayed TDP (46+/-1.25 days) than those emerged from susceptible seeds. The excretion of defense proteins showed that Zs reared in resistant seeds excreted 1.7 times more trypsin inhibitor, but this did not affect emergence or TDP. Furthermore, Cm population emerged from resistant seeds excreted 7 times higher vicilin and 0.4 times less trypsin inhibitor than that emerged from susceptible seeds. These results indicate that vicilins from resistant seeds are involved to significantly longer TDP (46 days) and also drastic reduction of insect emergence ( approximately 5%) of C. maculatus. PMID:16246611

Sales, M P; Andrade, L B S; Ary, M B; Miranda, M R A; Teixeira, F M; Oliveira, A S; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J

2005-10-24

137

A Sex-Linked Gene Controlling the Onset of Sexual Maturity in Female and Male Platyfish (XIPHOPHORUS MACULATUS), Fecundity in Females and Adult Size in Males  

PubMed Central

A sex-linked gene, P, controls the onset of sexual maturity in the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus. The activity of this gene is correlated with the age and size at which the gonadotropic zone of the adenohypophysis differentiates and becomes physiologically active. Immature fish of all genotypes grow at the same rate; however, as adults, males with "early" genotypes are significantly smaller than males of "late" genotypes, since growth rate declines strongly under the influence of androgenic hormone. Five alleles, P1... P5, have been identified from natural populations that under controlled conditions cause gonad maturation between eight and 73 weeks. P1P1 males become mature at eight weeks and 21 mm, P2P2 and P3P3 males between eleven and 13.5 weeks and 25 to 29 mm, and P4P4 males at 25 weeks and 37 mm. Since P5 is X-linked, no males homozygous for P5 could be produced. The difference between P2 and P3 is largely based upon their interaction with P5. P3P5 males mature at 17.5 weeks and 33.5 mm and P2P5 males at 28 weeks and 38 mm. The rate of transformation of the unmodified anal fin into a gonopodium, which is under androgenic control, is directly related to the age at initiation of sexual maturity, ranging from 3.2 weeks in P1P1 males to seven weeks in P2P 5 males. These differences may reflect different levels of circulating gonadotropic and androgenic hormones.—In two genotypes of females, initiation of vitellogenesis was closely correlated with size and this critical size was independent of age (e.g., 21 mm for P1P1 ). In a third genotype (P1P5) the minimum size for vitellogenesis decreased with increasing age, so that females would mature as early as eleven weeks, provided they had attained at least 29 mm, but at 25 weeks even females as small as 23 mm possessed ripe gonads. For P5P5 females, which become mature between 34 and 73 weeks of age, there is no correlation between size and initiation of vitellogenesis. In all four genotypes of females examined, egg number is strongly correlated with size, but the regression of egg number on standard length is distinct for each genotype. Late maturation of P5P 5 females is not offset by an increased number of eggs; for this genotype there is a strong negative correlation between age and number of eggs. Heterozygous fish always mature later than those homozygous for the "earlier" allele. The site of action of the P locus could be the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus or higher centers of the brain where peripheral information is transduced into an appropriate signal required for the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The P gene could also control the peripheral information. The platyfish may be a useful model to test theories concerning the evolution of life history strategies.

Kallman, Klaus D.; Borkoski, Valerie

1978-01-01

138

Avoidance behaviour of freshwater fish and shrimp exposed to ammonia and low dissolved oxygen separately and in combination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of common smelt (Retropinna retropinna Richardson), inanga (Galaxias maculatus Jenyns), common bully (Gobiomorphus cotidianus McDowall), and shrimp (Paratya curvirostris Heller) to ammonia and low dissolved oxygen (DO), separately and in combination, were measured in a fluvarium. Only common smelt avoided high or low ammonia (c. 8.5 and 2.0 g m NH3, respectively) and low DO (c. 2 g

Jody Richardson; Erica K. Williams; Christopher W. Hickey

2001-01-01

139

Cúmulos globulares y galaxias enanas en Pegasus I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first results of a photometric and spectroscopic study of the central region of the Pegasus I group. We have identified 1800 globular cluster candidates with g'_0<26 mag, and ˜ 60 possibles UCDs or young clusters, as well as the presence of at least two subpopulations of clusters in both dominant galaxies. We also present the brightness profiles and their Sérsic fits for two dwarf galaxies previously reported in the literature, as well as for a new dE,N candidate. We confirm that the two former galaxies are group members. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Faifer, F. R.; Escudero, C.; Smith Castelli, A. V.; González, N. M.; Forte, J. C.; Bassino, L. P.; Cellone, S. A.

140

Superestructuras y las propiedades del clustering de galaxias brillantes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is based on the results presented in Yaryura et al. (2012, MNRAS, 426, 708), where the clustering properties of galaxies is analyzed as a function of their large-scale environment. In order to characterize the environment on large scales, we use the catalogue of future virialized superstructures (FVS) by Luparello et al. (2011, MNRAS, 415, 964) and separate samples of luminous galaxies according to whether or not they belong to FVS. The correlations have similar amplitudes at scales r ? 1 h^{-1} Mpc. We have performed a similar analysis using a semi-analytic implementation in a ?CDM cosmological model, where we found that the cross-correlation functions depend on the large-scale structures in a similar way to the observations. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Yaryura, C. Y.; Lares, M.; Luparello, H. E.; Paz, D. J.; Lambas, D. G.; Padilla, N.; Sgró, M. A.

141

Galaxias Enanas Ultra - Compactas (UCD) en el cúmulo de Antlia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results of the search for Ultra-compact dwarf galax- ies in the central region of the Antlia cluster. This new kind of stellar system has brightness, mass and size between those observed in globular clusters and early-type dwarf galaxies, but their origin is not well understood yet. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Caso, J. P.; Bassino, L. P.; Smith Castelli, A. V.

142

Estructura de disco en galaxias ``elípticas'' enanas: evidencias fotométricas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present evidences for the presence of disk structure in faint galaxies (MB ? -15) in the NGC 5044 Group, which were originally classified as dwarf ellipticals (dE). These evidences, obtained from multicolour surface photometry, are: External isophotes with a ``warped disk'' morphology. Surface brightness profiles with a two component (bulge + disk) structure. Situation of the galaxies in a surface-brightness vs. magnitude plot. Situation of the galaxies in a colour - magnitude plot. These indicators are not simultaneously present in every object, hence it is probable that dwarf ``elliptical'' galaxies with disk structure are an heterogeneous set. In some of these objects, the presence of a disk component is evident both from their morphology and from their stellar populations. ``Disky'' dEs seem to show a more extended projected spatial distribution on the Group field than the rest of the dEs.

Cellone, S. A.; Buzzoni, A.

143

Componentes contra-rotantes en simulaciones de galaxias disco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present a dynamical analysis of two simulated disk galaxies, having both counter-rotating stellar components. The dynamical properties of the stellar particles of these galaxies, such as velocity, energy and circu- larity of the orbits, show that there is an internal component which rotates in opposite direction to the galactic disk. This study allows us to com- pare these simulated galaxies to those found in the last few years having counter-rotating components. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Algorry, D. G.; Abadi, M. G.

144

[Population genetic structure of the char species of the Northern Kuril Islands and the rank of the Dolly Varden Char in the system of the genus Salvelinus (Salmonidae: Teleostei)].  

PubMed

Analysis of the taxonomic position of most species and forms of the char (genus Salvelinus, Salmonidae: Teleostei) was made based on RAPD-PCR. The material was represented by samples from 29 populations from the Kuril Islands, coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, Kamchatka, Chukotka, Taymyr, Transbaikalia, the Kola Peninsula, Svalbard, Finland, and North America. It was shown that the genus Salvelinus splits into three well-justified clusters: (1) all the forms assigned to the Salvelinus alpinus--S. malma complex; (2) two samples of the White-Spotted Char from the Southern Kuril Islands and from Kamchatka; (3) two North American species, S. fontinalis and S. namaycush (samples of the North American species S. confluentis were absent from the collection). Analysis of the absolute values of genetic disctances of the S. alpinus--S. malma forms relative to S. leucomaenis, S. fontinalis, and S. namaycush revealed distances approaching the species rank between the following isolates: Frolikh Char, Mountain Char, Black Lake Char, Goggle-Eyed Char, and Neyva Char. Samples of Dolly Varden currently considered as "S. malma", do not constitute a separate cluster, falling within the group of the Arctic char S. alpinus. This conclusion is supported by the analysis of the results of three series of experiments by R. Phillips on ITS1 ribosome genes (Pleute et al., 1992; Phillips et al., 1995; Phillips et al., 1999). This indicates the infraspecific rank of malma within S. alpinus. Isolated populations of "Salvethymus svetovidovi" from the lake Elgygytgyn (Chukotka Peninsula) and of the char from the lake Chyornoye (Onekotan Island), recently described as S. gritzenkoi (Vasil'eva, Stygar, 2000), fell withing the S. alpinus--S. malma complex, the Onekotan char grouped together with another isolate from the same island. Comparison of genetic distances between the samples showed that the differences between the two isolated of Onekotan and migratory forms of the Kuril Islands are approximately equal, yet the homogeneity of the Chyornoye sample is higher than that of the other samples. The revealed 330-nucleotide diagnostic sequence of the Onekotan lake isolate showed identity of part of the fragment with a section of expressed DNA from the library of EST clones derived from the gills of Salmo salar, this possibly indicates the adaptive character of the evolution. PMID:17022488

Shubina, E A; Ponomareva, E V; Gritsenko, O F

145

Validating the use of embryonic fish otoliths as recorders of sublethal exposure to copper in estuarine sediments.  

PubMed

In this study we explore the use of fish otoliths ('earbones') as a tool for detecting exposure to heavy metals in sediments. Because otoliths are metabolically inert and incorporate chemical impurities during growth, they can potentially provide a more permanent record of pollutant exposure history in aquatic environments than soft tissues. To validate this technique we cultured embryos of a native Australian fish, the common Galaxias (Galaxias maculatus), in the laboratory on sediments spiked with copper in a concentration gradient. Our aims were to test whether exposure to copper contaminated sediments is recorded in the otoliths of embryos and determine over what range in concentrations we can detect differences in exposure. We found elevated copper levels in otoliths of embryos exposed to high copper concentrations in sediments, suggesting that otoliths can be used as a tool to track a history of exposure to elevated copper levels in the environment. PMID:23628888

Barbee, Nicole C; Greig, Alan; Swearer, Stephen E

2013-04-27

146

Estudio de Evolución de los Núcleos Activos de Galaxias y QSOs: II. Búsqueda de Supernovas en Galaxias Pr'oximas con AGNs y Starburst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several lines of observational evidences suggesting that supernovae and hypernovae events play a main role in evolution of galaxies, AGNs and QSOs. In order to search more detailed information, we have started a study and detection of supernovae and hypernovae in the nuclei of nearby active galaxies obtaining high-resolution spectra and images in the standard UBVRI filters mainly from CASLEO, Bosque Alegre and data from archive of HST, ESO and La Palma observatories. In this paper we present the first preliminary results obtained in this program. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Merlo, D.; Lípari, S.; Moyano, M.

147

Ecology of the tiger quoll dasyurus maculatus maculatus in coastal New South Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammal fauna of Australia has undergone a dramatic and significant decline since the arrival and settlement of Europeans on the east coast of Australia. Eighteen native Australian mammals are considered extinct, 35 are endangered and 51 vulnerable, out of a total of 357 species. The Tiger Quoll is considered threatened in all mainland states, it is considered rare in

Deborah L Andrew

2005-01-01

148

Phylogeny of the gudgeons (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Gobioninae).  

PubMed

The members of the cyprinid subfamily Gobioninae, commonly called gudgeons, form one of the most well-established assemblages in the family Cyprinidae. The subfamily is a species-rich group of fishes, these fishes display diverse life histories, appearances, and behavior. The phylogenetic relationships of Gobioninae are examined using sequence data from four loci: cytochrome b, cytochrome c oxidase I, opsin, and recombination activating gene 1. This investigation produced a data matrix of 4114 bp for 162 taxa that was analyzed using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods. The phylogenies our analyses recovered corroborate recent studies on the group. The subfamily Gobioninae is monophyletic and composed of three major lineages. We find evidence for a Hemibarbus-Squalidus group, and the tribes Gobionini and Sarcocheilichthyini, with the Hemibarbus-Squalidus group sister to a clade of Gobionini-Sarcocheilichthyini. The Hemibarbus-Squalidus group includes those two genera; the tribe Sarcocheilichthyini includes Coreius, Coreoleuciscus, Gnathopogon, Gobiocypris, Ladislavia, Paracanthobrama, Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, Pungtungia, Rhinogobio, and Sarcocheilichthys; the tribe Gobionini includes Abbottina, Biwia, Gobio, Gobiobotia, Huigobio, Microphysogobio, Platysmacheilus, Pseudogobio, Romanogobio, Saurogobio, and Xenophysogobio. The monotypic Acanthogobio is placed into the synonymy of Gobio. We tentatively assign Belligobio to the Hemibarbus-Squalidus group and Mesogobio to Gobionini; Paraleucogobio and Parasqualidus remain incertae sedis. Based on the topologies presented, the evolution of swim bladder specializations, a distinctive feature among cyprinids, has occurred more than once within the subfamily. PMID:21672635

Tang, Kevin L; Agnew, Mary K; Chen, Wei-Jen; Vincent Hirt, M; Raley, Morgan E; Sado, Tetsuya; Schneider, Leah M; Yang, Lei; Bart, Henry L; He, Shunping; Liu, Huanzhang; Miya, Masaki; Saitoh, Kenji; Simons, Andrew M; Wood, Robert M; Mayden, Richard L

2011-06-06

149

Genomics and Mapping of Teleostei (Bony Fish)  

PubMed Central

Until recently, the Human Genome Project held centre stage in the press releases concerning sequencing programmes. However, in October 2001, it was announced that the Japanese puffer fish (Takifugu rubripes, Fugu) was the second vertebrate organism to be sequenced to draft quality. Briefly, the spotlight was on fish genomes. There are currently two other fish species undergoing intensive sequencing, the green spotted puffer fish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) and the zebrafish (Danio rerio). But this trio are, in many ways, atypical representations of the current state of fish genomic research. The aim of this brief review is to demonstrate the complexity of fish as a group of vertebrates and to publicize the ‘lesser-known’ species, all of which have something to offer.

2003-01-01

150

Diferenciación de Galaxias Activas de Líneas Delgadas a Partir de Diagramas BPT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classification of active galaxies is made through careful analysis of their spectra, either by measuring the width of the emission lines or comparing the flux ratios between these lines. One of the best known methods for this process is the use of BPT (Baldwin, Phillips, & Terlevich) diagrams which allow the distinction of different types of active galaxies. In this article we present the study of a sample of active galaxies with thin lines taken from the SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) whose flux ratios were measured and diagnostic diagrams were constructed, thus allowing the differentiation between starburst (or H II) galaxies and authentic type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We show that there are some objects with similar spectra that have been misclassified. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Torres, J.; Portilla, J. G.

151

Interacciones de galaxias: sistemas co-rotantes y contra-rotantes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a sample of interacting galaxy pairs with tidal tails. We perform a visual cassification according to the sense of rotation of the spiral arms of each member of the tidal system. We study general features of interacting galaxies such as mass content in stars (M^*), luminosity ratios and local environment through an analysis of the ?_5 parameter. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Mesa, V.; Duplancic, F.; Alonso, S.; García Lambas, D.

152

Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) en modelos semi-analíticos de formación de galaxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results of calibrations of a semi-analytic galaxy formation model performed using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique. This method involves the exploration of the parameter space by random walks of a set of ``particles'' that share information between them. Thus, comparing the model results against a set of observables (e.g. luminosity functions, the relation between black hole mass and bulge mass, morphological fractions), the PSO method yields a set of best-fitting values for the free parameters of the model. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Ruiz, A. N.; Domínguez, M. J.; Padilla, N. D.; Cora, S. A.; García Lambas, D.; Tecce, T. E.; Gargiulo, I. D.; Muñoz Arancibia, A. M.

153

Galaxia: A Code to Generate a Synthetic Survey of the Milky Way  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here a fast code for creating a synthetic survey of the Milky Way. Given one or more color-magnitude bounds, a survey size and geometry, the code returns a catalog of stars in accordance with a given model of the Milky Way. The model can be specified by a set of density distributions or as an N-body realization. We provide fast and efficient algorithms for sampling both types of models. As compared to earlier sampling schemes which generate stars at specified locations along a line of sight, our scheme can generate a continuous and smooth distribution of stars over any given volume. The code is quite general and flexible and can accept input in the form of a star formation rate, age metallicity relation, age velocity dispersion relation and analytic density distribution functions. Theoretical isochrones are then used to generate a catalog of stars and support is available for a wide range of photometric bands. As a concrete example we implement the Besancon Milky Way model for the disc. For the stellar halo we employ the simulated stellar halo N-body models of Bullock & Johnston (2005). In order to sample N-body models, we present a scheme that disperses the stars spawned by an N-body particle, in such a way that the phase space density of the spawned stars is consistent with that of the N-body particles. The code is ideally suited to generating synthetic data sets that mimic near future wide area surveys such as GAIA, LSST and HERMES. As an application we study the prospect of identifying structures in the stellar halo with a simulated GAIA survey.

Sharma, Sanjib; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Binney, James

2011-01-01

154

Galaxia: A Code to Generate a Synthetic Survey of the Milky Way  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here a fast code for creating a synthetic survey of the Milky Way. Given one or more color-magnitude bounds, a survey size, and geometry, the code returns a catalog of stars in accordance with a given model of the Milky Way. The model can be specified by a set of density distributions or as an N-body realization. We provide fast and efficient algorithms for sampling both types of models. As compared to earlier sampling schemes which generate stars at specified locations along a line of sight, our scheme can generate a continuous and smooth distribution of stars over any given volume. The code is quite general and flexible and can accept input in the form of a star formation rate, age-metallicity relation, age-velocity-dispersion relation, and analytic density distribution functions. Theoretical isochrones are then used to generate a catalog of stars, and support is available for a wide range of photometric bands. As a concrete example, we implement the Besançon Milky Way model for the disk. For the stellar halo we employ the simulated stellar halo N-body models of Bullock & Johnston. In order to sample N-body models, we present a scheme that disperses the stars spawned by an N-body particle, in such a way that the phase-space density of the spawned stars is consistent with that of the N-body particles. The code is ideally suited to generating synthetic data sets that mimic near future wide area surveys such as GAIA, LSST, and HERMES. As an application we study the prospect of identifying structures in the stellar halo with a simulated GAIA survey. We plan to make the code publicly available.

Sharma, Sanjib; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Binney, James

2011-03-01

155

Relaciones fundamentales de la población de galaxias de tipo temprano del cúmulo de Antlia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a study of more than 100 early-type galaxies in Antlia Cluster, that span from giant ellipticals to dwarf ellipticals, covering a magnitude range of 11 magnitudes (M_{V_T} = -22 to -11). We perform surface photometry of these galaxies, and their total magnitudes, surface brightnesses and radii are determined on the basis of the Sérsic law fits. Finally, the fundamental relations between them are analyzed. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Calderón, J. P.; Bassino, L. P.; Cellone, S. A.; Smith Castelli, A. V.; Caso, J. P.

156

Canibalismo Extremo y Lente Gravitacional Intensa en el Cúmulo de Galaxias Abell 3827  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abell 3827 is one of the most massive known clusters and at its center we observe an extreme example of galactic canibalism: a super giant elliptical galaxy in its formation process, devoring five massive galaxies at the same time. Using high spatial resolution Gemini+GMOS imagery and multi-object spectroscopy, we derived the redshift (z=0.099) and the radial velocity dispersion of the 55 brightest galaxies in the cluster central region (1134 +- 125 km/s). The estimated virial mass is ~ 1E14 M(sun) inside a radius of 300 kpc of the cluster center. We have also found features corresponding to a strong gravitational lense, four anular features arranged in an Einstein Ring from a galaxy (z=0.2) at double redshift than the cluster, and a fifth arclet feature corresponding to the lensed light of a farther galaxy (z=0.4). The possible Einstein Ring is of small angular size and the gravitational lense morphology would confirm that the cluster is indeed very massive and dense. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH.

Díaz, R. J.; West, M.; Bergmann, M.; Carrasco, E. R.; Gomez, P.; Lee, H.; Miller, B.; Turner, J.

157

Musings on "Densidades, Potenciales y Funciones Asociadas a una Galaxia Reducida" by Poveda et al. (1960)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a critical review on the paper "Densities, Potentials and related functions for a spherical reduced galaxy" by A. Poveda, R. Iturriaga, and I. Orozco published in 1960 in the Boletín de los Observatorios de Tonantzintla y Tacubaya (BOTT), 2, 20, 3.

López-Cruz, O.; Aguilar, L. A.; Añorve, C.

2011-04-01

158

LIFE CYCLE OF A POSTHODIPLOSTOMUM SPECIES (DIGENEA: DIPLOSTOMIDAE) IN PATAGONIA, ARGENTINA.  

PubMed

Abstract In Patagonia, populations of the galaxiid fish Galaxias maculatus are parasitized by metacercariae of a species of Posthodiplostomum (Digenea: Diplostomidae). The aim of this work was to describe larval and adult stages of this species in experimental and natural hosts from an Andean Patagonian lake. Specimens of G. maculatus and the pulmonate snail, Anisancylus obliquus, were collected in Patagua Lake. The snails were isolated in individual containers to observe emergence of cercariae, dissected, and examined under a stereoscopic microscope to record sporocysts and cercariae. Fish were examined in order to obtain metacercariae; and uninfected fish from Gutiérrez Lake were exposed to cercariae from A. obliquus to obtain experimental metacercariae. Chicks and mice were infected with metacercariae from naturally infected G. maculatus to obtain experimental adults. Specimens recovered belong to Posthodiplostomum sp. on the basis of morphological features. This is the first description of sporocysts, cercariae, metacercariae and adults stages of a Posthodiplostomum species in Patagonia, including data about its natural intermediate hosts. PMID:23628085

Ritossa, Luciano; Flores, Veronica Roxana; Viozzi, Gustavo

2013-04-29

159

Protease inhibitors from several classes work synergistically against Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Targeting multiple digestive proteases may be more effective in insect pest control than inhibition of a single enzyme class. We therefore explored possible interactions of three antimetabolic protease inhibitors fed to cowpea bruchids in artificial diets, using a recombinant soybean cysteine protease inhibitor scN, an aspartic protease inhibitor pepstatin A, and soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor KI. scN and pepstatin, inhibiting major digestive cysteine and aspartic proteases, respectively, significantly prolonged the developmental time of cowpea bruchids individually. When combined, the anti-insect effect was synergistic, i.e., the toxicity of the mixture was markedly greater than that of scN or pepstatin alone. KI alone did not impact insect development even at relatively high concentrations, but its anti-insect properties became apparent when acting jointly with scN or scN plus pepstatin. Incubating KI with bruchid midgut extract showed that it was partially degraded. This instability may explain its lack of anti-insect activity. However, this proteolytic degradation was inhibited by scN and/or pepstatin. Protection of KI from proteolysis in the insect digestive tract thus could be the basis for the synergistic effect. These observations support the concept that cowpea bruchid gut proteases play a dual role; digesting protein for nutrient needs and protecting insects by inactivating dietary proteins that may otherwise be toxic. Our results also suggest that transgenic resistance strategies that involve multigene products are likely to have enhanced efficacy and durability. PMID:17482206

Amirhusin, Bahagiawati; Shade, Richard E; Koiwa, Hisashi; Hasegawa, Paul M; Bressan, Ray A; Murdock, Larry L; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

2007-03-30

160

Callosobruchus maculatus: A Seed Beetle with a Future in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recommends the use of seed beetles for studying animal behavior and provides suggestions for practical and project assignments. Sources for obtaining the beetles and a list of the equipment needed for their study and maintenance are provided. Answers to common concerns are addressed. (DDR)|

Dockery, Michael

1997-01-01

161

La conexión rayos-X -- óptico en la NLR de la galaxia Mrk 573. Mecanismos de ionización.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the ionizing mechanisms for the narrow-line region (NLR) of Mrk 573. The alignment of radio, optical and X-ray features suggest that some interaction may be taking place in this region. We investigate if the optical and X-ray emission are being generated in shock waves triggered by the interaction between the radio jet and the intergalactic medium. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Reynaldi, V.; Guainazzi, M.; Feinstein, C.; Combi, J. A.

162

Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of the Australian freshwater fish genus Galaxiella, with an emphasis on dwarf galaxias (G. pusilla).  

PubMed

The freshwater fauna of Southern Australia is primarily restricted to the southwestern and southeastern corners of the continent, and is separated by a large, arid region that is inhospitable to this biota. This geographic phenomenon has attracted considerable interest from biogeographers looking to explain evolutionary diversification in this region. Here, we employed phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches to evaluate the effect of this barrier on a group of four galaxiid fish species (Galaxiella) endemic to temperate Southern Australia. We also tested if continental shelf width has influenced connectivity among populations during low sea levels when rivers, now isolated, could have been connected. We addressed these questions by sampling each species across its range using multiple molecular markers (mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences, nuclear S7 intron sequences, and 49 allozyme loci). These data also allowed us to assess species boundaries, to refine phylogenetic affinities, and to estimate species ages. Interestingly, we found compelling evidence for cryptic species in G. pusilla, manifesting as allopatric eastern and western taxa. Our combined phylogeny and dating analysis point to an origin for the genus dating to the early Cenozoic, with three of the four species originating during the Oligocene-Miocene. Each Galaxiella species showed high levels of genetic divergences between all but the most proximate populations. Despite extensive drainage connections during recent low sea levels in southeastern Australia, populations of both species within G. pusilla maintained high levels of genetic structure. All populations experienced Late Pleistocene-Holocene population growth, possibly in response to the relaxation of arid conditions after the last glacial maximum. High levels of genetic divergence and the discovery of new cryptic species have important implications for the conservation of this already threatened group of freshwater species. PMID:22693638

Unmack, Peter J; Bagley, Justin C; Adams, Mark; Hammer, Michael P; Johnson, Jerald B

2012-06-05

163

Propiedades estadísticas de la emisión del continuo en 1.4 GHz de grupos compactos de galaxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of statistical analysis on compact groups of galaxies identified by Pacheco & Díaz-Giménez (2011) from 2MASS catalog. The purpose is to determine which factors determine the different characteristics of the radio emission in relation to the properties seen in other bands. A comparison is made between the properties of the groups associated with radio sources and groups without emission. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Vena Valdarenas, R. R.; Valotto, C. A.

164

Reflectors in the Light Organ of Anomalops (Anomalopidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suborbital light organ of Anomalops contains luminous bacteria which are housed in tubules perpendicular to the outer surface. It has two reflectors. One (external) is differentially transparent and lies in front of the tubules. The other (internal) is opaque, lies behind the tubules, and forms a concave backing to the organ. The internal reflector consists of a thick layer

M. Watson; E. L. Thurston; J. A. C. Nicol

1978-01-01

165

New gadiform fishes (Teleostei, Gadiformes) from the Miocene of Algeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the completion of studies on the Miocene fishes of the Chelif Basin (north-western Algeria), this paper represents a contribution to the knowledge of the Messinian gadiform diversity of this western Mediterranean, semi-enclosed, Neogene basin. A new genus and species of the family Macrouridae is erected (Razelainia paradoxa n. gen. et sp.), two specimens are tentatively referred to already existing taxa (Gadiculus cf. jonas; Merluccius cf. merluccius), and a species formerly assigned to the gadid genus Brosme is transferred to the genus Gaidropsarus (Gaidropsarus murdjadjensis). The macrourid Razelainia paradoxa n. gen. et sp. is characterized by an unusual combination of: plesiomorphic gadiform features, such as low vertebral number (presumed), well-developed caudal-fin rays, presence of a single continuous dorsal fin originating just posterior to the neurocranium, anal-fin rays slightly longer than dorsal-fin rays; and derived, typically macrourid features, such as the presence of spinoid scales and the anterior anal-fin pterygiophores extending forward over the abdominal wall. A paleoecological analysis reveals that the Messinian gadiform assemblage of the Chelif Basin had a subtropical/warm temperate affinity, with a marked north-eastern Atlantic-Mediterranean biogeographic character.

Carnevale, Giorgio

2007-02-01

166

Patterns of gonad structure in hermaphroditic gobies (Teleostei Gobiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hermaphroditism has been reported for a small number of gobiid fishes, but the extent of this sexual pattern within the family is not known. Gonad structure was examined in one or more species from twenty-one gobiid genera. No evidence of hermaphroditism was found in the species selected from 14 genera. Laboratory studies supported the conclusion of gonochorism for the examined

Kathleen S. Cole

1990-01-01

167

Evolution of the light organ system in ponyfishes (Teleostei: Leiognathidae).  

PubMed

Members of the leiognathid subfamily Gazzinae, comprising approximately two-thirds of ponyfish species, are sexually dimorphic with regard to features of the light organ system (LOS). In Gazzinae, the circumesophageal light organ (LO) of males is enlarged and varies in shape compared with similarly sized conspecific females. In association with male species-specific translucent external patches on the head and flank, these sexually dimorphic LO features are hypothesized to be correlated with species-specific luminescence displays. Anatomical differences in LO shape, volume, and orientation, and its association with the gas bladder and other internal structures that function in light emission, are compared to observations of luminescence displays for every major lineage within Leiognathidae. We reconstruct the character evolution of both internal and external morphological features of the LOS to investigate the evolution of LO sexual dimorphism and morphology. Both internal and external sexual dimorphism in the ponyfish LOs were recovered as most likely to have evolved in the common ancestor of Leiognathidae, and likelihood-based correlation analyses indicate that the evolution of internal and external dimorphism in males is statistically correlated. Magnetic resonance imaging technology was applied to examine the unique internal LOs of ponyfishes in situ, which provides a new metric (LO index) for comparison of LO structure across lineages. PMID:21433053

Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Davis, Matthew P; Smith, Wm Leo; Berquist, Rachel; Gledhill, Kristen M; Frank, Larry R; Sparks, John S

2011-03-23

168

Evolutionary history of anglerfishes (Teleostei: Lophiiformes): a mitogenomic perspective  

PubMed Central

Background The teleost order Lophiiformes, commonly known as the anglerfishes, contains a diverse array of marine fishes, ranging from benthic shallow-water dwellers to highly modified deep-sea midwater species. They comprise 321 living species placed in 68 genera, 18 families and 5 suborders, but approximately half of the species diversity is occupied by deep-sea ceratioids distributed among 11 families. The evolutionary origins of such remarkable habitat and species diversity, however, remain elusive because of the lack of fresh material for a majority of the deep-sea ceratioids and incompleteness of the fossil record across all of the Lophiiformes. To obtain a comprehensive picture of the phylogeny and evolutionary history of the anglerfishes, we assembled whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 39 lophiiforms (33 newly determined during this study) representing all five suborders and 17 of the 18 families. Sequences of 77 higher teleosts including the 39 lophiiform sequences were unambiguously aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimation. Results Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis confidently recovered monophyly for all of the higher taxa (including the order itself) with the exception of the Thaumatichthyidae (Lasiognathus was deeply nested within the Oneirodidae). The mitogenomic trees strongly support the most basal and an apical position of the Lophioidei and a clade comprising Chaunacoidei + Ceratioidei, respectively, although alternative phylogenetic positions of the remaining two suborders (Antennarioidei and Ogcocephaloidei) with respect to the above two lineages are statistically indistinguishable. While morphology-based intra-subordinal relationships for relatively shallow, benthic dwellers (Lophioidei, Antennarioidei, Ogcocephaloidei, Chaunacoidei) are either congruent with or statistically indistinguishable from the present mitogenomic tree, those of the principally deep-sea midwater dwellers (Ceratioidei) cannot be reconciled with the molecular phylogeny. A relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian analysis of the divergence times suggests that all of the subordinal diversifications have occurred during a relatively short time period between 100 and 130 Myr ago (early to mid Cretaceous). Conclusions The mitogenomic analyses revealed previously unappreciated phylogenetic relationships among the lophiiform suborders and ceratioid familes. Although the latter relationships cannot be reconciled with the earlier hypotheses based on morphology, we found that simple exclusion of the reductive or simplified characters can alleviate some of the conflict. The acquisition of novel features, such as male dwarfism, bioluminescent lures, and unique reproductive modes allowed the deep-sea ceratioids to diversify rapidly in a largely unexploited, food-poor bathypelagic zone (200-2000 m depth) relative to the other lophiiforms occurring in shallow coastal areas.

2010-01-01

169

Evolutionary history of anglerfishes (Teleostei: Lophiiformes): a mitogenomic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The teleost order Lophiiformes, commonly known as the anglerfishes, contains a diverse array of marine fishes, ranging from benthic shallow-water dwellers to highly modified deep-sea midwater species. They comprise 321 living species placed in 68 genera, 18 families and 5 suborders, but approximately half of the species diversity is occupied by deep-sea ceratioids distributed among 11 families. The evolutionary

Masaki Miya; Theodore W Pietsch; James W Orr; Rachel J Arnold; Takashi P Satoh; Andrew M Shedlock; Hsuan-Ching Ho; Mitsuomi Shimazaki; Mamoru Yabe; Mutsumi Nishida

2010-01-01

170

Tilapia (Teleostei: Cichlidae) status in Nicaraguan natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We surveyed the watersheds covering more than 80% of the surface area of Nicaragua, and review the history of deliberate introductions\\u000a and unintentional invasion of tilapias, Oreochromis spp., into the freshwater of Nicaragua. The species have become widely established, with a range of negative consequences\\u000a for the rich natural fish fauna of this Central American country. Tilapias compete directly with

Jeffrey K. McCrary; Brian R. Murphy; Jay R. Stauffer Jr; Sherman S. Hendrix

2007-01-01

171

Life History of Roach, Rutilus rutilus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with aspects of the brain development in the roach, Rutilus rutilus, a common mid-European cyprinid fish. The morphogenesis of selected brain areas from hatching to early juveniles was examined on serial paraffin cross-sections. From early juveniles to large adults, brain growth was quantitatively analyzed by computer-aided planimetry. The hatchlings of roach show a cytologically distinct optic

Roland Brandstätter; Kurt Kotrschal

1989-01-01

172

(THYS VAN DEN AUDENAERDE & LOISELLE 1971) (Teleostei: Perciformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limbochromis cavalliensis is shown to be a member of Chromidotilapia, diagnosed by some morphologi- cal features, for instance the number of infraorbital bones, the number of openings of the laterosensory canal in the lachrymal bone, the shape of the pelvic fin in females and the number of scales between the upper lateral line scale series to the base of the

A. Lamboj

173

The complete mitochondrial genome of Percocypris pingi (Teleostei, Cypriniformes).  

PubMed

Percocypris pingi is an endemic and economic fish species only found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. It has become endangered in recent years due to overfishing and/or dam construction. However, the available genetic data are still scarce for this species. Here, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. pingi using long polymerase chain reactions. The complete mitogenome sequence has 16,586 bp and contains the usual 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 1 control region, the gene composition and order of which are similar to most of other vertebrates. Most mitochondrial genes except ND6 and eight tRNAs are encoded on the heavy strand. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is 30.9% A, 25.7% T, 26.6% C, and 16.8% G with a slight AT bias of 56.6%. There are seven regions of gene overlaps totaling 23 bp and 11 intergenic spacer regions totaling 35 bp. Combined with the COI barcoding region sequences of other 25 cyprinids, the phylogenetic position of P. pingi was estimated using neighbor-joining method. The results showed that P. pingi had a close phylogenetic relationship with the species from genus Schizothorax. This mitogenome sequence data of P. pingi would provide the fundamental genetic data for further conservation genetic studies for this endangered fish species. PMID:22954235

Li, Yanping; Wang, Jinjin; Peng, Zuogang

2012-09-07

174

Estimación de la incerteza cinemática de los espectros obtenidos con REOSC (CAsLeo), Flamingos-2 y PHOENIX (Gemini) para observaciones de gas ionizado en galaxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of the radial velocity curves of ionized gas in galaxies requires knowing the value of the internal kinematic uncertainly along the slit for the used spectrographs. We present preliminary results of the study of the variation of the measured radial velocity of both the telluric and comparison emission lines in the spatial direction. This was done for the spectrographs REOSC, Flamingos-2 (F2) and Phoenix. In particular we are interested in using this data to homogenize the rotation curves of nearby galaxies in large-scale ranges. These results will be also useful as references for those works that measure radial velocities of extended objects using only one emission line of ionized gas. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Gaspar, G.; Díaz, R. J.; Güunthardt, G.; Agüuero, M. P.; Camperi, J. A.; Gimeno, G.

