Sample records for galaxias maculatus teleostei

  1. Nuclear DNA content in Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei: Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Jara-Seguel; Iván Valdebenito; Claudio Palma-Rojas; Christian Rebolledo

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear DNA content (2C value) was determined in the commercial fish Galaxias maculatus (Galaxiidae) was determined by microdensitometry of erythrocyte nuclei after Feulgen staining; rainbow trout erythrocytes with a known 2C value were used as a standard. The 2C value of G. maculatus was 2.21 ± 0.12 pg and its C value was equivalent to 1.105 pg (1,082.9 Mbp).

  2. Phylogeography in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) along Two Biogeographical Provinces in the Chilean Coast

    PubMed Central

    González-Wevar, Claudio A.; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás I.; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Astorga, Marcela; Cañete, Juan I.; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Major geologic and climatic changes during the Quaternary exerted a major role in shaping past and contemporary distribution of genetic diversity and structure of aquatic organisms in southern South America. In fact, the northern glacial limit along the Pacific coast, an area of major environmental changes in terms of topography, currents, and water salinity, represents a major biogeographic transition for marine and freshwater species. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop) to investigate the consequences of Quaternary glacial cycles over the pattern of genetic diversity and structure of G. maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) along two biogeographical provinces in the Chilean coast. Extreme levels of genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic structure characterize the species suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography. However, we recognized contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure between main biogeographical areas here analyzed. Along the Intermediate Area (38°–41° S) each estuarine population constitutes a different unit. In contrast, Magellanic populations (43°–53° S) exhibited low levels of genetic differentiation. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure recorded in the species between the analyzed biogeographic areas are consistent with the marked differences in abiotic factors (i.e., different coastal configurations, Quaternary glacial histories, and oceanographic regimes) and to inherent characteristics of the species (i.e., salt-tolerance, physiology, and reproductive behavior). PMID:26161896

  3. Isozyme analysis of Galaxias species (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) from the Taieri River, South Island, New Zealand: a species complex revealed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD M. ALLIBONE; TODD A. CROWL; JEAN M. HOLMES; TANIA M. KING; ROBERT M. McDOWALL; COLIN R. TOWNSEND; GRAHAM P. WALLIS

    1996-01-01

    We examined genetic differentiation among 23 samples of non-migratory river galaxias from 17 streams in the Taieri River system, South Island, New Zealand. Four major genetic types were found, two of which occur in narrow sympatry in one location. These were compared with topotypical material representingGalaxias anomalusfrom the Clutha system (Otago) andG. vulgarisfrom the Waimakariri system (Canterbury) in order to

  4. "Nuestra Galaxia" & "Adler En Español"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, Jose F.

    2007-05-01

    "Nuestra Galaxia" is an Emmy-nominated weekly astronomy news segment and a collaboration between the Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum and Noticias Univision Chicago. The two-minute segment hosted by José Francisco Salgado covers astronomy news and topics, skywatching information as well as questions submitted by viewers. "Nuestra Galaxia" is part of an Adler initiative called "Adler en Español" which explores opportunities to interact with the Spanish-speaking community in the Chicago area which numbers more than one million people. Other Spanish-language components of this initiative include audio tours, courses, special programs, sky shows, and interactive exhibits. A review of these components, challenges encountered, and lessons learned so far are presented here.

  5. Estudio de la galaxia peculiar NGC 1487

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüero, E. L.; Paolantonio, S.; Gunthardt, G.

    La galaxia peculiar NGC 1487, cuya morfología sugiere un evento de ``merging" o interacción próxima, es estudiada en base a material observacional espectroscópico y fotométrico obtenido en el CASLEO. Mediante técnicas espectrofotométricas standards se determinan las principales características espectrales, los mecanismos de excitación actuantes, las condiciones físicas y las velocidades radiales de las estructuras conspicuas de la galaxia. Por otra parte, usando imágenes directas en las bandas B, V, R e I, se obtienen distribuciones detalladas de los colores B-V, V-R y R-I y detalles de su morfología.

  6. The social mating system of Hoplodactylus maculatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda C. Todd

    2005-01-01

    I investigated the social mating system of the common gecko Hoplodactylus maculatus. I used courtship behaviour as an index of mating activity and analysed peak courtship activity periods. I also examined fighting behaviour, to determine the degree of territoriality and mate guarding, and investigated the effect of body size on reproductive success. Mating activity is opportunistic throughout the 24 h

  7. ORIGINAL PAPER Female seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus, remate

    E-print Network

    Gwynne, Darryl T.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Female seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus, remate for male-supplied water rather beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus, mate multiply even though association with males and copulations carry through the acquisition of food and water, two material benefits hypothesized to be obtained from

  8. Fotometría de grupos compactos de galaxias: Shakhbazian 37, 45, 166, 331 y 362

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, J. M.; Calderón, J. H.; Gimeno, N. G.; Díaz, R. J.

    Continuando con la fotometría CCD de Grupos de Galaxias Compactos de Shakhbazyan (SCGG) en este trabajo se presentan nuevos resultados preliminares sobre los grupos Shakbazyan 37, 45, 166, 331 y 362. EL objeto del proyecto es contribuir al estudio de las propiedades físicas de tales grupos y contribuir a las bases de datos para mejora de las estadísticas. Los datos fueron adquiridos con el Telescopio JKT del Observatorio Norte Europeo. El análisis de las imágenes en las bandas I y B como del índice de color B-I permitió reidentificar las galaxias catalogadas, resultando las mismas muy enrojecidas y verificando que predominan las galaxias tempranas, resultados consistentes con los obtenidos para otros grupos y por otros autores.

  9. POPULATION GENETIC STRUCTURE OF ANOPHELES MACULATUS IN THAILAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anopheles (Cellia) maculatus Theobald is a major malaria vector in southern Thailand and peninsular Malaysia, and previous studies on the population genetics of this mosquito suggested that mountain ranges reduced gene flow among some populations. In this study we examine the genetic variance among...

  10. Sperm production in an extremophile fish, the cave molly (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae, Teleostei)

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    Sperm production in an extremophile fish, the cave molly (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae, Teleostei. Here, we investigated male sperm stores in Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) from a sulfidic cave

  11. Lindane toxicity: Histopathological, behavioural and biochemical changes in Etroplus maculatus (BLOCH, 1795)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bijoy Nandan S; P J Nimila

    The effects of sub-lethal concentrations of lindane on behavioral, hematological and histological parameters in Etroplus maculatus were investigated. The LC50 value of lindane for E. maculatus was estimated using the Probit method and was found to be 0.028 mg\\/L. The red blood cell count (RBC) and the hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and

  12. Nouveaux Teleostei du gisement du Turonien inférieur de Goulmima (Maroc)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lionel Cavin

    1997-01-01

    The locality yielding fossiliferous nodules from the marine Lower Turonian in the vicinity of Goulmima, south of the Moroccan Atlas, provided three new species of Teleostei belonging to the ichthyodectids, araripichthyids and osmeroidids. The faunal assemblage shows a mixture of taxa known in other respects either in two South American localities from the Albian and Turonian or in different localities

  13. OfOLITH ULTRASTRUcrURE OF SMOOTH OREO, PSEUDOCYTTUS MACULATUS, AND BLACK OREO, ALWCYTTUS SP., SPECIES

    E-print Network

    OfOLITH ULTRASTRUcrURE OF SMOOTH OREO, PSEUDOCYTTUS MACULATUS, AND BLACK OREO, ALWCYTTUS SP'Udocyttus maculat"U8 and Allocyttus sp. are not suitable for age estimation. The smooth oreo, Pseudocyttus maculatus, and the black oreo, Allocyttus sp., are two related species of the family Oreosomatidae

  14. Influence of substrate and relative humidity on the efficacy of three entomopathogenic fungi for the hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dermestes maculatus is carrion feeder that is also a pest of poultry houses, museums, silkworm culture, and many stored foods. The Hypocreales, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Isaria fumosorosea, were tested for efficacy against D. maculatus larvae on concrete, plastic, leather, and ...