175

Sistema de cúmulos globulares de la galaxia lenticular NGC 6861: en busca de indicios sobre la formación de las S0s.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a preliminar photometric study of the globular cluster system (GCS), associated to the lenticular galaxy (S0) NGC 6861, which is located in a low density environment (d˜31.8 Mpc). It is based on GEMINI/GMOS images (GS-2010B-Q-2: PI Lilia P. Bassino) in the filters g', r', i' of three fields, one of them centered in the galaxy. We find a large number of GCs candidates and detect the presence of at least two sub-populations of GCs (``blue''/metal-poor and ``red''/metal-rich). The spatial distribution of ``red'' candidates presents a higher concentration toward the galaxy (associated to the bulge?), while the distribution of ``blue'' candidates is more homogeneus over the three fields (associated to the halo?). In the color-magnitud diagram, the ``blue'' GC candidates show a possible mass-luminosity relation, known as ``blue-tilt'', probably detected for the first time in a lenticular galaxy. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Escudero, C. G.; Faifer, F. R.; Bassino, L. P.; Calderón, J. P.; Caso, J. P.

176

Análisis de la evolución química de los cúmulos abiertos de la Galaxia a través de simulaciones dinámicas con procesos de destrucción  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that open clusters are excellent tracers (in time and space) of the metallicity of the Galactic disk. We analyze the history of stellar for- mation of the Galactic disk using numerical simulations of the dynamical evolution of the open cluster system. We have included the effects of clus- ter disruption caused by stellar evolution, tidal fields, and the interaction with the spiral arms. We model the present astrophysical properties of open clusters from initial hypothesis regarding their formation history. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Bignone, L. A.; Pellizza, L. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Tecce, T. E.

177

Microsatellite markers and mtDNA data indicate two distinct groups in dwarf galaxias, Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Pisces: Galaxiidae), a threatened freshwater fish from south-eastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galaxiella pusilla is a small, non-migratory freshwater fish, endemic to south-eastern Australia and considered nationally threatened. To assist\\u000a in the conservation of the species, microsatellite markers were developed and used to characterize genetic variation in 20\\u000a geographically distinct populations across its range. Substantial genetic differentiation was found between an eastern (Victoria\\u000a east of the Otway Ranges and Tasmania) and western

R. A. Coleman; V. Pettigrove; T. A. Raadik; A. A. Hoffmann; A. D. Miller; M. E. Carew

2010-01-01

178

Balancing genetic uniqueness and genetic variation in determining conservation and translocation strategies: a comprehensive case study of threatened dwarf galaxias, Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Pisces: Galaxiidae).  

PubMed

Genetic markers are widely used to define and manage populations of threatened species based on the notion that populations with unique lineages of mtDNA and well-differentiated nuclear marker frequencies should be treated separately. However, a danger of this approach is that genetic uniqueness might be emphasized at the cost of genetic diversity, which is essential for adaptation and is potentially boosted by mixing geographically separate populations. Here, we re-explore the issue of defining management units, focussing on a detailed study of Galaxiella pusilla, a small freshwater fish of national conservation significance in Australia. Using a combination of microsatellite and mitochondrial markers, 51 populations across the species range were surveyed for genetic structure and diversity. We found an inverse relationship between genetic differentiation and genetic diversity, highlighting a long-term risk of deliberate isolation of G. pusilla populations based on protection of unique lineages. Instead, we adopt a method for identifying genetic management units that takes into consideration both uniqueness and genetic variation. This produced a management framework to guide future translocation and re-introduction efforts for G. pusilla, which contrasted to the framework based on a more traditional approach that may overlook important genetic variation in populations. PMID:23432132

Coleman, R A; Weeks, A R; Hoffmann, A A

2013-02-21

179

Diet and food resource partitioning in koaro, Galaxias brevipinnis (Günther), and juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Richardson), in two Taupo streams, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the diet of sympatric populations of migratory juvenile rainbow trout and landlocked koaro in the Waipehi and Omori Streams, Lake Taupo, New Zealand. In both species, diet was dominated, both numerically and by weight, by aquatic prey: Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Diptera larvae were the most numerous prey items. Adult koaro and juvenile rainbow trout both fed on

Ian A. Kusabs; Stephen Swales

1991-01-01

180

Male age does not affect female fitness in a polyandrous beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males in different taxa are likely to suffer from a reduction in the quantity and\\/or quality of their sperm with age. This predicts age-related direct and indirect effects on female fitness. Hence, females may be se- lected to avoid matings with old males, or to employ alternative mating tactics, such as polyandry, to avoid fertilization by sperm of older males.

Claudia Fricke; Alexei A. Maklakov

2007-01-01

181

Genetic architecture of population differences in oviposition behaviour of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have examined the genetic architecture of population differences in behaviour and its implications for population differentiation and adaptation. Even fewer have examined whether differences in genetic architecture depend on the environment in which organisms are reared or tested. We examined the genetic basis of differences in oviposition preference and egg dispersion between Asian (SI) and African (BF) populations

C. W. FOX; R. C. STILLWELL; A. R. AMARILLO-S; M. E. CZESAK; F. J. MESSINA

2004-01-01

182

Proteomic analysis of Metarhizium anisopliae secretion in the presence of the insect pest Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop improvement in agriculture generally focuses on yield, seed quality and nutritional characteristics, as opposed to resistance to biotic stresses. Consequently, natural antifeedant toxins are often rare in seed material, with commercial crops being prone to insect pest predation. In the specific case of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), smallholder cropping is affected by insect pests that reproduce inside the stored seeds.

A. M. Murad; E. F. Noronha; R. N. G. Miller; F. T. Costa; C. D. Pereira; A. Mehta; R. A. Caldas; O. L. Franco

2008-01-01

183

Cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus counteracts dietary protease inhibitors by modulating propeptides of major digestive enzymes.  

PubMed

Cowpea bruchids, when challenged by consumption of the soybean cysteine protease inhibitor scN, reconfigure expression of their major CmCP digestive proteases and resume normal feeding and development. Previous evidence indicated that insects selectively induced CmCPs from subfamily B, that were more efficient in autoprocessing and possessed not only higher proteolytic, but also scN-degrading activities. In contrast, dietary scN only marginally up-regulated genes from the more predominant CmCP subfamily A that were inferior to subfamily B. To gain further molecular insight into this adaptive adjustment, we performed domain swapping between the two respective subfamily members B1 and A16, the latter unable to autoprocess or degrade scN even after intermolecular processing. Swapping the propeptides did not qualitatively alter autoprocessing in either protease isoform. Incorporation of either the N- (pAmBA) or C-terminal (pAmAB) mature B1 segment into A16, however, was sufficient to prime autoprocessing of A16 to its mature form. Further, the swap at the N-terminal mature A16 protein region (pAmBA) resulted in four amino acid changes. Replacement of these amino acid residues by the corresponding B1 residues, singly and pair-wise, revealed that autoprocessing activation in pAmBA resulted from cumulative and/or coordinated individual effects. Bacterially expressed isolated propeptides (pA16 and pB1) differed in their ability to inhibit mature B1 enzyme. Lower inhibitory activity in pB1 is likely attributable to its lack of protein stability. This instability in the cleaved propeptide is necessary, although insufficient by itself, for scN-degradation by the mature B1 enzyme. Taken together, cowpea bruchids modulate proteolysis of their digestive enzymes by controlling proCmCP cleavage and propeptide stability, which explains at least in part the plasticity cowpea bruchids demonstrate in response to protease inhibitors. PMID:17433072

Ahn, J-E; Lovingshimer, M R; Salzman, R A; Presnail, J K; Lu, A L; Koiwa, H; Zhu-Salzman, K

2007-04-13

184

Heat shock proteins protect platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) from Yersinia ruckeri induced mortality.  

PubMed

The significant disadvantages accompanied with the use of antibiotics in aquaculture, emphasize the need for developing alternative disease control strategies, like novel vaccine approaches and immunostimulating measures. Several studies have already pointed out the ability of heat shock proteins (HSPs) to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses, what makes them potent candidates for the development of a new disease prevention method. In this study, the use of self and non-self heat shock proteins as a new prophylactic treatment against bacterial diseases in freshwater aquaculture was investigated. Therefore, an infection model was developed with platyfish as a host for Yersinia ruckeri infections. In this infection model, the effect of different treatments with HSPs on the survival of the fish after bacterial infection was tested: non-lethal heat shock, intracoelomal injection with two recombinant bacterial HSPs, GroEL and DnaK, and a combination of a non-lethal heat shock and an injection with bacterial HSPs. The results show that a non-lethal heat shock could not protect fish against a subsequent infection with Y. ruckeri. However, when the fish received an injection with bacterial HSPs, Y. ruckeri induced mortality was reduced. This effect became significant when the administration of bacterial HSPs was combined with a non-lethal heat shock. These data suggest a possible role for heat shock proteins as an immunostimulating treatment in fish against bacterial infections. PMID:19751832

Ryckaert, Jana; Pasmans, Frank; Tobback, Els; Duchateau, Luc; Decostere, Annemie; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

2009-09-12

185

Heat shock proteins protect platyfish ( Xiphophorus maculatus) from Yersinia ruckeri induced mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant disadvantages accompanied with the use of antibiotics in aquaculture, emphasize the need for developing alternative disease control strategies, like novel vaccine approaches and immunostimulating measures. Several studies have already pointed out the ability of heat shock proteins (HSPs) to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses, what makes them potent candidates for the development of a new disease prevention

Jana Ryckaert; Frank Pasmans; Els Tobback; Luc Duchateau; Annemie Decostere; Freddy Haesebrouck; Patrick Sorgeloos; Peter Bossier

2010-01-01

186

Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F(1) adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F(1) adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment. PMID:19537990

Rahman, A; Talukder, F A

2006-01-01

187

Effect of various essential oils on Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Essential oils were extracted from four West African plant species [Tagetes minuta (Family Compositae), Hyptis suaveolens (Family Labiatae), white basil Ocimum canum (Family Labiatae), and sweet basil O. basilicum (Family Labiatae)] by steam distillation. The oil of the pepper Piper guineense (Family Piperaceae), was extracted from the fruits by hydro distillation and ethanol extraction. Mixed essential oil and total ethanol extract was used. Kaolin powder (clay) was mixed (aromatized) with these different oils. Cowpea weevils were reared on chickpeas and newly emerged males and females were deposited on uninfested seeds. Bioassays, i.e. fumigation with pure essential oils and aromatized kaolin powders, were carried out on adults and eggs. Twenty four hours after fumigation, 99 and 0% adult mortality were observed, respectively, as the result of treatments with Ocimum basilicum and the control. The application of powders aromatized with the same oils to weevil pairs resulted in a complete lack of oviposition, whereas 31, 56 and 76 eggs were laid in the controls after 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Application of aromatized powders did not have a significant effect on egg hatching (50 out of 110 with O. canum, 100 out of 115 with O. basilicum and 100 out of 130 in the control sample) but did have a significant impact on adult emergence: 0% for the two treatments compared with 100% in the controls. Our results suggest that plants of the genus Ocimum can be used as an alternative to synthetic insecticides. PMID:10880813

Kéïta; Vincent; Schmit; Ramaswamy; Bélanger

2000-10-15

188

Leap of faith: voluntary emersion behaviour and physiological adaptations to aerial exposure in a non-aestivating freshwater fish in response to aquatic hypoxia.  

PubMed

Lowland stream fauna in areas of intensive agriculture are increasingly under threat from anthropogenic activities leading to eutrophication and subsequent hypoxia. Survival of hypoxic episodes depends upon a combination of behavioural and physiological adaptations. Responses of inanga (Galaxias maculatus: Galaxiidae) to aquatic hypoxia were investigated in the laboratory. Contrary to expectation inanga did not display behaviour that might reduce energy expenditure during oxygen limitation, with swimming activity slightly, but significantly elevated relative to normoxia. Instead, as dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased, the fish moved higher in the water column, increased their swimming speed and exhibited aquatic surface respiration. Physiological changes such as enhanced opercular frequency were also noted. As hypoxia deepened inanga started to leap out of the water, emersing themselves on a floating platform. Once emersed, fish exhibited an enhanced oxygen consumption rate compared to hypoxic fish. Thus inanga appear better adapted to escape hypoxia (a behavioural adaptation) rather than tolerate it (physiological adaptation). The emersion strategy used for inanga in response to severe hypoxia is in agreement with their ability to take up more oxygen from the air than from hypoxic water and therefore may justify the potentially increased risks of desiccation and predation associated with leaving the water. PMID:21316378

Urbina, Mauricio A; Forster, Malcolm E; Glover, Chris N

2011-02-18

189

Feeding habits of two fish species in relation to invertebrate drift in a New Zealand river  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the composition of the invertebrate drift fauna and the feeding habits of the common river galaxias Galaxias vulgaris and the upland bully Phily pnodon breviceps was examined in the Glentui River, Canterbury, New Zealand, between 1500 h on 12 November and 1500 h on 13 November 1971. The drift consisted of both night?active and day?active components. Galaxias

Philip L. Cadwallader

1975-01-01

190

Interactions between fish, grazing invertebrates and algae in a New Zealand stream: a trophic cascade mediated by fish-induced changes to grazer behaviour?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments in laboratory stream channels compared the behaviour of Deleatidium mayfly nymphs in the absence of fish with that in the presence of either native common river galaxias (Galaxias vulgaris Stokell) or introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). Galaxias present similar predation risks to prey during day and night but are more active at night. Whereas, trout present a higher

Angus R. McIntosh; Colin R. Townsend

1996-01-01

191

Does Mugil liza Valenciennes 1836 (Teleostei: Mugiliformes) occur in Argentinean waters? ¿Está presente Mugil liza Valenciennes 1836 (Teleostei: Mugiliformes) en aguas argentinas?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper deals with the occurrence of two nominal species of Mugil (Mugil liza Valenciennes 1836 and Mugil platanus Günther 1880) in Argentinean waters. The investigation is necessary to clarify the distribution of these species before any regional study on the biology can be made. In Argentinean bibliographies, two members of the familiy Mugilidae are mentioned as living in

María B. Cousseau; Mariano González Castro; Daniel E. Figueroa; Atila E. Gosztonyi

2005-01-01

192

Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17? induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17? (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

2010-03-01

193

[Localization of cystathionine beta-synthase in digestive tract of the masu salmon Onchorhynchus masou (Teleostei)].  

PubMed

By immunohistochemical method the hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-producing system was studied in digestive tract in fry and adult individuals of the masu salmon Onchorhynchus masou. The total and age-related peculiarities have been revealed in morphology, distribution, and the amount of enteral cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS)-immunopositive neurons. They have been established to be present in fry only in esophagus a stomach, while in adult fish--along the entire length of the digestive tract, the number of marked cells in esophagus, stomach, and distal intestine exceeding that in the proximal and middle intestines. In fry and in adult fish the neurons and nerve fibers are located in branches of vagus, in intermuscular and submucosal nerve plexuses, in serosal and muscle layers. There are detected uni-, bi-, and much seldom the multipolar neurons surrounded by numerous poorly and undifferentiated nerve cells. Besides, the CBS-immunopositive netve fibers were present in the subepithelial area of the duct of swim bladder. PMID:23013028

Pimenova, E A; Varaksin, A A

194

Visual field of cultured striped trumpeter Latris lineata (Teleostei) larvae feeding on rotifer prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visual field of striped trumpeter Latris lineata larvae fed rotifer prey was determined from analysis of feeding behaviour in the horizontal plane. The visual field was forward and laterally directed, characterised by maximum reactive distances (distance at which the predator first detects and reacts to the prey) of 5.07?mm and 5.25?mm on days 13 and 17 post-hatching, respectively, 97%

Jennifer M. Cobcroft; Patricia M. Pankhurst

2006-01-01

195

Metazoan ectoparasites of Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus (Teleostei: Scombridae): macro- and microhabitat distribution.  

PubMed

Parasites are affected by the environment where their hosts live, having a specific distribution among their hosts and occupying a well-defined microhabitat. The present work aims to describe the metazoan ectoparasite fauna of Scomber scombrus, namely its distribution at the macro- and microhabitat levels. For that, fish from two different Portuguese regions, Matosinhos (n?=?40) and Figueira da Foz (n?=?39), were examined for macroectoparasites. S. scombrus of Matosinhos presented four different parasite species, whilst fish from Figueira da Foz presented five species. All parasites belonged to Monogenea, Copepoda, or Isopoda. The main differences between infection levels of fish from the two localities were found in Grubea cochlear (higher infection levels in Matosinhos) and Caligus pelamydis (where the highest values were found in Figueira da Foz). Regarding the microhabitat of the reported ectoparasites, it could be seen that every species has a very specific distribution within the host: G. cochlear and Kuhnia scombri have a preference for the inner medial areas of gills, Kuhnia sprostonae for the pseudobranchs, and C. pelamydis for the internal wall of opercula. The numerical and functional responses to interspecific competition were absent. These results support the idea that the parasite driving forces of community structure are the reinforcement of reproductive barriers and the enhancement of chances to mate. PMID:23912195

Castro, Ricardo; Santos, Maria João

2013-08-03

196

Modulation of buccal pressure during prey capture in Hexagrammos decagrammus (Teleostei: Hexagrammidae)  

PubMed

Changes in intraoral pressure during prey capture were recorded for a trophic generalist, Hexagrammos decagrammus, feeding on different prey species. Prey were grouped into elusive (shrimps), grasping (isopods and crabs) and non-elusive (pieces of shrimp) categories. Elusive and grasping prey elicited strikes with a larger and faster reduction in buccal pressure than did non-elusive prey. The suction force generated by the predator differed for strikes among the shrimp genera in the elusive prey category. The most sedentary shrimps (Crangon alaskensis and C. nigricauda) elicited the fastest and greatest reduction in pressure relative to the most evasive shrimps (Pandalus danae and Heptacarpus stylus). A preparatory phase, during which the buccal cavity is compressed prior to the strike, occurred significantly more frequently in strikes at grasping prey than in strikes at elusive and non-elusive prey, and more frequently for elusive than for non-elusive prey. Prey size did not influence the suction force generated by the predator. No differences in buccal pressure patterns were detected between strikes that resulted in a capture or a miss, suggesting that misses were due to the escape behavior of the prey and were not the result of an inappropriate suction force. These data support the current view that fish can modify their feeding mode in response to prey behavior, and they emphasize that the behavioral responses of the individual prey must be considered when defining the appropriate strategy for prey capture. The use of a flexible, modifiable feeding behavior is associated with a broad diet in H. decagrammus and may increase capture success on diverse prey relative to that of other species showing stereotypical feeding responses. PMID:9320058

Nemeth

1997-01-01

197

Digestive enzymes and metabolic profile of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in response to diet composition.  

PubMed

Digestive enzyme responsiveness to feeding and associated adjustments of metabolism can be used to derive nutritionally effective diet formulations. Juvenile pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans) were fed different diets. After feeding, fish were killed and blood, liver and white muscle were collected to evaluate metabolites. Stomach along with anterior, middle and posterior intestine were sampled for enzyme analysis. Non-specific protease, trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase and lipase were assayed. Crude protein (CP) did not induce proteolytic activity; highest protease activities were observed in the stomach. Amylase was higher in the stomach in fish feeding on diets containing 13-25% starch. Lipase activity was observed along the gastrointestinal tract, with the highest activities observed in the middle section. The metabolic profile of white muscle was not affected by CP. In contrast, some plasma and liver metabolites were altered concomitant with changes in the digestive enzymes. Amino acid catabolism was increased. Digestion in pintado was responsive to cornstarch, reflected in intermediary metabolism; proteolytic activities of the digestive tract seem to be sufficient to deal with large amounts of dietary protein. As a result, we are able to recommend a balance between protein and energetic compounds, such as lipids and carbohydrates, in the diet to optimize fish growth. PMID:15050520

Lundstedt, L M; Melo, José Fernando Bibiano; Moraes, Gilberto

2004-03-01

198

Electric Signals in the Social Behavior of Sympatric Elephantfish (Mormyridae, Teleostei) from the Upper Zambezi River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrocommunication in mormyrid fish from African freshwaters is a challenging research field in neuroethology (Turner et al. 1999). However, virtually nothing is known about electrocommunication within natural mormyrid populations involving sympatric, syntopic species. Here we report on the nocturnal activities and electrocommunication among three syntopic species in a spacious laboratory setting resembling the natural one. Petrocephalus catostoma, Cyphomyrus discorhynchus, and Hippopotamyrus sp. nov. differ characteristically in their behavior, such as in territorial defense, schooling, and joining members of other species during foraging. Comparing social encounters within and between species, the first evidence for interspecific electrocommunication among syntopic species was found.

Scheffel, A.; Kramer, B.

199

A new blind loach species, Triplophysa huanjiangensis (Teleostei: Balitoridae), from Guangxi, China.  

PubMed

A new blind loach of the genus Triplophysa was collected in 2007 from a cave in Leyi village, located near Chuanshan Town, Huangjiang County in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of southern China. The new species, Triplophysa huangjiangensis sp. nov, can be distinguished from its congeners by eyes and scales absent; caudal-fin forked; adipose keel present; lips with furrows; distal margin of dorsal-fin truncate, dorsal fin origin much closer to caudal-fin base than snout tip; 8-9 branched dorsal-fin rays; 6-7 branched pelvic-fin rays; 6 branched anal-fin rays; 10-11 branched pectoral-fin rays; 13-14 branched caudal-fin rays; pectoral-fin length 52.3%-70.7% the distance between pectoral-fin origin to pelvic-fin origin; dorsal-fin origin posterior to vertical line of pelvic-fin origin; outer rostral barbel longer than other two pairs of barbels, with 47.0%-73.8% of lateral head length; anterior nostril with elongate barbel-like tip; and posterior chamber of gas-bladder developed, reaching pelvic-fin origin. PMID:22006812

Yang, Jian; Wu, Tie-Jun; Lan, Jia-Hu

2011-10-01

200

A new species of Rhinogobius (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the Julongjiang Basin in Fujian Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten specimens of a new freshwater goby, Rhinogobius longyanensis were collected from the small tributary of the Julongjiang Basin, Fujian Province, southeastern China. The new species can\\u000a be distinguished from all congeneric species by following unique combination of features: second dorsal fin rays I, 8; anal\\u000a fin rays I, 7–8; pectoral fin rays modally 17; longitudinal scale series 30–32; predorsal

I-Shiung Chen; You-Hua Cheng; Kwang-Tsao Shao

2008-01-01

201

A new species of Rhinogobius (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from Fujian Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new freshwater goby,Rhinogobius xianshuiensis sp. nov. was collected from the upper Mulan River basin of Xianyou County, Fujian Province, eastern China. The species is\\u000a distinguished from related species in the region by 3–7 predorsal scales, 27 vertebrae, cephalic lateralis canals always always\\u000a with 2 derived post-orbital pores (?1) in adults, a reddish-brown vertical line below the anterior margin of

I-Shiung Chen; Han-Ling Wu; Kwang-Tsao Shao

1999-01-01

202

Preliminary field study of hepatic porphyrin profiles of Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characiformes) to define anthropogenic pollution.  

PubMed

The implementation of eco-toxicological assessment in South America is presently limited due to significant scientific information gaps concerning native species and their potential use as biomarkers. Recently, a common southern hemisphere fish species, Astyanax fasciatus, has been pointed out as a potential bio-indicator to anthropogenic pollution. This is a small, abundant, Neotropical characid, which is widely distributed from Central America south, to the Rio de la Plata Basin of western Uruguay. Our study found a statistically significant increase of coproporphyrin, uroporphyrin and protoporphyrin concentrations in hepatic tissues of A. fasciatus collected from a stream segment with high anthropogenic disturbance (due mainly to agricultural derivatives and motor vehicle transportation activities). Although the area studied showed differences in up and downstream limno-chemical parameters, these differences were not related to the increase of hepatic porphyrin concentrations. Based on the results of our study, we conclude that A. fasciatus is a good bio-indicator of exposure to environmental contaminants, and we propose that this abundant fish species be considered as a sentinel organism for monitoring potential disturbances to freshwater ecosystems. PMID:16153685

Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Eguren, Gabriela; de Mello, Franco Teixeira; Groves, Phillip A

2005-09-08

203

Adult habitat preferences, larval dispersal, and the comparative phylogeography of three Atlantic surgeonfishes (Teleostei: Acanthuridae).  

PubMed

Although many reef fishes of the tropical Atlantic are widely distributed, there are large discontinuities that may strongly influence phylogeographical patterns. The freshwater outflow of the Amazon basin is recognized as a major barrier that produces a break between Brazilian and Caribbean faunas. The vast oceanic distances between Brazil and the mid-Atlantic ridge islands represent another formidable barrier. To assess the relative importance of these barriers, we compared a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b gene among populations of three species of Atlantic surgeonfishes: Acanthurus bahianus, A. chirurgus and A. coeruleus. These species have similar life histories but different adult habitat preferences. The mtDNA data show no population structure between Brazil and the mid-Atlantic islands, indicating that this oceanic barrier is readily traversed by the pelagic larval stage of all three surgeonfishes, which spend approximately 45-70 days in the pelagic environment. The Amazon is a strong barrier to dispersal of A. bahianus (d = 0.024, phiST = 0.724), a modest barrier for A. coeruleus (phiST = 0.356), and has no discernible effect as a barrier for A. chirurgus. The later species has been collected on soft bottoms with sponge habitats under the Amazon outflow, indicating that relaxed adult habitat requirements enable it to readily cross that barrier. A limited ability to use soft bottom habitats may also explain the low (but significant) population structure in A. coeruleus. In contrast, A. bahianus has not been collected over deep sponge bottoms, and rarely settles outside shallow reefs. Overall, adult habitat preferences seem to be the factor that differentiates phylogeographical patterns in these reef-associated species. PMID:11856425

Rocha, Luiz A; Bass, Anna L; Robertson, D Ross; Bowen, Brian W

2002-02-01

204

Observations of spawning in the Leather Bass, Dermatolepis dermatolepis (Teleostei: Epinephelidae), at Cocos Island, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Courtship and spawning behavior is described for the Leather Bass, Dermatolepis dermatolepis, from observations made from a manned submersible at Cocos Island, Costa Rica on 19 days between November 2006 and February\\u000a 2007. Spawning occurred in the evening (16:00–18:30 h) in subgroups of 10–32 individuals that formed within aggregations of\\u000a 50–70 individuals. The mating sequence was characterized by subgroup formation and crowding

Brad E. Erisman; Talina H. Konotchick; Shmulik Blum

2009-01-01

205

Tracking the elusive monophyly of nototheniid fishes (Teleostei) with multiple mitochondrial and nuclear markers.  

PubMed

Since the first molecular study of the suborder Notothenioidei in 1994, many phylogenetic studies have been published. Among these, those with a sufficient number of taxa have all suggested that the Nototheniidae, as currently defined, is monophyletic only with the inclusion of the Channichthyidae, Artedidraconidae, Bathydraconidae and Harpagiferidae. This is corroborated by more recent studies including more taxa, but in these studies either the number of nuclear markers or the number of taxa included remained low. We obtained sequences for a large sampling covering most nototheniid genera for five markers described previously for other samplings (COI, Rhodopsin retrogene, Pkd1, HECW2, and SSRP1) and one nuclear marker never used before in phylogenetic inference (PPM1d). The topology for the combined analysis of the nuclear coding genes, as well as the topology for SSRP1 (non-coding) and the combined analysis for all markers all support the paraphyly of Nototheniidae, the genus Notothenia (including Paranotothenia) is the sister group of the clade Channichthyidae, Artedidraconidae, Bathydraconidae and Harpagiferidae, and genus Gobionotothen is a sister group to both. As in previous studies, Trematomus, Lepidonotothen and Patagonotothen form a clade that also includes Indonotothenia cyanobrancha. The position of Pleuragramma antarctica, Dissostichus species and Aethotaxis mitopteryx remains unstable and dependant on markers and analyses. We therefore propose the inclusion of the four families of the High Antarctic clade in the Nototheniidae, and their transformation into subfamilies. We transfer Paranotothenia magellanica to the genus Notothenia, as Notothenia magellanica. PMID:23199880

Dettai, A; Berkani, M; Lautredou, A-C; Couloux, A; Lecointre, G; Ozouf-Costaz, C; Gallut, C

2012-04-04

206

Twilight migrations and foraging activities of the copper sweeper Pempheris schomburgki (Teleostei: Pempheridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1976 and 1977, movements and foraging activities of Pempheris schomburgki were studied on the shallow coral reefs of northeastern St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. P. schomburgki emerge from daytime refuges on the backreef at about local sunset. Fifteen to 20 min after sunset, local milling groups move beyond the confines of the reef and assemble into larger groups. Twenty-five

W. B. Gladfelter

1979-01-01

207

Prey selection of the shallow water fish Pomatoschistus minutus (Gobiidae, Teleostei) in the SW Baltic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this investigation is to demonstrate the reasons of an opportunist feeder to select some components of the available food supply and to avoid others. Object of this test is the eurytopic and euryhaline sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas), from the Luebeck Bight. It inhabits both sand habitats as well as bottoms mixed with pebbles or continuous hard substrates. Therefore, it is often in close contact with Mytilus-belts which present a very rich food supply of small crustaceans. The selectivity behaviour of sand gobies from a sand/clay ecotone was compared with that of populations from a stony pier and a sand bottom during the reproduction period. Regarding the numbers of prey organisms, crustaceans of the periphyton were generally preferred at the pier but avoided in the ecotone. The same is valid for prey organisms of the psammal which were preferred by gobies of the sand bottom but mostly avoided by populations of mixed bottoms. Analyses of size selections revealed that the preferred gammarids or Jaera isopods were between 2 and 5 mm length. A balanced relation of goby biomass and utilizable food supply (predatory impact index) seems to effect positive selectivity of gammarids in the Mytilus-belts or of harpacticoids in the sand bottom.

Zander, C. Dieter

1990-06-01

208

Prey selection of the shallow water fish Pomatoschistus minutus (Gobiidae, Teleostei) in the SW Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation is to demonstrate the reasons of an opportunist feeder to select some components of the available\\u000a food supply and to avoid others. Object of this test is the eurytopic and euryhaline sand goby,Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas), from the Luebeck Bight. It inhabits both sand habitats as well as bottoms mixed with pebbles or continuous hard\\u000a substrates.

C. Dieter Zander

1990-01-01

209

Prey selection of the shallow water fish Pomatoschistus minutus (Gobiidae, Teleostei) in the SW Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation is to demonstrate the reasons of an opportunist feeder to select some components of the available food supply and to avoid others. Object of this test is the eurytopic and euryhaline sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas), from the Luebeck Bight. It inhabits both sand habitats as well as bottoms mixed with pebbles or continuous hard

C. Dieter Zander

1990-01-01

210

Phenotypic plasticity in the lower pharyngeal jaw dentition of astatoreochromis alluaudi (teleostei: cichlidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potentially molluscivorous cichlid fish Astatoreochromis alluaudi is known to exhibit a pronounced phenotypic plasticity in its pharyngeal jaw apparatus. Two phenotypes (wild-caught snail-eating specimens and specimens raised on soft food) were examined for differences in the number, size, shape, spacing and wear of functional teeth on the lower pharyngeal jaw. During growth, snail-eating specimens maintain tooth numbers but invest

A. Huysseune

1995-01-01

211

Mitogenomic evidence for an Indo-West Pacific origin of the Clupeoidei (Teleostei: Clupeiformes).  

PubMed

The clupeoid fishes are distributed worldwide, with marine, freshwater and euryhaline species living in either tropical or temperate environments. Regional endemism is important at the species and genus levels, and the highest species diversity is found in the tropical marine Indo-West Pacific region. The clupeoid distribution follows two general pattern of species richness, the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients. To test historical hypotheses explaining the formation of these two gradients, we have examined the early biogeography of the Clupeoidei in reconstructing the evolution of their habitat preferences along with their ancestral range distributions on a time-calibrated mitogenomic phylogeny. The phylogenetic results support the distinction of nine main lineages within the Clupeoidei, five of them new. We infer several independent transitions from a marine to freshwater environment and from a tropical to temperate environment that occurred after the initial diversification period of the Clupeoidei. These results combined with our ancestral range reconstruction hypothesis suggest that the probable region of origin and diversification of the Clupeoidei during the Cretaceous period was the tropical marine precursor to the present Indo-West Pacific region. Thus, our study favors the hypotheses of "Region of origin" and "Tropical conservatism" to explain the origins of the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients of clupeoid species richness, respectively. Additional geological and paleontological evidence further define the tropical marine paleo-region of origin as the eastern Tethys Sea region. The Cretaceous fossil record of the Clupeoidei is partially incongruent with the results here as it contains taxa found outside this region. We discuss three possible causes of conflict between our biogeographical hypothesis and the distributions of the Cretaceous clupeoid fossils: regional extinction, incomplete taxonomic sampling and incorrect timescale estimation. PMID:23431379

Lavoué, Sébastien; Miya, Masaki; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Chen, Wei-Jen; Nishida, Mutsumi

2013-02-19

212

The gulf surgeon, Acanthurus randalli, a junior synonym of the ocean surgeon, Acanthurus bahianus (teleostei: Acanthuridae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared 62 specimens, 48-126.5 mm standard length, of Acanthurus bahianus from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico with 95 specimens from other localities to determine if the distinguishing characters in the original description of the Gulf of Mexico endemic surgeonfish Acanthurus randalli were valid. No color pattern or meristic differences were found, and the only measurement that allowed distinction (91% percent concordance) was the shallower caudal concavity of northeastern Gulf of Mexico specimens. Acanthurus chirurgus from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico also have shallower caudal concavities (93.7% percent concordance) than do conspecifics from other areas, suggesting that this trend may be correlated with some unknown environmental influence. Considering the extended planktonic larval dispersal capabilities of Atlantic surgeonfishes, and that the single divergent morphological character state is also exhibited in a sympatric northeastern Gulf of Mexico population of A. chirurgus, recognition of A. randalli is untenable, and the name is considered a junior synonym of A. bahianus. An identification key to western Atlantic species of Acanthurus that incorporates the results of this study is given.

Smith-Vaniz, W. F.; Jelks, H. L.; Randall, J. E.

2003-01-01

213

A checklist of macroparasites of Liza haematocheila (Temminck & Schlegel) (Teleostei: Mugilidae)  

PubMed Central

Background The mugilid fish Liza haematocheila (syn. Mugil soiuy), native to the Western North Pacific, provides opportunities to examine the changes of its parasite fauna after its translocation to the Sea of Azov and subsequent establishment in the Black Sea. However, the information on macroparasites of this host in both ranges of its current distribution comes from isolated studies published in difficult-to-access literature sources. Materials and methods Data from 53 publications, predominantly in Chinese, Russian and Ukrainian, were compiled from an extensive search of the literature and the Host-Parasite Database maintained up to 2005 at the Natural History Museum, London. Results The complete checklist of the metazoan parasites of L. haematocheila throughout its distributional range comprises summarised information for 69 nominal species of helminth and ectoparasitic crustacean parasites, from 45 genera and 27 families (370 host-parasite records in total) and includes the name of the parasite species, the area/locality of the host capture, and the author and date of the published record. The taxonomy is updated and the validity of the records and synonymies are critically evaluated. A comparison of the parasite faunas based on the records in the native and introduced/invasive range of L. haematocheila suggests that a large number of parasite species was 'lost' in the new distributional range whereas an even greater number was 'gained'. Conclusion Although the present checklist provides information that will facilitate future studies, the interesting question of macroparasite faunal diversity in L. haematocheila in its natural and introduced/invasive ranges cannot be dealt with the current data because of unreliability associated with the large number of non-documented and questionable records. This stresses the importance of data quality analysis in using host-parasite database and checklist data.

Kostadinova, Aneta

2008-01-01

214

Multiple in-to-Africa dispersals of labeonin fishes (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) revealed by molecular phylogenetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An out-of-Africa dispersal route has been proposed for many organisms, including modern man. However, counter examples of\\u000a in-to-Africa dispersal routes are less common. In the present article, the phylogenetic relationships within the Labeoninae,\\u000a a subfamily of cyprinid fishes distributed in Asia and Africa, were analyzed to investigate the biogeographic processes governing\\u000a the modern distribution of these Asian and African cyprinids.

Qiongying Tang; Abebe Getahun; Huanzhang Liu

2009-01-01

215

Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of Hemiodontidae from the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil (Teleostei, Characiformes).  