  15. Abundance of Spanish Mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, in the Southeastern United States Based on Charterboat CPUE Data, 1982-85

    E-print Network

    Abundance of Spanish Mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, in the Southeastern United States Based mackerel, Scombero morus maculatus, a member of the fam ily Scombridae, is closely related to the king mackerel, S. cavalla, the cero, S. regalis, and the recently-described Brazilian Spanish mackerel, S

  16. Why Do Female Callosobruchus maculatus Kick Their Mates?

    PubMed Central

    van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B.; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other’s matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs) was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings. PMID:24752530

  17. The mimetic repertoire of the spotted bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus maculatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Laura A.; Healy, Susan D.

    2011-06-01

    Although vocal mimicry in songbirds is well documented, little is known about the function of such mimicry. One possibility is that the mimic produces the vocalisations of predatory or aggressive species to deter potential predators or competitors. Alternatively, these sounds may be learned in error as a result of their acoustic properties such as structural simplicity. We determined the mimetic repertoires of a population of male spotted bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus maculatus, a species that mimics predatory and aggressive species. Although male mimetic repertoires contained an overabundance of vocalisations produced by species that were generally aggressive, there was also a marked prevalence of mimicry of sounds that are associated with alarm such as predator calls, alarm calls and mobbing calls, irrespective of whether the species being mimicked was aggressive or not. We propose that it may be the alarming context in which these sounds are first heard that may lead both to their acquisition and to their later reproduction. We suggest that enhanced learning capability during acute stress may explain vocal mimicry in many species that mimic sounds associated with alarm.

  18. The mimetic repertoire of the spotted bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Laura A; Healy, Susan D

    2011-06-01

    Although vocal mimicry in songbirds is well documented, little is known about the function of such mimicry. One possibility is that the mimic produces the vocalisations of predatory or aggressive species to deter potential predators or competitors. Alternatively, these sounds may be learned in error as a result of their acoustic properties such as structural simplicity. We determined the mimetic repertoires of a population of male spotted bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus maculatus, a species that mimics predatory and aggressive species. Although male mimetic repertoires contained an overabundance of vocalisations produced by species that were generally aggressive, there was also a marked prevalence of mimicry of sounds that are associated with alarm such as predator calls, alarm calls and mobbing calls, irrespective of whether the species being mimicked was aggressive or not. We propose that it may be the alarming context in which these sounds are first heard that may lead both to their acquisition and to their later reproduction. We suggest that enhanced learning capability during acute stress may explain vocal mimicry in many species that mimic sounds associated with alarm. PMID:21494871

  19. Phylogenetic Systematics of the Scomberomorus regalis (Teleostei: Scombridae) Species Group: Molecules, Morphology and Biogeography of Spanish Mackerels

    E-print Network

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    : Molecules, Morphology and Biogeography of Spanish Mackerels Heidi M. Banford; Eldredge Bermingham; Bruce B (Teleostei: Scombridae) Species Group: Molecules, Morphology and Biogeography of Spanish Mackerels

  20. Use of micro-CAT scans to understand cowpea seed resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Tarver; R. E. Shade; R. D. Tarver; Y. Liang; G. Krishnamurthi; B. R. Pittendrigh; L. L. Murdock

    2006-01-01

    The cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchini), is a worldwide pest of stored cowpea grain ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Leguminosae)), causing tens of millions of dollars' worth of damage annually. One method of managing this pest involves planting cultivars whose seeds are resistant to bruchids. Despite extensive research, we still do not know the mechanism by which

  1. Potential of Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as biocontrol agent of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleopetera: Bruchidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kouninki; M. B. Ngassoum

    2 Laboratory of Ecology and Biogeography, Research Center on the Biodiversity, 4-5 Place Croix du Sud, 1348, Louvain- la-Neuve, Belgium. Accepted 15 February, 2007 The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleopetera: Bruchidae) is a major pest of stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) in Africa and particularly in northern Cameroon. Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitoid of its larval stages, could be used

  2. Deterrent activity of plant lectins on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amin Sadeghi; Els J. M. Van Damme; Willy J. Peumans; Guy Smagghe

    2006-01-01

    A set of 14 plant lectins was screened in a binary choice bioassay for inhibitory activity on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition. Coating of chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) with a 0.05% (w\\/v) solution of plant lectins caused a significant reduction in egg laying. Control experiments with heat inactivated lectin and BSA indicated that the observed deterrent effects are

  3. Insecticidal effect of some spices on Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) in black gram seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shah Hussain Ahmad Mahdi

    2008-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the insecticidal potency of some spices eg. clove (Syzygium aromaticum), black pepper (Piper nigrum), ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), black cardamom (Amomum subulatum), nutmeg (Myristica fragnans), black cumin (Nigella sativa), turmeric (Curcuma longa), red pepper (Capsicum frutescens), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), green cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) and bay leaf (Cinnamomum tamala), against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

  4. Bio-efficacy evaluation of nanoformulations of ?-cyfluthrin against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kumelachew Mulu Loha; Najam A. Shakil; Jitendra Kumar; Manish K. Singh; Chitra Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    In the present investigation, bioefficacy of developed ?-cyfluthrin formulations, utilizing laboratory synthesized poly(ethylene glycols) based amphiphilic copolymers, were evaluated against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The bioefficacy data indicated that the formulations developed by utilizing polymers having PEG – 1500 (3c) and PEG – 2000 (3d) as the hydrophilic segment showed greater efficacy after 14 days as evident from EC50 values

  5. Direct and admixture toxicity of diatomaceous earth and monoterpenoids against the storage pests Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaoliang Lei; Tanja Mucha-Pelzer; Inga Mewis; Christian Ulrichs

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of two commercial diatomaceous earth based insecticides (DE), Protect-It® and SilicoSec®, the nano-structured silica product AL06, developed by the section for Urban Plant Ecophysiology at Humboldt University Berlin,\\u000a and the monoterpenoids, eugenol, and cinnamaldehyde on two stored product pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus oryzae. Protect-It® was more effective than SilicoSec® against C. maculatus while the reverse was

  6. First report of the characterization of the pathophysiological mechanisms caused by the freshwater catfish Pimelodus maculatus (order: Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Beatriz Elena; Rangel, Marisa; Gonçalves, Jacqueline Coimbra; Pereira, Lilibete; Rego, Solange; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Haddad, Vidal; Mortari, Márcia Renata; Schwartz, Elisabeth F