PubMed

Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of the Hemiodontidae from the Rio Iratapuru, a left bank tributary of the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil, is described. The new species is diagnosed from other species of Hemiodus by modifications in the ectopterygoid, tooth form, scale counts, dorsal-fin form and colour pattern. The new species is proposed to be related to the Hemiodus quadrimaculatus species group. PMID:23557304

Langeani, F; Moreira, C R

2013-03-12

216

Molecular systematics and population structure in the North American endemic fish genus Cycleptus (Teleostei: Catostomidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overarching theme of this research was to investigate hierarchical levels of relatedness in natural populations of the cycleptid fishes (blue suckers), a widespread genus in North America that is of conservation concern throughout. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed that the two described Cycleptus species, C. elongatus and C. meridionalis are not reciprocally monophyletic, yet do not share

Michael Lee Bessert

2006-01-01

217

Microsatellite Development for an Endangered Bream Megalobrama pellegrini (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) Using 454 Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Megalobrama pellegrini is an endemic fish species found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. This species has become endangered due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and overfishing. However, the available genetic data for this species is limited. Here, we developed 26 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the M. pellegrini genome using next-generation sequencing techniques. A total of 257,497 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on 454 GS-FLX titanium platforms and 49,811 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 404 bp; 24,522 (49.2%) sequences contained microsatellite repeats. Of the 53 loci screened, 33 were amplified successfully and 26 were polymorphic. The genetic diversity in M. pellegrini was moderate, with an average of 3.08 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.47 and 0.51, respectively. In addition, we tested cross-species amplification for all 33 loci in four additional breams: M. amblycephala, M. skolkovii, M. terminalis, and Sinibrama wui. The cross-species amplification showed a significant high level of transferability (79%–97%), which might be due to their dramatically close genetic relationships. The polymorphic microsatellites developed in the current study will not only contribute to further conservation genetic studies and parentage analyses of this endangered species, but also facilitate future work on the other closely related species.

Wang, Jinjin; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhao, Kai; Zhang, Yaoguang; Tong, Jingou; Peng, Zuogang

2012-01-01

218

Microsatellites from the burbot ( Lota lota ), a freshwater gadoid fish (Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed 21 polymorphic dinucleotide microsatellite loci, (CA) n and (CT) n , for the Holarctic freshwater fish, Lota lota , using an enriched genomic library protocol. The species has an interesting life history because winter-spawning adults migrate over long distances to form spawning aggregations, a behaviour which should maintain genetic homogeneity across large spatial scales. Availability of the reported

MATTHIAS SANETRA; AXEL MEYER

219

Spermatozoon ultrastructure of Aponurus laguncula (Digenea: Lecithasteridae), a parasite of Aluterus monoceros (Pisces: Teleostei).  

PubMed

The mature spermatozoon of Aponurus laguncula, a parasite of the unicorn leatherjacket Aluterus monoceros, was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoon possesses 2 axonemes of the 9+"1" trepaxonematan pattern, attachment zones, a nucleus, a mitochondrion, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane and cortical microtubules. The major features are the presence of: 1) external ornamentation in the anterior part of the spermatozoon not associated with cortical microtubules; 2) one mitochondrion; and 3) cortical microtubules arranged as a single field in the ventral side. The maximum number of microtubules is in the nuclear region. The extremities of the axonemes are characterized by the disappearance of the central core and the presence of microtubule doublets or singlets. This study is the first undertaken with a member of the Lecithasteridae and exemplifies the sperm ultrastructure for the superfamily Hemiuroidea. PMID:19559102

Quilichini, Y; Foata, J; Justine, J-L; Bray, R A; Marchand, B

2009-06-24

220

Endocrine changes during the annual reproductive cycle of the red porgy, Pagrus pagrus (Teleostei, Sparidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in 17ß-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), and 17,20ß-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20ß-P) levels were correlated to changes in gonadosomatic index (GSI), vitellogenin concentration (Vg), ovarian and testicular histology during the annual reproductive cycle of the red porgy, Pagrus pagrus. The production of E2, E1, T and 17,20ß-P was confirmed by analysis of the steroidogenic activity of ovaries. In females,

L. Kokokiris; B. Mourot; F. Le Menn; M. Kentouri; A. Fostier

2000-01-01

221

Gonad morphology, gametogenesis, and reproductive modes in fishes of the tribe Starksiini (Teleostei, Blenniiformes).  

PubMed

A comparative study of the reproductive organs in 17 of the 30 species of the tribe Starksiini (Labrisomidae, Blenniiformes) and related labrisomids reveals the major traits of gamete form and production and likely reproductive modes. The testes are of the lobular type and have a testicular gland and sperm ducts. Isodiametric sperm (aquasperm) with a globular head or anisodiametric sperm (introsperm) with an elongate head, or both, were observed in the studied species. Both types have either one or two flagella in the sperm tail. Ovaries of the Starksiini are bilobed and exhibit synchronous or asynchronous egg production. Although viviparity or "ovoviviparity" reportedly characterizes the group, our study revealed evidence of both internal and external fertilization and three modes of reproduction. External fertilization or ovuliparity is suggested for the Starksia atlantica and S. lepicoelia species complexes by the presence in males of a short genital papilla that is not reinforced through adhesion with the first anal-fin spine and by the absence of sperm within the ovaries. Internal fertilization and zygoparity is indicated for most species by the presence of an intromittent papilla in males that is adhered to the first anal-fin spine, "nests" of sperm within the ovaries, absence of embryos within the ovarian lamellae and usually thick egg envelopes bearing dense covers of adhesive filaments. Internal fertilization and embryoparity is indicated for starksia fulva and Xenomedea rhodopyga by an intromittent papilla that is adhered to the first anal-fin spine of males, anisodiametric sperm in males, delicate egg envelopes without adhesive filaments and developing embryos within follicular envelopes or within the follicle in females. Although many of these features are seen in the internally fertilizing clinid blennies, starksiins differ in retaining the testicular gland typical of labrisomids and in lacking sperm packaging typical of other internally fertilizing teleosts. PMID:23293058

Fishelson, Lev; Baldwin, Carole C; Hastings, Philip A

2013-01-05

222

Moments of induced spawning and embryonic development of Brycon amazonicus (Teleostei, Characidae).  

PubMed

Summary Based on the economic and ecological relevance of Brycon amazonicus, the goal of this work was to describe the diameter of oocytes and eggs of this species, as well as the chronological embryonic development. The material was provided by Buriti fish farm, Nova Mutum - MT, Brazil. Samples of both oocytes and eggs were obtained from extrusion to hatching. The material was fixed and measured under stereomicroscope, and the samples were divided for light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. At extrusion, the oocytes were bluish green. The frequency distribution of oocytes revealed that 87.7% of them ranged from 1.11-1.30 mm in diameter. During incubation, the total diameter of the eggs increased from 1.22 ± 0.04 mm to 3.06 ± 0.46 mm in the first 60 min post fertilization (PF), and growth ceased at 180 min PF. Between 10-30 s PF, most eggs were fertilized and fertilization cones were observed from 10 s onwards after gamete activation. The main fertilization events took place asynchronically and spermatozoa were visualized in the micropyle vestibule up to 90 s PF. The first cell was formed in the centre of the blastodisc 20 min PF. The morula stage was identified 2 h PF and, 3 h later, 70% of the yolk was covered by the blastoderm; the blastopore was almost entirely closed at 6 h PF. The cephalic and caudal regions of the embryo could be defined 8 h PF and hatching occurred after 13 h of embryonic development. The larvae hatched with undifferentiated organic systems and with a large yolk sac, free from swimming abilities or visual acuity. PMID:23659693

Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika; Faustino, Francine; Mendes, José Mário Ribeiro; de Braga, Francisco Manoel

2013-05-01

223

Profundulus kreiseri, a new species of Profundulidae (Teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes) from northwestern Honduras  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Profundulus, Profundulus kreiseri (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), is described from the Chamelecón and Ulúa Rivers in the northwestern Honduran highlands. Based on a phylogenetic analysis using cytochrome b and the presence of synapomorphic characters (dark humeral spot, a scaled preorbital region and between 32-34 vertebrae), this new species is placed in the subgenus Profundulus, which also includes Profundulus (Profundulus) oaxacae, Profundulus (Profundulus) punctatus and Profundulus (Profundulus) guatemalensis. Profundulus kreiseri can be distinguished from other members of the subgenus Profundulus by having less than half of its caudal fin densely scaled. Profundulus kreiseri can further be differentiated from Profundulus (Profundulus) oaxacae and Profundulus (Profundulus) punctatus by the absence of rows of dark spots on its flanks. The new species can further be differentiated from Profundulus (Profundulus) guatemalensis by the presence of fewer caudal- and pectoral-fin rays. The new species is distinguished from congeners of the profundulid subgenus Tlaloc (viz., Profundulus (Tlaloc) hildebrandi, Profundulus (Tlaloc) labialis, Profundulus (Tlaloc) candalarius and Profundulus (Tlaloc) portillorum) by having a scaled preorbital region and a dark humeral spot. Profundulus kreiseri and Profundulus portillorum are the only two species of Profundulus that are endemic to the region south of the Motagua River drainage in southern Guatemala and northwestern Honduras.

Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Schaefer, Jacob F.; Hernandez, Carmen L.; Prosanta Chakrabarty

2012-01-01

224

Allozyme relationships in hypostomines (Teleostei: Loricariidae) from the Itaipu Reservoir, Upper Rio Paraná basin, Brazil.  

PubMed

In an allozyme electrophoresis survey of 15 hypostomine species from the Itaipu Hydroelectric Reservoir, 25 loci from 14 enzyme systems were scored. Allozyme data allowed recording diagnostic genetic markers for all species analyzed and for some species groups within Hypostomus, a taxon which is taxonomically still unresolved in the Upper Rio Paraná basin. The mean expected heterozygosity of the species was considerably variable and hypotheses to tentatively explain this variation are discussed. A cladogram based upon the allelic frequencies of the species analyzed was produced by the continuous maximum likelihood method: Rhinelepis aspera and M. parananus were separated from the species of Hypostominae by a long branch length. Pterygoplichthys anisitsi was the sister of all the representatives of the genus Hypostomus. Within Hypostomus, two main clades were produced: in the first, H. cochliodon was the sister of the species comprising the H. plecostomus group, and in the second, the tree showed the following relationships: (H. albopunctatus (H. regani + Hypostomus sp. 3) + (H. margaritifer (H. microstomus (Hypostomus sp. 1 (H. ternetzi + Hypostomus sp. 2)). Hypostomus ternetzi and Hypostomus sp. 2 are referred to here as representatives of the H. ternetzi group. PMID:15954498

Zawadzki, Cláudio Henrique; Renesto, Erasmo; dos Reis, Roberto Esser; Moura, Maurício Osvaldo; Mateus, Rogério Pincela

2005-03-01

225

THE ROLE OF INTROGRESSIVE HYBRIDIZATION IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE GILA ROBUSTACOMPLEX (TELEOSTEI: CYPRINIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent and impact of introgressive hybridization was examined in the Gila robusta complex of cyprinid fishes using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation. Lower Colorado River basin populations ofG. robusta, G. elegans, and G. cypha exhibited distinct mtDNAs, with only limited introgression of G. elegans into G. cypha. The impact of hybridization was significant in upper Colorado River basin populations;

ANNE S. GERBER; C. ALANA TIBBETS; THOMAS E. DOWLING

2001-01-01

226

Insight Into the Origin of Endemic Mediterranean Ichthyofauna: Phylogeography of Chondrostoma Genus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chondrostoma genus is widespread in Europe, with numerous endemic species in northern Mediterranean rivers. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of this genus, using the whole cytochrome b sequence and compared the two freshwater fish dispersion hypotheses: (1) dispersion around the Mediterranean Sea during the Lago Mare phase of the Messinian salinity crisis (Bianco's hypothesis) and (2) an older and

J.-D. Durand; P. G. BIANCO; J. LAROCHE; A. GILLES

2003-01-01

227

Paleoclimatic history and vicariant speciation in the “sand goby” group (Gobiidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vicariant and climatic cycling speciation hypotheses of the ‘sand gobies’ belonging to the genera Pomatoschistus, Gobiusculus, Knipowitschia, and Economidichthys are tested using molecular phylogenies constructed of nuclear DNA (ITS1 locus) and mitochondrial DNA (12S and 16S fragments). These gobies are among the most abundant in the Eastern Atlantic-Mediterranean region, and play an important role in the ecosystem. Considerable ITS1 length

Tine Huyse; Jeroen Van Houdt; Filip A. M. Volckaert

2004-01-01

228

Polyphyly of the Pikeminnows (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) Inferred Using Mitochondrial DNA Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationships of the Colorado pikeminnow Ptychocheilus lucius, northern pikeminnow P. oregonensis, Sacramento pikeminnow P. grandis, Umpqua pikeminnow P. umpquae, and hardhead Mylopharodon conocephalus were examined by using molecular data to investigate monophyly of the genus Ptychocheilus. Phylogenies generated using DNA sequence data from the cytochrome b and 16S ribosomal DNA genes of the mitochondrial genome reveal that Ptychocheilus

Derek D. Houston; T. Heath Ogden; Michael F. Whiting; Dennis K. Shiozawa

2010-01-01

229

Comparative analysis of sex chromosomes in Leporinus species (Teleostei, Characiformes) using chromosome painting  

PubMed Central

Background The Leporinus genus, belonging to the Anostomidae family, is an interesting model for studies of sex chromosome evolution in fish, particularly because of the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes only in some species of the genus. In this study we used W chromosome-derived probes in a series of cross species chromosome painting experiments to try to understand events of sex chromosome evolution in this family. Results W chromosome painting probes from Leporinus elongatus, L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens were hybridized to each others chromosomes. The results showed signals along their W chromosomes and the use of L. elongatus W probe against L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens also showed signals over the Z chromosome. No signals were observed when the later aforementioned probe was used in hybridization procedures against other four Anostomidae species without sex chromosomes. Conclusions Our results demonstrate a common origin of sex chromosomes in L. elongatus, L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens but suggest that the L. elongatus chromosome system is at a different evolutionary stage. The absence of signals in the species without differentiated sex chromosomes does not exclude the possibility of cryptic sex chromosomes, but they must contain other Leporinus W sequences than those described here.

2013-01-01

230

Origin of Gila seminuda (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) through introgressive hybridization: implications for evolution and conservation.  

PubMed Central

Morphological and genetic characters from cyprinid fishes of the genus Gila were examined to assess a hypothesized hybrid origin of Gila seminuda from the Virgin River, Arizona-Nevada-Utah. The presumed parents, Gila robusta robusta and Gila elegans, are clearly differentiated from one another based on morphology, allozymes, and mtDNA haplotypes. G. seminuda is morphologically intermediate and polymorphic at allozyme loci diagnostic for the parental species. Restriction endonuclease analysis of mtDNA showed G. seminuda nearly identical to G. elegans. These results support an origin of the bisexual taxon G. seminuda through introgressive hybridization. The Gila population in the Moapa River, Nevada, also appears to be of hybrid origin and is considered a distinctive population of G. seminuda. Inter-specific hybridization is potentially an important mode of evolution among western North American fishes, and valid species of hybrid origin may exist in other groups as well. Consideration of this mode of evolution argues for the need to conserve entire species complexes.

DeMarais, B D; Dowling, T E; Douglas, M E; Minckley, W L; Marsh, P C

1992-01-01

231

Molecular and morphological analysis of endangered species Gymnodiptychus integrigymnatus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gymnodiptychus integrigymnatus is a critically endangered species endemic to the Gaoligongshan Mountains. It was thought to be only distributed in several\\u000a headwater-streams of the Longchuanjiang River (west slope of the Gaoligongshan Mountains, belonging to the Irrawaddy River\\u000a drainage). In recent years, dozens of G. integrigymnatus specimens have been collected in some streams on the east slope of the Gaoligongshan Mountains

Jian Yang; Xiaoyong Chen; Junxing Yang

2010-01-01

232

A Unique Symbiosis in the Gut of Tropical Herbivorous Surgeonfish (Acanthuridae: Teleostei) from the Red Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbivorous surgeonfish (Acanthurus species) in the Red Sea harbor gut symbionts that include bacteria, trichomonadid flagellates, and a peculiar putative protist that attains densities of 20,000 to 100,000 cells per milliliter of gut contents. The structure, mode of reproduction, and within-gut distribution of the latter are described. This may be the first report of an organism of this type and

Lev Fishelson; W. Linn Montgomery; Arthur A. Myrberg

1985-01-01

233

Growth, mortality and yield per recruit of Polynemus heptadactylus (Cuvier) (Teleostei: Polynemidae) from Mumbai waters, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth, mortality and yield parameters of seven fingered threadfin Polynemus heptadactylus (Cuvier) based on 2 years length frequency data collected from shrimp trawlers in Mumbai, India are reported. The catches as well as the catch rates have shown wide fluctuations. The von Bertalanffy's parameters in length were estimated as L?=384mm, K=0.82 year?1 and to=?0.00065 year. The rates of total,

R. Raja Prasad; A. K. Jaiswar; Suneel B. Reddy; S. K. Chakraborty; R. Palaniswamy; Pranaya Parida

2005-01-01

234

Premeiotic endomitosis produces diploid eggs in the natural clone loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Teleostei: Cobitidae).  

PubMed

The natural clone loach produces unreduced eggs genetically identical to somatic cells of the mother fish and such diploid eggs normally develop as a clone without genetic contribution of sperm. Following the identification of clonal nature and diploidy of eggs, we conducted cytological studies to determine the mechanisms responsible for this unusual oogenesis. Cytolological observation of full-grown oocytes cultured in vitro revealed that oocytes of both the clone and the control loach underwent two successive meiotic divisions: formation of a bipolar spindle and metaphase in meiosis I and equal segregation of chromosomes, extrusion of the first polar body and the appearance of metaphase of meiosis II. However, spindle size of the clone was larger than that of the control. Bivalent chromosome number of germinal vesicle of oocytes was 25 in the control diploid, whereas 50 in the clone. The results suggest that chromosomes are duplicated by mitosis without cytokinesis before meiosis, i.e. premeiotic endomitosis and then oocytes differentiated from tetraploid oogonia undergo a quasinormal meiosis followed by two successive divisions to produce diploid eggs. PMID:16526047

Itono, Masaki; Morishima, Kagayaki; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Bando, Etsuko; Yamaha, Etsuro; Arai, Katsutoshi

2006-06-01

235

Metabolical changes induced by chronic phenol exposure in matrinxã Brycon cephalus (teleostei: characidae) juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenol and its derivatives are xenobiotics present in many industrial wastewaters and in non-specific pesticides. It is a lipophilic compound and, therefore, accumulates along the trophic chain. Phenol is often found in marine and fresh water environments. The aim of this work was to detect metabolic changes induced by phenol in Brycon cephalus juveniles. Several enzymes activities and metabolites were

Tiago Silvestre Fernandes Hori; Ive Marchionni Avilez; Luis Kioshi Inoue; Gilberto Moraes

2006-01-01

236

Is sexual selection driving diversification of the bioluminescent ponyfishes (Teleostei: Leiognathidae)?  

PubMed

Sexual selection may facilitate genetic isolation among populations and result in increased rates of diversification. As a mechanism driving diversification, sexual selection has been invoked and upheld in numerous empirical studies across disparate taxa, including birds, plants and spiders. In this study, we investigate the potential impact of sexual selection on the tempo and mode of ponyfish evolution. Ponyfishes (Leiognathidae) are bioluminescent marine fishes that exhibit sexually dimorphic features of their unique light-organ system (LOS). Although sexual selection is widely considered to be the driving force behind ponyfish speciation, this hypothesis has never been formally tested. Given that some leiognathid species have a sexually dimorphic LOS, whereas others do not, this family provides an excellent system within which to study the potential role of sexual selection in diversification and morphological differentiation. In this study, we estimate the phylogenetic relationships and divergence times for Leiognathidae, investigate the tempo and mode of ponyfish diversification, and explore morphological shape disparity among leiognathid clades. We recover strong support for a monophyletic Leiognathidae and estimate that all major ponyfish lineages evolved during the Paleogene. Our studies of ponyfish diversification demonstrate that there is no conclusive evidence that sexually dimorphic clades are significantly more species rich than nonsexually dimorphic lineages and that evidence is lacking to support any significant diversification rate increases within ponyfishes. Further, we detected a lineage-through-time signal indicating that ponyfishes have continuously diversified through time, which is in contrast to many recent diversification studies that identify lineage-through-time patterns that support mechanisms of density-dependent speciation. Additionally, there is no evidence of sexual selection hindering morphological diversity, as sexually dimorphic taxa are shown to be more disparate in overall shape morphology than nonsexually dimorphic taxa. Our results suggest that if sexual selection is occurring in ponyfish evolution, it is likely acting only as a genetic isolating mechanism that has allowed ponyfishes to continuously diversify over time, with no overall impact on increases in diversification rate or morphological disparity. PMID:21623980

Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Davis, Matthew P; Smith, W Leo; Baldwin, Zachary H; Sparks, John S

2011-05-30

237

Recovery of fat snook, Centropomus parallelus (Teleostei: Perciformes) after subchronic exposure to copper.  

PubMed

We studied the recovery of juvenile fat snook (Centropomus parallelus) after subchronic exposure to different concentrations of copper. Healthy juveniles (1.98 g) were exposed to 25 or 50 ?g Cu/L for 30 days (12 replicates with 5 fish in each one), and recovery was observed at 0, 4, 10, and 30 days after exposure (3 replicates with 5 fish in each one). Copper genotoxicity in exposed individuals was observed using a micronucleus assay, and recovery was not observed even 30 days post-exposure. Copper accumulation was observed in fish exposed to 25 or 50 ?g/L of copper in the gills (14.4 and 34.4 ?g/g, respectively) and muscle (5.7 and 5.5 ?g/g, respectively), and a return to normal copper levels (6.0 ?g/g for gills and 2.5 ?g/g for muscle) was observed 4 and 30 days post-exposure in the gills and muscle tissues, respectively. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) was 80% inhibited in individuals exposed to copper and returned to normal levels for fish exposed to basal concentrations within 10 days. Although copper accumulation in tissues dispersed 30 days post-exposure, no recovery from genotoxicity was observed during this time. Thirty days was not enough to recover juvenile fat snook following subchronic exposure to copper. PMID:23403295

Oss, Rodrigo Nunes; Baroni, Vinícius Dadalto; Duarte, Rafael Mendonça; Val, Adalberto Luis; Val, Vera Maria Fonseca Almeida; Gomes, Levy Carvalho

2013-02-10

238

Detection of interstitial telomeric sequences in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) (Teleostei: Salmonidae).  

PubMed

Highly polymorphic Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus Linnaeus, 1758) chromosomes were studied using conventional and molecular methods. The diploid chromosome number in the studied individuals was 2n = 81 or 2n = 82, with a fundamental arm number (NF) = 100. These differences are due to Robertsonian fusions. Interindividual variation in the number and size of DAPI and CMA(3) positively stained chromatin sites was observed in studied specimens. In the case of two individuals, the subtelomeric region of the long arm (q) of the largest acrocentric chromosome (chromosome number 10) was positively stained by CMA(3) fluorochrome. Both primed in situ labelling (PRINS) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that this CMA(3)-positive region was flanked by telomeric sequences. Previously, the subterminal position of interstitial telomeric sequences located in the vicinity of the CMA(3)-positive guanine-rich chromatin have been described in two other Salvelinus species, brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis ) and lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush ). Moreover, multichromosomal location and variation in size of CMA(3) bands have been observed in various Salvelinus taxa, including fishes with internally located telomeric sequences. These results suggest that relocation of CMA(3)-positive chromatin segments in these species may be facilitated by flanking interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs). PMID:22166084

Pomianowski, K; Jankun, M; Ocalewicz, K

2011-12-14

239

Structure of the seminal pathway in the European chub, Leuciscus cephalus (Cyprinidae); Teleostei.  

PubMed

The testicular efferent duct system of Leuciscus cephalus (Cyprinidae), is described for three phases of testicular development. Testicular main ducts were analyzed by means of conventional histology and transmission electron microscopy. Additional techniques were applied for lectin histochemistry to determine secretory activity, as well as immunohistochemistry for cell proliferation activity and for muscle actin to demonstrate the distribution and amount of contractile cells. The contribution of the main ducts' epithelia and of degenerating spermatocytes to seminal fluid composition was confirmed, with the former being a source of carbohydrates and the latter that of phospholipids. The apical glycocalyx of epithelial cells, which is important in cell recognition and potentially involved in sperm storage, was marked by RCA I, LCA, and WGA lectin. Higher numbers of proliferating epithelial cells were ascertained during spawning phase compared to pre- and postspawning phases. In the ducts' stroma, a large number of cells expressed muscle actin and tropomyosin, indicating the ducts' contractile potential for the transport of seminal fluid towards release. Adjacent to these contractile cells, numerous nerves were found, indicating neuronal control of sperm fluid flow. PMID:15688444

Walter, Ingrid; Tschulenk, Waltraud; Schabuss, Michael; Miller, Ingrid; Grillitsch, Britta

2005-03-01

240

A new armored searobin Paraheminodus longirostralis (Teleostei: Peristediidae) from New Caledonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of armored searobin, Paraheminodus longirostralis, is described from five specimens collected from New Caledonia at depths of 412–467 m. It is distinguishable from its three\\u000a known congeners in having 34 bony plates in the upper lateral row, a forward-directed spine on each plate between the 23rd–26th\\u000a and 31st–32nd plates in the upper lateral row, 6–7 + 1 + 20–21 = 27–28 gill rakers, an

Toshio Kawai; Kazuhiro Nakaya; Bernard Séret

2008-01-01

241

Monophyly of the Citharidae (Pleuronectoidei: Pleuronectiformes: Teleostei) with considerations of pleuronectoid phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monophyly of Citharidae, the pleuronectoid family thought to be a transitional group between the Psettodoidei and other\\u000a typical pleuronectoids, has been in question mainly because of the lack of recognized synapomorphies for the family. In this\\u000a study, the citharid skeleton is described, and the monophyly of the family and its phylogenetic position within the Pleuronectoidei\\u000a are reassessed following a

Koichi Hoshino

2001-01-01

242

Swimming ability and its rapid decrease at settlement in wrasse larvae (Teleostei: Labridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wrasses are abundant reef fishes and the second most speciose marine fish family, yet little is known of their larval swimming\\u000a abilities. In August 2010 at Moorea, Society Islands, we measured swimming ability (critical speed, Ucrit) of 80 settlement-stage\\u000a larvae (11–17 mm) of 5 labrid species (Thalassoma quinquevittatum [n = 67], Novaculichthys taeniourus [n = 6], Coris aygula [n = 5], Halichoeres trimaculatus [n = 1] and H. hortulanus

Jeffrey M. Leis; Amanda C. Hay; Michelle R. Gaither

2011-01-01

243

Evidence for repeated loss of selective constraint in rhodopsin of amblyopsid cavefishes (Teleostei: Amblyopsidae).  

PubMed

The genetic mechanisms underlying regressive evolution-the degeneration or loss of a derived trait--are largely unknown, particularly for complex structures such as eyes in cave organisms. In several eyeless animals, the visual photoreceptor rhodopsin appears to have retained functional amino acid sequences. Hypotheses to explain apparent maintenance of function include weak selection for retention of light-sensing abilities and its pleiotropic roles in circadian rhythms and thermotaxis. In contrast, we show that there has been repeated loss of functional constraint of rhodopsin in amblyopsid cavefishes, as at least three cave lineages have independently accumulated unique loss-of-function mutations over the last 10.3 Mya. Although several cave lineages still possess functional rhodopsin, they exhibit increased rates of nonsynonymous mutations that have greater effect on the structure and function of rhodopsin compared to those in surface lineages. These results indicate that functionality of rhodopsin has been repeatedly lost in amblyopsid cavefishes. The presence of a functional copy of rhodopsin in some cave lineages is likely explained by stochastic accumulation of mutations following recent subterranean colonization. PMID:23461324

Niemiller, Matthew L; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M; Shah, Premal; Schmitz, Lars; Near, Thomas J

2012-11-06

244

The catfish genus Akysis Bleeker (Teleostei: Akysidae) in Indochina, with descriptions of six new species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catfishes of the genus Akysis Bleeker occurring in the Mekong basin south of the Chinese border, in the Mae Nam Chao Phraya basin, in the Malay Peninsula and the basins in between are reviewed. Nine species are recognised, six of which are new: A. alfredi, A. ephippifer, A. recavus, A. similis, A. subtilis and A. varius. Two groups of species

H. H. Ng; M. Kottelat

1998-01-01

245

Genetic population structure of sympatric and allopatric populations of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, Teleostei, Coregonidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Teleost fishes of the Coregonidae are good model systems for studying postglacial evolution, adaptive radiation and ecological speciation. Of particular interest is whether the repeated occurrence of sympatric species pairs results from in-situ divergence from a single lineage or from multiple invasions of one or more different lineages. Here, we analysed the genetic structure of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula

Thomas Mehner; Kirsten Pohlmann; Che Elkin; Michael T Monaghan; Barbara Nitz; Jörg Freyhof

2010-01-01

246

Historical biogeography and speciation in the reef fish genus Haemulon (Teleostei: Haemulidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high biodiversity of tropical marine hotspots has long intrigued evolutionary biologists and biogeographers. The genus Haemulon (grunts) is one of the most important (numerically, ecologically, and economically) reef fish groups in the New World and an excellent candidate to test hypotheses of speciation and diversity generation in the Greater Caribbean, the richest Atlantic biodiversity hotspot, as well as the

Luiz A. Rocha; Kenyon C. Lindeman; Claudia R. Rocha; H. A. Lessios

2008-01-01

247

The Phylogenetic Relationships of the Gobioninae (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) Inferred from Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gobioninae are a group of morphologically and ecologically diverse Eurasian freshwater cyprinid fishes. The intergeneric relationships of this group are unresolved and the possible monophyly of this subfamily remains to be established. We used complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences from most genera within the gobionine group, in addition to a selection of cyprinid outgroups, to investigate the possible

Jinquan Yang; Shunping He; Jörg Freyhof; Kai Witte; Huanzhang Liu

2006-01-01

248

Phylogeny of moray eels (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae), with a revised classification of true eels (Teleostei: Elopomorpha: Anguilliformes).  

PubMed

The family Muraenidae is one of the largest and most recognizable eel groups. Moray eels are key components of marine ecosystems but their relationships remain poorly understood. The phylogenetic relationships of the morays are examined herein using mitochondrial 12S and 16S sequence data, totaling 1673 bp for 139 taxa. The results of our analyses found support for a monophyletic family Muraenidae that is part of a monophyletic suborder Muraenoidei, which is revised to include the anguilliform families Heterenchelyidae and Myrocongridae, and to exclude the family Chlopsidae. The muraenids form two monophyletic subfamilies, Muraeninae and Uropterygiinae. Of the genera that had multiple species included for analysis, only the type genus of the family, Muraena, is found to be monophyletic. In the subfamily Uropterygiinae, Uropterygius is not recovered as a monophyletic genus. In the subfamily Muraeninae, the species-rich piscivorous genera, Enchelycore and Gymnothorax, and the durophagous genus, Echidna, are demonstrably not monophyletic. The monotypic Gymnomuraena is the sister group to all other muraenine species. The relationships within Muraenidae require much additional study and its genera remain in urgent need of revision. The order Anguilliformes is revised herein to include four suborders: Anguilloidei, Congroidei, Muraenoidei, and Synaphobranchoidei. All four families of the order Saccopharyngiformes are nested within Anguilliformes, recovered as part of a clade that includes Anguillidae; the saccopharyngiform families are referred to the suborder Anguilloidei sensu novum. PMID:22967094

Tang, Kevin L; Fielitz, Christopher

2012-09-12

249

Historical Biogeography of the New-World Pupfish Genus Cyprinodon (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of mtDNA sequence variation (2,548 bp from ND2, cytb, and part of the control region) indicates that the genus Cyprinodon began diverging in the Late Mio- cene from a common ancestor with Megupsilon, a monotypic genus on the Mesa del Norte of Mexico. The geographic pattern of mtDNA variation, with estimates of divergence time, suggests that by the end

Anthony A. Echelle; Evan W. Carson; Alice F. Echelle; R. A. Van Den Bussche; Thomas E. Dowling; Axel Meyer; R. M. Wood

2005-01-01

250

The cryopreservation of spermatozoa of the burbot, Lota lota (Gadidae, Teleostei).  

PubMed

The cryopreservation of spermatozoa of a teleost fish, the burbot, Lota lota (Gadidae) was investigated. Cryopreserved semen had the highest motility rate (46.6+/-8.0%, fresh semen control 86.5+/-8.2%) and fertility (78.1+/-2.7% embryo survival in hatching stage, fresh semen control 82.2+/-2.9%) when 10% methanol, 1.5% glucose and 7% hen egg yolk were used as cryoprotectants. Freezing was performed in 0.5-ml straws in the vapour of liquid nitrogen at 1cm above the level of liquid nitrogen and thawing in water at 25 degrees C for 20s. For optimal fertilization cryopreserved semen was first mixed with the eggs and then 25 or 50 mmol/L NaCl solution (pH 8.5) was added at a ratio of 1:24 (semen:saline solution). Under these conditions fertilization ratios in the range of fresh semen control were obtained at minimal sperm to egg ratios of 1.7 x 10(6):1. Fertilization with cryopreserved semen had no influence on the embryonic development, as the ratio of embryos which stopped development and the ratio of embryonic malformations were similar to fresh semen. PMID:12510004

Lahnsteiner, Franz; Mansour, Nabil; Weismann, Thomas

2002-12-01

251

Homologies of the branchial arch muscles in Zacco platypus (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae): evidence from innervation pattern.  

PubMed

Homologies of the branchial arch muscles in the cyprinid Zacco platypus are assessed based on their innervation. Muscles serving the first gill arch are innervated by branches of the glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve and those serving other arches by the vagal (X) nerve. Absence of the levator posterior is confirmed. Five pairs of muscles originating from the cranium and inserted onto the specialized 5th ceratobranchial, all unique to cyprinids, are innervated by the 4th branchial trunks of X, indicating that all pairs are derivatives of the sphincter oesophagi, involving reorganization from intrinsic to extrinsic elements. Homologies of some ventral branchial muscles are also discussed and the criteria for homology improved by clarifying the innervation pattern. PMID:21290421

Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio; Nakajima, Tsuneo; Miyazaki, Yusuke; Matsuura, Keiichi

2011-02-02

252

A new cavefish species, Sinocyclocheilus brevibarbatus (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae ) , from Guangxi, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of the cavefish genus Sinocyclocheilus is described based on six specimens collected from a subterranean river in Du’an County in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous\\u000a Region of southern China. Sinocyclocheilus brevibarbatus sp. nov. can be distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characteristics: a completely scaled body\\u000a with well-developed eyes and a strongly-humped back; an almost

Yahui Zhao; Jiahu Lan; Chunguang Zhang

253

Revalidation and redescription of Pterocryptis anomala (Herre, 1933), a catfish (Teleostei: Siluridae) from southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pterocryptis anomala (Herre, 1933) is resurrected from synonymy with P. cochinchinensis (Valenciennes, 1839) and redescribed in this study. This species of catfish from southern China and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region can be distinguished from congeners by the unique combination of the following characters: length of dorsal fin 7.9-10.1% SL, depth of caudal peduncle 7.2-9.7% SL, head length 16.6-20.7% SL,

HEOK HEE NG; BOSCO P.-L. CHAN

254

A new cavefish species, Sinocyclocheilus brevibarbatus (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae ) , from Guangxi, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of the cavefish genus Sinocyclocheilus is described based on six specimens collected from a subterranean river in Du’an County in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous\\u000a Region of southern China. Sinocyclocheilus brevibarbatus sp. nov. can be distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characteristics: a completely scaled body\\u000a with well-developed eyes and a strongly-humped back; an almost

Yahui Zhao; Jiahu Lan; Chunguang Zhang

2009-01-01

255

Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia: status and threats.  

PubMed

The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning during the rainy season (July to October), whereas eight other species are absent from these rivers and probably developed a new strategy of lacustrine spawning (macro-spatial segregation). One species (L. intermedius) probably spawns in the lake as well as in the rivers. Between the early 1990s and 2000s, the riverine spawners showed a decline of 75% in both biomass and number in both fishery independent surveys and in commercial catches. Reproductive migration makes fishes vulnerable to fisheries and other threats like habitat modifications. Lacustrine spawners are probably more resilient as they are not known to form spawning aggregations that can easily be exploited by fishermen. In addition, upstream rivers and catchments around Lake Tana are highly degraded by erosion and recently subjected to intensive habitat modification for irrigation and hydroelectric power generation. This article reviews results of field studies on the Labeobarbus spawning migration from Lake Tana to spawning rivers, giving emphasis on segregation and homing. It also summarizes existing and emerging threats which form potential causes for the decline of the migratory Labeobarbus species. Knowledge gaps on the reproductive biology are identified for further investigation. PMID:22803734

Anteneh, W; Getahun, A; Dejen, E; Sibbing, F A; Nagelkerke, L A J; De Graaf, M; Wudneh, T; Vijverberg, J; Palstra, A P

2012-07-01

256

Genus-level taxonomic changes implied by the mitochondrial phylogeny of grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).  