    2015-07-01

    Injuries caused by aquatic animals in Brazil in most cases are provoked by marine and freshwater catfish. Pimelodus maculatus is a freshwater catfish very common in Brazilian basins that causes frequent accidents mainly amongst fishermen, and whose venom characteristics and pathological mechanisms of the venom are poorly known. In the present study for the first time, we have characterized the main pathophysiological mechanisms associated with the clinical manifestation (pain, local inflammation and edema) of the envenomations caused by P. maculatus crude venom. It was estimated that the crude venom of one P. maculatus stinger contains approximately 100 ?g of protein, likely the quantity involved in the envenomation. P. maculatus crude venom induced marked nociceptive and edematogenic effects and caused vascular permeability alterations at doses from 30 to 100 ?g/animal. Additionally, P. maculatus crude venom caused a decrease in the contraction force in in situ frog heart, did not cause hemorrhage or alterations in clotting times (prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time), but induced significant changes in the levels of CK and its isoenzyme CK-MB in mice. In the present work, we present a correlation between the effects obtained experimentally and the main symptoms observed in the human accidents provoked by P. maculatus. PMID:25911957

  7. Mating Compatibility between Geographic Populations of the Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J. Messina; Ashley J. Bloxham; Audra J. Seargent

    2007-01-01

    Allopatric populations sometimes display reproductive barriers in incipient form, and may thus reveal potential mechanisms\\u000a of speciation. We conducted mating trials to estimate the degree of precopulatory (behavioral) and postcopulatory (gametic)\\u000a prezygotic isolation between African and Asian populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. The populations differ in several fitness-related traits, and have been associated with different legume hosts. In

  8. Filtration and oxygen consumption in mussels, Mytilus edulis , with and without pea crabs, Pinnotheres maculatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosina Bierbaum; Sandra E. Shumway

    1988-01-01

    Filtration rates and oxygen consumption rates were measured in mussels (Mytilus edulis) with and without pea crabs (Pinnotheres maculatus). Noninfested mussels had a significantly higher rate of oxygen consumption per hour (0.578 ml±0.012) than did infested mussels\\u000a (0.352 ml±0.012). There was no significant effect of pea crab size on mussel respiration. Filtration rates of infested mussels\\u000a were significantly lower than

  9. Lindane toxicity: histopathological, behavioural and biochemical changes in Etroplus maculatus (Bloch, 1795).

    PubMed

    Bijoy Nandan, S; Nimila, P J

    2012-05-01

    The effects of sub-lethal concentrations of lindane on behavioral, hematological and histological parameters in Etroplus maculatus were investigated. The LC?? value of lindane for E. maculatus was estimated using the Probit method and was found to be 0.028 mg/L. The red blood cell count (RBC) and the hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were significantly reduced (p > 0.0001) in fish exposed to the toxicant concentrations compared to the control groups. However, the white blood cell count (WBC) was observed to be significantly higher (p < 0.0001). Observations of the tissues showed that lindane had profound destructive effects on the gills, liver and kidney of the fish. The gills showed proliferation of the lamellar epithelium and lamellar fusion, the liver showed necrosis and the kidneys had constriction of the tubular lumen. The frequency of observed behaviors had the same levels of significance throughout the period of study. There was a reduction in the frequency of occurrence between test concentrations, but remained significantly higher than the control. The study shows that lindane is harmful to E. maculatus at sub-lethal concentrations and that the application of this pesticide close to bodies of water is a dangerous threat to aquatic life. PMID:22115920

  10. UVB-induced gene expression in the skin of Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kuan; Boswell, Mikki; Walter, Dylan J.; Downs, Kevin P.; Gaston-Pravia, Kimberly; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Shen, Yingjia; Mitchell, David L.; Walter, Ronald B.

    2014-01-01

    Xiphophorus fish and interspecies hybrids represent long-standing models to study the genetics underlying spontaneous and induced tumorigenesis. The recent release of the Xiphophorus maculatus genome sequence will allow global genetic regulation studies of genes involved in the inherited susceptibility to UVB-induced melanoma within select backcross hybrids. As a first step toward this goal, we report results of an RNA-Seq approach to identify genes and pathways showing modulated transcription within the skin of X. maculatus Jp 163 B upon UVB exposure. X. maculatus Jp 163 B were exposed to various doses of UVB followed by RNA-Seq analysis at each dose to investigate overall gene expression in each sample. A total of 357 genes with a minimum expression change of 4-fold (p-adj < 0.05) were identified as responsive to UVB. The molecular genetic response of Xiphophorus skin to UVB exposure permitted assessment of; (1) the basal expression level of each transcript for each skin sample, (2) the changes in expression levels for each gene in the transcriptome upon exposure to increasing doses of UVB, and (3) clusters of genes that exhibit similar patterns of change in expression upon UVB exposure. These data provide a foundation for understanding the molecular genetic response of fish skin to UVB exposure. PMID:24556253

  11. Sex pheromones of Callosobruchus subinnotatus and C. maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): congeneric responses and role of air movement.

    PubMed

    Mbata, G N; Shu, S; Ramaswamy, S B

    2000-04-01

    Females of Callosobruchus spp. are known to produce sex pheromones that attract males. These sex pheromones cannot be adopted for use in pest management without first investigating the responses of the males in the windless conditions of storage environments. Consequently, behavioural bioassays of Callosobruchus subinnotatus Pic males were conducted in an olfactometer in the absence of air-flow. Under these conditions males were found to be able to follow odour trails to the source. However, the latency period was longer in diffusional bioassays than for insects in a Y-tube olfactometer that provided directional wind cues. The highest percentage of males reached the pheromone source when components of the pheromones, (E)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid (E32A) and (Z)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid (Z32A), were formulated in a 50:50 or 25:75 ratio. Males of C. maculatus (Fabricius) responded to sex pheromone of C. subinnotatus, but males of C. subinnotatus did not respond to that of C. maculatus. The two sex pheromone components of C. subinnotatus are also constituents of C. maculatus sex pheromone. These two components may be potentially useful in monitoring the populations of both species in stored beans. It is postulated that (Z)-3-methyl-3-heptenoic acid (Z33A), the major component of the sex pheromone of C. maculatus, must have acted as an antagonist inhibiting response of C. subinnotatus to the sex pheromone of C. maculatus. PMID:10948374

  12. Revista de Biologa Marina y Oceanografa 41(2): 231 238, diciembre de 2006 Occurrence of Sphoeroides rosenblatti Bussing, 1996 (Teleostei

    E-print Network

    Aguirre, Windsor E.

    of Sphoeroides rosenblatti Bussing, 1996 (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae) along the coast of Guayas Province, Ecuador, 1996 (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae) en la costa de la provincia de Guayas, Ecuador, y una comparación con Santa Elena, Santa Elena, Provincia de Guayas, Ecuador waguirre@life.bio.sunysb.edu Resumen.- Se

  13. Effect of solvent residues of Vitex negundo Linn. and Cassia fistula Linn. on pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. and its larval parasitoid, Dinarmus vagabundus (Timberlake).

    PubMed

    Raja, N; Albert, S; Ignacimuthu, S

    2000-03-01

    Effect of solvent residues of Vitex negundo L. and Cassia fistula L. leaves (0.5 and 1%) was studied on egg laying and adult emergence of Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. and on percentage of larval parasitism by Dinarmus vagabundus (Timberlake). Cowpea seeds treated with methanol and aqueous extract of Vitex, at these concentrations (0.5 and 1%), significantly reduced the number of eggs and emergence of F1 adults of C. maculatus. Both Vitex and Cassia extracts did not affect the percentage of parasitism by D. vagabundus on C. maculatus grubs. PMID:10927878

  14. Oviposition of Dermestes maculatus DeGeer, the hide beetle, as affected by biological and environmental conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to document the oviposition behaviors and preferences of the female hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus DeGeer, in order to optimize collection of eggs and neonate larvae for biological assays. Factors evaluated were type of oviposition substrate, preference for and type of p...

  15. Size?fecundity relationships in the smooth oreo, Pseudocyttus maculatus, and the black oreo, Allocyttus niger (Pisces: Oreosomatidae) (note)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M. Conroy; Neville W. Pankhurst

    1989-01-01

    Fecundity estimates were made from 72 smooth oreo (Pseudocyttus maculatus Gilchrist, 1906) and 77 black oreo (Allocyttus niger James, Inada & Nakamura, 1988) with oocytes in late vitellogenesis, captured from the south Chatham Rise during November 1986. Absolute fecundities ranged from 6000 to 84 000 for smooth oreo and 5000 to 62 000 for black oreo, with relative fecundities of

  16. Environment-dependent reversal of a life history trade-off in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. M ESSINA; J. D. F RY

    2003-01-01

    Environmental manipulations have consistently demonstrated a cost of reproduction in the capital-breeding seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus ,a s females deprived of seeds or mates lay fewer eggs and thereby increase their longevity. Yet fecundity and longevity tend to be positively correlated within populations, perhaps as a consequence of individual differences in resource acquisition. We conducted a split-brood experiment that combined

  17. Effect of diet and refugia on development of Dermestes maculatus DeGeer reared in a laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hide beetle (Dermestes maculatus DeGeer) is a Dermestid beetle that can infest a wide variety of stored products, including pet foods and animal feeds, dried foods, and grains products with high protein content. Although there is published information concerning the biology and habits of D. macu...

  18. The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciana B. Silva; Maurício P. Sales; Antônia E. A. Oliveira; Olga L. T. Machado; Kátia V. S. Fernandes; José Xavier-Filho

    2004-01-01

    We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) do not support develop- ment of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), a pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat) of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are

  19. Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Boeke; I. R. Baumgart; J. J. A. van Loon; A. van Huis; M. Dicke; D. K. Kossou

    2004-01-01

    In a search for botanical products to control the main insect pest of stored cowpea, Callosobruchus maculatus, 33 traditionally used African plants were tested in the laboratory for their toxic and repellent effects against this beetle. Toxicity was evaluated measuring life history parameters in a no-choice situation. Powders of Nicotiana tabacum, Tephrosia vogelii and Securidaca longepedunculata significantly reduced the number

  20. Response of the grasshopper Myrmeleotettix maculatus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) to invasion by the exotic moss Campylopus introflexus in acidic coastal dunes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Schirmel

    2011-01-01

    In Europe, acidic coastal dunes are threatened by the invasion of the exotic moss Campylopus introflexus. While the effect of the moss encroachment on the vegetation is well analysed, knowledge of possible impact on arthropods\\u000a is lacking. Thus, an experiment was conducted in acidic coastal dunes on the Baltic island of Hiddensee, Germany. Myrmeleotettix maculatus, a common Orthoptera species of

  1. Female choice for large body size in the cave molly, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei): influence of

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    Female choice for large body size in the cave molly, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei) evolve in the permanent absence of light. The cave form of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana 2007) Summary Previous studies revealed that females of a cave form of the livebearing fish Poecilia

  2. Cost of reproduction in Callosobruchus maculatus: effects of mating on male longevity and the effect of male mating status on female longevity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satu Paukku; Janne S. Kotiaho

    2005-01-01

    One of the most studied life-history trade-offs is that resulting from the cost of reproduction: a trade-off arises when reproduction diverts limited resources from other life-history traits. We examine the cost of reproduction in male, and the effect of male mating status on female Callosobruchus maculatus seed beetles. Cost of reproduction for male C. maculatus was manifested as reduced longevity.

  3. Susceptibility of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to three essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ketoh, Guillaume K; Glitho, Adole I; Huignard, Jacques

    2002-02-01

    The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of seeds of Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) in West Africa. An endemic parasitoid, the pteromalid Dinarmus basalis (Rond.) reduces the increase in bruchid populations in stores and could be used for biological control. African farmers often introduce essential oils into granaries at harvest time. In Togo, essential oils were extracted from two Gramineae, Cymbopogon nardus (L.) and Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) and from a Lamiaceae, Ocimum basilicum (L.). The major components of these essential oils were citronellal in C. nardus, carene-2 and piperitone in C. schoenanthus and estragol in O. basilicum. Cymbopogon schoenanthus was the most toxic oil for C. maculatus adults. D. basalis adults were more susceptible to the three essential oils than the adults of their hosts C. maculatus. In the presence of cowpea seeds, the LC50s of the three essential oils were lower than in their absence, suggesting that the seeds may absorb a part of the volatiles. High doses of three essential oils slightly affected the survival of the fourth instar or the pupae of C. maculatus. This high survival was due to protection of larvae from volatiles by the surrounding seeds. The D. basalis were more affected by the oil volatiles than their hosts. Sub-lethal doses of essential oils reduced the duration of the adult life of both insect species and fecundity of the females. The differences in sensitivity of the host and its parasitoid could influence their population dynamics. The introduction of the essential oils into storage systems potentially could reduce density of parasitoid populations and increase seed losses. PMID:11942754

  4. Fumigant toxicity of Carum copticum and Vitex pseudo-negundo essential oils against eggs, larvae and adults of Callosobruchus maculatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bibi Zahra Sahaf; Saeid Moharramipour

    2008-01-01

    Fumigant activity of essential oil vapors distilled from Carum copticum C. B. Clarke and Vitex pseudo-negundo Hand I. MZT. was tested against eggs, larvae and adults of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 60 ± 5% RH, in dark condition. The influence of different concentrations of\\u000a the essential oil vapors on egg hatchability, larval and adult mortality was

  5. Morphological and molecular data reveal a new species of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from Dormitator maculatus in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Sereno-Uribe, Ana L; García-Varela, Martín

    2014-12-01

    Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) mexicoensis sp. n. is described from the intestine of Dormitator maculatus (Bloch 1792) collected in 5 coastal localities from the Gulf of Mexico. The new species is mainly distinguished from the other 33 described species of Neoechinorhynchus from the Americas associated with freshwater, marine and brackish fishes by having smaller middle and posterior hooks and possessing a small proboscis with three rows of six hooks each, apical hooks longer than other hooks and extending to the same level as the posterior hooks, 1 giant nucleus in the ventral body wall and females with eggs longer than other congeneric species. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal DNA including the domain D2+D3 were used independently to corroborate the morphological distinction among the new species and other congeneric species associated with freshwater and brackish water fish from Mexico. The genetic divergence estimated among congeneric species ranged from 7.34 to 44% for ITS and from 1.65 to 32.9% for LSU. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses with each dataset showed that the 25 specimens analyzed from 5 localities of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico parasitizing D. maculatus represent an independent clade with strong bootstrap support and posterior probabilities. The morphological evidence, plus the monophyly in the phylogenetic analyses, indicates that the acanthocephalans collected from intestine of D. maculatus from the Gulf of Mexico represent a new species, herein named N. (N.) mexicoensis sp. n. PMID:25064596

  6. Intraspecific and interspecific competition in Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic) on stored bambara groundnut, Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt.