PubMed

A comprehensive mitochondrial phylogeny of the family Mugilidae (Durand et al., Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 64 (2012) 73-92) demonstrated the polyphyly or paraphyly of a proportion of the 20 genera in the family. Based on these results, here we propose a revised classification with 25 genera, including 15 genera currently recognized as valid (Agonostomus, Aldrichetta, Cestraeus, Chaenomugil, Chelon, Crenimugil, Ellochelon, Joturus, Mugil, Myxus, Neomyxus, Oedalechilus, Rhinomugil, Sicamugil and Trachystoma), 7 resurrected genera [Dajaus (for Agonostomus monticola), Gracilimugil (for Liza argentea), Minimugil (for Sicamugil cascasia), Osteomugil (for several species currently under Moolgarda and Valamugil, including M. cunnesius, M. engeli, M. perusii, and V. robustus), Planiliza (for Indo-Pacific Chelon spp., Indo-Pacific Liza spp., and Paramugil parmatus), Plicomugil (for Oedalechilus labiosus), and Squalomugil (for Rhinomugil nasutus)] and 3 new genera: Neochelon gen. nov. (for Liza falcipinnis), Parachelon gen. nov. (for L. grandisquamis) and Pseudomyxus gen. nov. (for Myxus capensis). Genus Chelon was shown to include exclusively Chelon spp. and Liza spp. from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and Liza spp. species endemic to eastern southern Africa. Genus Crenimugil should now include C. crenilabis, Moolgarda seheli and V. buchanani. Genus names Liza, Moolgarda, Paramugil, Valamugil and Xenomugil should be abandoned because they are no longer valid. Further genetic evidence is required to confirm or infirm the validity of the genus Paracrenimugil Senou 1988. The mitochondrial phylogeny of the 25 genera from the present revision is the following: [(Sicamugil, (Minimugil, Rhinomugil)); Trachystoma; ((Myxus, Neomyxus), (Cestraeus, Chaenomugil, (Agonostomus, Dajaus, Joturus), Mugil)); (Aldrichetta, Gracilimugil); Neochelon gen. nov.; (Pseudomyxus gen. nov., (Chelon, Oedalechilus, Planiliza, Parachelon gen. nov.)); ((Squalomugil, (Ellochelon, Plicomugil)), (Crenimugil, Osteomugil))]. Agonostomus monticola and several species with large distribution ranges (including Moolgarda seheli, Mugil cephalus and M. curema) consist of separate lineages whose geographic distribution suggests they are cryptic species, thus warranting further taxonomic work in the Mugilidae at the infra-generic level. PMID:23199637

Durand, Jean-Dominique; Chen, Wei-Jen; Shen, Kang-Ning; Fu, Cuizhang; Borsa, Philippe

2012-10-15

257

Multiple Invasions into Freshwater by Pufferfishes (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae): A Mitogenomic Perspective  

PubMed Central

Pufferfishes of the Family Tetraodontidae are the most speciose group in the Order Tetraodontiformes and mainly inhabit coastal waters along continents. Although no members of other tetraodontiform families have fully discarded their marine lives, approximately 30 tetraodontid species spend their entire lives in freshwaters in disjunct tropical regions of South America, Central Africa, and Southeast Asia. To investigate the interrelationships of tetraodontid pufferfishes and thereby elucidate the evolutionary origins of their freshwater habitats, we performed phylogenetic analysis based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences from 50 tetraodontid species and closely related species (including 31 newly determined sequences). The resulting phylogenies reveal that the family is composed of four major lineages and that freshwater species from the different continents are independently nested in two of the four lineages. A monophyletic origin of the use of freshwater habitats was statistically rejected, and ancestral habitat reconstruction on the resulting tree demonstrates that tetraodontids independently entered freshwater habitats in different continents at least three times. Relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian divergence time estimation suggests that the timing of these invasions differs between continents, occurring at 0–10 million years ago (MA) in South America, 17–38 MA in Central Africa, and 48–78 MA in Southeast Asia. These timings are congruent with geological events that could facilitate adaptation to freshwater habitats in each continent.

Yamanoue, Yusuke; Miya, Masaki; Doi, Hiroyuki; Mabuchi, Kohji; Sakai, Harumi; Nishida, Mutsumi

2011-01-01

258

Development of the vertebral column and caudal complex in a flyingfish, Parexocoetus mento mento (Teleostei: Exocoetidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developmental pattern of the vertebral column and caudal complex in juvenile (16.9 mm SL) to adult (112.2 mm SL)Parexocoetus mento mento is described Juvenile external caudal morphology was similar to the adult condition, although juveniles exhibited various\\u000a internal ontogenetic changes. Osteological develoment was almost completed at 60–69 mm SL. Complete ossification of the vertebral\\u000a column and caudal complex appeared

Juanito C. Dasilao; Kosaku Yamaoka

1998-01-01

259

Pattern of synaptic connections in the pineal organ of the ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis (Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synaptic connections were studied by means of electron microscopy in the sensory pineal organ of the ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis, a highly photosensitive teleost species. Three types of specific contacts were observed in the pineal end-vesicle: 1) symmetrically organized gap junctions between the basal processes of adjacent photoreceptor cells; 2) sensory synapses endowed with synaptic ribbons, formed by basal processes of

Yuri Omura

1984-01-01

260

Reproductive cycles of Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada and Liza aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).  

PubMed

The reproductive cycles of three mullet species from the Eastern Adriatic coast were described using several biological parameters (gonado-somatic index, oocyte diameter and sex ratio) to improve knowledge about their reproduction. PMID:21651550

Bartulovi?, V; Dul?i?, J; Mati?-Skoko, S; Glamuzina, B

2011-04-19

261

The low O2 avoidance strategy of the Cape silverside Atherina breviceps (Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic low O2 (hypoxia) is not uncommon but mobile organisms do not have to suffer low O2 stress if they engage in a safe avoidance strategy by moving away early and quickly. Within a behavioural choice chamber system at 20°C, the Cape silverside (Atherina breviceps), a common species from South Africa, was found to seek out and select high O2

Neill A. Herbert; Mark Goodman; Andreas Kunzmann

2012-01-01

262

Phylogeography of the tidewater goby, Eucyclogobius newberryi (Teleostei, Gobiidae), in coastal California.  

PubMed

The tidewater goby, Eucyclogobius newberryi, inhabits discrete, seasonally closed estuaries and lagoons along approximately 1500 km of California coastline. This species is euryhaline but has no explicit marine stage, yet population extirpation and recolonization data suggest tidewater gobies disperse intermittently via the sea. Analyses of mitochondrial control region and cytochrome b sequences demonstrate a deep evolutionary bifurcation in the vicinity of Los Angeles that separates southern California populations from all more northerly populations. Shallower phylogeographic breaks, in the vicinities of Seacliff, Point Buchon, Big Sur, and Point Arena segregate the northerly populations into five groups in three geographic clusters: the Point Conception and Ventura groups between Los Angeles and Point Buchon, a lone Estero Bay group from central California, and San Francisco and Cape Mendocino groups from northern California. The phylogenetic relationships between and patterns of molecular diversity within the six groups are consistent with repeated, and sometimes rapid, northward and southward range expansions out of central California caused by Quaternary climate change. Plio-Pleistocene tectonism, Quaternary coastal geography and hydrography, and historical human activities probably also influenced the modern geographic and genetic structure of E. newberryi. The phylogeography of E. newberryi is concordant with phylogeographic patterns in several other coastal California taxa, suggesting common extrinsic factors have had similar effects on different species. However, there is no evidence of a phylogeographic break coincident with a biogeographic boundary at Point Conception. PMID:11475052

Dawson, M N; Staton, J L; Jacobs, D K

2001-06-01

263

A new and morphologically distinct population of cavernicolous Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae: Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cave molly, Poecilia mexicana, from the Cueva del Azufre, a sulfur cave in Tabasco, Mexico, ranks among the best-studied cave fishes worldwide, despite\\u000a being known from a single population only. Here we describe a newly discovered second population of cave-dwelling P. mexicana from a nearby, but mostly non-sulfidic cave (Luna Azufre). Despite apparent similarities between the two populations (such

M. Tobler; R. Riesch; F. J. García de León; I. Schlupp; M. Plath

2008-01-01

264

Embryonic fissure and photoreceptor differentiation in the eye of adult Garra rufa Heckel 1843 (Cyprinidae, Teleostei).  

PubMed

The retina of the adult teleost Garra rufa retains a curved, open embryonic fissure indicating an asymmetrical postembryonic retinal growth. Undifferentiated, oval photoreceptors are observed on both sides of the middle of the fissure with their larger diameter running parallel to the fissure to which they may attach by desmosomes. They detach from the fissure, rotate to become perpendicular to it and begin an active process of differentiation as they slide along the temporal side of the outer half of the fissure. This process is divided into stages for simplicity. The photoreceptors develop stumpy inner segments extending into a ventricular space that appears between the retinal pigment epithelium and the photoreceptors. Calycal processes arise from the inner segments and the distal centriole of each photoreceptor forms a connecting cilium. The proximal centriole is retained for some time after the outer segment develops. The formation of rod spherules and cone pedicles takes place almost concomitantly with the outer segments. Double cones appear first as single cones before pairing. One or more of the principal cone mitochondria accumulate electron-dense material and merge to form the ellipsosome. The retinal pigment epithelium undergoes a parallel differentiation. The developmental events described in the present work conform those recorded in embryonic teleostean retinas. PMID:11987455

al-Adhami, M A; Qar, J; al Khodur, M

2001-01-01

265

Mitogenomic Evidence for an Indo-West Pacific Origin of the Clupeoidei (Teleostei: Clupeiformes)  

PubMed Central

The clupeoid fishes are distributed worldwide, with marine, freshwater and euryhaline species living in either tropical or temperate environments. Regional endemism is important at the species and genus levels, and the highest species diversity is found in the tropical marine Indo-West Pacific region. The clupeoid distribution follows two general pattern of species richness, the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients. To test historical hypotheses explaining the formation of these two gradients, we have examined the early biogeography of the Clupeoidei in reconstructing the evolution of their habitat preferences along with their ancestral range distributions on a time-calibrated mitogenomic phylogeny. The phylogenetic results support the distinction of nine main lineages within the Clupeoidei, five of them new. We infer several independent transitions from a marine to freshwater environment and from a tropical to temperate environment that occurred after the initial diversification period of the Clupeoidei. These results combined with our ancestral range reconstruction hypothesis suggest that the probable region of origin and diversification of the Clupeoidei during the Cretaceous period was the tropical marine precursor to the present Indo-West Pacific region. Thus, our study favors the hypotheses of “Region of origin” and “Tropical conservatism” to explain the origins of the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients of clupeoid species richness, respectively. Additional geological and paleontological evidence further define the tropical marine paleo-region of origin as the eastern Tethys Sea region. The Cretaceous fossil record of the Clupeoidei is partially incongruent with the results here as it contains taxa found outside this region. We discuss three possible causes of conflict between our biogeographical hypothesis and the distributions of the Cretaceous clupeoid fossils: regional extinction, incomplete taxonomic sampling and incorrect timescale estimation.

Lavoue, Sebastien; Miya, Masaki; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Chen, Wei-Jen; Nishida, Mutsumi

2013-01-01

266

Phylogenetics of the marine sculpins (Teleostei: Cottidae) of the North American Pacific Coast.  

PubMed

With 92 species along the North American Pacific Coast, marine sculpins represent the most species-rich radiation of fishes in this region. I used the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the nuclear ribosomal S7 intron for 99 species (76 North American, 19 Asian, and four North Atlantic) to produce the most complete phylogenetic hypothesis yet generated for this assemblage. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses produced highly similar tree topologies. While many previously proposed groupings based on morphology are recovered, the molecular data suggest that a number of genera are para- or polyphyletic. However, this analysis supports the monophyly of one large clade that is found exclusively along the North American Pacific Coast (Chitonotous-Ruscarius-Artedius-Orthonopius-Clinocottus-Leiocottus-Oligocottus). Some sibling species have disjunct ranges, suggesting allopatric speciation. However, many other sibling species have largely overlapping ranges, and repeated habitat shifts appear to have facilitated diversification. PMID:23099148

Knope, Matthew L

2012-10-23

267

Digestive proteinases of Brycon orbignyanus (Characidae, Teleostei): characteristics and effects of protein quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus, in the wild consume protein from both plant and animal sources. Digestion of protein in piracanjuba begins in the stomach with pepsin, at low pH, and is followed by hydrolysis at alkaline pH in the lumen of the intestine. The digestive system in piracanjuba was evaluated to characterize the enzymes responsible for the digestion of feed

Fernando L. Garc??a-Carreño; Cristiane Albuquerque-Cavalcanti; M. Angeles Navarrete del Toro; Evoy Zaniboni-Filho

2002-01-01

268

A new dispersed element in the genome of the catfish Hisonotus leucofrenatus (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Hypoptopomatinae)  

PubMed Central

Eight restriction enzymes were used in the prospection and isolation of repetitive sequences in the genome of the catfish Hisonotus leucofrenatus, a siluriform fish species that presents a large heterochromatic block in the W chromosome. In the tested enzymes, only the BamHI enzyme revealed a distinct band of 224 bp G+C value of 37%. In comparative analyses with sequences already available in the GenBank, the BamHI fragment sequence showed similarity with part of a Lepidoptera transposon. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that this sequence presents a dispersed pattern in the genome of H. leucofrenatus, forming clusters in some chromosome pairs in the pericentromeric region, which frequently are rich in constitutive heterochromatin. Based on the analysis performed, it can be inferred that the HLBam fragment constitutes a genomically dispersed transposon type element. It can be considered that the findings in this study can contribute to a better understanding of the organization and distribution of transposable elements in the genome of teleost fish.

Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

2011-01-01

269

Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17? induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17? (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In\\u000a this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive\\u000a flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with

Peng Sun; Feng You; Mengxia Liu; Zhihao Wu; Aiyun Wen; Jun Li; Yongli Xu; Peijun Zhang

2010-01-01

270

Effects of aluminum on the energetic substrates in neotropical freshwater Astyanax bimaculatus (Teleostei: Characidae) females.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of acidic pH and acute aluminum (Al) exposure on the metabolic substrates of Astyanax bimaculatus, and on the ability of these animals to recover in clean water. After an acclimation period, sexually mature A. bimaculatus females were sorted into six glass aquaria with three experimental groups: control in neutral pH (7.0), acidic pH (5.5), and Al (0.5 mg·L(-1)) in acidic pH (5.5). After a 96 h treatment, 10 animals from each experimental group were sampled and the rest were returned to clean water in neutral pH without Al for a recovery period of 96 h. The acidic pH, either alone or combined with Al, decreased T4 levels, whereas Al exposure increased T3 levels. Recovery of T3 levels occurred after 96 h. Al exposure decreased ovary and plasma proteins, muscle glycogen contents, and hepatic lipids due to lipoperoxidation. In the recovery phase, lipids decreased in most tissues, probably to re-establish ovary protein and hepatic glycogen. A. bimaculatus prioritized the use of energetic resources during acclimatization to Al instead of prioritizing reproduction, thereby avoiding the ovulation of impaired eggs. PMID:22960447

Vieira, Vanessa A R O; Correia, Tiago G; Moreira, Renata G

2012-08-29

271

Filling the gap: a fossil frogfish, genus Antennarius (Teleostei, Lophiiformes, Antennariidae), from the Miocene of Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of frogfish, Antennarius monodi sp. nov., is described from the Upper Miocene (Messinian) of Raz-el-Ain, near Oran, north-east Algeria. The type and only specimen of this taxon is the first articulated skeleton belonging to the family Antennariidae ever recorded as a fossil. The morphological and meristic characters observed support the inclusion of this species in the Antennarius

G. Carnevale; T. W. Pietsch

2006-01-01

272

PAEDOCYPRIS CARBUNCULUS, A NEW SPECIES OF MINIATURE FISH FROM BORNEO (TELEOSTEI: CYPRINIFORMES: CYPRINIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paedocypris carbunculus, new species, is described from Pangkalan Bun, Kalimantan Tengah on the island of Borneo, Indonesia. It differs from its congeners in the shape of its head blotches. It is readily distinguished further from P. micromegethes in having the middorsal stripe consisting of three rows of chromatophores, head kidney pigment, well developed opercular, subopercular, interopercular, and branchiostegal rows and

Ralf Britz; Maurice Kottelat

273

A new cryptic species of Aponurus Looss, 1907 (Digenea: Lecithasteridae) from Mediterranean goatfish (Teleostei: Mullidae).  

PubMed

The status of the trematode Aponurus laguncula Looss, 1907 in the western Mediterranean is re-assessed by means of a comparative morphological study and rDNA sequences based on newly collected material. A. laguncula (sensu stricto) is redescribed from Trachinus draco L. and a new cryptic species of the 'A. laguncula complex', Aponurus mulli n. sp., is described on the basis of abundant material from Mullus barbatus L. (type-host) and M. surmuletus L. off the Spanish Mediterranean coasts. The new species is differentiated from A. laguncula (sensu stricto) by its: significantly larger, elongate body, with maximum width at the level of the ventral sucker; shorter forebody; distinctly larger sinus-sac, seminal receptacle and seminal vesicle, with the latter also being more elongate; vesicular pars prostatica; more anteriorly located vitellarium, which consists of eight globular follicles; and distinctly smaller eggs, which are also smaller in relation to body size and have both their opercular and anopercular poles rounded. The variability and the allometric growth of the morphological characters in the new species were studied in detail, resulting in additional distinguishing features. Sequences of the large subunit rRNA (28S) gene (domains D1-D3) and ITS2 rRNA gene region for the new species have been submitted to GenBank in order to enhance future studies on species differentiation within the 'A. laguncula complex'. PMID:21544713

Carreras-Aubets, Marta; Repullés-Albelda, Aigües; Kostadinova, Aneta; Carrassón, Maite

2011-05-05

274

Metabolic responses to glucoprivation induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose in Brycon cephalus (Teleostei, Characidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of functional cytoglucopenia provoked by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) were studied in adult Brycon cephalus, an omnivorous fish from the Amazon Basin in Brazil. Glycogen content in liver and muscle as well as plasmatic glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), insulin, and glucagon were measured. After 48 h fasting, an intraperitoneal saline injection (NaCl 0.6 g\\/100 ml) was administered to control fish, whereas the

M. L. Figueiredo-Garutti; E. Capilla; M. L. M. Vicentini-Paulino; J. Gutiérrez; R. H. S. Souza; G. Moraes; I. Navarro

2004-01-01

275

Microsatellite Development for an Endangered Bream Megalobrama pellegrini (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) Using 454 Sequencing.  

PubMed

Megalobrama pellegrini is an endemic fish species found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. This species has become endangered due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and overfishing. However, the available genetic data for this species is limited. Here, we developed 26 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the M. pellegrini genome using next-generation sequencing techniques. A total of 257,497 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on 454 GS-FLX titanium platforms and 49,811 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 404 bp; 24,522 (49.2%) sequences contained microsatellite repeats. Of the 53 loci screened, 33 were amplified successfully and 26 were polymorphic. The genetic diversity in M. pellegrini was moderate, with an average of 3.08 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.47 and 0.51, respectively. In addition, we tested cross-species amplification for all 33 loci in four additional breams: M. amblycephala, M. skolkovii, M. terminalis, and Sinibrama wui. The cross-species amplification showed a significant high level of transferability (79%-97%), which might be due to their dramatically close genetic relationships. The polymorphic microsatellites developed in the current study will not only contribute to further conservation genetic studies and parentage analyses of this endangered species, but also facilitate future work on the other closely related species. PMID:22489139

Wang, Jinjin; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhao, Kai; Zhang, Yaoguang; Tong, Jingou; Peng, Zuogang

2012-03-06

276

Changes induced by cadmium in the kidney of Black Sea bream, Mylio macrocephalus (teleostei)  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium is known to cause injury to most of the internal organs of higher vertebrates. Chronic exposure of cadmium produces histopathological changes in the kidney in man and experimental animals and leads to its preferential accumulation in the liver and kidney. The toxic effects of cadmium on man and experimental animals such as rats, mice and rabbits have been extensively investigated. However, less is known about injurious effects of cadmium on fish, in particular marine fish species. In the present study, the time course of cadmium-induced renal toxicity and histopathological changes of the kidneys of the Black Sea bream, one of the mot common maricultural fish species in Hong Kong, after administration of cadmium chloride are described.

Ooi, V.E.C.; Law, F.K. (Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong (China))

1989-11-01

277

Metazoan parasite infracommunities of Menticirrhus (Teleostei: Sciaenidae): an amphi-oceanic approximation.  

PubMed

Metazoan infracommunities of Menticirrhus ophicephalus from the south Pacific Ocean and M. americanus from the south Atlantic Ocean were analyzed and compared. The metazoan parasite infracommunities of M. ophicephalus showed higher values of total number of parasite individuals/host and parasite species richness than that of M americanus, but M. americanus showed higher values of parasite species diversity. The infracommunities of ectoparasites showed higher values of total number of parasite individuals/host, richness, and frequency of dominance in M. ophicephalus; in contrast, endoparasites showed higher values of these infracommunity descriptors in M. americanus. Ecological analysis of the marine fish parasite infracommunities using the total number of components (ecto- and endoparasites) could hide some patterns of the community structure; thus, a separate analysis of only ecto- or endoparasites is recommended. Additional studies monitoring the influence of the "upwelling ecosystem" and the El Niño-Southern oscillation event on the fish parasite communities are necessary to determine the real influence of these ecological disturbances on the structure of fish parasite communities in South America. PMID:10219326

Luque, J L; Oliva, M E

1999-04-01

278

Molecular Evolution of Cytochrome c Oxidase in High-Performance Fish (Teleostei: Scombroidei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 13 peptides encoded by vertebrate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are essential subunits of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)\\u000a enzymes. These genes normally experience purifying selection and also coevolve with nuclear-encoded subunits of OXPHOS complexes.\\u000a However, the role of positive selection on mtDNA evolution is still unclear, as most examples of intergenomic coevolution\\u000a appear to be the result of compensation by nuclear-encoded genes

Anne C. Dalziel; Christopher D. Moyes; Emma Fredriksson; Stephen C. Lougheed

2006-01-01

279

Refrigerated Shelflife of Spanish Mackerel ('Scomberomorus maculatus') and King Mackerel ('Scomberomorus cavalla') Harvested from the Southeastern United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Freshly caught spanish mackerel and king mackerel were processed into various market forms and stored, either iced or packaged, at 4C. Representative samples of each product form were removed from storage at regular intervals and assessed for quality usin...

M. E. Waters

1982-01-01

280

Antagonistic regulation, yet synergistic defense: effect of bergapten and protease inhibitor on development of cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The furanocoumarin compound bergapten is a plant secondary metabolite that has anti-insect function. When incorporated into artificial diet, it retarded cowpea bruchid development, decreased fecundity, and caused mortality at a sufficient dose. cDNA microarray analysis indicated that cowpea bruchid altered expression of 543 midgut genes in response to dietary bergapten. Among these bergapten-regulated genes, 225 have known functions; for instance, those encoding proteins related to nutrient transport and metabolism, development, detoxification, defense and various cellular functions. Such differential gene regulation presumably facilitates the bruchids' countering the negative effect of dietary bergapten. Many genes did not have homology (E-value cutoff 10(-6)) with known genes in a BlastX search (206), or had homology only with genes of unknown function (112). Interestingly, when compared with the transcriptomic profile of cowpea bruchids treated with dietary soybean cysteine protease inhibitor N (scN), 195 out of 200 coregulated midgut genes are oppositely regulated by the two compounds. Simultaneous administration of bergapten and scN attenuated magnitude of change in selected oppositely-regulated genes, as well as led to synergistic delay in insect development. Therefore, targeting insect vulnerable sites that may compromise each other's counter-defensive response has the potential to increase the efficacy of the anti-insect molecules. PMID:22927917

Guo, Fengguang; Lei, Jiaxin; Sun, Yucheng; Chi, Yong Hun; Ge, Feng; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Koiwa, Hisashi; Zeng, Rensen; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

2012-08-21

281

Insecticidal and Repellent Activities of the Essential Oil of Callistemon citrinus (Myrtaceae) Against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The essential oil of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) leaves was extracted by hydro distillation and tested on female and male adults of Callosobruchus macullatus (F.) for insecticidal and repellent effects. GC-MS analysis was used to identify and quantify the volatile composition of the essential oil. Results showed that 1,8-cineole (34.2%) and ?-pinene (29.0%) were the major components of the oil. Callistemon citrinus oil was found to be toxic to adult insects when applied by fumigation. Responses varied according to the gender of the insect and exposure time. LC50 values were 12.88 and 84.4 ?L.?L(-1) for males and females, respectively. An increase in exposure time from 3 to 24 h caused an increase in mortality from 50% to 100% in males and from 15.5% to 85.2% in females, at the highest concentration (500 ?L.?L(-1)). The essential oil also had a repellent effect against C. macullatus in a filter paper arena test. After 2 and 4 h, 86% and 94%, respectively, repellent effects were demonstrated at the highest concentration of 0.4 ?L?.cm(-2). These observations suggest that C. citrinus essential oil may be usefully applied to control storage pests. PMID:23949717

Zandi-Sohani, N; Hojjati, M; Carbonell-Barrachina, A A

2012-11-01

282

Combined effect of three insect growth regulators on the digestive enzymatic profiles of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are insecticides that mimic insect produced hormones by regulatingdevelopmental process. Theyhave little or no mammalian toxicity, and are considered reduced-risk insecticides that are often exempt from tolerance requirements of regulatory agencies. IGRs, especially, chlorfluazuron, hydroprene and hexaflumuron (benzoylphenylurea) are currently studied because of possibility of using in stored products protection. Many of IGRs compounds usedin insect pests control are known to affect digestive enzymes. Chlorfluazuron, hydroprene and hexaflumuronwere tested topically at doses of 0.25%, 0.5%&1% for chlorfluazuron and hydroprene and 0.5, 1 & 2 microg/ml of hexaflumuron to investigate its effects on the activities of the digestive enzymes protease, amylase and lipase in Callosobruchusmaculatus larvae, which were affected by IGRs individually and in combination. When combined, the effect was more sever at low concentration. There were statistically significant differences (P < or = 0.05) in enzyme activities in combined and individual treatments. Combination three IGRs caused a two-fold decrease in enzyme activity even at reduced concentration. Clear dose-response relationships were established with respect to enzyme activity. A synergistic effect of IGRs was found by combination of low doses. These effects are most pronounced in early instars. PMID:22435168

Khatter, Najat Aly; Abuldahb, Faten Farid

2011-12-01

283

Synergistic interactions within disturbed habitats between temperature, relative humidity and UVB radiation on egg survival in a diadromous fish.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic impacts, including urbanization, deforestation, farming, and livestock grazing have altered riparian margins worldwide. One effect of changes to riparian vegetation is that the ground-level light, temperature, and humidity environment has also been altered. Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widely distributed fishes of the southern hemisphere, lays eggs almost exclusively beneath riparian vegetation in tidally influenced reaches of rivers. We hypothesized that the survival of these eggs is greatly affected by the micro-environment afforded by vegetation, particularly relating to temperature, humidity and UVB radiation. We experimentally reduced riparian vegetation height and altered shading characteristics, tracked egg survival, and used small ground-level temperature, humidity and UVB sensors to relate survival to ground-level effects around egg masses. The ground-level physical environment was markedly different from the surrounding ambient conditions. Tall dense riparian vegetation modified ambient conditions to produce a buffered temperature regime with constant high relative humidity, generally above 90%, and negligible UVB radiation at ground-level. Where vegetation height was reduced, frequent high temperatures, low humidity, and high UVB irradiances reduced egg survival by up to 95%. Temperature effects on egg survival were probably indirect, through reduced humidity, because developing eggs are known to survive in a wide range of temperatures. In this study, it was remarkable how such small variations in relatively small sites could have such a large effect on egg survival. It appears that modifications to riparian vegetation and the associated changes in the physical conditions of egg laying sites are major mechanisms affecting egg survival. The impacts associated with vegetational changes through human-induced disturbances are complex yet potentially devastating. These effects are particularly important because they affect a very small portion of habitat that is required to complete the life history of a species, despite the wide distribution of adults and juveniles across aquatic and marine environments. PMID:21931680

Hickford, Michael J H; Schiel, David R

2011-09-08

284

Fishes of the family Ipnopidae (Teleostei: Aulopiformes) collected on the Brazilian continental slope between 11 degrees and 23 degrees S.  

PubMed

A collection of fishes from the Brazilian continental slope between 11 degrees and 23 degrees S obtained through trawling revealed nine species of Ipnopidae. Bathypterois bigelowi and Bathytyphlops marionae represent first records from the south-western Atlantic Ocean and Bathypterois grallator is reported off Brazil for the first time. Four species have their distribution extended in Brazilian waters: Bathypterois phenax, Bathypterois quadrifilis, Bathypterois viridensis and Ipnops murrayi. An identification key of Ipnopidae species from the south-western Atlantic Ocean is included. PMID:20738580

Franco, M A L; Braga, A C; Nunan, G W A; Costa, P A S

2009-09-01

285

Behavioural and ecomorphological responses of the neotropical pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Teleostei, Serrasalmidae) to oxygen-deficient waters.  

PubMed

The serrasalmid Piaractus mesopotamicus is an obligate gill-breather encountered in the floodplains of the Paraná-Paraguay River system, even when the O2 concentrations there are below 0.5 mg 1(-1). Similar conditions occur in fish ponds where this species is cultured. Locomotory activity is affected by both O2 concentration and surface access. Activity increases with hypoxia if fish have surface access, but decreases if surface access is denied by floating macrophytes. Below 0.4 mg 1(-1), larvae as well as larger fish are capable of utilizing the oxygen-rich surface layer of the water for respiration, in order to survive periods of habitat-induced hypoxia. This so-called aquatic surface respiration (ASR) entails an increase in locomotory activity and an ecomorphosis, involving the formation of a dermal extension on the lower jaw in larger fish, that apparently has a hydrodynamic funciton of using the surface layer for gill respiration. Although larvae display ASR, no ecomorphological adaptations were found. When the water is aerated, the extended lip of the larger fish regresses to its original size. Below a macrophyte cover fish are not able to survive O2 depletion. Histological examinations show that the extension is formed by edematous processes in the stratum spongiosum. Ventilation frequency increases with falling O2 and decreases during ASR, thus demonstrating a better O2 supply at the surface layer of the water. PMID:3268425

Saint-Paul, U; Bernardinho, G

1988-01-01

286

Karyotypic conservatism in samples of Characidium cf. zebra (Teleostei, Characiformes, Crenuchidae): Physical mapping of ribosomal genes and natural triploidy.  

PubMed

Basic and molecular cytogenetic analyses were performed in specimens of Characidium cf. zebra from five collection sites located throughout the Tietê, Paranapanema and Paraguay river basins. The diploid number in specimens from all samples was 2n = 50 with a karyotype composed of 32 metacentric and 18 submetacentric chromosomes in both males and females. Constitutive heterochromatin was present at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and pair 23, had additional interstitial heterochromatic blocks on its long arms. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were located on the long arms of pair 23, while the 5S rDNA sites were detected in different chromosomes among the studied samples. One specimen from the Alambari river was a natural triploid and had two extra chromosomes, resulting in 2n = 77. The remarkable karyotypic similarity among the specimens of C. cf. zebra suggests a close evolutionary relationship. On the other hand, the distinct patterns of 5S rDNA distribution may be the result of gene flow constraints during their evolutionary history. PMID:21734818

Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

2011-04-01

287

DIET AND REPRODUCTION ASPECTS OF ASTYANAX AUROCAUDATUS (TELEOSTEI: CHARACIDAE) FROM THE UPPER PART OF THE RÍO CAUCA, COLOMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet and reproductive studies of the characid A. aurocaudatus from alto Río Cauca were carried out. The species reproduces in the rainy and dry season and is nonmigratory. Sexual maturity is achieved at 25 mm standard length as well in males as in females fiches. Fecundity is low (181 oocytes), and sex ratio is 2:1, with predominance of females. A

César Román-Valencia; Raquel I. Ruiz

2005-01-01

288

Habitat-dependent geographical variation in ontogenetic allometry of the shiner perch Cymatogaster aggregata Gibbons (Teleostei: Embiotocidae).  

PubMed

Studies of intraspecific morphological variation in fishes have traditionally focused on freshwater rather than marine species. In addition, such studies typically focus on adults, although causes and intensities of selective pressures most likely vary through an individual's lifetime. In this study, body and head shape of a marine species, shiner perch Cymatogaster aggregata Gibbons were compared among localities along the Pacific Northwest coast of North America. Evidence was found for intraspecific variation in ontogenetic allometry, and for a closer correlation of body shape with environment rather than geographical proximity. This correlation with environment was more evident in younger fish, thereby demonstrating the importance of analysing multiple life stages. A common garden experiment suggests both environmental and genetic bases for the observed differences. Recognizing intraspecific ecomorphological complexity and its specificity to habitat and/or life stage can have important consequences for understanding the role of local adaptation and population dynamics in macroecology. PMID:17714296

Woods, P J

2007-09-01

289

Ocular morphology of the sweep Scorpis lineolatus and the spotty Notolabrus celidotus (Pisces: Teleostei) grown in low intensity light.  

PubMed

Adults of two species of teleost fishes, the New Zealand sweep (Scorpis lineolatus) and the spotty (Notolabrus [formerly Pseudolabrus] celidotus), were recovered from dark, sealed sea water storage tanks after an extended period of residence (physical constraints meant that fish could only have entered the system as larvae or small juveniles). Individuals of both species had proportionately larger eyes than normal fishes of similar body size. Age estimation, based on unvalidated annual increments in otoliths indicated that fishes from the water tanks were all older (i.e. slower-growing) than normal fishes of similar size. This suggests that the increase in relative eye size in tank fishes may have been the result of maintenance of ocular growth, in the face of reduced rates of somatic growth, and raises the question as to whether eye growth in fishes generally, is a temporal function. In addition to ocular enlargement, sweeps from the water tanks also showed reduced densities of cones, rods, ganglion cells and, in some cases bipolar cells compared to normal fishes of similar body size. Cone, rod and bipolar cell densities of tank fishes were not different when compared with normal fishes of similar eye size; however, ganglion cell numbers were still lower than in normal fishes. This suggests that changes in cone, rod and bipolar cell densities in tank fishes resulted from the normal changes that occur with ocular growth, whereas low ganglion cell densities were a direct result of the abnormal photic environment. In contrast to the sweeps, most of the spotties from the water tanks did not show differences in retinal cell densities relative to normal fishes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1555109

Pankhurst, N W

1992-01-01

290

Peripatric differentiation among adjacent marine lake and lagoon populations of a coastal fish, Sphaeramia orbicularis (Apogonidae, Perciformes, Teleostei).  