    PubMed

    Lale, N E.S.; Vidal, S

    2001-10-01

    Intraspecific competition was studied in Callosobruchus maculatus and Callosobruchus subinnotatus. Interspecific competition between the two bruchids was also studied to determine which of these species is likely to cause more damage to stored bambara groundnuts, Vigna subterranea in cases of joint infestation. Results showed that increasing the adult density up to 8 females per 10g of bambara groundnut seeds did not significantly reduce the mean number of eggs laid per female, the number of eggs developing to the adult stage, or the weight of emerged adults of either species. The developmental period of the two species was also not significantly affected. The adult emergence curve of C. maculatus was similar to that of C. subinnotatus and was of the scramble type. C. maculatus performed better than C. subinnotatus in interspecific competition and it achieved this through a higher egg-laying ability and a higher rate of progeny production coupled with a shorter life-cycle. The implications of these findings with respect to damage and possible loss of stored bambara groundnut are discussed. PMID:11463395

  7. The toxicity of a lipid transfer protein (Cc-LTP1) from Coffea canephora Seeds on the larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Zottich, Umberto; Da Cunha, Maura; Dias, Germana B; Rabelo, Guilherme R; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir A; Carvalho, André O; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski S; do Nascimento, Viviane V; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we analyzed the effects of coffee seed proteins, especially Cc-LTP1 on the larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), a bruchid pest of beans and the most important insect pest of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Artificial seed assay, which incorporated the F/0-90 fraction from Coffea canephora seeds, resulted in the reduction of oviposition and caused an inhibition of C. maculatus larval development in a dose-dependent manner. The F/0-90 fraction used at a 4 % concentration resulted in the survival of no larvae. The purified Cc-LTP1, at a concentration of 0.5 %, also demonstrated effective inhibition of larval development, reducing both females oviposition and the weight and number of larvae. Cc-LTP1 was also able to inhibit the C. maculatus gut ?-amylase activity, and immunolabeling by an anti-LTP serum was observed in the midgut tissues of the C. maculatus larvae. Cc-LTP1 has shown binding affinity towards microvillar cells, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, as demonstrated by micrographic images taken by a transmission electron microscope. The results from this study indicate that Cc-LTP1 has insecticidal actions toward C. maculatus and exerts anti-nutritional effects with direct actions on intestinal tissues. PMID:25097041

  8. Variation in lipid composition of some deep-sea fish (Teleostei: Oreosomatidae and Trachichthyidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Bakes; Nicholas G. Elliott; Graham J. Green; Peter D. Nichols

    1995-01-01

    The lipid, fatty acid and fatty alcohol compositions were determined for muscle samples from six species of deep-sea oreo collected from Australian waters; namely Neocyttus rhomboidalis, Neocyttus sp., Allocyttus verrucosus, Allocyttus niger, Pseudocyttus maculatus, and Oreosoma atlanticum. Neocyttus helgae, landed in North Atlantic waters, was also analysed. Similar analyses were also carried out on the muscle and swim bladder of

  9. Pyramiding of insecticidal compounds for control of the cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus F.).

    PubMed

    Tarver, Matthew R; Shade, Richard E; Shukle, Richard H; Moar, William J; Muir, William M; Murdock, Larry M; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2007-05-01

    The cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus F.) (Chrysomelidae: Bruchini) is a major pest of stored cowpea grain. With limited available technologies for controlling the bruchid, transgenic cowpeas with bruchid resistance genes engineered into them could become the next management tools. An investigation was made of two different sets of potential transgenic insecticidal compounds using an artificial seed system: (i) CIP-PH-BT-J and recombinant egg white avidin, and (ii) avidin and wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor. CIP-PH-BT-J (0.1%; 1000 mg kg(-1)) and recombinant egg white avidin (0.006%; 60 mg kg(-1)) incorporated separately into artificial seeds caused 98.2 and 99% larval mortality rates respectively. Combining CIP-PH-BT-J and avidin in the same artificial seed provided additional mortality compared with each factor incorporated singly; no insects survived in seeds with the combined toxins. Similarly, when avidin and wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor (alphaAI) (1%; 10 g kg(-1)) were incorporated separately into artificial seeds, this caused 99.8 and 98% mortality respectively. However, in combination, avidin and alphaAI did not increase mortality, but they did cause a significant increase in developmental time of the cowpea bruchids. These results emphasize that the joint action of potential insecticidal compounds cannot be predicted from results obtained separately for each compound, and they suggest potential transgenes for further consideration. PMID:17340671

  10. Lipid Status of the Two High Latitude Fish Species, Leptoclinus maculatus and Lumpenus fabricii

    PubMed Central

    Murzina, Svetlana A.; Nefedova, Zinaida A.; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Ripatti, Pauli O.; Ruokolainen, Tatiana R.; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N.; Nemova, Nina N.

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of the lipid status (i.e., the total lipid and phospholipid concentrations and the percentage of fatty acids of the total lipids) of adult specimens of daubed shanny (Leptoclinus maculatus) from Svalbard waters (Isfjord) and slender eel blenny (Lumpenus fabricii) from the White Sea (Onega Bay and Tersky shore) was performed to study the metabolism and functions of lipids of these fishes in ontogeny and under various ecological conditions. Slender eel blenny from both areas of the White Sea were distinguished by a high level of sphingomyelin compared with the daubed shanny from Svalbard, and the amount of total phospholipids was higher in slender eel blenny from Onega Bay than in slender eel blenny from the Tersky shore. The extent of saturation and the signature of polyenic fatty acids varied according to the specific species of the Stichaeidae family under study. These results demonstrate the differences in the trophoecological and hydrobiological conditions of habitations of these species and highlighted the importance of considering certain trends in the lipid profiles of these fishes as specific features of the organization of the ecological and biochemical mechanisms of adaptation. PMID:23535338

  11. Lipid status of the two high latitude fish species, Leptoclinus maculatus and Lumpenus fabricii.

    PubMed

    Murzina, Svetlana A; Nefedova, Zinaida A; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Ripatti, Pauli O; Ruokolainen, Tatiana R; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N; Nemova, Nina N

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of the lipid status (i.e., the total lipid and phospholipid concentrations and the percentage of fatty acids of the total lipids) of adult specimens of daubed shanny (Leptoclinus maculatus) from Svalbard waters (Isfjord) and slender eel blenny (Lumpenus fabricii) from the White Sea (Onega Bay and Tersky shore) was performed to study the metabolism and functions of lipids of these fishes in ontogeny and under various ecological conditions. Slender eel blenny from both areas of the White Sea were distinguished by a high level of sphingomyelin compared with the daubed shanny from Svalbard, and the amount of total phospholipids was higher in slender eel blenny from Onega Bay than in slender eel blenny from the Tersky shore. The extent of saturation and the signature of polyenic fatty acids varied according to the specific species of the Stichaeidae family under study. These results demonstrate the differences in the trophoecological and hydrobiological conditions of habitations of these species and highlighted the importance of considering certain trends in the lipid profiles of these fishes as specific features of the organization of the ecological and biochemical mechanisms of adaptation. PMID:23535338

  12. The immature stages of Dermestes maculatus, Sarcophaga sp. and Phaenicia sericata as potential paratenic hosts for Trichinella spiralis in nature.