PubMed

The effect of geographical isolation on speciation, particularly within short geographical ranges, is poorly understood among marine organisms. Focusing on marine lakes of the Palau Islands, we investigated the effect of geographical isolation on Sphaeramia orbicularis, a coastal fish inhabiting marine lakes and lagoons. We collected a total of 157 individuals from three meromictic marine lakes and three lagoon sites, and analyzed the genetic diversity and differentiation of the populations based on complete sequences of the mitochondrial control region (824 bp). The analyses show that the genetic diversity of marine lake populations is much lower than that of lagoon populations. Moreover, a mismatch distribution analysis suggests that marine lake populations have experienced a decrease followed by a rapid expansion of their population size. These results reveal that marine lake populations have experienced severe founder and/or bottleneck events during the last thousand to tens of thousand years. Pairwise Phi(ST )values ranged from 0.531 to 0.848 between marine lake and lagoon populations and from 0.429 to 0.870 among marine lake populations, indicating a high degree of genetic differentiation. We speculate that such peripatric differentiation between marine lake and lagoon populations was caused by a small number of individuals colonizing the lakes from the lagoon (founder event) followed by repetitive bottleneck events, such as those generated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). So far, such high genetic divergences in extremely short geographical ranges (approximately 150-250 m) have scarcely been reported for marine organisms. We suggest that the marine lake is one of the good model of geographical isolation in marine organisms and each marine lake population is in the early stages of speciation. PMID:20057166

Gotoh, Ryo O; Sekimoto, Hidekatsu; Chiba, Satoru N; Hanzawa, Naoto

2009-08-01

291

Phylogenetic relationships of the lamprologine cichlid genus Lepidiolamprologus (Teleostei: Perciformes) based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences, suggesting introgressive hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using sequences of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene (ND2, 1047bp) and a segment of the non-coding mitochondrial control region, as well as nuclear sequences including two introns from the S7 ribosomal protein and the loci TmoM25, TmoM27, and UME002, we explore the phylogenetic relationships of Lepidiolamprologus, one of seven lamprologine cichlid genera in Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Analyses

Robert Schelly; Walter Salzburger; Stephan Koblmüller; Nina Duftner; Christian Sturmbauer

2006-01-01

292

Evolutionary history of Otophysi (Teleostei), a major clade of the modern freshwater fishes: Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Freshwater harbors approximately 12,000 fish species accounting for 43% of the diversity of all modern fish. A single ancestral\\u000a lineage evolved into about two-thirds of this enormous biodiversity (? 7900 spp.) and is currently distributed throughout\\u000a the world's continents except Antarctica. Despite such remarkable species diversity and ubiquity, the evolutionary history\\u000a of this major freshwater fish clade, Otophysi, remains largely

Masanori Nakatani; Masaki Miya; Kohji Mabuchi; Kenji Saitoh; Mutsumi Nishida

2011-01-01

293

Gut length and mass in herbivorous and carnivorous prickleback fishes (Teleostei: Stichaeidae): ontogenetic, dietary, and phylogenetic effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative gut length, Zihler’s index, and relative gut mass were measured in four species of prickleback fishes and the effects\\u000a of ontogeny, diet, and phylogeny on these gut dimensions were determined. Of the four species, Cebidichthys violaceus and Xiphister mucosus shift to herbivory with growth (>45 mm SL), whereas X. atropurpureus and Anoplarchus purpurescens remain carnivores. A. purpurescens belongs to a

Donovan P. German; Michael H. Horn

2006-01-01

294

Early development of the postcranial skeleton of the pikeperch Sander lucioperca (Teleostei: Percidae) relating to developmental stages and growth.  

PubMed

The early development of the postcranial skeleton (pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, vertebral column and fins) in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca (L.)) was studied from hatching to days 47 and 43 post fertilization (dpf) at two different rearing temperatures, 15.5 and 18.0°C. Four embryonic and six larval stages were described, ranging from 3.4 ± 0.3 mm to 21.8 ± 2.1 mm in total length. The crucial point in larval development is swimbladder inflation, which enables larvae to swim energy efficiently. Until this time point, only the most essential skeletal elements to enable swimming movements have developed. As the larvae become neutrally buoyant, they grow and differentiate postcranial elements rapidly. Concurrently, swimming performance and foraging success seems to improve. A specific size is correlated with a distinct developmental stage defined by a set of traits that includes the skeletal elements. The developmental sequence of skeletal structures is temperature independent, although growth is slower and the individual developmental stages are reached later at 15.5°C than at 18.0°C. PMID:22505228

Ott, Alice; Löffler, Jasmin; Ahnelt, Harald; Keckeis, Hubert

2012-04-14

295

Auerbachia bajadi sp. n. (Myxozoa: Auerbachiidae) infecting the gallbladder of orangespotted trevally Carangoides bajad (Teleostei: Carangidae) in the Red Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light microscopic description was presented for a new myxosporean species, Auerbachia bajadi. The parasite was collected from the gallbladder of orangespotted trevally Carangoides bajad (Forsskål, 1775) in Al-Quseir city, Red Sea coast, Egypt. The prevalence was 30\\/80 (37%) and the infection was reported as\\u000a an enormous amount of free mature spores floating in the bile. Spores were club-shaped with a

Abdel-Azeem Sh. Abdel-Baki

2010-01-01

296

Auerbachia bajadi sp. n. (Myxozoa: Auerbachiidae) infecting the gallbladder of orangespotted trevally Carangoides bajad (Teleostei: Carangidae) in the Red Sea.  

PubMed

Light microscopic description was presented for a new myxosporean species, Auerbachia bajadi. The parasite was collected from the gallbladder of orangespotted trevally Carangoides bajad (Forsskål, 1775) in Al-Quseir city, Red Sea coast, Egypt. The prevalence was 30/80 (37%) and the infection was reported as an enormous amount of free mature spores floating in the bile. Spores were club-shaped with a broad anterior part and a narrow caudal part. Shell valves were asymmetrical and the larger valve was drawn into a wide caudal projection. The mean spore measurements were 22.7 mum in total length and 9.5 mum in width. Polar capsule was single and elliptical-shaped with five polar filament turns. The polar capsule measured 9.5 mum in length and 4.5 mum in width. The spores were distinctly different from the four recorded species of genus Auerbachia. One of the cited species of this genus was excluded as it was related to genus Coccomyxa than genus Auerbachia. Also, the accurate citation date of this genus was discussed. PMID:20480376

Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem Sh

2010-05-18

297

Cloning, characterization and expression of the pepsinogen C from the golden mandarin fish Siniperca scherzeri (Teleostei: Perciformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pepsinogens are precursors of pepsins, which are gastric digestive proteinases that degrade food proteins into peptides. In\\u000a the study reported here, the cDNA and its corresponding genomic DNA of the golden mandarin fish (Siniperca scherzeri, Perciformes) pepsinogen C (PGC) were cloned and sequenced. The golden mandarin fish PGC gene was deduced to have nine exons\\u000a and eight introns, a structure

Yanfei Deng; Jinliang Zhao; Guoqing Lu; Xuefeng Wu; Yan Tao

2010-01-01

298

The role of continental shelf width in determining freshwater phylogeographic patterns in south-eastern Australian pygmy perches (Teleostei: Percichthyidae).  

PubMed

Biogeographic patterns displayed by obligate freshwater organisms are intimately related to the nature and extent of connectivity between suitable habitats. Two of the more significant barriers to freshwater connections are seawater and major drainage divides. South-eastern Australia provides a contrast between these barriers as it has discrete areas that are likely influenced to a greater or lesser extent by each barrier type. We use continental shelf width as a proxy for the potential degree of river coalescence during low sea levels. Our specific hypothesis is that the degree of phylogeographic divergence between coastal river basins should correspond to the continental shelf width of each region. This predicts that genetic divergences between river basins should be lowest in regions with a wider continental shelf and that regions with similar continental shelf width should have similar genetic divergences. Pygmy perches (Nannoperca australis and Nannoperca 'flindersi') in south-eastern Australia provide an ideal opportunity to test these biogeographic hypotheses. Phylogeographic patterns were examined based on range-wide sampling of 82 populations for cytochrome b and 23 polymorphic allozyme loci. Our results recovered only limited support for our continental shelf width hypothesis, although patterns within Bass clade were largely congruent with reconstructed low sea-level drainage patterns. In addition, we identified several instances of drainage divide crossings, typically associated with low elevational differences. Our results demonstrate high levels of genetic heterogeneity with important conservation implications, especially for declining populations in the Murray-Darling Basin and a highly restricted disjunct population in Ansons River, Tasmania. PMID:23398527

Unmack, Peter J; Hammer, Michael P; Adams, Mark; Johnson, Jerald B; Dowling, Thomas E

2013-02-11

299

Haemopoiesis in the head kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae): a morphological (optical and ultrastructural) study  

PubMed Central

The present work focused on the histological and ultrastructural studies on haemopoiesis in the kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Haemopoietic tissue was found mainly in the head kidney and a small amount occurred in the mesonephros. The haemopoiesis of tilapia had the following series: erythropoiesis, granulopoiesis, thrombopoiesis, monopoiesis and lymphoplasmopoiesis. Erythropoiesis includes proerythroblasts, basophilic erythroblasts, polychromatic erythroblasts, acidophilic erythroblasts and young and mature erythrocytes. The proerythroblasts were the largest cells in the erythropoietic series. During the maturation process both the nuclear and cellular size decreased gradually due to the chromatin condensation and the progressive substitution of cytoplasmic matrix with a large amount of haemoglobin. Granulopoietic series consisted of cells with variable shape and size at different stages of maturity from myeloblasts to mature granulocytes. The promyelocytes were the largest cells in the series and were characterised by the appearance of primary (azoruphilic) granules. The maturation process involved the appearance of specific granules in the heterophilic, eosinophilic and basophilic series. It is important to mention that eosinophilic granulocytes were the dominant granulopoietic series in the haemopoietic tissue (Ht) of tilapia. Lymphopoietic series consisted of lymphoblasts, large lymphocytes, small lymphocytes and active and inactive plasma cells. Thrombopoietic series consisted of thromboblasts, prothromboblasts and thrombocytes. Thrombocytes of tilapia were nucleated and possessed a spindle shape. Melanomacrophage centres were dominant among the Ht of the head kidney. Also, monocytes were detected and shown to be large cells with an indented nucleus and cytoplasm containing numerous vesicles of different sizes and a few lysosomes.

Abdel-Aziz, El-Saydah H.; Abdu, Suzan B. S.; Fouad, Huda F.

2009-01-01

300

The role of sexual harassment in cave and surface dwelling populations of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual coercion is a common behaviour for males trying to compensate for being inferior in male competition and\\/or female choice. We measured the cost of male sexual harassment for females as reduced feeding time in three populations of the Atlantic molly ( Poecilia mexicana). Of these populations, one originated from a typical river habitat, another from a lightless cave chamber

Martin Plath; Jakob Parzefall; Ingo Schlupp

2003-01-01

301

mtDNA control region and D-HPLC analysis: a method to evaluate the mating system in Syngnathidae (Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been used extensively in animals for phylogenetic and population studies but it has been applied\\u000a only occasionally to mating systems analysis, where nuclear markers are usually preferred. We used denaturing-high performance\\u000a liquid chromatography (D-HPLC) to detect mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms to assess the genetic mating system in Syngnathus abaster. Our study of ten pregnant males, revealed polygyny

Daria Sanna; Alberto Addis; Francesca Biagi; Costantino Motzo; Marcella Carcupino; Paolo Francalacci

2008-01-01

302

Haemopoiesis in the head kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae): a morphological (optical and ultrastructural) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work focused on the histological and ultrastructural studies on haemopoiesis in the kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Haemopoietic tissue was found mainly in the head kidney and a small amount occurred in the mesonephros. The haemopoiesis\\u000a of tilapia had the following series: erythropoiesis, granulopoiesis, thrombopoiesis, monopoiesis and lymphoplasmopoiesis.\\u000a Erythropoiesis includes proerythroblasts, basophilic erythroblasts, polychromatic erythroblasts, acidophilic erythroblasts\\u000a and

El-Saydah H. Abdel-Aziz; Suzan B. S. Abdu; Tamer El-Sayed Ali; Huda F. Fouad

2010-01-01

303

Growth of striated muscle fibres in the M. lateralis of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) (Pisces, Teleostei).  

PubMed Central

Diameters of red and white muscle fibres were measured in the M. lateralis of eels cultured under laboratory circumstances over a period of 2 years, starting from the glass eel stage. The red fibres of eels less than 10 cm are unique in that their growth involves increase in diameter only. Growth of the red fibres in eels greater than 10 cm, and of the white fibres in eels at all lengths considered, is characterized by an increase in number as well as diameter, the relative importance of these two methods of growth being related to factors other than the length of the animal. Satellite cells may play an important part in the addition of new, small muscle fibres. Images Fig. 8

Willemse, J J; van den Berg, P G

1978-01-01

304

Marine-freshwater transitions are associated with the evolution of dietary diversification in terapontid grunters (Teleostei: Terapontidae).  

PubMed

The ecological opportunities associated with transitions across the marine-freshwater interface are regarded as an important catalyst of diversification in a range of aquatic taxa. Here, we examined the role of these major habitat transitions and trophic diversification in a radiation of Australasian fishes using a new molecular phylogeny incorporating 37 Terapontidae species. A combined mitochondrial and nuclear gene analysis yielded a well-supported tree with most nodes resolved. Ancestral terapontids appear to have been euryhaline in habitat affiliation, with a single transition to freshwater environments producing all Australasian freshwater species. Mapping of terapontid feeding modes onto the molecular phylogeny-predicted carnivorous dietary habits was displayed by ancestral terapontids, which subsequently diversified into a range of additional carnivorous, omnivorous, herbivorous and detritivorous dietary modes upon transition to freshwater habitats. Comparative analyses suggested that following the freshwater invasion, the single freshwater clade has exhibited an increased rate of diversification at almost three times the background rate evident across the rest of the family. The marine-freshwater transition within Terapontidae appears to have resulted in substantial dietary radiation in freshwater environments, as well as increased lineage diversification rates relative to euryhaline-marine habitats. PMID:22519660

Davis, A M; Unmack, P J; Pusey, B J; Johnson, J B; Pearson, R G

2012-04-23

305

Ontogenetic shape changes in Pomacentridae (Teleostei, Perciformes) and their relationships with feeding strategies: a geometric morphometric approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explores the shape changes of cranial structures directly involved in food capturing during growth after reef settlement in two species of Pomacentridae (Dascyllus aruanus and Pomacentrus pavo). Landmark-based geometric morphometrics were used to study allometric patterns and related shape changes in four skeletal units: neurocranium, suspensorium and opercle, mandible and premaxilla. At settlement, the larvae of both

BRUNO FREDERICH; DOMINIQUE ADRIAENS; PIERRE VANDEWALLE

2008-01-01

306

Evolutionary history of Otophysi (Teleostei), a major clade of the modern freshwater fishes: Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation  

PubMed Central

Background Freshwater harbors approximately 12,000 fish species accounting for 43% of the diversity of all modern fish. A single ancestral lineage evolved into about two-thirds of this enormous biodiversity (? 7900 spp.) and is currently distributed throughout the world's continents except Antarctica. Despite such remarkable species diversity and ubiquity, the evolutionary history of this major freshwater fish clade, Otophysi, remains largely unexplored. To gain insight into the history of otophysan diversification, we constructed a timetree based on whole mitogenome sequences across 110 species representing 55 of the 64 families. Results Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis based on unambiguously aligned sequences (9923 bp) confidently recovered the monophyly of Otophysi and the two constituent subgroups (Cypriniformes and Characiphysi). The latter clade comprised three orders (Gymnotiformes, Characiformes, Siluriformes), and Gymnotiformes was sister to the latter two groups. One of the two suborders in Characiformes (Characoidei) was more closely related to Siluriformes than to its own suborder (Citharinoidei), rendering the characiforms paraphyletic. Although this novel relationship did not receive strong statistical support, it was supported by analyzing independent nuclear markers. A relaxed molecular clock Bayesian analysis of the divergence times and reconstruction of ancestral habitats on the timetree suggest a Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation of otophysans. Conclusions The present timetree demonstrates that survival of the ancestral lineages through the two consecutive mass extinctions on Pangaea, and subsequent radiations during the Jurassic through early Cretaceous shaped the modern familial diversity of otophysans. This evolutionary scenario is consistent with recent arguments based on biogeographic inferences and molecular divergence time estimates. No fossil otophysan, however, has been recorded before the Albian, the early Cretaceous 100-112 Ma, creating an over 100 million year time span without fossil evidence. This formidable ghost range partially reflects a genuine difference between the estimated ages of stem group origin (molecular divergence time) and crown group morphological diversification (fossil divergence time); the ghost range, however, would be filled with discoveries of older fossils that can be used as more reasonable time constraints as well as with developments of more realistic models that capture the rates of molecular sequences accurately.

2011-01-01

307

Form changes in the sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Moronidae: Teleostei), after acclimation to freshwater: an analysis using shape coordinates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological changes in the sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Perciformes: Moronidae), were investigated after an experimental acclimation trial to freshwater. The sea bass is an euryhaline species occurring in the Mediterranean and west Atlantic from 30° N to 55° N. Part of the offspring of a pool of breeders was acclimated to freshwater at 9 months of age while maintaining the

Marco Corti; Angelo Loy; Stefano Cataudella

1996-01-01

308

Role of the neural crest in development of the cartilaginous cranial and visceral skeleton of the medaka, Oryzias latipes (Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural crestectomies were performed on neurula stage medaka embryos to remove neural crest with tungsten needles from one of five anteriorly located zones. The embryos were allowed to develop to stage 35 (immediately posthatching) larvae, then cleared and stained for cartilage. An analysis of changes to the head skeletons indicated that most of the anterior neurocranium and the entire viscerocranium

Robert M. Langille; Brian K. Hall

1988-01-01

309

Life history of the red porgy Pagrus pagrus (Teleostei: Sparidae) off the Canary Islands, central east Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red porgy Pagrus pagrus (N = 1858) caught off the Canary Islands between May 1985 and April 1986 and between January 1991 and September 1993 were studied. Total length was in the range 4.7–57.2 cm. Females predominated at the smaller sizes and males at the larger sizes. Protogynous hermaphroditism was found. The overall ratio of males to females was 1:3.29.

J. G. Pajuelo; J. M. Lorenzo

1996-01-01

310

Kudoa unicapsula n. sp. (Myxosporea: Kudoidae) a parasite of the Mediterranean mullets Liza ramada and L. aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).  

PubMed

A new multivalvulid myxozoan parasite, Kudoa unicapsula n. sp., is described from the intestinal mesentery, intestine and pyloric caeca of the thin-lipped grey mullet Liza ramada (Risso 1826) and the golden grey mullet L. aurata (Risso, 1810) from the Mediterranean coastal waters of Spain. It is characterized by the presence of elongated, rice corn-like white cysts of 0.47-0.56 x 0.18-0.38 mm, filled with tetracapsulate, slightly asymmetric spores, rectangular in apical view and tear-shaped in lateral view with four polar capsules of considerably different size and slightly unequal spore valves with rounded edges, overlapping each other on the apex of the spore. One large polar capsule includes a polar filament coiled in two to three turns, and the other three polar capsules, which are very small, posses only a rudimental filament. Both light and electron microscopy data showed that this species differs from all previously described Kudoa spp. with unequal polar capsules. The molecular analysis based on 18S and 28S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid DNA sequence data of K. unicapsula n. sp. indicates a close relationship and thus phylogenetic clustering together with K. trifolia, a myxozoan from the same host and the same geographical location. PMID:17846792

Yurakhno, V M; Ovcharenko, M O; Holzer, A S; Sarabeev, V L; Balbuena, J A

2007-09-11

311

A phylogenetic analysis of the major groups of catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes) using rag1 and rag2 nuclear gene sequences.  

PubMed

Higher-level relationships among catfishes were investigated by parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of two nuclear genes across 110 catfish species representing 36 of 37 families and Conorhynchos (family incertae sedis). Analysis of 3660 aligned base pairs from the rag1 and rag2 genes confirms monophyly of Siluriformes, of most siluriform families and of a number of multifamily groups, some recognized, some novel. South American Loricarioidei are recovered as the sistergroup to other catfishes which are divided into Diplomystidae and Siluroidei. This result contrasts with the prevailing hypothesis that Diplomystidae is the sister to all other catfishes. Monophyly of Siluroidei is supported by rag data including a unique three-codon deletion from rag1. Deep within Siluroidei are 12 large, strongly supported groups with poorly resolved interrelationships. Five are single families: Cetopsidae, Plotosidae, Chacidae, Siluridae and Pangasiidae. Four others are monophyletic taxa ranked here as superfamilies: Clarioidea (Clariidae, Heteropneustidae), Arioidea (Ariidae, Anchariidae), Pimelodoidea (Pimelodidae, Pseudopimelodidae, Heptapteridae, Conorhynchos), Ictaluroidea (Ictaluridae, Cranoglanididae). South American Doradoidea (Doradidae, Auchenipteridae) and Aspredinidae are a sistergroup pair. Sisoroidea (without Aspredinidae), Ailia+Laides, Horabagridae, and Bagridae (without Rita) form a large, predominantly Asian clade, "Big Asia." Mochokidae, Malapteruridae, Amphiliidae, Claroteidae, and African schilbids are united as a species-rich African clade, "Big Africa." The three large continental clades, "Big Asia," "Big Africa" and Neotropical Loricarioidei suggest a prevalence of intracontinental diversification of catfishes. South America is the home of the Gymnotiformes, putative sistergroup of catfishes, plus two of the deepest siluriform clades, Loricarioidei and Diplomystidae, thus suggesting an ancient siluriform presence if not origin there. The rag phylogeny does not identify any African-South American catfish clade. The well-known African-Asian relationships within families Clariidae and Bagridae are confirmed, as is the recently found North American-Asian relationship between Ictaluridae and Cranoglanididae. PMID:16876440

Sullivan, John P; Lundberg, John G; Hardman, Michael

2006-06-10

312

Not a simple case - A first comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for the Midas cichlid complex in Nicaragua (Teleostei: Cichlidae: Amphilophus).  

PubMed

Nicaraguan Midas cichlids from crater lakes have recently attracted attention as potential model systems for speciation research, but no attempt has been made to comprehensively reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of this highly diverse and recently evolved species complex. We present a first AFLP (2793 loci) and mtDNA based phylogenetic hypothesis including all described and several undescribed species from six crater lakes (Apoyeque, Apoyo, Asososca Leon, Masaya, Tiscapa and Xiloá), the two great Lakes Managua and Nicaragua and the San Juan River. Our analyses demonstrate that the relationships between the Midas cichlid members are complex, and that phylogenetic information from different markers and methods do not always yield congruent results. Nevertheless, monophyly support for crater lake assemblages from Lakes Apoyeque, Apoyo, A. Leon is high as compared to those from L. Xiloá indicating occurrence of sympatric speciation. Further, we demonstrate that a 'three species' concept for the Midas cichlid complex is inapplicable and consequently that an individualized and voucher based approach in speciation research of the Midas cichlid complex is necessary at least as long as there is no comprehensive revision of the species complex available. PMID:20580847

Geiger, Matthias F; McCrary, Jeffrey K; Schliewen, Ulrich K

2010-05-24

313

First evidence for interspecific hybridization between invasive goby species Neogobius fluviatilis and Neogobius melanostomus (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Benthophilinae).  

PubMed

Two hybrids between the monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis and the round goby Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River were identified by genotyping and morphological comparison. These are the first records of goby-hybrids outside the parent species' native ranges worldwide. PMID:23731157

Lindner, K; Cerwenka, A F; Brandner, J; Gertzen, S; Borcherding, J; Geist, J; Schliewen, U K

2013-04-26

314

Parallel evolution leads to reduced shoaling behavior in two cave dwelling populations of Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoaling behavior protects fishes from avian and piscine predation, but at the same time costs of group living arise due to several mechanisms including increased food competition. Most cave fishes live in an environment in which avian and piscine predators are lacking, and cave environments are often characterized by low food availability, leading to increased food competition. Altogether, this should

2008-01-01

315

Shoaling behaviour in a surface-dwelling and a cave-dwelling population of a barb Garra barreimiae (Cyprinidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied shoaling behaviour in a species of fish ( Garra barreimiae) from Oman. We compared two populations (a surface-dwelling and a cave-dwelling population) with different theoretical costs and benefits of shoaling. We measured the tendency to associate with a shoal of conspecifics. The stimulus shoal was confined to (1) clear Plexiglas cylinders in light, (2) wire-mesh cylinders in light,

Mirna Timmermann; Ingo Schlupp; Martin Plath

2004-01-01

316

Parallel evolution leads to reduced shoaling behavior in two cave dwelling populations of Atlantic mollies ( Poecilia mexicana , Poeciliidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoaling behavior protects fishes from avian and piscine predation, but at the same time costs of group living arise due to\\u000a several mechanisms including increased food competition. Most cave fishes live in an environment in which avian and piscine\\u000a predators are lacking, and cave environments are often characterized by low food availability, leading to increased food competition.\\u000a Altogether, this should

Martin Plath; Ingo Schlupp

2008-01-01

317

Ovarian follicular atresia is mediated by heterophagy, autophagy, and apoptosis in Prochilodus argenteus and Leporinus taeniatus (Teleostei: Characiformes).  

PubMed

We investigated apoptosis, cell proliferation antigen (PCNA), and heat shock protein (HSP70) during ovarian follicular atresia in two freshwater teleost species from the São Francisco River basin, Brazil: curimatã-pacu, Prochilodus argenteus and piau-jejo, Leporinus taeniatus. Fishes were maintained in captivity after the reproductive period and ovarian regression was assessed by gonadosomatic index for three stages: early, advanced, and late regression. Follicular atresia was analysed by light and transmission electron microscopy, as well as by TUNEL and immunohistochemistry for HSP70 and PCNA. During early regression, atretic follicles exhibited zona pellucida breakdown, yolk degeneration, and hypertrophied follicular cells (e.g., granulosa in mammals). Intense heterophagy to engulf the yolk, and autophagy were detected in the follicular cells during advanced and late atresia. The TUNEL assay detected DNA fragmentation, mainly in late follicular atresia. The apoptosis rate of the follicular cells increased up to 10% during follicular atresia in both species and was negatively correlated with follicular area. Immunohistochemistry reaction for HSP70 stained the follicular cells strongly during advanced atresia, when they are intensively involved in yolk engulfment, whereas the reaction for PCNA labelled theca cells. We inferred that heterophagy, autophagy, and apoptosis contributed to follicular atresia in teleost ovaries, thereby achieving a more efficient removal of the degenerating oocyte and dying follicular cells. Additionally, HSP70 may protect the follicular cells before apoptosis when they are involved in yolk engulfment, and cell proliferation in the theca contributed to ovarian remodelling. PMID:18701155

Santos, H B; Thomé, R G; Arantes, F P; Sato, Y; Bazzoli, N; Rizzo, E

2008-08-12

318

Light and ultrastructural description of Meglitschia mylei n. sp. (myxozoa) from Myleus rubripinnis (Teleostei: Serrasalmidae) in the Amazon River system.  

PubMed

Meglitschia mylei n. sp. found in the gall bladder of the teleostean fish Myleus rubripinnis (Serrasalmidae) from the middle Amazonian region of Brazil is described using light and transmission electron microscopy. The spores observed in the bile averaged 24.6±0.8 ?m long, 8.7±0.4 ?m wide and 5.1±0.3 ?m thick and were strongly furcate and arcuate ?-shaped composed of two symmetric equal-sized valves, up to ?70 nm thick. Each valve possessed one opposed tapering appendage, 20.1±0.7 ?m long, oriented parallel towards the basal tip of the appendages and joined along a right suture line forming a thick strand. The strand goes around the central part of the spore, which in turn surrounds two equal and symmetric spherical polar capsules (PC), 2.1±0.3 ?m in diameter, located at the same level. Each capsule contains a polar filament with five (rarely six) coils. The binucleate sporoplasm was irregular in shape, contained several sporoplasmosomes, ?175 nm in diameter and filled all the space of the two caudal appendages. Based on the arc shape of the spore with two tapering caudal appendages oriented to the basis of spores, on the number and position of the PC and of the polar filament coils and arrangements, and on the host specificity, we propose the name M. mylei n. sp. for this new myxozoan. Accordingly, this is the second described species of this genus. PMID:21895844

Azevedo, Carlos; Ribeiro, Mariana; Clemente, Sérgio C S; Casal, Graça; Lopes, Leila; Matos, Patrícia; Al-Quraishy, Saleh A; Matos, Edilson

2011-09-02

319

Ontogeny and homology of the skeletal elements that form the sucking disc of remoras (Teleostei, Echeneoidei, Echeneidae).  

PubMed

The sucking disc of the sharksuckers of the family Echeneidae is one of the most remarkable and most highly modified skeletal structures among vertebrates. We studied the development of the sucking disc based on a series of larval, juvenile, and adult echeneids ranging from 9.3 mm to 175 mm standard length. We revisited the question of the homology of the different skeletal parts that form the disc using an ontogenetic approach. We compared the initial stages of development of the disc with early developmental stages of the spinous dorsal fin in a representative of the morphologically basal percomorph Morone. We demonstrate that the "interneural rays" of echeneids are homologous with the proximal-middle radials of Morone and other teleosts and that the "intercalary bones" of sharksuckers are homologous with the distal radials of Morone and other teleosts. The "intercalary bones" or distal radials develop a pair of large wing-like lateral extensions in echeneids, not present in this form in any other teleost. Finally the "pectinated lamellae" are homologous with the fin spines of Morone and other acanthomorphs. The main part of each pectinated lamella is formed by bilateral extensions of the base of the fin spine just above its proximal tip, each of which develops a row of spinous projections, or spinules, along its posterior margin. The number of rows and the number of spinules increase with size, and they become autogenous from the body of the lamellae. We also provide a historical review of previous studies on the homology of the echeneid sucking disc and demonstrate that the most recent hypotheses, published in 2002, 2005 and 2006, are erroneous. PMID:22833478

Britz, Ralf; Johnson, G David

2012-07-25

320

Evolution and diversification of a sexually dimorphic luminescent system in ponyfishes (Teleostei: Leiognathidae), including diagnoses for two new genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phylogeny was generated for Leiognathidae, an assemblage of bioluminescent, Indo-Pacific schooling fishes, using 6175 characters derived from seven mitochondrial genes (16S, COI, ND4, ND5, tRNA-His, tRNA-Ser, tRNA-Leu), two nuclear genes (28S, histone H3), and 15 morphological transformations corresponding to features of the fishes' sexually dimorphic light-organ system (LOS; e.g., circumesophageal light organ, lateral lining of the gas bladder, transparent

John S. Sparks; Paul V. Dunlap; W. Leo Smith

2005-01-01

321

Host and environmental risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium scophthalmi (Apicomplexa) infection in cultured turbot, Psetta maxima (L.) (Pisces, Teleostei).  

PubMed

An epidemiological cohort study of Cryptosporidium scophthalmi in cultured turbot Psetta maxima L. of Northwestern Spain was conducted along a four-year period. Four different ongrowing cohorts were monitored monthly from introduction into the ongrowing tanks (10-50 g) until reaching market size (400-1400 g). The association of host and environmental factors with five categories of parasite abundance was assessed using a multivariable regression framework. Epidemiological factors assessed here were water temperature, weight, length, month of collection, season, age, origin, condition factor, water filtration, and status to the myxozoan Enteromyxum scophthalmi infection. E. scophthalmi was included into the analysis because it targets the same organ than C. scophthalmi and it was prevalent in the studied population. The multivariable analysis demonstrated the statistically significant association between several factors and parasite abundance. C. scophthalmi abundance was associated (P<0.05) with age, condition factor, season, and status to E. scophthalmi infection. Young animals, with poor condition factor, during spring or summer, and not infected with the myxozoan were most likely to be highly infected by C. scophthalmi. Inclusion of these four variables significantly (P<0.05) improved the model, compared to the model that did not include any of these epidemiological factors. Increasing levels of C. scophthalmi abundance were associated (P<0.01) with higher severity of C. scophthalmi-compatible lesions. The frequency of distribution of C. scophthalmi abundance was clearly right-skewed and fitted a negative binomial distribution, whereas the intensity of infection fitted a Poisson distribution. The quantification of the variance-to-mean ratio stratified by age demonstrated overdispersion for 8-16 months old fish, although this bivariate association is likely affected by several other factors, as suggested by the results of the multivariable analysis. The negative relation between C. scophthalmi abundance and status to E. scophthalmi infection suggests differences in the transmission, onset, and course of both infections. The coarse filtration used in some cohorts did not significantly affect the levels of infection. C. scophthalmi was probably introduced into the ongrowing tanks mainly with carrier fish, though the involvement of infective oocysts from the water supply cannot be disregarded. Infection prevalence and mean intensity decreased with fish age and a seasonal distribution was found. Results presented here will help to understand the epidemiology of C. scophthalmi in turbot, to estimate the expected levels of infection associated with presence or absence of epidemiological factors, and to quantify the impact that the disease may have on susceptible turbot populations. The multivariable model used here is more powerful than the visual inspection of graphics for exploring associations in cooperative processes and can be easily extended to the assessment of epidemiological associations in other population and parasitic diseases. PMID:19674844

Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar; Perez, Andrés; Quiroga, M Isabel; Redondo, M José; Vázquez, Sonia; Riaza, Ana; Palenzuela, Oswaldo; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Nieto, José M

2009-07-23

322

Characterizing the resident, fermentative microbial consortium in the hindgut of the temperate-zone herbivorous fish, Hermosilla azurea (Teleostei: Kyphosidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zebraperch, Hermosilla azurea Jenkins and Evermann, a warm-temperate marine fish species with a strictly macroalgal diet, has a relatively long digestive\\u000a tract with an enlarged hindgut and an associated blind caecum (HC). In zebraperch sampled off Santa Catalina Island, California\\u000a (33°19?42??N; 118°18?37??W) in years 1995 through 2001, direct cell counts, gut epithelium assessment of bacterial attachment,\\u000a and short-chain fatty

Pat M. Fidopiastis; Daniel J. Bezdek; Michael H. Horn; Judith S. Kandel

2006-01-01

323

The taxonomy and phylogeny of the cyprinid genus Opsariichthys Bleeker (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Taiwan, with description of a new species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological and mitochondrial genetic differentiation in the cyprinid genus, Opsariichthys Bleeker (Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde 1:187–218, 1863) have been surveyed in Taiwan. Among them, there are three valid species can be recognized in Taiwan including Opsariichthys pachycephalus Günther (1868) distributed in northern and western Taiwan, Opsariichthys evolans (Jordan and Evermann Proc US Nat Mus 25:315–368, 1902) in northern

I-Shiung Chen; Jui-Hsien Wu; Shih-Pin Huang

2009-01-01

324

The taxonomy and phylogeny of the cyprinid genus Opsariichthys Bleeker (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Taiwan, with description of a new species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological and mitochondrial genetic differentiation in the cyprinid genus, Opsariichthys Bleeker (Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde 1:187–218, 1863) have been surveyed in Taiwan. Among them, there are three valid species can be recognized in Taiwan including Opsariichthys pachycephalus Günther (1868) distributed in northern and western Taiwan, Opsariichthys evolans (Jordan and Evermann Proc US Nat Mus 25:315–368, 1902) in northern

I-Shiung Chen; Jui-Hsien Wu; Shih-Pin Huang

325

Myxobolus myleus n. sp. infecting the bile of the Amazonian freshwater fish Myleus rubripinnis (Teleostei: Serrasalmidae): morphology and pathology.  

PubMed

Myxobolus myleus n. sp. is described from the gall-bladder of the freshwater fish Myleus rubripinnis collected near the city of Oriximiná in the Amazon System, Brazil. The spores obtained from the bile contained two equal symmetrical and smooth valves, each forming the spore wall. The spores were large, with a cone-like form, a semi spherical basal contour and measured (in ?m) 19.3 ± 0.5 (n = 25) × 8.3 ± 0.5 (n = 25) × 4.0 ± 0.3 (n = 15). The apical end of the spores contained two elongate, equal and pointed conical polar capsules measuring 13.2 ± 0.4 ?m (n = 25) in length and 3.0 ± 0.3 ?m (n = 15) in width, each having a slightly tapering polar filament with 19 to 21 turns. The polar capsules were extended below at about 4/5 of the total length of the spores. The sporoplasm was binucleate and contained some sporoplasmosomes. All infected fish presented hypertrophy of the gall-bladder due to presence of the brownish parasite floating in the bile. In this paper we describe this new species of myxosporean based on light and ultrastructural observations, together with its associated pathology. PMID:22711511

Azevedo, Carlos; São Clemente, Sérgio Carmona; Casal, Graça; Matos, Patrícia; Alves, Ângela; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Matos, Edilson

2012-06-19

326

DNA barcoding at riverscape scales: assessing biodiversity among fishes of the genus Cottus (Teleostei) in northern Rocky Mountain streams.  

PubMed

There is growing interest in broad-scale biodiversity assessments that can serve as benchmarks for identifying ecological change. Genetic tools have been used for such assessments for decades, but spatial sampling considerations have largely been ignored. Here, we demonstrate how intensive sampling efforts across a large geographical scale can influence identification of taxonomic units. We used sequences of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome b, analysed with maximum parsimony networks, maximum-likelihood trees and genetic distance thresholds, as indicators of biodiversity and species identity among the taxonomically challenging fishes of the genus Cottus in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Analyses of concatenated sequences from fish collected in all major watersheds of this area revealed eight groups with species-level differences that were also geographically circumscribed. Only two of these groups, however, were assigned to recognized species, and these two assignments resulted in intraspecific genetic variation (>2.0%) regarded as atypical for individual species. An incomplete inventory of individuals from throughout the geographical ranges of many species represented in public databases, as well as sample misidentification and a poorly developed taxonomy, may have hampered species assignment and discovery. We suspect that genetic assessments based on spatially robust sampling designs will reveal previously unrecognized biodiversity in many other taxa. PMID:23496857

Young, Michael K; McKelvey, Kevin S; Pilgrim, Kristine L; Schwartz, Michael K

2013-03-16

327

Homing and home-site fidelity in rock-dwelling cichlids (Pisces: Teleostei) of Lake Malawi, Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existence of home site fidelity and homing ability was established for Pseudotropheus aurora. Territorial males stayed up to 1 1\\/2 years within the same territories. Females showed long-term fidelity to certain places. Transplantation experiments revealed that P. aurora males home over distances of up to at least 2500 m but would not cross deep water. The territorial males of five

Eva Hert

1992-01-01

328

Mapping the potential distribution of the invasive Red Shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) across waterways of the conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Predicting the future spread of non-native aquatic species continues to be a high priority for natural resource managers striving to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem function. Modeling the potential distributions of alien aquatic species through spatially explicit mapping is an increasingly important tool for risk assessment and prediction. Habitat modeling also facilitates the identification of key environmental variables influencing species distributions. We modeled the potential distribution of an aggressive invasive minnow, the red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), in waterways of the conterminous United States using maximum entropy (Maxent). We used inventory records from the USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, native records for C. lutrensis from museum collections, and a geographic information system of 20 raster climatic and environmental variables to produce a map of potential red shiner habitat. Summer climatic variables were the most important environmental predictors of C. lutrensis distribution, which was consistent with the high temperature tolerance of this species. Results from this study provide insights into the locations and environmental conditions in the US that are susceptible to red shiner invasion.