    PubMed

    Riva, Eliana; Fiel, César; Steffan, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The role of some insect populations in the transmission of Trichinella sp. has been demonstrated. However, most of the studies have been conducted under controlled conditions which may influence the real role that they could play as a paratenic host in nature. To enlight this issue, a series of studies to determine the infective capability of the muscle larva of Trichinella spiralis recovered from immature stages of insect populations that fed on infected tissues exposed to natural conditions were carried out. Mice harbouring T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) were sacrificed and deposited on a pitfall trap which was established in an open and safe area through 25 days in summer. Necrophilous and necrophagous insects that fed on corpses were recovered, identified and processed to search for live ML of T. spiralis. A complementary study in which maggots of Dermestes maculatus recovered from nature were induced to feed on muscle tissues harbouring T. spiralis larvae was also performed. The muscle larvae recovered from insects at different times of exposition were counted and inoculated to mice to determine the reproductive capability index (RCI). At day 3 of exposition, 29 live ML of T. spiralis were recovered from maggots of Phaenicia sericata. The RCI for these larvae was 133.6. On day 5 of exposition, maggots of Sarcophaga sp. were identified and 17 live T. spiralis larvae were recovered; the RCI of these larvae was 43.4. The T. spiralis ML recovered from maggots of D. maculatus obtained after 2 days of feeding on experimentally infected tissue showed a RCI of 24. The results suggest that larval stages of P. sericata, Sarcophaga sp. and D. maculatus might have an important role as a paratenic host of T. spiralis, which, in terms, may influence the epidemiology of this nematode in endemic areas of trichinellosis. PMID:25346194

  13. From sneaker to parental male: Change of reproductive traits in the black goby,Gobius niger (Teleostei, Gobiidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Immler; Carlotta Mazzoldi; Maria Berica Rasotto

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on the consequences of the switch of tactic from parasitic to parental male in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei: Gobiidae), a species showing two alternative male mating tactics. Older and larger males defend nests, court, and perform parental care on eggs, while younger and smaller ones behave as parasites, sneaking into nests while spawning occurs. Males

  14. COWPEA WEEVIL (CALLOSOBRUCHUS MACULATUS) FLIGHTS TO A POINT SOURCE OF FEMALE SEX PHEROMONE: ANALYSES OF FLIGHT TRACKS AT THREE WIND SPEEDS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-day-old male cowpea weevils, Callosobruchus maculatus, were released individually and flew upwind to a point source of female sex pheromone at three wind speeds. All beetles initiating flight along the pheromone plumes made contact with the pheromone source. Analysis of digitized flight tracks i...

  15. Insecticidal activity of the aqueous extracts of four under-utilized tropical plants as protectant of cowpea seeds from Callosobruchus maculatus infestation.

    PubMed

    Obembe, O M; Kayode, J

    2013-02-15

    The test plants species, namely Crotaria retusa, Hyptis suaveolens, Ricinus communis and Tithonia diversifolia were extracted with water. The extracts were evaluated on Callosobruchus maculatus for mortality, oviposition and adult emergence effects. The long-term protectant ability and viability were also investigated. The results showed that the aqueous extracts from T. diversifolia were most effective on C. maculatus, followed by extract from Ricinus communis. The least potent extracts were those extracted from Crotalaria retusa and Hyptis suaveolens. Also, the extracts considerably reduced oviposition by C. maculatus. Extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis drastically reduced infestation and subsequence damage of the treated cowpea seeds for a period of three months. Most of the treated seeds germinated after 90 days storage period. The results from this study revealed that aqueous extracts from all the four plants species were effective in controlling cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for protection of stored cowpea seeds against bruchids. PMID:24171265

  16. Characterization of eight microsatellite markers in the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Pérez, L; Infante, C; Ponce, M; Crespo, A; Zuasti, E; Funes, V; Catanese, G; Manchado, M

    2008-11-01

    The white sea bream, Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae), is a species with a high commercial importance in Mediterranean aquaculture. There is currently little information available about the genetic characteristics of cultured populations. In this survey, we have developed eight polymorphic microsatellites for the white sea bream using an enriched genome library protocol. All of them were polymorphic in the 67 individuals tested, 32 of which were wild specimens, and 35 were individuals from a captive F(1) broodstock. These markers can potentially be useful tools for use in population genetic studies. PMID:21586024

  17. Allozyme and mitochondrial DNA variation in three species of oreos (Teleostei: Oreosomatidae) from Australasian waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Ward; N. G. Elliott; P. M. Grewe; P. R. Last; P. S. Lowry; B. H. Innes; G. K. Yearsley

    1998-01-01

    Collections of three species of oreos (smooth oreo, Pseudocyttus maculatus; black oreo, Allocyttus niger; and warty oreo, A. verrucosus) from Australasian waters were examined for genetic variation. Allozyme heterozygosity was high in each species (25–29 loci: mean heterozygosity per locus per sample ranging from 0.100 to 0.148), but mitochondrial DNA variation was less extensive (10 six?base restriction enzymes: nucleotide diversity

  18. Genetic characterization of hatchery populations of Korean spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    An, H S; Kim, H Y; Kim, J B; Chang, D S; Park, K D; Lee, J W; Myeong, J I; An, C M

    2014-01-01

    The spotted sea bass, Lateolabrax maculatus, is an important commercial and recreational fishery resource in Korea. Aquacultural production of this species has increased because of recent resource declines, growing consumption, and ongoing government-operated stock release programs. Therefore, the genetic characterization of hatchery populations is necessary to maintain the genetic diversity of this species and to develop more effective aquaculture practices. In this study, the genetic diversity and structure of three cultured populations in Korea were assessed using multiplex assays with 12 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci; 144 alleles were identified. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 28, with an average of 13.1. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.724 and 0.753, respectively. Low levels of inbreeding were detected according to the inbreeding coefficient (mean FIS = 0.003-0.073). All hatchery populations were significantly differentiated from each other (overall fixation index (FST) = 0.027, P < 0.01), and no population formed a separate cluster. Pairwise multilocus FST tests, estimates of genetic distance, mantel test, and principal component analyses did not show a consistent relationship between geographic and genetic distances. These results could reflect the exchange of breeds and eggs between hatcheries and/or genetic drift due to intensive breeding practices. For optimal resource management, the genetic variation of hatchery stocks should be monitored and inbreeding controlled within the spotted sea bass stocks that are being released every year. This genetic information will be useful for the management of both L. maculatus fisheries and the aquaculture industry. PMID:25177950

  19. Comparative toxicity and micronuclei formation in Tribolium castaneum, Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus oryzae exposed to high doses of gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mehrdad; Mozdarani, Hossein; Abd-Alla, Adly M M

    2015-07-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on mortality and micronucleus formation in Tribolium castaneum Herbst, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) genital cells were evaluated. Two groups of healthy and active adult insects 1-3 and 8-10 days old were irradiated with various doses (50-200Gy) gamma ray. Seven days post-irradiation; mortality rates and micronucleus formation were assessed in genital cells of the irradiated insects. The results show that with increasing gamma doses, the mortality rate of each species increased and T. castaneum and S. oryzae showed the low and high sensitivity respectively. It was shown that the micronucleus appearance in the tested insects had correlation with amount and intensity of radiation doses. Moreover our results indicate different levels in the genotoxicity of gamma radiation among the insects' genital cells under study. The frequency of micronuclei in genital cells of 1-3 days old insects exposed to 50 and 200Gy were 12.6 and 38.8Mn/1000 cells in T. castaneum, 20.8 and 46.8Mn/1000 cells in C. maculatus and 16.8 and 57.2Mn/1000 cells in S. oryzae respectively. A high sensitivity of the genital cells to irradiation exposure was seen in S. oryzae correlated with its high mortality rate compared with the other two species. These results might be indicative of inflicting chromosomal damage expressed as micronucleus in high mortality rates observed in the pest population; an indication of genotoxic effects of radiation on the studied species. PMID:25898238

  20. The impact of permethrin impregnated bednets on the malaria vector Anopheles maculatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in aboriginal villages of Pos Betau Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Vythilingam, I; Foo, L C; Chiang, G L; Chan, S T; Eng, K L; Mahadevan, S; Mak, J W; Singh, K I

    1995-06-01

    The effect of permethrin impregnated bednets on Anopheles maculatus Theobald was studied in four villages in Pos Betau, Pahang, Malaysia from August 1990 to July 1992. Collections of mosquitos were carried out indoors and outdoors from 1900 to 0700 hours. All mosquitos were dissected for sporozoites and parity. In May 1991 two villages received bednets impregnated with permethrin at 0.5 g/m2 and two villages received placebo bednets. There was a significant difference in the sporozoite and parous rates between the treated and control villages after the distribution of bednets (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the bites/man/night of An. maculatus between the pre and post treatment periods in the control villages. However there was a significant difference in bites/man/night between pre and post treatment in the treated villages (p < 0.001). PMID:8629075

  1. Preliminary estimates of the age and growth of immature smooth oreo Pseudocyttus maculatus Gilchrist 1906 (Oreosomatidae) in the Falkland Islands region of the South Atlantic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. A. George; G. D. Jackson; C. P. Green; S. G. Robertson

    1998-01-01

    Sectioned otoliths were used to estimate the age of 29 specimens of the smooth oreo (Pseudocyttus maculatus Gilchrist 1906) from the Falkland Islands region of the South Atlantic. This represents the first ageing study of this species\\u000a in this region of the world. All specimens were immature (sub-adults), the largest having a maximum total length of 347?mm.\\u000a Growth increments were

  2. Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae) seed coat on the embryonic and larval development of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    de Sá, Leonardo Figueira Reis; Wermelinger, Tierry Torres; Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Gravina, Geraldo de Amaral; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Venancio, Thiago Motta; Rezende, Gustavo Lazzaro; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir Amancio

    2014-01-01

    Bruchid beetles infest various seeds. The seed coat is the first protective barrier against bruchid infestation. Although non-host seed coats often impair the oviposition, eclosion and survival of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, morphological and biochemical aspects of this phenomenon remain unclear. Here we show that Phaseolus vulgaris (non-host) seed coat reduced C. maculatus female oviposition about 48%, increased 83% the seed penetration time, reduced larval mass and survival about 62 % and 40 % respectively. Interestingly, we found no visible effect on the major events of insect embryogenesis, namely the formation of the cellular blastoderm, germ band extension/retraction, embryo segmentation, appendage formation and dorsal closure. Larvae fed on P. vulgaris seed coat have greater FITC fluorescence signal in the midgut than in the feces, as opposed to what is observed in control larvae fed on Vigna unguiculata. Cysteine protease, ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities were reduced in larvae fed on P. vulgaris natural seed coat. Taken together, our results suggest that although P. vulgaris seed coat does not interfere with C. maculatus embryonic development, food digestion was clearly compromised, impacting larval fitness (e.g. body mass and survivability). PMID:24211390

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of the dotted gizzard shad Konosirus punctatus (Teleostei, Clupeidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Shi, Sufen; Wang, Ming; Lun, Zhaorong; Yang, Tingbao

    2012-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the dotted gizzard shad Konosirus punctatus (Teleostei, Clupeidae) has been determined. The entire sequence is 16,706 bp in length, with a gene content (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and 1 control region) and organization similar to that observed in most other vertebrates. Overall base composition of the light strand was represented as 25.8% of A, 29.0% of C, 25.1% of T and 20.1% of G. With the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Tandem repeat sequences were observed in the control region, indicating a useful marker for population genetic studies. PMID:22471761

  4. Phylogenetic Relationships of Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Gobioninae) Inferred from Multiple Nuclear Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Keun-Yong; Ko, Myeong-Hun; Liu, Huanzhang; Tang, Qiongying; Chen, Xianglin; Bang, In-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Gobionine species belonging to the genera Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae) have been heavily studied because of problems on taxonomy, threats of extinction, invasion, and human health. Nucleotide sequences of three nuclear genes, that is, recombination activating protein gene 1 (rag1), recombination activating gene 2 (rag2), and early growth response 1 gene (egr1), from Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia species residing in China, Japan, and Korea, were analyzed to elucidate their intergeneric and interspecific phylogenetic relationships. In the phylogenetic tree inferred from their multiple gene sequences, Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia and Pungtungia species ramified into three phylogenetically distinct clades; the “tenuicorpa” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa, the “parva” clade composed of all Pseudorasbora species/subspecies, and the “herzi” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia nigra, and Pungtungia herzi. The genus Pseudorasbora was recovered as monophyletic, while the genus Pseudopungtungia was recovered as polyphyletic. Our phylogenetic result implies the unstable taxonomic status of the genus Pseudopungtungia. PMID:24106702

  5. A new species of †Notogoneus (Teleostei: Gonorynchidae) from the Upper Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana, and the poor Cretaceous record of freshwater fishes from North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lance Grande; Terry Grande

    1999-01-01

    †Notogoneus montanensis, sp. nov. (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Gonorynchidae) is described from Late Cretaceous freshwater deposits of the Two Medicine Formation of Montana. The species is represented by one articulated skeleton and a partial trunk region of a second individual. Articulated freshwater fish fossils are almost unknown in Early Cretaceous through Middle Paleocene age deposits of North America. Localities such as the

  6. The Use of Tadpoles of Bufo melanostictus (Schneider), Rhacophorus leucomystax maculatus (Gray) and Uperodon sp. in the Bioassay of Aflatoxins

    PubMed Central

    Arseculeratne, S. N.; de Silva, L. M.; Bandunatha, C. H. S. R.; Tennekoon, G. E.; Wijesundera, S.; Balasubramaniam, K.

    1969-01-01

    Aflatoxins have been found to be lethal to tadpoles of Bufo melanostictus (Schneider), Rhacophorus leucomystax maculatus (Gray) and Uperodon sp. Pathological changes consisting of cytoplasmic vacuolation, enlargement and increased vesicularity of nucleii, and foci of necrosis are produced in the liver and kidney of aflatoxin treated larvae. A method is described for the quantitation of aflatoxin based on the lethal response of the tadpoles. The method is cheap, easily handled and provides reproducible and accurate results; the duration of the test is 4 days. The mean LD50 of aflatoxin B1 on 15 mm. Bufo larvae, 20 mm. Rhacophorus and 15 mm. Uperodon larvae were approximately 2·8, 1·6 and 0·5 ?g./ml. respectively while the LD50 of aflatoxin G1 on 15 mm. Bufo and 20 mm. Rhacophorus larvae were approximately 12·2 and 9·3 ?g./ml. respectively. The sensitivity to aflatoxin decreased with increase of size of the larvae. Retardation of growth and delay in metamorphosis have been observed in aflatoxin treated larvae. The applicability of this method to the assay of aflatoxins in crude extracts of foodstuffs is being investigated. PMID:5797384

  7. Correlaciones cruzadas quasar-galaxia y AGN-galaxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, H. J.; Merchán, M. E.; Valotto, C. A.; García Lambas, D.