Poulos, Helen M.; Chernoff, Barry; Fuller, Pam L.; Butman, David

2012-01-01

329

Systematics of the grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae): molecular phylogenetic evidence challenges two centuries of morphology-based taxonomy.  

PubMed

The family Mugilidae comprises mainly coastal marine species that are widely distributed in all tropical, subtropical and temperate seas. Mugilid species are generally considered to be ecologically important and they are a major food resource for human populations in certain parts of the world. The taxonomy and systematics of the Mugilidae are still much debated and based primarily on morphological characters. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive molecular systematic account of the Mugilidae using phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide sequence variation at three mitochondrial loci (16S rRNA, cytochrome oxidase I, and cytochrome b) for 257 individuals from 55 currently recognized species. The study covers all 20 mugilid genera currently recognized as being valid. The family comprises seven major lineages that radiated early on from the ancestor to all current forms. All genera that were represented by two species or more, except Cestraeus, turned out to be paraphyletic or polyphyletic. Thus, the present phylogenetic results generally disagree with the current taxonomy at the genus level and imply that the anatomical characters used for the systematics of the Mugilidae may be poorly informative phylogenetically. The present results should provide a sound basis for a taxonomic revision of the mugilid genera. A proportion of the species with large distribution ranges (including Moolgarda seheli, Mugil cephalus and M. curema) appear to consist of cryptic species, thus warranting further taxonomic and genetic work at the infra-generic level. PMID:22445821

Durand, J-D; Shen, K-N; Chen, W-J; Jamandre, B W; Blel, H; Diop, K; Nirchio, M; Garcia de León, F J; Whitfield, A K; Chang, C-W; Borsa, P

2012-03-17

330

The Inner Ear and its Coupling to the Swim Bladder in the Deep-Sea Fish Antimora rostrata (Teleostei: Moridae)  

PubMed Central

The inner ear structure of Antimora rostrata and its coupling to the swim bladder were analyzed and compared with the inner ears of several shallow-water species that also have similar coupling. The inner ear of Antimora has a long saccular otolith and sensory epithelium as compared to many other fishes. Some parts of the membranous labyrinth are thick and rigid, while other parts are thinner but attached tightly to the bony capsule. The partially rigid membranous labyrinth, along with its intimate connection to the swim bladder, may help the inner ear follow the sound oscillations from the swim bladder with better precision than would occur in a less rigid inner ear. In addition, the saccular sensory epithelium has an elaborate structure and an anterior enlargement that may be correlated with increased hearing sensitivity. Some of the features in the inner ear of Antimora may reflect the functional specialization of deep-water living and support the hypothesis that there is enhanced inner ear sensitivity in some deep-sea fishes.

Deng, Xiaohong; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Popper, Arthur N.

2011-01-01

331

A new record of a flathead fish (Teleostei: Platycephalidae) from China based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new record of Platycephalus sp.1 (sensu Nakabo, 2002) was documented based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding. We collected 174 specimens of the genus Platycephalus from Chinese coastal waters of Dongying, Qingdao, Zhoushan, and Beihai. Samples were identified as Platycephalus sp.1 morphologically. The coloration, meristic traits, and morphometric measurements are consistent with previously published records. In brief, it is an orange-brown flathead fish with dark brown spots scattered on head and body, lateral line scales 83 to 99 with one or two spine-bearing anteriormost pored scale, no yellow blotch on the caudal fin. Cytochrome oxidase I subunit (COI) gene fragments were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The mean evolutionary distance within the species Platycephalus sp.1 was 0.1%. Net evolutionary distances between Platycephalus sp.1 and other species of Platycephalus ranged from 10.8% to 19.7%, which is much greater than the threshold for species delimitation. The COI sequence analysis strongly supports the validity of Platyceohalus sp.1 at genetic level.

Qin, Yan; Song, Na; Zou, Jianwei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Cheng, Guangping; Gao, Tianxiang; Zhang, Xiumei

2013-05-01

332

Molecular phylogeny of grunts (Teleostei, Haemulidae), with an emphasis on the ecology, evolution, and speciation history of New World species  

PubMed Central

Background The fish family Haemulidae is divided in two subfamilies, Haemulinae and Plectorhynchinae (sweetlips), including approximately 17 genera and 145 species. The family has a broad geographic distribution that encompasses contrasting ecological habitats resulting in a unique potential for evolutionary hypotheses testing. In the present work we have examined the phylogenetic relationships of the family using selected representatives of additional Percomorpha based on Bayesian and Maximum likelihood methods by means of three mitochondrial genes. We also developed a phylogenetic hypothesis of the New World species based on five molecular markers (three mitochondrial and two nuclear) as a framework to evaluate the evolutionary history, the ecological diversification and speciation patterns of this group. Results Mitochondrial genes and different reconstruction methods consistently recovered a monophyletic Haemulidae with the Sillaginidae as its sister clade (although with low support values). Previous studies proposed different relationships that were not recovered in this analysis. We also present a robust molecular phylogeny of Haemulinae based on the combined data of two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes. All topologies support the monophyly of both sub-families (Haemulinae, Plectorhinchinae). The genus Pomadasys was shown to be polyphyletic and Haemulon, Anisotremus, and Plectorhinchus were found to be paraphyletic. Four of seven presumed geminate pairs were indeed found to be sister species, however our data did not support a contemporaneous divergence. Analyses also revealed that differential use of habitat might have played an important role in the speciation dynamics of this group of fishes, in particular among New World species where extensive sample coverage was available. Conclusions This study provides a new hypothesis for the sister clade of Hamulidae and a robust phylogeny of the latter. The presence of para- and polyphyletic genera underscores the need for a taxonomic reassessment within the family. A scarce sampling of the Old World Pomadasys species prevents us to definitively point to a New World origin of the sub-familiy Hamulinae, however our data suggest that this is likely to be the case. This study also illustrates how life history habitat influences speciation and evolutionary trajectories.

2012-01-01

333

Speciation and anagenesis in the genus Cyprinella of Mexico (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): a case study of Model III allopatric speciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allozyme variation at 42 presumptive gene lociis presented for members of the C. formosa species group. This group iscorroborated as a monophyletic assemblage whosecommon ancestor occupied pluvial Lake Palomasof the Guzman Basin. With increasingaridity during the Pleistocene this basin andassociated populations of this commonancestor were fragmented into several lineagesthat diverged independently of oneanother. The pattern of relationships andlevels of anagenetic

Robert M. Wood; Richard L. Mayden

2002-01-01

334

Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Opecoeloides furcatus (Trematoda, Digenea, Opecoelidae), a parasite of Mullus barbatus (Pisces, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spermiogenesis and mature spermatozoa of Opecoeloides furcatus (Digenea, Opecoelidae) are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Spermiogenesis in this fluke matches the\\u000a general pattern of digenetic trematodes. Striated rootlets associated with the two centrioles and an intercentriolar body\\u000a are present in the differentiation zone. Flagellar rotation of two flagella and their proximodistal fusion with a median cytoplasmic\\u000a process also

Jordi Miquel; Cecilia Nourrisson; Bernard Marchand

2000-01-01

335

Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Opecoeloides furcatus (Trematoda, Digenea, Opecoelidae), a parasite of Mullus barbatus (Pisces, Teleostei).  

PubMed

Spermiogenesis and mature spermatozoa of Opecoeloides furcatus (Digenea, Opecoelidae) are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Spermiogenesis in this fluke matches the general pattern of digenetic trematodes. Striated rootlets associated with the two centrioles and an intercentriolar body are present in the differentiation zone. Flagellar rotation of two flagella and their proximodistal fusion with a median cytoplasmic process also characterize the spermiogenesis of O. furcatus. Nevertheless, asynchronicity is reported for the proximodistal fusion of the two flagella. Mature spermatozoa of O. furcatus are filiform, tapering at both ends and they present all the characteristic features found in the Digenea gamete: two flagella, mitochondrion, nucleus and two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules. Nevertheless several peculiarities distinguish the mature spermatozoon of O. furcatus from the gamete of other digenetic trematodes. PMID:10780739

Miquel, J; Nourrisson, C; Marchand, B

2000-04-01

336

The effect of tert-butyl hydroperoxide on hepatic transcriptome expression patterns in the striped sea bream (Lithognathus mormyrus; Teleostei).  

PubMed

The study was aimed at examining the effects of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) on hepatic transcriptome expression patterns of the teleost fish Lithognathus mormyrus. tBHP is an organic hydro-peroxide, widely used as a model pro-oxidant. It generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) tert-butoxyl and tert-butylperoxyl. Complementary DNAs of tBHP-treated vs control fish were applied onto a previously produced cDNA microarray of approximately 1500 unique sequences. The effects of the tBHP application were demonstrated by leukocyte infiltration into the liver and by differential expression of various genes, some already known to be involved in ROS-related responses. Indicator genes of putative ROS effects were: aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A2, Heme oxygenase and the hemopexin-like protein. Putative indicators of transendothelial leukocyte migration and function were: p22phox, Rac1 and CD63-like genes. Interestingly, 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase was significantly down-regulated in response to all treatments. Several non-annotated genes revealed uniform directions of differential expression in response to all treatments. PMID:20553222

Auslander, Meirav; Neumann, Peter M; Tom, Moshe

2010-09-01

337

Ultrastructure of germ cells, the Leydig cells, and Sertoli cells during spermatogenesis in Boleophthalmus pectinirostris (Teleostei, Perciformes, Gobiidae).  

PubMed

The ultrastructures of germ cells, Leydig cells, and Sertoli cells during spermatogenesis in male Boleophthalmus pectinirostris were investigated by electron microscopic observations. During the period of maturation divisions, well-developed Leydig cells have three major morphological characteristics: a vesicular nucleus, mitochondria with tubular cristae, and a number of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Based on cytoplasmic features, it appears that Leydig cells are responsible for the synthesis of male sex steroids. Although no clear evidence of steroidogenesis was found in the Sertoli cells, they were found to perform a phagocytic function in the seminiferous lobules. Most Sertoli cells contain granules thought to represent deposited glycogen or lipid but there is no indication of a transfer of nutrients to the spermatids. During the period of germ cell degeneration, several characteristics of phagocytosis appear in the cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells. In particular, it is assumed that the Sertoli cells are involved in the degeneration and resorption of undischarged spermatids after spermiation. No acrosome of the sperm is formed. The structure of the spermatozoon in B. pectinirostris is very similar and closely resembles to those of suborder Gobioidei (perciform type teleosts). The flagellum or sperm tail shows the typical 9+2 array of microtubules. PMID:18207209

Chung, Ee-Yung

2008-01-22

338

Primary Gene Products as Plant Defenses. Final Report, November 1, 1983-October 31, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, as a model insect we sought to understand the effects of proteinaceous inhibitors of insect digestive proteinases on growth and development of a representative pest species. We found that C. maculatus ha...

L. L. Murdock

1986-01-01

339

Species profiles: Life history and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. [Scomberomorus cavalla; Scomberomorus maculatus  

SciTech Connect

This Species Profile on king and Spanish mackerel summarizes the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, fishery descriptions, ecological role, and environmental requirements of these coastal pelagic fish to assist environmental impact assessment. King and Spanish mackerel support major commercial and sport fisheries in south Florida. In 1974 to 1983, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic commercial landings of king mackerel declined from 10.4 to 4.3 million lb.; Spanish mackerel have fluctuated between 4.9 to 17.4 million lb. Both inhabit coastal waters, but Spanish mackerel are generally found closer to beaches and in outer estuarine waters. Both species feed principally on estuarine-dependent species. They are highly migratory, exhibiting seasonal migrations to winter feeding grounds off south Florida and summer spawning/feeding grounds in the northern Gulf of Mexico and off the Atlantic coast of the Southeastern US. Spawning occurs from March/April through September/October between the middle and Outer Continental Shelf (35 to 183 mi) for king mackerel and the inner shelf (12 to 34 mi) for Spanish mackerel. King mackerel reach sexual maturity in their 3rd and 4th years and Spanish, between their 2nd and 3rd. Female king mackerel live longer and grow larger and faster than males. Spanish mackerel live to 8 years; females also grow faster than males. King and Spanish mackerel feed principally on schooling fishes. Larvae and juveniles of both species are prey to little tunny and dolphin; adults are prey for sharks and bottlenose dolphin. Temperature and salinity are important factors regulating mackerel distribution.

Godcharles, M.F.; Murphy, M.D.

1986-06-01

340

Longitudinal monitoring of plasma and fecal androgens in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) and the spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus).  

PubMed

Improved knowledge of the breeding biology of carnivorous marsupials is warranted given their heightened conservation status. Past studies have focused on smaller dasyurids and little is known of male reproductive physiology in the larger species. This study aimed to characterize the pattern of androgen concentrations in male devils and spotted-tailed quolls and to evaluate fecal steroid measurement as a practical, alternative technique for monitoring reproductive activity. Blood and fecal samples were collected from captive adult devils (n=6) and adult quolls (n=8). Plasma and fecal androgen concentrations were significantly positively correlated. In both species there was a significant effect of season on androgen concentrations; and the annual increase preceded female estrus activity. For devils, fecal androgens were elevated during the austral summer: peak concentrations were observed in January-February, and copulation occurred from late February-late May. In quolls, fecal androgen concentrations were highest during austral autumn/winter: the annual increase began in April and copulation occurred from mid-May to early October. The lengthy period of elevated plasma and fecal androgens and protracted annual period of mating activity implies a period of extended spermatogenesis in both species. PMID:18602773

Hesterman, H; Jones, S M

2008-05-27

341

Evidence of Complex Ice-Volcano Interactions in the Transition Zone Between Elysium Rise and Utopia Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on morphologic evidence of a complex succession of ice-volcano interactions in the Galaxias region, Mars, and reconsider the emplacement properties of volcanoclastic outflow deposit under martian conditions.

Pedersen, G. B. M.; Head, J. W.

2012-03-01

342

Sistemas de cúmulos globulares extragalácticos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se describen las características de los sistemas de cúmulos globulares asociados a galaxias elípticas en una variedad de medios y, en particular, aquellas vinculadas con la distribución espacial, frecuencia específica y composición química. Esta discusión se hace dentro de un conjunto de esquemas orientados a explicar las primeras fases de la formación de las galaxias dominantes en cúmulos y del rol de los sistemas de cúmulos globulares en esos procesos.

Forte, J. C.

343

An empirical test of freshwater vicariance via river capture.  

PubMed

River capture is a geomorphological process through which stream sections are displaced from one catchment to another, and it may represent a dominant facilitator of interdrainage transfer and cladogenesis in freshwater-limited taxa. However, few studies have been conducted in a manner to explicitly test the biological significance of river capture. Here we present a multispecies phylogeographical analysis to test whether the nonmigratory fish fauna of the Von River (South Island, New Zealand) is the product of a well-documented, Late Quaternary capture of a section of the Oreti River (Southland drainage). Specifically, we predict that nonmigratory fishes of the Von River will exhibit closer genetic affinities with those of Southland, rather than those of the Clutha system, into which the Von River presently drains. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography (control region and cytochrome b sequence data) and analysis of nuclear orthologues of mtDNA sequences indicate that 'flathead'Galaxias of the Von River (n = 31, three sites) have greatest genetic affinities with those of Southland (Galaxias 'southern', n = 216, 38 sites), rather than with those of the Clutha River (Galaxias sp. 'D', n = 73, 32 sites). Likewise, Von River 'roundhead'Galaxias (n = 52, four sites) have greatest genetic affinities with those of Southland drainages (Galaxias gollumoides, n = 223, 58 sites), rather than with those of the Clutha River (Galaxias pullus, Galaxias anomalus, Galaxias gollumoides of the Nevis tributary; n = 68, 32 sites). These findings are consistent with our predictions that genetic affinities of the nonmigratory fish fauna in the Von River would reflect past, rather than present, drainage connections. Consequently, river capture is responsible for the nonmigratory fish fauna of the Von River. In a broader context, river capture has frequently influenced the distribution of genetic lineages among catchments in New Zealand freshwater-limited fish, and its biogeographical significance may have been underestimated in other regions. PMID:17444899

Burridge, Christopher P; Craw, Dave; Waters, Jonathan M

2007-05-01

344

Ecosystem-level evidence for top-down and bottom-up control of production in a grassland stream system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem-wide effects of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and native river galaxias (Galaxiaseldoni McDowall) were studied by analysing ecosystem production budgets for two adjacent tributaries of a grassland stream-system\\u000a in the South Island of New Zealand. One tributary was inhabited by brown trout, the other by river galaxias. No other fish\\u000a species were present in either stream. The budget

Alexander D. Huryn

1998-01-01

345

Introgressive hybridisation between two Iberian Chondrostoma species (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) revisited: new evidence from morphology, mitochondrial DNA, allozymes and NOR-phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r a c t . Analysis of the hybridisation events between two Iberian Chondrostoma species in the Távora River (Douro Basin) suggests different levels of trait introgression. Nuclear traits studied showed different introgression levels, whereas mitochondrial DNA introgression was not found. Lack of mtDNA introgression suggests that male and female hybrids may not equally fit or

Hugo F. GANTE; Maria J. COLLARES-PEREIRA; Maria M. COELHO

346

Organization of the Mitochondrial Genome of a Deep-Sea Fish, Gonostoma gracile (Teleostei: Stomiiformes): First Example of Transfer RNA Gene Rearrangements in Bony Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome (except for a portion of the putative control\\u000a region) for a deep-sea fish, Gonostoma gracile. The entire mitochondrial genome was purified by gene amplification using long polymerase chain reaction (long PCR), and the\\u000a products were subsequently used as templates for PCR with 30 sets of newly designed, fish-universal primers

Masaki Miya; Mutsumi Nishida

1999-01-01

347

Activity of lactate dehydrogenase but not its concentration of messenger RNA increases with body size in barred sand bass, Paralabrax nebulifer (Teleostei).  

PubMed

In white skeletal muscle of conspecific pelagic fishes, the activity of enzymes associated with anaerobic glycolysis, e.g., lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), usually scale positively with increasing body size; this pattern is opposite to that found for enzymes of aerobic metabolism, which decrease in mass-specific activity with size (1-3). The higher mass-specific capacities for anaerobic ATP generation in larger conspecifics are thought to facilitate conservation of high-speed ("burst") swimming ability in fishes of different sizes (1). To investigate the mechanisms responsible for scaling of LDH activity, total RNA, and the specific mRNA for LDH-A (the skeletal muscle isoform of the enzyme) in white muscle of paralabrax nebulifer, the barred sand bass. We also measured total protein concentration and the concentration of actin, the major protein of thin filaments, and its specific mRNA. Although LDH activity scaled significantly with body size as predicted (1-4), no other biochemical trait measured showed a significant size-dependent concentration. We conclude that the regulation of LDH activity in white muscle of this species is not governed by LDH-A mRNA concentrations, but rather by one or more other mechanisms, for example rate of translation of LDH message or a reduced rate of degradation of LDH-A in larger fish. PMID:8916541

Yang, T H; Somero, G N

1996-10-01

348

Esterases of the flounder ( Platichthys flesus , Pleuronectidae, Teleostei): Development of an identification protocol using starch gel electrophoresis and characterization of loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fish esterases are among the most difficult enzymes to identify using starch gel electrophoresis because of the many loci that are simultaneously active, and especially because of duplication phenomena, satellite bands, and stain trails. In an attempt to simplify and clarify electropherograms, various staining and inhibitory methods were tested on esterases from the flounderPlatichthys flesus. A range of migration

P. Berrebi; P. Landaud; P. Borsa; J. F. Renno

1990-01-01

349

Allozyme differentiation of two populations of the genus Neoplecostomus Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888 (Teleostei, Loricariidae) from the upper Paran? River basin, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Allozyme electrophoresis was used to examine 12 enzymatic systems in two populations of the genus Neoplecostomus from the Paraná River basin. Samples of Neoplecostomus sp. 1 were collected in Paraitinguinha stream of the Tietê River basin, in the municipality of Salesópolis, São Paulo State, and those of Neoplecostomus sp. 2 from São Domingos stream of the Rio Grande River basin, in the municipality of Muzambinho, Minas Gerais State. The genetic variability of the two populations was estimated by Nei’s expected heterozygosity and was considered lower than average for populations of freshwater fish. The proportion of polymorphic loci was low (only 5.26% for the locus Idh). The low frequency of heterozygosity for both populations revealed a high fixation of alleles for each locus. Homozygote excess was observed in both populations. The values of Nei’s genetic identity and the presence of loci with different allele frequencies in both populations may imply that the two populations belong to different species. The genetic variability between populations was compared to other data for loricariids.

Reusing, Ana Flavia; Renesto, Erasmo; Roxo, Fabio F.; Zawadzki, Claudio H.

2011-01-01

350

The reproductive cycle of male catfish Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Teleostei, Pimelodidae) revealed by changes of the germinal epithelium. An approach addressed to aquaculture.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to analyze the gonadal structure of Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum males during their annual cycle to enhance understanding of their reproductive biology and to improve the hormonally induced reproduction and culture of this species in hatcheries. We adopted the recently proposed method that establishes reproductive classes that are based on variations of the germinal epithelium within the year. Five reproductive classes were established: maturation (early, middle, and late), regression and recrudescence. Our observations revealed that in the spawning season P. fasciatum testes display two main functions: sperm production and sperm storage. We also concluded that the analysis of the variation of germinal epithelium was satisfactory when applied to this freshwater catfish and should be adopted for other fish species. PMID:16414214

Batlouni, S R; Romagosa, E; Borella, M I

2006-01-18

351

Seasonal fluctuations in pituitary levels of the three forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Teleostei), during juvenile and pubertal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most vertebrates, the development of a mature gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretory sys- tem is pivotal for the onset of puberty. The role of the three native GnRH forms, seabream (sb) GnRH, chicken (c) GnRH-II and salmon GnRH, in striped bass puberty remains elusive. This study examined the changes in pituitary GnRH levels throughout juvenile and pubertal development, a period

M C Holland; S Hassin; Y Zohar

2001-01-01

352

Ultrastructural study of vitellogenesis and oogenesis of Metadena depressa (Stossich, 1883) Linton, 1910 (Digenea, Cryptogonimidae), intestinal parasite of Dentex dentex (Pisces, Teleostei).  

PubMed

The ultrastructural organization of the female reproductive system of Metadena depressa, digenean intestinal parasite of Sparidae (Dentex dentex), was investigated by electron microscopy. The vitellogenesis is divided into four stages: stage I, vitellocytes have a cytoplasm mainly filled with ribosomes and few mitochondria; stage II, beginning of the synthetic activity; stage III, active shell globule clusters synthesis; stage IV, mature vitellocytes are filled with shell globule clusters and generally contain several large lipid droplets. Glycogen granules are grouped at the periphery of the cell. The three stages of the oogenesis process take place in the ovary: stage I, oogonia are undifferentiated small cells located at the periphery of the organ; stage II, primary oocytes possess a higher nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio and a nucleus with a nucleolus and synaptonemal complexes indicating the zygotene-pachytene stage of the first meiotic division; stage III, mature oocytes are located in the proximal region of the organ and possess a cytoplasmic chromatoid body and cortical granules in a monolayer close to the periphery of the cell. PMID:23199633

Greani, Samuel; Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Swiderski, Zdzis?aw; Marchand, Bernard

2012-11-02

353

Seven new species within western Atlantic Starksia atlantica, S. lepicoelia, and S. sluiteri (Teleostei, Labrisomidae), with comments on congruence of DNA barcodes and species  

PubMed Central

Abstract Specimens of Starksia were collected throughout the western Atlantic, and a 650-bp portion of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase-c subunit I (COl) was sequenced as part of a re-analysis of species diversity of western Central Atlantic shorefishes. A neighbor-joining tree constructed from the sequence data suggests the existence of several cryptic species. Voucher specimens from each genetically distinct lineage and color photographs of vouchers taken prior to dissection and preservation were examined for diagnostic morphological characters. The results suggest that Starksia atlantica, Starksia lepicoelia, and Starksia sluiteri are species complexes, and each comprises three or more species. Seven new species are described. DNA data usually support morphological features, but some incongruence between genetic and morphological data exists. Genetic lineages are only recognized as species if supported by morphology. Genetic lineages within western Atlantic Starksia generally correspond to geography, such that members of each species complex have a very restricted geographical distribution. Increasing geographical coverage of sampling locations will almost certainly increase the number of Starksia species and species complexes recognized in the western Atlantic. Combining molecular and morphological investigations is bringing clarity to the taxonomy of many genera of morphologically similar fishes and increasing the number of currently recognized species. Future phylogenetic studies should help resolve species relationships and shed light on patterns of speciation in western Atlantic Starksia.

Baldwin, Carole C.; Castillo, Cristina I.; Weigt, Lee A.; Benjamin C., Victor

2011-01-01

354

[Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae (Teleostei: Characidae) two new species of fish in the basin of Madre de Dios river, Peru].  

PubMed

Hyphessobrycon with 129 valid species, is a genus of fish that has a great diversity of species in the Neotropical ichthyofauna, reaches its greatest diversity in the Amazon basin with about 70% of these species, is highly desired by hobbyists because of their beauty and color, and are still meeting new species. We analyzed specimens from the Departamento de Ictiología, Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú (MUSM); and measurements of the specimens were taken point to point with digital calipers. Observations of bone and cartilage structures were made on cleared and stained (C&S) samples. The morphometric relationships between species using 21 variables were explored using a principal component analysis (PCA). Here we describe two new species, Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae from the Madre de Dios River drainage, Peru. Hyphessobrycon taphorni sp. n. can be distinguished by the number of dorsal-fin rays (iii, 8), by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (4-5), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (1-2), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (7-8), by: the caudal-peduncle length (11.4-16.4% SL), number of lateral scales (28-29, except from H. loretoensis which has 29-30) and absence of a humeral spot (vs. present), it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: scales between the lateral line and the anal fin origin (4 vs. 3) and maxillary teeth (2 vs. 3-4), and it differs from H. agulha by the number of branched pectoral-fin rays (11-12 vs. 9-10). Hyphessobrycon eschwartzae sp. n. is distinguished by the number of: simple anal-fin rays (iv), teeth on the dentary (13-15), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (6), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (3, except from H. heterorhabdus and H. loretoensis which have 3-4); it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (7 vs. 9-10), scales between the lateral line and the dorsal-fin origin (5 vs. 3-4); it differs from H. agulha in the number of lateral scales (30-31 vs. 33-34), by the number of: predorsal scales (9 vs. 10), maxillary teeth (4 vs. 0-1); in having in life a red lateral stripe above the dark lateral stripe that extends from the posterior part of the opercle to the caudal peduncle (vs. absent) and by the presence of bony hooks in mature males only on the anal fin (vs. hooks on all fins, including the caudal). PMID:23885596

Garcia-Alzate, Carlos A; Romin-Valencia, César; Ortega, Hernán

2013-06-01

355

Influence of the trematode Aphalloïdes caelomicola Dollfus, Chabaud & Golvan, 1957 on the fecundity and survival of Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer, 1838) (Teleostei: Gobiidae).  

PubMed

Monthly data collected during 1993 in the Vaccarès lagoon (Rhône Delta, France) were used to investigate the influence of the trematode Aphalloïdes coelomicola on the survival of the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, which acts both as second intermediate and definitive host. Prevalence of the parasite did not increase with fish size in either sex. Mean abundance and variance to mean abundance ratio gave evidence that the trematode could have an impact on host mortality. Gonad weight of parasitized females was reduced and the parasite seemed to provoke a gonadal regression above a certain parasitic biomass. Fecundity and egg diameters did not differ between parasitized and unparasitized females, we thus hypothesize that the energy content of eggs (composition in lipids and proteins) was probably modified as an adaptation to energy losses. Prevalence of infection in males compared to females and influence of the parasite on host survival and reproductive effort are discussed. PMID:10446705

Pampoulie, C; Morand, S; Lambert, A; Rosecchi, E; Bouchereau, J L; Crivelli, A J

1999-07-01

356

Long-term monitoring on the occurrence of a myxosporean parasite Kudoa camarguensis (Myxosporean) on the common goby (Teleostei, pisces) Pomatoschistus microps.  

PubMed

The evolution of a host-parasite system composed of Pomatoschistus microps-Kudoa camarguensis was investigated in the Vaccarès lagoon (Rh?ne river Delta, France) from 1993 to 1997. During this long-term monitoring, centennial flooding of the Rh?ne river occurred, leading to an inrush of about 110 million m3 of freshwater in the Vaccarès lagoon. The salinity drastically dropped from 14 to 5 g l(-1) in 1 wk. We observed that the annual prevalence and abundance of the myxosporean parasite decreased from 12.18 in 1993 to 3.7% in 1997 and from 1.10 in 1993 to 0.27 in 1997, respectively. Here, we discuss the possible reasons for the rapid decline of this host-parasite system following the flood. PMID:11411646

Pampoulie, C; Marques, A; Rosecchi, E; Bouchereau, J L; Crivelli, A J

2001-05-01

357

Salinity tolerance of non-native Asian swamp eels (Teleostei: Synbranchidae) in Florida, USA: comparison of three populations and implications for dispersal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three populations of non-native Asian swamp eels are established in peninsular Florida (USA), and comprise two different genetic\\u000a lineages. To assess potential for these fish to penetrate estuarine habitats or use coastal waters as dispersal routes, we\\u000a determined their salinity tolerances. Swamp eels from the three Florida populations were tested by gradual (chronic) salinity\\u000a increases; additionally, individuals from the Miami

Pamela J. Schofield; Leo G. Nico

2009-01-01

358

Comparative histochemistry of the mucoproteic cells of the hypophysis from Rhamdia hilarii, Hypostomus punctatus, Prochilodus scrofa and Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei). Immunohistochemical identification of the gonadotropic cells.  

PubMed

Adenohypophyseal cells showing positive histochemical reactions for mucosubstances were classified as type I-IV in Hypostomus (Plecostomus) punctatus (Loricariidae), Rhamdia hilarii (Pimelolidae), Prochilodus scrofa (Prochilodontidae) and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) according to cell shape, size, cytological characteristics and adenohypophyseal distribution. Cell types I and II are common to the four species, with each cell type showing very similar cytological and histochemical characteristics, in spite of different adenohypophyseal distribution of cell type II, according to the teleost species. Type I cells are globular basophils located in the proximal pars ditalis and are positive to PAS and Alcian blue pH 2.5 (AB) reactions, showing cytoplasmic vacuoles and changes in granule concentration in the mature phase of the gonadal cycle. The smaller type II cells are fusiform or oval basophils exhibiting a strong AB reaction but also reacting to PAS. Type III cells are located in the pars intermedia showing PAS-positive reaction. Considering different teleost species, these cells exhibit some variations specially in relation to cell size and shape which are not detected in mature male C. carpio. Otherwise cell type IV is only present in the rostral pars distalis of P. scrofa. They are weakly basophilic and negative to PAS, reacting strongly to AB. Only cell type I showed unequivocally positive immunohistochemical results with anti-salmon gonadotropin. PMID:3242625

Val-Sella, M V; Fava-De-Moraes, F; Wakabayashi, K

1988-01-01

359

Cytogenetic analysis of A- and B-chromosomes of Prochilodus lineatus (Teleostei, Prochilodontidae) using different restriction enzyme banding and staining methods.  

PubMed

Different cytogenetic techniques were used to analyse the chromosomes of Prochilodus lineatus with the main objective of comparing the base composition of A- and B-chromosomes. The results of digestion of chromosomes with 10 different restriction endonucleases (REs), silver staining, CMA3 staining and C-banding indicated the existence of different classes of highly repetitive DNA in the A-set and also suggested the existence of compositional differences between the chromatin of A- and B-chromosomes. The 5-BrdU incorporation technique showed a late replicating pattern in all B-chromosomes and in some heterochromatic pericentromeric regions of A-chromosomes. The cleavage with RE BamHI produced a band pattern in all chromosomes of P. lineatus which permitted the tentative pairing of homologues in the karyotype of this species. We concluded that the combined use of the above techniques can contribute to the correct identification of chromosomes and the karyotypic analysis in fishes. On the basis of the results, some aspects of chromosome structure and the origin of the B-chromosomes in P. lineatus are discussed. PMID:11138939

Maistro, E L; Oliveira, C; Foresti, F

2000-01-01

360

Fine structure of the Plasmodia and Myxospore of Ellipsomyxa gobioides n. sp. (Myxozoa) found in the gallbladder of Gobioides broussonnetii (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the lower Amazon river.  

PubMed

A fish infecting myxosporean Ellipsomyxa gobioides n. sp. is described in the gallbladder of the Amazonian dragon fish Gobioides broussonnetii. Irregular disporous plasmodia (up to ~30 ?m in diameter) with long branched and anastomosed pseudopodia were found attached to the gallbladder wall. Mature ellipsoid myxospores occurring floating in the bile measured 6.8 (6.5-7.0) ?m (n = 30) long, 7.2 (6.9-7.5) ?m (n = 15) wide, and 13.1 (12.8-13.5) (n = 25) thick. They had smooth thin valves elongated in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the straight central transverse sutural line. The two ellipsoidal polar capsules (PC) opened some distance from the sutural line on opposite sides, each measuring 4.6 (4.3-4.8) ?m (n = 15) long and 2.5 (2.1-2.7) ?m (n = 20) wide. Distance between PC 3.5 (3.1-3.8) ?m (n = 15) in apical view. The polar filament was isofilar and consisted of a single coil with five or six turns. The objective of this study was to characterize this new species based on its morphological differences from the three previously described species. This is the first reported species of genus Ellipsomyxa from among the South American fauna. PMID:23869881

Azevedo, Carlos; Videira, Marcela; Casal, Graça; Matos, Patrícia; Oliveira, Elsa; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Matos, Edilson

2013-07-19

361

Histogenesis of the oropharyngeal cavity taste buds and the relevant nerves and brain centers in substrate-brooding and mouth-brooding cichlid fish (Cichlidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study follows the histogenesis of the oropharyngeal cavity taste buds, along with the development of the relevant neural centers and gustatory nerves, in two cichlid species: the substrate-brooding Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum and the mouth-brooding Astatotilapia flavijosephi, from fertilization to 20-day-old juveniles, grown at a temperature of 26° C. Significant differences in pace of development were shown between the two social

Lev Fishelson

2005-01-01

362

Effects of climatic and geological processes during the pleistocene on the evolutionary history of the northern cavefish, Amblyopsis spelaea (teleostei: amblyopsidae).  

PubMed

Climatic and geological processes associated with glaciation cycles during the Pleistocene have been implicated in influencing patterns of genetic variation and promoting speciation of temperate flora and fauna. However, determining the factors promoting divergence and speciation is often difficult in many groups because of our limited understanding of potential vicariant barriers and connectivity between populations. Pleistocene glacial cycles are thought to have significantly influenced the distribution and diversity of subterranean invertebrates; however, impacts on subterranean aquatic vertebrates are less clear. We employed several hypothesis-driven approaches to assess the impacts of Pleistocene climatic and geological changes on the Northern Cavefish, Amblyopsis spelaea, whose current distribution occurs near the southern extent of glacial advances in North America. Our results show that the modern Ohio River has been a significant barrier to dispersal and is correlated with patterns of genetic divergence. We infer that populations were isolated in two refugia located north and south of the Ohio River during the most recent two glacial cycles with evidence of demographic expansion in the northern isolate. Finally, we conclude that climatic and geological processes have resulted in the formation of cryptic forms and advocate recognition of two distinct phylogenetic lineages currently recognized as A. spelaea. PMID:23550752

Niemiller, Matthew L; McCandless, James R; Reynolds, R Graham; Caddle, James; Near, Thomas J; Tillquist, Christopher R; Pearson, William D; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M

2012-12-20

363

Two philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) infecting the tigertooth croaker Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider) (Teleostei: Sciaenidae) off Iran, including erection of a new genus.  

PubMed

Two philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) are described from the marine perciform fish (tigertooth croaker) Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider) (Sciaenidae) from off Iran: Clavinemoides annulatus n. g., n. sp. based on female specimens from the caudal fin of fish from the Persian Gulf and Philometra otolithi Moravec & Manoharan, 2013 from subgravid and nongravid females collected from the ovary of fishes in the Sea of Oman and the Persian Gulf. The monotypic genus Clavinemoides n. g. is mainly characterised by a triangular oral aperture, a markedly large anterior oesophageal bulb, a distinctly annulated body and numerous fine elevated transverse cuticular bands. The finding of P. otolithi in Iranian waters represents a new geographical record of this parasite species. An updated key to the genera of the Philometrinae Baylis & Daubney, 1926 is provided. PMID:23949647

Moravec, František; Khosheghbal, Maryam; Pazooki, Jamileh

2013-08-15

364

Histochemical studies of acid proteoglycans and glycoproteins and activities of hydrolytic and oxidoreductive enzymes in the skin epidermis of the fish Blennius sanguinolentus pallas (Teleostei: Blenniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the epidermis of the fish Blennius sanguinolentus the histochemistry of complex carbohydrates and various oxidoreductases has been studied by means of a series of selected light microscopical techniques. The epidermis is endowed with three types of secretory cells namely, the mucous goblet cells, the superficial polygonal cells and the ionocytes, which provide protective functions in view of their involvement

G. Zaccone

1983-01-01

365

Evaluation of genotoxicity using the micronucleus assay and nuclear abnormalities in the tropical sea fish Bathygobius soporator (Valenciennes, 1837) (Teleostei, Gobiidae)  

PubMed Central

The micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities assays have been used increasingly to evaluate genotoxicity of many compounds in polluted aquatic ecossystems. The aim of this study is to verify the efficiency of the micronucleus assay and nuclear abnormality assay in field and laboratory work, when using erythrocytes of the tropical marine fish Bathygobius soporator as genotoxicity biomarkers. Gill peripheral blood samples were obtained from specimens of Bathygobius soporator. In order to investigate the frequencies of micronuclei and to assess the sensitivity of species, the results were compared with samples taken at the reference site and maintained in the laboratory, and fish treated with cyclophosphamide. The micronucleus assay was efficient in demonstrating field pollution and reproducing results in the labotatory. There were significant higher frequencies of micronuclei in two sites subject to discharge of urban and industrial effluents. The nuclear abnormality assay did not appear to be an efficient tool for genotoxicity evaluation when compared with field samples taken at a reference site in laboratory, with a positive control.

2009-01-01

366

Evaluation of genotoxicity using the micronucleus assay and nuclear abnormalities in the tropical sea fish Bathygobius soporator (Valenciennes, 1837) (Teleostei, Gobiidae).  

PubMed

The micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities assays have been used increasingly to evaluate genotoxicity of many compounds in polluted aquatic ecossystems. The aim of this study is to verify the efficiency of the micronucleus assay and nuclear abnormality assay in field and laboratory work, when using erythrocytes of the tropical marine fish Bathygobius soporator as genotoxicity biomarkers. Gill peripheral blood samples were obtained from specimens of Bathygobius soporator. In order to investigate the frequencies of micronuclei and to assess the sensitivity of species, the results were compared with samples taken at the reference site and maintained in the laboratory, and fish treated with cyclophosphamide. The micronucleus assay was efficient in demonstrating field pollution and reproducing results in the labotatory. There were significant higher frequencies of micronuclei in two sites subject to discharge of urban and industrial effluents. The nuclear abnormality assay did not appear to be an efficient tool for genotoxicity evaluation when compared with field samples taken at a reference site in laboratory, with a positive control. PMID:21637697

Galindo, Toni P; Moreira, Lília M

2009-06-01

367

Delimiting species by reproductive isolation: the genetic structure of epigean and hypogean Trichomycterus spp. (Teleostei, Siluriformes) in the restricted area of Torotoro (Upper Amazon, Bolivia).  

PubMed

Genetic variability of Trichomycterus from the region of Torotoro (Bolivia, Upper Amazon), distributed in the same watershed where the habitat is structured by waterfalls, canyons and a cave, was studied by allozyme (twelve putative loci) and RFLP-mtDNA (DLoop and cytochrome b) analyses. Alloenzymatic variation studied by Correspondence Analysis and Maximum Likelihood Analysis revealed a four-group structure, which was largely congruent with the distribution of the 14 mtDNA haplotypes. Two of these four clusters (I and II) were differentiated by two diagnostic loci (IDH and G3PDH), two semi-diagnostic loci (PGM and 6PGDH) and consequently a very high F(st )value (estimator theta = 0.77). Therefore, clusters I and II are reproductively isolated. The distribution limit of these two (sibling) species does not correspond to those of the morphological species of Trichomycterus identified in this region: the epigean T. cf. barbouri and the hypogean T. chaberti. However, hypogean fish exhibited two mtDNA haplotypes, a private one and another shared with the epigean Trichomycterus from upstream reaches. PMID:17957496

Renno, Jean-François; Gazel, Claude; Miranda, Guido; Pouilly, Marc; Berrebi, Patrick

2007-02-14

368

Differential expression of myogenic regulatory factor MyoD in pacu skeletal muscle ( Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg 1887: Serrasalminae, Characidae, Teleostei) during juvenile and adult growth phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skeletal muscle is the edible part of the fish. It grows by hypertrophy and hyperplasia, events regulated by differential expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). The study of muscle growth mechanisms in fish is very important in fish farming development. Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) is one of the most important food species farmed in Brazil and has been extensively used in

Fernanda Losi Alves de Almeida; Robson Francisco Carvalho; Danillo Pinhal; Carlos Roberto Padovani; Cesar Martins; Maeli Dal Pai-Silva

2008-01-01

369

A phylogenetic analysis of pygmy perches (Teleostei: Percichthyidae) with an assessment of the major historical influences on aquatic biogeography in southern Australia.  

PubMed

The biogeography of southern Australia is characterized by a repeated pattern of relatedness between the biota of southwestern and southeastern Australia. Both areas possess a temperate climate but are separated by a vast arid region, currently lacking permanent freshwater habitats, which has become increasingly drier since about 15 Ma. Aquatic organisms have thus potentially remained isolated for a considerable time. Pygmy perches (Nannatherina and Nannoperca, Percichthyidae) provide an excellent scenario for investigating biogeographic relationships between southwestern and southeastern regions as multiple species occur on either side of Australia. This allows us to potentially differentiate between "Multiple Invasion" and "Endemic Speciation," the two major hypotheses proposed to account for current distributions. The first suggests that multiple east-west movements have occurred, whereas the second suggests a single east-west split, with current biodiversity in each region being reciprocally monophyletic. Systematic relationships within this group were investigated with the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene; nuclear intron and exon sequences from S7, RAG1, and RAG2; and 53 allozyme loci. Our data supported the hypothesis of multiple movements across southern Australia based on a consistent lack of support for reciprocal monophyly of eastern and western species. This study appears to be the first example of an animal group displaying clear multiple east-west movement in southern Australia, as all other aquatic and terrestrial fauna previously examined displayed a single east-west split. Despite a high degree of sympatry within each region, the only evidence for hybridization was found between Nannoperca australis and N. obscura, with the latter having its mitochondrial genome completely replaced by that of N. australis, with no evidence for nuclear introgression. This is one of only a few confirmed examples of complete replacement of the mitochondrial genome in one species with that of another. Cryptic differentiation was also evident within the two most widespread species, N. australis and N. vittata, indicating that these likely consist of multiple species. We also highlight the need for multiple molecular markers with different strengths in order to obtain a more robust phylogeny, despite problems resulting from potential incongruences between data sets. PMID:21551126

Unmack, Peter J; Hammer, Michael P; Adams, Mark; Dowling, Thomas E

2011-05-05

370

Apoptosis in skin pigment cells of the medaka, Oryzias latipes (Teleostei), during long-term chromatic adaptation: the role of sympathetic innervation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many teleost fish can adapt their body color to a background color by changing the morphology and density of their skin pigment cells. Melanophore density in fish skin decreases during long-term adaptation to a white background. Although cell death, especially apoptosis, is thought to be involved in these morphological changes, there are no data clearly supporting this mechanism. Using medaka

Masazumi Sugimoto; Nao Uchida; Minoru Hatayama

2000-01-01

371

Omanicotyle heterospina n. gen. et n. comb. (Monogenea: Microcotylidae) from the gills of Argyrops spinifer (Forssk?l) (Teleostei: Sparidae) from the Sea of Oman  

PubMed Central

Background The Sultanate of Oman’s aquaculture industry is expanding with an on-going assessment of potential new fish species for culture. The king soldier bream, Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål) (Sparidae), is one such species that is under consideration. During a routine health assessment of specimens caught in the Sea of Oman throughout the period November 2009 to March 2011, a number of gill polyopisthocotylean monogeneans were recovered. Methods A subsequent study of the monogeneans using a range of morphology-based approaches indicated that these were Bivagina heterospina Mamaev et Parukhin, 1974. In the absence of pre-existing molecular data, an expanded description of this species is provided, including a differential diagnosis with other species and genera belonging to the subfamily Microcotylinae Monticelli, 1892 with the subsequent movement of this species to a new genus to accommodate it. Results The polyopisthocotyleans collected from the gills of A. spinifer appear to be unique within the family Microcotylidae Taschenberg, 1879 in that, morphologically, they possess a pair of large, muscular vaginae each armed with a full crown of 16–18 robust spines and a unique dorsal region of folded tegument, which permits their discrimination from species of Bivagina Yamaguti, 1963. Sequencing of the SSU rDNA (complete 1968 bp) and LSU rDNA (partial 949 bp) places the specimens collected during this study within the subfamily Microcotylinae, but the LSU rDNA sequence differs from Bivagina and also from other microcotylid genera. Morphological features of B. heterospina sensu Mamaev et Parukhin, 1974 and the specimens collected from the current study are consistent with one another and represent a single species. The vaginal armature of these worms is unique and differs from all other genera within the Microcotylinae, including Bivagina, and its movement to Omanicotyle n. gen. to accommodate this species is proposed. Conclusions A new genus, Omanicotyle n. gen., is erected to accommodate Omanicotyle [Bivagina] heterospina n. comb. which represents the first monogenean to be described from Omani marine waters. Given the pathogenic potential of microcotylids on captive held fish stocks, a full assessment of Omanicotyle heterospina n. gen. et n. comb. is now required before large-scale production commences.

2013-01-01

372

Production of fertile unreduced sperm by hybrid males of the Rutilus alburnoides complex (Teleostei, cyprinidae). An alternative route to genome tetraploidization in unisexuals.  

PubMed Central

The hybrid minnow Rutilus alburnoides comprises diploid and polyploid females and males. Previous studies revealed that diploid and triploid females exhibit altered oogenesis that does not involve random segregation and recombination of the genomes of the two ancestors, constituting unisexual lineages. In the present study, we investigated the reproductive mode of hybrid males from the Tejo basin, using experimental crosses and flow cytometric analysis of blood and sperm. The results suggest that diploid hybrids produced fertile unreduced sperm, transmitting their hybrid genome intact to offspring. Triploid hybrids also produced unreduced sperm, but it was not possible to obtain data concerning their fertility. Finally, tetraploid hybrids produced fertile diploid sperm, which exhibited Mendelian segregation. Tetraploid R. alburnoides may reestablish biparental reproduction, as individuals of both sexes with the appropriate constitution for normal meiosis (two haploid genomes from each parental species) are likely to occur in natural populations. Tetraploids probably have arisen from syngamy of diploid eggs and diploid sperm produced by diploid hybrid males. Diploid hybrid males may therefore play a significant role in the dynamics of the complex, starting the evolutionary process that may ultimately lead to a new sexually reproducing species.

Alves, M J; Coelho, M M; Prospero, M I; Collares-Pereira, M J

1999-01-01

373

Are rapids a barrier for floodplain fishes of the Amazon basin? A demographic study of the keystone floodplain species Colossomamacropomum (Teleostei: Characiformes).  

PubMed

We investigated demographic history and population structuring of Colossoma macropomum sampled from 14 localities in the Amazon basin and the Bolivian sub-basin; the two basins are separated by a series of 16 rapids. Although genetically differentiated, IMa analyses suggest non-zero bi-directional migration rates, and inter-basin divergence of approximately 17 thousand years ago. Analyses in BEAST indicated that Bolivian C. macropomum has been demographically stable except for a moderate population increase in the last 12 thousand years, while Amazonian C. macropomum has been experiencing demographic growth over the last 350 thousand years, resulting in approximately one order of magnitude increase in coalescent N(e). PMID:20362063

Farias, Izeni Pires; Torrico, Juan Pablo; García-Dávila, Carmen; Santos, Maria da Conceição Freitas; Hrbek, Tomas; Renno, Jean-François

2010-03-30

374

Redescription of a rare bothid, Asterorhombus bleekeri (Macleay), and description of a new species of Asterorhombus from northwestern Australia (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rare Australian bothid flounder.Asterorhombus bleekeri (Macleay), is redescribed from the holotype and ten additional specimens from the east coast of Qeensland, Gulf of Carpentaria\\u000a and Rowly Shoal (Western Australia). The species is transferred fromArnoglossus Bleeker toAsterorhombus Tanaka because of the lack of obvious sexual dimorphism in the interorbital width and pectoral fin length, the lack of rostral\\u000a and orbital

Kunio Amaoka; Masahito Arai

1998-01-01

375

Belonoperca pylei , a new species of seabass (Teleostei: Serranidae: Epinephelinae: Diploprionini) from the cook islands with comments on relationships among diploprionins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Belonoperca pylei is described from five specimens collected at depths of 68–122m from Rarotonga, Cook Islands. It differs from all other known\\u000a diploprionin serranids in having IX, 10 dorsal-fin rays, III, 7 anal-fin rays, and a color pattern composed primarily of yellow\\u000a and organge pigments. Cladistic analysis of epinepheline morphology supports monophyly of the diploprionin generaBelonoperca andDiploprion and suggests thatBelonoperca

Carole C. Baldwin; W. Leo Smith

1998-01-01

376

Are rapids a barrier for floodplain fishes of the Amazon basin? A demographic study of the keystone floodplain species Colossoma macropomum (Teleostei: Characiformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated demographic history and population structuring of Colossoma macropomum sampled from 14 localities in the Amazon basin and the Bolivian sub-basin; the two basins are separated by a series of 16 rapids. Although genetically differentiated, IMa analyses suggest non-zero bi-directional migration rates, and inter-basin divergence of approximately 17 thousand years ago. Analyses in BEAST indicated that Bolivian C. macropomum

Izeni Pires Farias; Juan Pablo Torrico; Carmen García-Dávila; Maria da Conceição Freitas Santos; Tomas Hrbek; Jean-François Renno

2010-01-01

377

Description and redescription of Haliotrema species (Monogenoidea: Poloyonchoinea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing butterfly fishes (Teleostei: Chaetodontidae) in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean.  

PubMed

Haliotrema species are described and/or reported from the gills of butterfly fishes (Chaetodontidae) from coral reefs of the Indo-West Pacific islands: Moorea (French Polynesia), Palau (Micronesia), Wallis (Wallis and Futuna), New Caledonia, Lizard Island and Heron Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia). Haliotrema angelopterum sp. nov., a new species of Monogenoidea parasite from seven species of Chaetodon Linnaeus, 1758 (Chaetodontidae), is described. A new redescription and statute are given for Haliotrema aurigae (Yamaguti, 1968) comb. nov., a parasite from ten species of Chaetodon and one species of Heniochus Cuvier, 1816 (Chaetodontidae). New records of Haliotrema scyphovagina Yamaguti, 1968 are reported from two localities and from several host species belonging to the genera Chaetodon and Forcipiger Jordan and McGregor, 1898 (Chaetodontidae). PMID:15103553

Plaisance, Laetitia; Bouamer, Salah; Morand, Serge

2004-04-21

378

Repeatability of clades as a criterion of reliability: a case study for molecular phylogeny of Acanthomorpha (Teleostei) with larger number of taxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although much progress has been made recently in teleostean phylogeny, relationships among the main lineages of the higher teleosts (Acanthomorpha), containing more than 60% of all fish species, remain poorly defined. This study represents the most extensive taxonomic sampling effort to date to collect new molecular characters for phylogenetic analysis of acanthomorph fishes. We compiled and analyzed three independent data

Wei-Jen Chen; Céline Bonillo; Guillaume Lecointre

2003-01-01

379

Phylogenetic structure of Zacco platypus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) populations on the upper and middle Chang Jiang (=Yangtze) drainage inferred from cytochrome b sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships of some Chinese populations from the Chang Jiang (=Yangtze) drainage of the cyprinid Zacco platypus. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 64 individuals from 6 upper and middle tributaries of the Sichuan and Hunan Provinces to assess their population structure and systematics. The combined analyses of the phylogenetic information

A Perdices; C Cunha; M. M Coelho

2004-01-01

380

Lamellodiscus euzeti n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae), a parasite from Dentex canariensis and D. gibbosus (Teleostei: Sparidae) in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea  

PubMed Central

Lamellodiscus euzeti n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) is described from the gills of two sparid fishes, Dentex canariensis (Steindachner) off Senegal and Ivory Coast and D. gibbosus (Rafinesque) off Senegal and Tunisia. The new species belongs to the “ignoratus” group, characterized by a lamellodisc with complete lamellae, a “lyre” shaped male copulatory organ type, and the “ignoratus” sensu stricto subgroup, characterized by a haptor with simple lateral dorsal bars. Lamellodiscus euzeti n. sp can be distinguished from all the congeneric species of the “ignoratus” subgroup by the presence of a prominent protuberance at the base of the curved part of the simple piece of the male copulatory organ (MCO), a large bulb at the base of the bifurcated piece of the MCO and the presence of 5-6 spines in the distal portion of the axial branch of the bifurcated piece of the MCO. Specificity and biogeography of Lamellodiscus species from sparid fishes are discussed.

Diamanka, A.; Boudaya, L.; Toguebaye, B.S.; Pariselle, A.

2011-01-01

381

Genetic, Comparative Genomic, and Expression Analyses of the Mc1r Locus in the Polychromatic Midas Cichlid Fish (Teleostei, Cichlidae Amphilophus sp.) Species Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural populations of the Midas cichlid species in several different crater lakes in Nicaragua exhibit a conspicuous color\\u000a polymorphism. Most individuals are dark and the remaining have a gold coloration. The color morphs mate assortatively and\\u000a sympatric population differentiation has been shown based on neutral molecular data. We investigated the color polymorphism\\u000a using segregation analysis and a candidate gene approach.

Frederico Henning; Adina Josepha Renz; Shoji Fukamachi; Axel Meyer

2010-01-01

382

Gyrodactylus species (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) on the cichlid fishes of Senegal, with the description of Gyrodactylus ergensi n. sp. from Mango tilapia, Sarotherodon galilaeus L. (Teleostei: Cichilidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first record of Gyrodactylus species Nordmann, 1832 on the cichlid fish from Senegal is reported. Gyrodactylus parasites were found on four host species studied, Hemichromis fasciatus, Hemichromis letournaeuxi, Oreochromis niloticus, and Sarotherodon galilaeus. Gyrodactylus cichlidarum Paperna (Bamidgeh 13:14–29, 1968) were collected from H. fasciatus, and its identity was confirmed based on the morphometrical comparison with the holotype specimens of

Iva P?ikrylová; Iveta Mat?jusová; Na?a Musilová; Milan Gelnar

2009-01-01

383

Involvement of pituitary gonadotropins, gonadal steroids and breeding season in sex change of protogynous dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), induced by a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor.  

PubMed

Two experiments were performed using the aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole (100mg/kg) to promote sex change, from female-to-male, in protogynous dusky grouper. One experiment was performed during the breeding season (spring) and the other at the end of the breeding season (summer). During the spring, AI promoted sex change after 9weeks and the sperm produced was able to fertilize grouper oocytes. During the summer, the sex change was incomplete; intersex individuals were present and sperm was not released by any of the animals. Sex changed gonads had a lamellar architecture; cysts of spermatocytes and spermatozoa in the lumen of the germinal compartment. In the spring, after 4weeks, 11ketotestosterone (11KT) levels were higher in the AI than in control fish, and after 9weeks, coincident with semen release, testosterone levels increased in the AI group, while 11KT returned to the initial levels. Estradiol (E2) levels remained unchanged during the experimental period. Instead of decreasing throughout the period, as in control group, 17 ?-OH progesterone levels did not change in the AI-treated fish, resulting in higher values after 9weeks when compared with control fish. fsh? and lh? gene expression in the AI animals were lower compared with control fish after 9weeks. The use of AI was effective to obtain functional males during the breeding season. The increase in androgens, modulated by gonadotropins, triggered the sex change, enabling the development of male germ cells, whereas a decrease in E2 levels was not required to change sex in dusky grouper. PMID:23792264

Garcia, Carlos Eduardo de O; Araújo, Bruno C; Mello, Paulo H; Narcizo, Amanda de M; Rodrigues-Filho, Jandyr A; Medrado, Andreone T; Zampieri, Ricardo A; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

2013-06-19

384

Sex recognition in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic molly females ( Poecilia mexicana , Poeciliidae, Teleostei): influence of visual and non-visual cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cave fishes need to rely on non-visual senses, such as the sense of smell or the lateral line to communicate in darkness.\\u000a In the present study, we investigated sex identification by females of a cave-dwelling livebearing fish, Poecilia mexicana (cave molly), as well as its surface-dwelling relatives. Unlike many other cave fishes, cave mollies still possess functional\\u000a eyes. Three different

Martin Plath; Michael Tobler

2007-01-01

385

Partitioning of Habitat and Prey by Abundant and Similar-sized Species of the Triglidae and Pempherididae (Teleostei) in coastal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to determine whether certain co-occurring and abundant species of the teleost families Triglidae and Pempherididae are segregated spatially and/or by diet, and are thus less likely to be susceptible to competition for resources. Nocturnal otter trawling in shallow (5-15 m) and deeper (20-35 m) waters in four regions along ˜200 km of the south-western Australian coastline collected large numbers of a wide size range of the triglids Lepidotrigla modestaand Lepidotrigla papilioand the pempheridids Pempheris klunzingeriand Parapriacanthus elongatus. Although these four species frequently co-occurred at several sites, each species attained its highest density at different sites, thereby representing a partial segregation of these species by habitat. This even occurred with the congeneric triglid species, with L. modestabeing most abundant in the four deep, offshore sites, while L. papiliowas most numerous at three sites which varied in depth and distance from shore. Although triglids and pempheridids both consumed substantial amounts of amphipods and mysids, only the members of the latter family ingested a large amount of errant polychaetes. The latter difference is assumed to reflect the fact that, in comparison with triglids, pempheridids can swim faster, have a mouth adapted for feeding upwards in the water column and feed at night when errant polychaetes emerge from the substratum. Although the dietary compositions of L. modestaand L. papiliodid not differ significantly when analyses were based on dietary data for all sites, they did differ significantly when analyses were restricted to dietary data obtained when both species were abundant and co-occurred. The likelihood of competition for food is thus reduced in the latter circumstances. In comparison with P. klunzingeri, P. elongatusconsumed a relatively larger volume of amphipods and a relatively smaller volume of mysids, which are more mobile, implying that P. elongatusfeeds to a greater extent on rather than above the substratum surface. The diets of all species underwent ontogenetic changes, which were particularly marked in P. klunzingeriwhere an increase in body size was accompanied by a reduced consumption of mysids and an increased ingestion of errant polychaetes and amphipods. The fact that L. modesta, L. papilio, P. klunzingeriand P. elongatusare partially segregated by habitat and feed on suites of prey which differ in composition, allied with an interfamilial difference in the time of feeding, would reduce the likelihood of competition for resources amongst these four species, when they co-occur and are abundant. Furthermore, ontogenetic changes in diet would reduce the potential for intraspecific competition for food.

Platell, M. E.; Potter, I. C.

1999-02-01

386

Lectinhistochemical detection of terminal carbohydrate residues in the enteric myxozoan Enteromyxum leei parasitizing gilthead seabream Sparus aurata (Pisces: Teleostei): a study using light and transmission electron microscopy.  

PubMed

The presence of terminal carbohydrate residues in Enteromyxum leei (Diamant, Lom et Dyková, 1994) Palenzuela, Redondo et Alvarez-Pellitero, 2002 stages in gilthead seabream intestines was studied at light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) level using lectin histochemical techniques. Abundant mannose and/or glucose residues were demonstrated by the intense staining caused by binding of biotinylated concanavalin A (Con A), at both LM and TEM. A clear positivity was also obtained with Ulex europaeus (UEA I) agglutinin specific for fucose residues. Both lectins stained E. leei proliferative and sporogonic stages, though glycan patterns varied between these developmental stages. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin I (BSL I) recognised only structures in the sporogonic stages. Faint labelling occurred with Glycine max (SBA) lectin. No staining was obtained with Sambucus nigra (SNA) agglutinin. The TEM studies demonstrated a restricted presence of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and alpha-D-galactose, whereas glucose/mannose and fucose, the dominant structures, were also present at the parasite membranes and host-parasite interface, suggesting a role in host-parasite interaction. PMID:20128238

Redondo, María J; Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar

2009-12-01

387

Taxonomic status of Pelichnibothrium speciosum Monticelli, 1889 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea), a mysterious parasite of Alepisaurus ferox Lowe (Teleostei: Alepisauridae) and Prionace glauca (L.) (Euselachii: Carcharinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of freshly collected tetraphyllidean cestodes from a teleost fish, Alepisaurus ferox Lowe, from Japan with types and vouchers of Pelichnibothrium speciosum Monticelli, 1889, described from the same host, and specimens of Prionacestus bipartitus Mete & Euzet, 1996, from the spiral valve of a shark, Prionace glauca (Linnaeus), from the Indian Ocean between Réunion and Madagascar, revealed their conspecificity. Consequently,

Tomáš Scholz; Frantiöek Moravec

1998-01-01

388

Stereological estimation of the surface area and oxygen diffusing capacity of the respiratory stomach of the air-breathing armored catfish Pterygoplichthys anisitsi (Teleostei: Loricariidae).  

PubMed

The stomach of Pterygoplichthys anisitsi has a thin, translucent wall and a simple squamous epithelium with an underlying dense capillary network. In the cardiac and pyloric regions, most cells have short microvilli distributed throughout the cell surface and their edges are characterized by short, densely packed microvilli. The mucosal layer of the stomach has two types of pavement epithelial cells that are similar to those in the aerial respiratory organs. Type 1 pavement epithelial cells, resembling the Type I pneumocyte in mammal lungs, are flat, with a large nucleus, and extend a thin sheet of cytoplasm on the underlying capillary. Type 2 cells, resembling the Type II pneumocyte, possess numerous mitochondria, a well-developed Golgi complex, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and numerous lamellar bodies in different stages of maturation. The gastric glands, distributed throughout the mucosal layer, also have several cells with many lamellar bodies. The total volume (air + tissue), tissue, and air capacity of the stomach when inflated, increase along with body mass. The surface-to-tissue-volume ratio of stomach varies from 108 cm(-1) in the smallest fish (0.084 kg) to 59 cm(-1) in the largest fish (0.60 kg). The total stomach surface area shows a low correlation to body mass. Nevertheless, the body-mass-specific surface area varied from 281.40 cm(2) kg(-1) in the smallest fish to 68.08 cm(2) kg(-1) in the largest fish, indicating a negative correlation to body mass (b = -0.76). The arithmetic mean barrier thickness between air and blood was 1.52 +/- 0.07 microm, whereas the harmonic mean thickness (tau(h)) of the diffusion barrier ranged from 0.40 to 0.74 microm. The anatomical diffusion factor (ADF = cm(2) microm(-1) kg(-1)) and the morphological O(2) diffusion capacity (D(morphol)O(2) = cm(3) min(-1) mmHg(-1) kg(-1)) are higher in the smallest specimen and lower in the largest one. In conclusion, the structure and morphometric data of P. anisitsi stomach indicate that this organ is adapted for oxygen uptake from air. PMID:19107815

da Cruz, André Luis; Pedretti, Ana Carolina Elias; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

2009-05-01

389

Morphometric or morpho-anatomal and genetic investigations highlight allopatric speciation in Western Mediterranean lagoons within the Atherina lagunae species (Teleostei, Atherinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current distribution of Atherina lagunae poses an interesting biogeographical problem as this species inhabits widely separate circum-Mediterranean lagoons. Statistical analyses of 87 biometric parameters and genetic variation in a portion of the cytochrome b gene were examined in four populations of A. lagunae from Tunisian and French lagoons. The results suggested a subdivision into two distinct Atherinid groups: one included

M. Trabelsi; F. Maamouri; J.-P. Quignard; M. Boussaid; E. Faure

2004-01-01

390

Morphometric or morpho-anatomal and genetic investigations highlight allopatric speciation in Western Mediterranean lagoons within the Atherina lagunae species (Teleostei, Atherinidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current distribution of Atherina lagunae poses an interesting biogeographical problem as this species inhabits widely separate circum-Mediterranean lagoons. Statistical analyses of 87 biometric parameters and genetic variation in a portion of the cytochrome b gene were examined in four populations of A. lagunae from Tunisian and French lagoons. The results suggested a subdivision into two distinct Atherinid groups: one included the French lagoonal sand smelts and the second included the Tunisian ones. Tunisian lagoonal sand smelts were distinguished from the French ones by the lower number of lateral line scales, vertebrae, pectorals and first dorsal fin rays and the higher number of lower and total gillrakers. In addition, A. lagunae from Tunisian lagoons are characterised by short preorbital length, developed operculum, broad interorbital space, larger head, robust body and a relatively small first dorsal fin which is positioned backwards. In addition, intraspecific sequence variation in a portion of the cytochrome b gene was examined in 87 individuals from Tunisia and France. The high correlation between the results of the molecular phylogenetic tree and biometric statistical data analysis suggested that two different sibling species or at least sub-species or semi-species have colonised the lagoons. In addition, our analyses suggested that the evolution of A. lagunae probably occurred in two steps including marine sympatric speciation within the large Atherina boyeri complex and a post-Pleistocene colonisation of the lagoons.

Trabelsi, M.; Maamouri, F.; Quignard, J.-P.; Boussaid, M.; Faure, E.

2004-12-01

391

Speciation and host–parasite relationships in the parasite genus Gyrodactylus (Monogenea, Platyhelminthes) infecting gobies of the genus Pomatoschistus (Gobiidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using species-level phylogenies, the speciation mode of Gyrodactylus species infecting a single host genus was evaluated. Eighteen Gyrodactylus species were collected from gobies of the genus Pomatoschistus and sympatric fish species across the distribution range of the hosts. The V4 region of the ssrRNA and the internal transcribed spacers encompassing the 5.8S rRNA gene were sequenced; by including published sequences

Tine Huyse; Vanessa Audenaert; Filip A. M. Volckaert

2003-01-01

392

Stable-isotope analyses reveal the importance of seagrass beds as feeding areas for juveniles of the speckled worm eel Myrophis punctatus (Teleostei: Ophichthidae) in Florida.  

PubMed

The feeding habits and habitats of the speckled worm eel Myrophis punctatus were studied on the mangrove edge of the Indian River Lagoon (IRL, Florida) using gut-content and stable-isotope analyses of carbon (?(13) C) and nitrogen (?(15) N). Four taxa were identified through analyses of gut contents, and the index of relative importance suggested that amphipods, microphytobenthos and annelids are the most important food sources in the fish's diet. To assess the feeding habits of the fish after their recruitment to the IRL, these food sources were collected from mangroves and nearby seagrass beds for isotope analyses. Stable isotopes constituted a powerful tool for discriminating fish prey items from mangroves (mean ± s.d.?(13) C = -20·5 ± 0·6‰) and those from seagrass beds (mean ± s.d.?(13) C = -16·9 ± 0·6‰), thus providing good evidence of food source origins. The 56 M. punctatus collected [10·0 < total length (L(T) ) < 16·2 cm] had average isotopic signatures of ?(13) C = -16·7 ± 0·2‰ and ?(15) N = 8·2 ± 0·1‰. A significant depletion in (13) C was observed for larger juveniles (15·0 < L(T) < 16·2 cm), suggesting that they found a portion of their food in mangroves. Estimation of the trophic level from stable isotopes (T(Liso)) was similar among different size groups of juvenile fish (T(Liso) = 3·2-3·5); therefore, M. punctatus was considered a secondary consumer, which is consistent with its zoobenthic diet. The concentration-dependent mixing Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR) model revealed the importance of food sources from seagrass beds as carbon sources for all the fish collected, with a significant increase in mangrove prey contributions, such as annelids, in the diet of larger juveniles. This study highlights the importance of seagrass beds as feeding habitats for juveniles of M. punctatus after their recruitment to coastal waters. PMID:21884107

Vaslet, A; France, C; Phillips, D L; Feller, I C; Baldwin, C C

2011-07-25

393

Repeatability of clades as a criterion of reliability: a case study for molecular phylogeny of Acanthomorpha (Teleostei) with larger number of taxa.  

PubMed

Although much progress has been made recently in teleostean phylogeny, relationships among the main lineages of the higher teleosts (Acanthomorpha), containing more than 60% of all fish species, remain poorly defined. This study represents the most extensive taxonomic sampling effort to date to collect new molecular characters for phylogenetic analysis of acanthomorph fishes. We compiled and analyzed three independent data sets, including: (i) mitochondrial ribosomal fragments from 12S and 16s (814bp for 97 taxa); (ii) nuclear ribosomal 28S sequences (847bp for 74 taxa); and (iii) a nuclear protein-coding gene, rhodopsin (759bp for 86 taxa). Detailed analyses were conducted on each data set separately and the principle of taxonomic congruence without consensus trees was used to assess confidence in the results as follows. Repeatability of clades from separate analyses was considered the primary criterion to establish reliability, rather than bootstrap proportions from a single combined (total evidence) data matrix. The new and reliable clades emerging from this study of the acanthomorph radiation were: Gadiformes (cods) with Zeioids (dories); Beloniformes (needlefishes) with Atheriniformes (silversides); blenioids (blennies) with Gobiesocoidei (clingfishes); Channoidei (snakeheads) with Anabantoidei (climbing gouramies); Mastacembeloidei (spiny eels) with Synbranchioidei (swamp-eels); the last two pairs of taxa grouping together, Syngnathoidei (aulostomids, macroramphosids) with Dactylopteridae (flying gurnards); Scombroidei (mackerels) plus Stromatoidei plus Chiasmodontidae; Ammodytidae (sand lances) with Cheimarrhichthyidae (torrentfish); Zoarcoidei (eelpouts) with Cottoidei; Percidae (perches) with Notothenioidei (Antarctic fishes); and a clade grouping Carangidae (jacks), Echeneidae (remoras), Sphyraenidae (barracudas), Menidae (moonfish), Polynemidae (threadfins), Centropomidae (snooks), and Pleuronectiformes (flatfishes). PMID:12565036

Chen, Wei-Jen; Bonillo, Céline; Lecointre, Guillaume

2003-02-01

394

Exposure to waterborne 4- tert-octylphenol induces vitellogenin synthesis and disrupts testis morphology in the South American freshwater fish Cichlasoma dimerus (Teleostei, Perciformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to environmental pollutants may disrupt endocrine functions and cause reproductive effects in human and wildlife populations. Various groups of chemicals have estrogen-like effects, including degradation products of alkylphenol polyethoxylates, such as 4-tert-octylphenol (OP). Laboratory studies have shown that exposure of male fish to xenoestrogens results in induction of circulating vitellogenin (Vtg), inhibition of testicular growth, testis abnormalities and formation

G. Rey Vázquez; F. J. Meijide; R. H. Da Cuña; F. L. Lo Nostro; Y. G. Piazza; P. A. Babay; V. L. Trudeau; M. C. Maggese; G. A. Guerrero

2009-01-01

395

Exposure to waterborne 4-tert-octylphenol induces vitellogenin synthesis and disrupts testis morphology in the South American freshwater fish Cichlasoma dimerus (Teleostei, Perciformes).  

PubMed

Exposure to environmental pollutants may disrupt endocrine functions and cause reproductive effects in human and wildlife populations. Various groups of chemicals have estrogen-like effects, including degradation products of alkylphenol polyethoxylates, such as 4-tert-octylphenol (OP). Laboratory studies have shown that exposure of male fish to xenoestrogens results in induction of circulating vitellogenin (Vtg), inhibition of testicular growth, testis abnormalities and formation of intersex gonads. In this study, the impact of the exposure to waterborne OP on reproductive aspects in the South American cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus was evaluated using qualitative changes in the levels of Vtg in plasma and surface mucus and histological alterations in the liver and gonads as endpoints. Adult males and females were exposed to OP via immersion during 60 days in aquaria under semi-static conditions, water changes being made every 84 h. Treatment groups were: control (ethanol 0.005%), OP 30, 150 and 300 microg/L. Using Western and Dot blot analysis, Vtg was detected in plasma and mucus of control and treated females and treated males, while no Vtg was observed in samples from control males. Morphological changes in the hepatocytes due to the accumulation of Vtg were observed in OP-exposed males. Impairment of testicular structure became apparent in males treated with the highest OP concentrations. The most salient pathological change was the alteration of lobular organization with increased testicular fibrosis and progressive disruption of spermatogenesis. No major changes were observed in ovarian architecture. Our results indicate that detection of Vtg in surface mucus may be a sensitive and non-invasive biomarker of the endocrine disrupting effects of environmental estrogens, resulting in a useful method for field monitoring. PMID:19477298

Rey Vázquez, G; Meijide, F J; Da Cuña, R H; Lo Nostro, F L; Piazza, Y G; Babay, P A; Trudeau, V L; Maggese, M C; Guerrero, G A

2009-05-27

396

Gyrodactylus malalai sp. nov. (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) from Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and Redbelly tilapia, Tilapia zillii (Gervais) (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in the Lake Turkana, Kenya.  

PubMed

Gyrodactylus malalai sp. nov. is described from the fin surface of cichlid fishes Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and Tilapia zillii (Gervais) caught in Lake Turkana (Kenya). The new species morphologically resembles Gyrodactylus nyanzae Paperna, 1973, but can be readily distinguished by the shape of the marginal hook sickles and the size of its hamuli. The sequence data of rDNA spanning partial 18S, internal transcribe spacer 1 and 2 and the 5.8S gene is unique within GenBank. Genetically, as most similar Gyrodactylus ergensi P?ikrylová, Mat?jusová, Musilová et Gelnar, 2009 was found (97.5%). Moreover, a specimen of G. cichlidarum from O. niloticus, and a specimen G. ergensi from Sarotherodon galilaeus (L.) were collected during sampling in Kenya. Likewise, additional sampling of O. niloticus from the Blue Nile in Sudan revealed the presence of the newly described species. These findings represent the first records of gyrodactylids in both African countries. PMID:22807048

P?ikrylová, Iva; Radim, Blažek; Gelnar, Milan

2012-05-13

397

Post-glacial expansion into the Paleozoic Plateau: evidence of an Ozarkian refugium for the Ozark minnow Notropis nubilus (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).  

PubMed

Genetic variation was examined within the Ozark minnow Notropis nubilus using complete mtDNA cytochrome b gene sequences from 160 individuals representing 30 localities to test hypotheses on the origin of the distribution. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three strongly supported clades of haplotypes consistent with geographic distributions: a clade from the Western Ozarks, a clade from the Southern Ozarks and a clade from the Northern Ozarks and upper Mississippi River basin. The estimated mean ages of these clades indicated that they diverged during pre-Illinoian glacial cycles extending from the late Pliocene into the early Pleistocene. Results of demographic analyses based on coalescent approaches supported the hypothesis that the Paleozoic Plateau was not a refugium for N. nubilus during periodic glacial advances. There is evidence of a genetic signature of northern expansion into the Paleozoic Plateau from a Southern Ozarkian refugium. Populations expanded out of drainages in the Northern Ozarks into the Paleozoic Plateau during the late Pleistocene. Subsequently, the two regions were isolated due to the recent extirpation of intervening populations caused by the loss of suitable habitat. PMID:21039494

Berendzen, P B; Dugan, J F; Gamble, T

2010-10-01

398

Structures and immunolocalization of Na+, K+ -ATPase, Na+ /H+ exchanger 3 and vacuolar-type H+ -ATPase in the gills of blennies (Teleostei: Blenniidae) inhabiting rocky intertidal areas.  

PubMed

The structure and immunolocalization of the ion transporters Na(+) ,K(+) -ATPase (NKA), Na(+) /H(+) exchanger (NHE3) and vacuolar-type H(+) -ATPase (VHA) were examined in the gills of teleosts of the family Blenniidae, which inhabit rocky shores with vertical zonation in subtropical seas. These features were compared among the following species with different ecologies: the amphibious rockskipper blenny Andamia tetradactylus, the intertidal white-finned blenny Praealticus tanegasimae and the purely marine yaeyama blenny Ecsenius yaeyamaensis. Light and electron microscopic observations indicated that thick gill filaments were arranged close to each other and alternately on two hemibranches of a gill arch in the opercular space of A. tetradactylus. Many mucous cells (MC) and mitochondrion-rich cells (MRC) were present in the interlamellar regions of the gill filament. An immunohistochemical study demonstrated that numerous NKA, NHE3 and some VHA were located predominantly on presumed MRCs of gill filaments and at the base of the lamellae. Analyses using serial (mirror image) sections of the gills indicated that only a few NKA immunoreactive cells (IRC) were colocalized with VHA on some MRCs in the filaments. In the gills of P. tanegasimae, NKA- and NHE3-IRCs were observed in the interlamellar region of the filaments and at the base of the lamellae. VHA-IRCs were located sparsely on the lamellae and filaments. In the gills of E. yaeyamaensis, the lamellae and filaments were thin and straight, respectively. MCs were located at the tip as well as found scattered in the interlamellar region of gill filaments. NKA-, NHE3- and VHA-IRCs were moderately frequently observed in the filaments and rarely on the lamellae. This study shows that the structure and distribution of ion transporters in the gills differ among the three blennid species, presumably reflecting their different ecologies. PMID:22551179

Uchiyama, M; Komiyama, M; Yoshizawa, H; Shimizu, N; Konno, N; Matsuda, K

2012-04-10

399

Molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Amphistichinae (Teleostei: Embiotocidae) reveals parallel divergent evolution of red pigmentation in two rapidly evolving lineages of sand-dwelling surfperch.  

PubMed

Pigment evolution was reconstructed in the subfamily Amphistichinae, a six-species clade of the surfperches, family Embiotocidae. Assignment was confirmed for all species within the subfamily, but low levels of differentiation were found among species within the subfamily, suggesting a recent radiation. The new phylogeny differs from previous hypotheses by the placement of the spotfin surfperch Hyperprosopon anale at the base of the subfamily, while still preserving the calico surfperch Amphistichus koelzi and the redtailed surfperch Amphistichus rhodoterus as sister species. Phenotypically, A. rhodoterus, A. koelzi and the silver surfperch Hyperprosopon ellipticum express high levels of red pigmentation. The barred surfperch, Amphistichus argenteus and the walleye surfperch Hyperprosopon argenteum express little to no red pigment, while basal H. anale expresses an intermediate amount of red pigment. Red pigmentation is proposed to have experienced parallel divergent evolution in each genus within the subfamily. PMID:21781095

Westphal, M F; Morey, S R; Uyeda, J C; Morgan, T J

2011-07-14

400

Variation in thermal tolerance and routine metabolism among spring- and stream-dwelling freshwater sculpins (Teleostei: Cottidae) of the southeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evolutionary theory predicts that some aquatic organisms may adapt by directional selection to limiting physical environmental conditions, yet empirical data are conflicting. We sought to test the assumption that sculpins (family Cottidae) inhabiting thermally stable springs of the southeastern United States differ in temperature tolerance and metabolism from populations inhabiting more thermally labile stream habitats. Spring populations of pygmy sculpins (Coitus pygmaeus) and Ozark sculpins (C. hypselurus) differed interspecifically in thermal tolerance from populations of stream-dwelling mottled (C. bairdi) and Tallapoosa sculpins (C. tallapoosae), and both stream and spring populations of banded sculpins (C. carolinae). No intra- or interspecific differences in thermal tolerance were found among populations of C. bairdi, C. tallapoosae, or C. carolinae. Coitus pygmaeus acclimated to 15??C differed intraspecifically in routine metabolism from fish acclimated to 20?? and 25??C. Cottus pygmaeus and stream-dwelling C. bairdi and C. carolinae acclimated to temperatures of 20?? and 25??C showed no interspecific differences in routine metabolism. Our results suggest that some spring-adapted populations or species may be more stenothermal than stream-dwelling congeners, but a greater understanding of the interactions of other physical and biological factors is required to better explain micro- and macrohabitat distributions of eastern North American sculpins.

Walsh, S. J.; Haney, D. C.; Timmerman, C. M.

1997-01-01

401

Multilocus phylogeny of Crenicichla (Teleostei: Cichlidae), with biogeography of the C. lacustris group: species flocks as a model for sympatric speciation in rivers.  

PubMed

First multilocus analysis of the largest Neotropical cichlid genus Crenicichla combining mitochondrial (cytb, ND2, 16S) and nuclear (S7 intron 1) genes and comprising 602 sequences of 169 specimens yields a robust phylogenetic hypothesis. The best marker in the combined analysis is the ND2 gene which contributes throughout the whole range of hierarchical levels in the tree and shows weak effects of saturation at the 3rd codon position. The 16S locus exerts almost no influence on the inferred phylogeny. The nuclear S7 intron 1 resolves mainly deeper nodes. Crenicichla is split into two main clades: (1) Teleocichla, the Crenicichla wallacii group, and the Crenicichla lugubris-Crenicichla saxatilis groups ("the TWLuS clade"); (2) the Crenicichla reticulata group and the Crenicichla lacustris group-Crenicichla macrophthalma ("the RMLa clade"). Our study confirms the monophyly of the C. lacustris species group with very high support. The biogeographic reconstruction of the C. lacustris group using dispersal-vicariance analysis underlines the importance of ancient barriers between the middle and upper Paraná River (the Guaíra Falls) and between the middle and upper Uruguay River (the Moconá Falls). Our phylogeny recovers two endemic species flocks within the C. lacustris group, the Crenicichla missioneira species flock and the herein discovered Crenicichla mandelburgeri species flock from the Uruguay and Paraná/Iguazú Rivers, respectively. We discuss putative sympatric diversification of trophic traits (morphology of jaws and lips, dentition) and propose these species flocks as models for studying sympatric speciation in complex riverine systems. The possible role of hybridization as a mechanism of speciation is mentioned with a recorded example (Crenicichla scottii). PMID:21971056

Piálek, Lubomír; Rí?an, Old?ich; Casciotta, Jorge; Almirón, Adriana; Zrzavý, Jan

2011-09-25

402

Micronucleus test in erythrocytes of Barbus plebejus (Teleostei, Pisces) from two natural environments: a bioassay for the in situ detection of mutagens in freshwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythrocyte micronucleus frequencies in wild fish from two riverine environments and in fish reproduced and reared under controlled conditions (control group) were compared, with the aim to evaluate the suitability of the MN test for the in situ detection of mutagens in freshwaters. Fish were caught in different months in two rivers of central Italy which have different pollution levels.

Sandra Minissi; Eleonora Ciccotti; Marco Rizzoni

1996-01-01

403

77 FR 35358 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Gulf of Mexico...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Review (SEDAR); Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus) and Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

2012-06-13

404

Effects of copper and reduced salinity on grazing activity and macroalgae production: a short-term study on a mollusc grazer, Trochus maculatus , and two species of macroalgae in the inner Gulf of Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grazing is an important structuring process in the marine environment, especially in the tropics where macroalgal standing crop is maintained at low levels by intense herbivory, often despite relatively high levels of primary production. There are several empirical examples of phase shifts following reductions in herbivory, where hard coral cover decreases while the abundance of large, fleshy macroalgae increases. In

T. Elfwing; M. Tedengren

2002-01-01

405

The Braincase of Pholidophorid and Leptolepid Fishes, with a Review of the Actinopterygian Braincase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mesozoic pholidophorid and leptolepid fishes stand at the base of the Teleostei. In this paper the neurocranium and the dermal bones intimately associated with it, the roofing bones and the vomer and parasphenoid, are described more or less completely in six Jurassic pholidophorids (Pholidophoroides limbata, Pholidophorus bechei, P. germanicus, P. minor, P. macrocephalus and an unnamed Callovian Pholidophorus sp.)

C. Patterson

1975-01-01

406

Possible cytoskeletal structures of rainbow trout sperm revealed by electron microscopic observation after detergent extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the considerable research interest in fish sperm ultrastructure, little is known about the functions of different sperm cell components. Our electron microscopic study was aimed at identifying possible tissue-specific cytoskeletal structures in spermatozoa of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Teleostei, Salmoniformes, Salmonidae; formerly Salmo gairdneri). Based on the known resistance of the cytoskeleton to nonionic detergents, we compared the ultrastructure

Maya D. Markova; Ralitsa S. Zhivkova

2003-01-01

407

Reproductive behavior of the Lake Malawi cichlid fish, Tramitichromis intermedius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis We studied the reproductive behavior of wild caught and captive-born, first generation offspring of the Lake Malawi fish, Tramitichromis intermedius(Teleostei, Cichlidae), held in aquaria. Spawning behavior includes an exchange of actions with dominant males performing bower construction and courtship behaviors while females focus on oviposition and mouthbrooding. Egg counts per oviposition and brooding and interbrooding periods of wild caught

Jennifer L. Ripley; Phillip S. Lobel

2005-01-01

408

Fish embryo culture: Migration and spreading of zebrafish ( Brachydanio rerio ) pigmented retinal epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Blastoderm explants fromBrachydanio rerio (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) high blastulas exhibited limited differentiation of optic structures in culture. A number of explants\\u000a showed migration of pigmented retinal epithelial cells and formation of monolayers. The findings permit comparative studies\\u000a in vitro on phenomena pertaining to pigmented retinal epithelial cell morphology, function, and differentiation.

Hans W. Laale

1981-01-01

409

Population genetics, phylogeography, and systematics of the thornyhead rockfishes ( Sebastolobus ) along the deep continental slopes of the North Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population genetic, phylogeographic, and systematic relationships are elucidated among the three species comprising the thornyhead rockfish genus Sebastolobus (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae). Genetic variation among sampling sites representing their extensive ranges along the deep continental slopes of the northern Pacific Ocean is compared using sequence data from the left domain of the mtDNA control region. Comparisons are made among the shortspine thornyhead

Carol A. Stepien; Alison K. Dillon; Amy K. Patterson

2000-01-01

410

Landscape genetic patterns of the rainbow darter Etheostoma caeruleum : a catchment analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catchment population structure and divergence patterns of the rainbow darter Etheostoma caeruleum (Percidae: Teleostei), an eastern North American benthic fish, are tested using a landscape genetics approach. Allelic variation at eight nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial DNA regions [cytochrome (cyt) b gene and control region; 2056 aligned base pairs (bp)] is analysed from 89 individuals and six sites

A. E. Haponski; T. L. Bollin; M. A. Jedlicka; C. A. Stepien

2009-01-01

411

Cross-species amplification of 41 microsatellites in European cyprinids: A tool for evolutionary, population genetics and hybridization studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cyprinids display the most abundant and widespread species among the European freshwater Teleostei and are known to hybridize quite commonly. Nevertheless, a limited number of markers for conducting comparative differentiation, evolutionary and hybridization dynamics studies are available to date. FINDINGS: Five multiplex PCR sets were optimized in order to assay 41 cyprinid-specific polymorphic microsatellite loci (including 10 novel loci

Vincent Dubut; Melthide Sinama; Jean-François Martin; Emese Meglécz; Juliette Fernandez; Rémi Chappaz; André Gilles; Caroline Costedoat

2010-01-01

412

An eye for a worm: Lateralisation of feeding behaviour in aquatic anamniotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some animals, notably birds, preferentially approach and capture food items in their right visual field. However, this lateralised behaviour has not been studied extensively in anamniotes. Here we test eye preference during feeding for a fish, (Perccottus glenii; Teleostei, Perciformes), a newt, (Pleurodeles walti; Amphibia, Caudata), and a frog, (Xenopus laevis; Amphibia, Anura) using a test chamber that assesses reaction

Andrey N. Giljov; Karina A. Karenina; Yegor B. Malashichev

2009-01-01

413

Neglected Taxonomy of Rare Desert Fishes: Congruent Evidence for Two Species of Leatherside Chub  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation biologists rely heavily on taxonomy to set the scope for biological monitoring and recovery planning of rare or threatened species. Yet, taxonomic boundaries are seldom evaluated as falsifiable hypotheses that can be statistically tested. Here, we examine species boundaries in leatherside chub (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), an imperiled desert fish native to the Bonneville Basin and upper Snake River drainages of

JERALD B. JOHNSON; THOMAS E. DOWLING; MARK C. BELK

2004-01-01

414

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF 5'END SEQUENCE OF THE MITOCHONDRIAL CONTROL REGION OF SIX FLATFISH SPECIES (PLEURONECTIDAE) FROM THE YELLOW SEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 5'-end sequence of the mitochondrial control region (CR) of six flatfishes (Pleuronectidae: Teleostei) from the Yellow Sea (China) and one from the North Sea (Belgium) were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. The seven species are the pointhead plaice (Cleisthenes herzensteini), stone flounder (Kareius bicoloratus), variegated flounder (Verasper variegatus), slime flounder (Microstomus achne), finespotted flounder (Pleuronichthys

Xiaoyu Kong; Jianzhong Yu; Lishi Zhou; Ziniu Yu

2007-01-01

415

Compensatory behavior in response to sulfide- induced hypoxia affects time budgets, feeding efficiency, and predation risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Background: In habitats containing toxic hydrogen sulfide, fish breathe at the water's surface to stay alive. The behavioris called aquatic surface respiration (ASR). Question: What effects does this compensatorybehavior have? Does it constrain individuals’ time budgets? Negatively affect foraging? Increase susceptibility to predators? Organisms and places: Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae, Teleostei) and Sulfur mollies (P. sulphuraria) inhabiting sulfidic

M. Tobler; R. Riesch; C. M. Tobler; M. Plath

416

Monogenoids from the gills of spiny eels (Teleostei: Mastacembelidae) in India and Iraq, proposal of Mastacembelocleidus gen. n., and status of the Indian species of Actinocleidus, Urocleidus and Haplocleidus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae).  

PubMed

Mastacembelocleidus gen. n. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) is proposed to include two species collected and redescribed from spiny eels (Mastacembelidae) in India and Iraq: Mastacembelocleidus bam (Tripathi, 1959) comb. n. (syn. Ancyrocephalus bam Tripathi, 1959) from the gills of Macrognathus pancalus (new host record) and Macrognathus aculeatus (Synbranchiformes: Mastacembelidae) from Lucknow, India; and Mastacembelocleidus heteranchorus (Kulkami, 1969) comb. n. (syn. Urocleidus heteranchorus Kulkarni, 1969) from the gills of Mastacembelus armatus from Lucknow, India, and Mastacembelus mastacembelus (new host record) from the environs of Erbil, Iraq (new locality record). Urocleidus rhyncobdelli Jain, 1959, Haliotrema tandani Agrawal et Singh, 1982 and Urocleidus raipurensis Dubey, Gupta et Agarwal, 1992 are considered junior subjective synonyms of M. bam. PMID:15729940

Kritsky, Delane C; Pandey, K C; Agrawal, Nirupama; Abdullah, Shamall

2004-12-01

417

Contrast between extensive variation of 28S rDNA and stability of 5S rDNA and telomeric repeats in the diploid-polyploid Squalius alburnoides complex and in its maternal ancestor Squalius pyrenaicus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diploid–polyploid Squalius alburnoides complex resulted from interspecific hybridization. The chromosomal mapping of 28S and 5S ribosomal genes and of (TTAGGG)n telomeric repeats was performed on specimens from the complex and from the sympatric bisexual species S. pyrenaicus (the complex maternal ancestor) as part of an investigation of the evolutionary relationships between genomic constitutions\\u000a and the consequences of the ongoing

Marta Gromicho; Jean-Pierre Coutanceau; Catherine Ozouf-Costaz; Maria João Collares-Pereira

2006-01-01

418

Evolution of a Mitochondrial Cytochrome bGene Sequence in the Species-Rich Genus Sebastes(Teleostei, Scorpaenidae) and Its Utility in Testing the Monophyly of the Subgenus Sebastomus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecologically diverse and species-rich rockfishes (Sebastes) are a useful group for the study of marine speciation. The monophyly of the genus is generally accepted, as is the validity of most of the numerous species found along the West Coast of North America. However, the subgeneric groupings that would help in the proposal and interpretation of various speciation schemes are

Axayácatl Rocha-Olivares; Carol A. Kimbrell; Blaise J. Eitner; Russell D. Vetter

1999-01-01

419

The world’s smallest vertebrate species of the genus Paedocypris: A new family of freshwater fishes and the sister group to the world’s most diverse clade of freshwater fishes (Teleostei: Cypriniformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Paedocypris has only recently been discovered and described and includes three species, all of which are miniature species and one, P. progenetica, is the smallest vertebrate species. Two previous studies investigating relationships of Paedocypris, based on either cytochrome b or morphology, placed the genus with Sundadanio and Danionella, two genera with miniature species in the formerly recognized family

Richard L. Mayden; Wei-Jen Chen

2010-01-01

420

Dactylogyrids (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea) parasitizing butterfly fishes (Teleostei: Chaetodontidae) from the coral reefs of Palau, Moorea, Wallis, New Caledonia, and Australia: species of Euryhaliotrematoides n. gen. and Aliatrema n. gen.  

PubMed

Seven species of Euryhaliotrematoides n. gen. and 1 species of Aliatrema n. gen. (Monogenoidea; Dactylogyridae) are described and reported from the gills of 15 species of butterfly fishes (Chaetodontidae) from the coral reefs of Moorea (French Polynesia), Wallis (Wallis and Futuna), Heron and Lizard (Australia), Palau (Micronesia), and New Caledonia: Aliatrema cribbi n. sp. from Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon lunula, Chaetodon trifasciatus, Chaetodon ulietensis, Chaetodon vagabundus, Forcipiger flavisissimus, and Heniochus chrysostomus; Euryhaliotrematoides annulocirrus n. comb. from C. auriga, C. lunula, and C. vagabundus; Euryhaliotrematoides aspistis n. sp. from C. auriga, Chaetodon citrinellus, C. lunula, Chaetodon reticulatus, C. ulietensis, and C. vagabundus; Euryhaliotrematoides berenguelae n. sp. from C. citrinellus, Chaetodon ornatissimus, and F. flavisissimus; Euryhaliotrematoides grandis n. comb. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, Chaetodon ephippium, Chaetodon kleinii, Chaetodon lineolatus, C. lunula, C. ornatissimus, C. trifasciatus, C. vagabundus, and H. chrysostomus; Euryhaliotrematoides microphallus n. comb. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. ephippium, C. kleinii, C. lunula, C. ornatissimus, C. reticulatus, Chaetodon trifascialis, C. trifasciatus, C. vagabundus, F. flavisissimus, and H. chrysostomus; Euryhaliotrematoides pirulum n. sp. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. lunula, C. trifasciatus, and C. vagabundus; and Euryhaliotrematoides triangulovagina n. comb. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. kleinii, C. lunula, C. ornatissimus, C. vagabundus, F. flavisissimus, H. chrysostomus, and Hemitaurichthys polylepis. All reports of previously described species are new locality records. With exceptions of E. grandis and E. annulocirrus on C. auriga and C. lunula and E. triangulovagina and E. microphallus on C. auriga, all reports are new host records. Haliotrema hainanensis and H. affinis are considered junior subjective synonyms of E. triangulovagina and E. annulocirrus, respectively. Aliatrema n. gen. is characterized by marine dactylogyrids with tandem gonads (germarium pretesticular), haptoral hooks with upright acute thumbs, a coiled copulatory organ with counterclockwise rings and funnel-shaped base but lacking an accessory piece, and a dextral vaginal pore. Euryhaliotrematoides n. gen. is characterized by marine dactylogyrids having tandem gonads (germarium pretesticular), haptoral hooks with upright acute thumbs, a coiled copulatory organ with counterclockwise rings and funnel-shaped base, a vas deferens looping the left intestinal cecum, and a dextral vaginal pore. PMID:15165056

Plaisance, Laetitia; Kritsky, Delane C

2004-04-01

421

A profile of the introduced Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Teleostei) populations in Lake Victoria Region in relation to its putative origin of Lakes Edward and Albert (Uganda - E. Africa) based on random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker analyses were used to profile the 'ecological explosion' of the introduced Oreochromis niloticus in the basins of Lakes Victoria and Kyoga in comparison to its putative origin of Lakes Edward, George and Albert. O. niloticus is currently the dominant tilapiine in Lakes Victoria and Kyoga basins following its introductions from the Lakes Albert and

Wilson W. Mwanja; Gregory C. Booton; Les Kaufman; Paul A. Fuerst

422

Genetic and morphological characterisation of a new species of the genus Hysterothylacium (Nematoda) from Paralichthys isosceles Jordan, 1890 (Pisces: Teleostei) of the Neotropical Region, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Taking into account the difficulties of taxonomic identification of larval anisakid nematodes based on morphological characters, genetic analyses were performed, together with those usually applied, in order to identify anisakid larvae found in the flounder Paralichthys isosceles from the littoral of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The analysis of 1,820 larvae revealed a new species, similar to Hysterothylacium MD, Hysterothylacium 2, Hysterothylacium KB and Hysterothylacium sp regarding the absence of the larval tooth, an excretory pore situated below the nerve ring level, and slender lateral alae. Moreover, the new species differs from Hysterothylacium fortalezae and Hysterothylacium reliquens with regard to the number and size of spines present on the tail end and from Hysterothylacium patagonicus by the absence of interlabia. The maximum parsimony and neighbour joining tree topologies based on the 18S ribosomal DNA gene, complete internal transcribed spacer region and cytochrome oxidase 2 (COII) gene demonstrated that the Brazilian larvae belong to Raphidascarididae and represent a unique genetic entity, confirmed as a new Hysterothylacium species. Furthermore, the new species presents COII genetic signatures and shares polymorphisms with Raphidascarididae members. This is the first description of a new anisakid species from Brazil through the integration of morphological and molecular taxonomy data. PMID:22415256

Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza Nunes; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Torres, Eduardo José L; Pinto, Roberto Magalhães; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

2012-03-01

423

Effect of bacterial pyrogen on three lizard species.  

PubMed

1. Three lizard species (Callopistes maculatus, Gerrhosaurus major, and Varanus exanthematicus) were tested for their response to intraperitoneal injection of alcohol-killed Aeromonas sobria. 2. A paired experimental design, in which each animal received an injection of sterile saline and 1 x 10(10) A. sobria, was utilized. 3. C. maculatus demonstrated a statistically significant increase in mean selected body temperature (MSBT) after bacteria injection. 4. G. major and V. exanthematicus did not demonstrate a statistically significant increase in MSBT. 5. C. maculatus is the first lizard species outside of the family Iguanidae to exhibit a febrile response to bacterial pyrogen. PMID:1976479

Hallman, G M; Ortega, C E; Towner, M C; Muchlinski, A E

1990-01-01

424

50 CFR 10.13 - List of Migratory Birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...mystacea Key West, Geotrygon chrysia...Pardirallus maculatusVirginia, Rallus limicola...Ammodramus leconteii Lincoln's, Melospiza...Dendroica townsendiVirginia's, Vermivora...Dendrocygna bicolorWest Indian, Dendrocygna...virginiae, Virginia's Warbler...lincolnii, Lincoln's...

2011-10-01

425

An Estuarine Low-Temperature Fish-Kill in Mississippi, with Remarks on Restricted Necropsies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large numbers of Mugil cephalus (striped mullet), weighing approximately 250 gm each, died in two freshwater localities in tidewater bayous of Jackson County, MS. Fish identified as Mugil curema, M. cephalus, Megalops atlantica, Dormitator maculatus and F...

R. M. Overstreet

1974-01-01

426

Comparative fine structure of the axial skeleton inside the regenerated tail of some lizard species and the tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus).  

PubMed

The regenerated tail of the New Zealand gecko Hoplodactylus maculatus is equipped with an elastic cartilaginous tube as skeletal axis. Other lizard species and Sphenodon punctatus possess variably developed hyaline cartilaginous tubes. Moreover, H. maculatus enhances the functional performance of its tail by long elastic fibres, which are arranged all around the central regenerated spinal cord. The different characteristics of the regenerated skeleton could be related to the different environments that the species studied occupy in nature. PMID:2606315

Alibardi, L; Meyer-Rochow, V B

1989-01-01

427

The African yam bean seed lectin affects the development of the cowpea weevil but does not affect the development of larvae of the legume pod borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial feeding assays were used to study the effect of purified galactose-specific lectins from African yam beans (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) on development of larvae of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and the legume pod-borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Inhibition of development of C. maculatus was observed when larvae were fed on artificial cowpea seeds containing 0.2%, 2.0% and 5.0%

Jesse S. Machuka; Oladapo G. Okeola; Maarten J. Chrispeels; Louis E. N. Jackai

2000-01-01

428

Ontogeny of the suspensorial and opercular musculature in the suckermouth armoured catfish Ancistrus cf. triradiatus (Loricariidae, Siluriformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several morphological features characterizing Loricariidae or suckermouth-armoured catfishes (Siluriformes, Teleostei) are\\u000a related to their ability to attach onto substrates with their sucker mouth, and to scrape algae and other food items from\\u000a these substrates. Suspensorial and opercular muscles are among those muscles usually involved in respiration (and feeding).\\u000a In several loricariids including the genus Ancistrus, the opercular musculature is decoupled

Tom Geerinckx; Dominique Adriaens

2008-01-01

429

Coordinated mechanics of feeding, swimming, and eye movements in Tautoga onitis , and implications for the evolution of trophic strategies in fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish feeding behavior results from successful coordination of the fins, jaws, and sensory systems, and the organization of\\u000a this behavior may affect the fish’s foraging abilities and trophic ecology. Using quantitative kinematic methods, movements\\u000a of the jaws, fins and eyes of Tautoga onitis (Teleostei: Labridae) were analyzed during feeding events. Tautog feeding events consisted of three phases: approach, strike,\\u000a and

Aaron N. Rice

2008-01-01

430

Behavioral response of mature males of acipenseridae to female sex pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was established that, as in many other representatives of Teleostei, there is a pheromonal regulation of reproductive behavior\\u000a in Acipenseridae. The postovulatory releasing sex pheromone in Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, Persian sturgeon A. persicus, and starred sturgeon A. stellatus is in the ovarian fluid of females, whose odor has an interspecific efficiency and causes manifestation of typical spawning\\u000a behavior

A. O. Kasumyan; Ch. A. Mamedov

2011-01-01

431

Astroglial architecture of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) brain as revealed by immunohistochemical staining against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is the first comprehensive study on the astroglia of a teleost fish that is based on the immunohistochemical\\u000a staining of GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, an immunohistochemical marker of astroglia). The ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii)\\u000a and their largest group, the Teleostei, represent a separate pathway of vertebrate evolution. Their brain has a very complex\\u000a macroscopic structure; several parts

M. Kálmán

1998-01-01

432

Geology and paleontology of late Cenozoic marine deposits in the Sacaco area (Peru)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Paläontologische, stratigraphische und geochronologische (K-Ar) Daten belegen ein obermiozänes und pliozänes Alter der Pisco-Formation. Die Sequenz wird etwa 350 m mächtig und besteht aus tuffartigen Sandsteinen, Silten und Schillsanden. Die feineren Sedimente sind in großen Lagunen, die gröberen im geschützten Strandbereich abgelagert worden. Die reiche Fauna enthält Fische (Teleostei und Selachii), Meeres-Vögel, eine Edentata und an Wirbellosen hauptsächlich Veneriden und

Christian de Muizon; Thomas J. Devries

1985-01-01

433

Morphological and genetical description of Loma psittaca sp. n. isolated from the Amazonian fish species Colomesus psittacus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously unrecognised fish-infecting microsporidia (Loma psittaca n. sp.), found adherent to the intestinal mucosa of the freshwater puffer fish Colomesus psittacus (Teleostei, Tetraodontidae) from lower Amazon River, was described based on light and transmission electron microscope and\\u000a phylogenetic analysis. The whitish xenoma was completely filled by numerous spores, including several developmental stages\\u000a of the parasite. In all of these

Graça Casal; Edilson Matos; M. Leonor Teles-Grilo; Carlos Azevedo

2009-01-01

434

Four new species of Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae), all gill parasites from African mouthbreeder tilapias of the genera Sarotherodon and Oreochromis (Pisces, Cichlidae), with a redescription of C. thurstonae Ergens, 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus), O. aureus (Steindachner), Sarotherodon caudomarginatus (Boulenger), S. galilaeus (Linnaeus) and S. galilaeus sanagaensis (Thys van den Audenaerde) (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from different locations in Africa (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Guinea, Niger and Senegal) revealed the presence of 11 species of monogenean gill parasites. Four, belonging to Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 and considered as new species, are described: C. rognoni n. sp.,

Antoine Pariselle; Charles F. Bilong Bilong; Louis Euzet

2003-01-01

435

Status of the reproductive system of bony fish from the Teterev River and the Kiev Reservoir 20 years after the Chernobyl accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of the reproductive system is investigated in five species of Teleostei from the Teterev River and the Kiev Reservoir\\u000a (Ukraine), descendants of F42–F7 generations of fish exposed to radiation from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Twenty years after the accident,\\u000a a wide range of morphofuinctional anomalies of this system is present in fish. The most

N. V. Belova; N. G. Emel’yanova

2009-01-01

436

Morphological and hematological studies of Trypanosoma spp. infecting ornamental armored catfish from Guamá River-PA, Brazil.  

PubMed

A total of 281 specimens of freshwater armored ornamental fish species (Leporacanthicus galaxias,Lasiancistrus saetiger, Cochliodon sp., Hypostomus sp., Pseudacanthicus spinosus, Ancistrus sp. and Rineloricaria cf. lanceolata) were captured at the hydrological basin of Guamá River, Pará, Brazil. The infection by Trypanosoma spp. was inspected. The morphological and morphometric characterization of the parasites and the hematological parameters were determined. Leporacanthicus galaxias and Pseudacanthicus spinosus presented 100% infection prevalence, and the other species showed a variable prevalence of infection. The parasites showed clearly different morphotypes and dimensions, and probably belong to different species. The hematological response to the infection varied with the host. Cochliodon sp. showed no differences between infected and not infected fish. In other species several modifications on some hematological parameters were found, but apparently without causing disease. It is emphasized the possibility of introduction of the parasites in new environments due to the artificial movements of these ornamental fish. PMID:23903566

Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Neves, Mikaelle S; Santos, Rudã F B; Souza, Natalino C; Do Couto, Márcia V S; Lopes, Josiane N S; Diniz, Daniel G; Eiras, Jorge C

2013-09-01

437

A new species of Dermoergasilus Ho & Do, 1982 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) from freshwater fishes in the south-west of Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of Dermoergasilus Ho & Do, 1982 is described from freshwater fish hosts in the south west of Western Australia. D. occidentalis n. sp. differs from previously described species in the genus principally by the armature of the legs. The new species was\\u000a found on the gills of the freshwater cobbler Tandanus bostocki Whitely and western minnow Galaxias occidentalis Ogilby in

Marina Hassan; Brian Jones; Alan J. Lymbery

2009-01-01

438

Radiation in the Cape flora and the phylogeny of peacock irises Moraea (Iridaceae) based on four plastid DNA regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic analyses of four plastid DNA regions, the rbcL exon, trnL intron, trnL–trnF intergenic spacer, and rps16 intron from each of 73 species in the African genus Moraea (Iridaceae: Irideae) including accessions of all major species clusters in the genus, show Moraea to be paraphyletic when Barnardiella, Galaxia, Hexaglottis, Homeria (all southern African), and Gynandriris (Eurasian as well) were recognized

Peter Goldblatt; Vincent Savolainen; Obie Porteous; Ivan Sostaric; Martyn Powell; Gail Reeves; John C. Manning; Timothy G. Barraclough; Mark W. Chase

2002-01-01

439

Primary gene products as plant defenses. Final report, November 1, 1983-October 31, 1984  

SciTech Connect

Using the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, as a model insect we sought to understand the effects of proteinaceous inhibitors of insect digestive proteinases on growth and development of a representative pest species. We found that C. maculatus has a major migut proteinase of the thiol type which is powerfully inhibited by E-64. We devised a technique for preparing and incorporating proteinases inhibitors into artificial cowpeas: E-64, at concentrations as low as 0.01% (w/w), slowed development, increased mortality, and reduced fecund