    We compute quasar-galaxy and AGN-galaxy cross-correlation functions for samples taken from the Véron-Cetty & Véron (1998) catalog of quasars and active galaxies, using tracer galaxies taken from the Edinburgh/Durham Southern Catalog. The sample of active galaxy targets shows positive correlation at projected separations rp < 6 h-1 ~Mpc consistent with the usual power-law. On the other hand, we do not find a statistically significant positive quasar-galaxy correlation signal except in the range 3 h-1 Mpc < rp < 6 h-1 Mpc where we find similar AGN-galaxy and quasar-galaxy correlation amplitudes. At separations rp<3~h-1 ~Mpc a strong decline of quasar-galaxy correlations is observed, suggesting a significant local influence of quasars in galaxy formation. In an attempt to reproduce the observed cross-correlation between quasars and galaxies, we have performed CDM cosmological hydrodynamical simulations and tested the viability of a scenario based on the model developed by Silk & Rees (1998). In this scheme a fraction of the energy released by quasars is considered to be transferred into the baryonic component of the intergalactic medium in the form of winds. The results of the simulations suggest that the shape of the observed quasar-galaxy cross-correlation function could be understood in a scenario where a substantial amount of energy is transferred to the medium at the redshift of maximum quasar activity.

  8. Galaxias Interactuantes en el SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duplancic, F.; O'Mill, A. L.; García Lambas, D.; Valotto, C.; Sodré, L., Jr.

    We present preliminary results of the construction of a catalog of interacting triple galaxy systems. For the identification we have analyzed both spectro- scopic and photometric data and applied restrictions on projected distance and radial velocity differences of member galaxies. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  9. Isolation and purification of a papain inhibitor from Egyptian genotypes of barley seeds and its in vitro and in vivo effects on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.).

    PubMed

    Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-02-01

    The cysteine inhibitors that are known as cystatin have been identified and characterized from several plant species. In the current study, 44 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes including 3 varieties and 41 promising lines were screened for their potential as protease inhibitors. The barley genotypes showed low inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes with a mean of 4.15 TIU/mg protein and 4.40 CIU/mg protein. The barley variety, Giza 123, showed strong papain inhibitory activity of 97.09 PIU/mg proteins and was subjected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Barley purified proteins showed two bands on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 12.4-54.8?kDa. The purified barley PI was found to be stable at a temperature below 80?°C and at a wide range of pH from 2 to 12. Barley PI was found to have higher potential inhibitory activity against papain enzyme compared to the standard papain inhibitor, E-64 with an IC50 value of 21.04?µg/ml and 25.62?µg/ml for barley PI and E-64, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition with a Ki value of 1.95?×?10(-3?)µM. The antimetabolic effect of barley PI was evaluated against C. maculatus by incorporating the F30-60 protein of the purified inhibitor into the artificial diet using artificial seeds. Barley PI significantly prolonged the development of C. maculatus in proportion to PI concentration. Barley PI significantly increased the mortality of C. maculatus and caused a significant reduction in its fecundity. On the other hand, barley PI seemed to have non-significant effects on the adult longevity and the adult dry weight. The in vitro and in vivo results proved the efficiency of the papain inhibitory protein isolated from barley as a tool for managing the cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus. PMID:25752426

  10. Import of exotic and zoonotic trematodes (Heterophyidae: Centrocestus sp.) in Xiphophorus maculatus: implications for ornamental fish import control in Europe.

    PubMed

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Jensen, Hannah M; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt

    2014-06-01

    Ornamental fish, Xiphophorus maculatus, were imported from Singapore to Denmark for distribution to local aquarists. Importers observed lethargic and erratic swimming patterns among fish and forwarded a total of 30 fish for pathological examination to a university diagnostic service. All fish were diagnosed infected with encysted Centrocestus sp. metacercariae in gills (prevalence of 100% and mean intensity of 454.5 ± 161.9 parasites per fish). Metacercariae were identified by morphological and molecular methods. Cysts (mean length 163.3 ± 13.7 ?m and mean width 113.3 ± 10.6 ?m) contained a bent metacercaria with an X-shaped excretory bladder. PCR amplification of a rDNA region (5.8S rRNA gene, ITS-2, 28S rRNA gene) and subsequent sequencing confirmed the diagnosis. Metacercariae were found in gill filaments adjacent to the cartilage associated with cartilage hypertrophy, epithelial and mucous cell hyperplasia, clubbing and lamellar fusion. Host cell encapsulation of cysts comprised several layers of leucocytes, chondroblast-like and fibroblast-like cells. The observations raise concerns with regard to veterinary inspection and quarantine procedures. The zoonotic potential of these trematodes and a possible spread of the parasites in natural habitats in Europe should be regarded as a public health issue. So far, several cases of human infections have been reported only in Asia, but the potential intermediate host snail, Melanoides tuberculata, has been recorded in Germany. Accordingly, establishment of the parasite in Europe with climate changes should be considered a risk. PMID:24827099

  11. CO2 enhances effects of hypoxia on mortality, development, and gene expression in cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weining; Lei, Jiaxin; Ahn, Ji-Eun; Wang, Yu; Lei, Chaoliang; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2013-11-01

    Modified atmosphere based on lack of O2 offers a safe, residue-free alternative to chemical fumigants for pest control in stored grains. In this study, we intended to determine whether elevated CO2 (at a biologically achievable level) has an enhanced suppressive effect over low O2 atmosphere alone on the cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus), a storage pest of cowpea and other legumes. Experiments were performed under two modified atmospheric conditions, (1) 2% O2+18% CO2+80% N2 and (2) 2% O2+98% N2. Both hypoxic environments significantly affected the development and survival of all insect developmental stages. Eggs were most vulnerable to hypoxia, particularly at the early stage (4-6h old), surviving only up to a maximum of 2 days in both treatments. These were followed by adults, pupae and larvae, in order of decreasing susceptibility. The 3rd and 4th instar larvae were most resilient to hypoxia and could survive up to 20 days of low O2. The presence of 18% CO2 significantly increased the mortality of adults, the later stage of eggs, as well as 1st and 4th instar larvae caused by hypoxia. However, the surviving insects exhibited faster development, evidenced by their earlier emergence from cowpea seeds compared to those without CO2. One interesting observation was the frequent, premature opening of the emergence windows in the 4th instar larvae when CO2 was involved. This phenomenon was not observed at all in insects stressed by low O2 alone. Differential expression profiling of metabolic genes and proteolytic activity of midgut digestive enzymes suggested that the rate of metabolic activity could contribute in part to the difference in insect development and survival under hypoxia in the presence and absence of CO2. PMID:24001922

  12. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins) with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Souza, A.J.; Ferreira, A.T.S.; Perales, J.; Beghini, D.G.; Fernandes, K.V.S.; Xavier-Filho, J.; Venancio, T.M.; Oliveira, A.E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitinbinding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5?mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation. PMID:22267002

  13. Suppression of seed bruchid ( Callosobruchus maculatus F.) development and damage on cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) with Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Waterm. (Rutaceae) root bark powder when compared to neem seed powder and pirimiphos-methyl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. O. Ogunwolu; A. T. Odunlami

    1996-01-01

    Reproduction suppression properties in Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Waterm. (Rutaceae) root bark powder (ZRBP) against the cowpea seed bruchid (CSB), Callosobruchus maculatus F., were evaluated against neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) seed powder (NSP) and pirimiphos-methyl (PM) (Actellic 2% Dust, ICI). At application rates ranging from 0.125 to 3 g per 20 g seed, ZRBP was as effective an oviposition suppressant

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of Goneaperca and the evolution of parental care in darters (Teleostei: Percidae).

    PubMed

    Harrington, Richard C; Near, Thomas J

    2015-03-01

    Inference of evolutionary relationships among closely related darter species (Teleostei: Percidae) has traditionally proven challenging due to a lack of sufficient numbers of informative morphological characters or reliance on mtDNA sequences. These factors have contributed to longstanding uncertainty of the monophyly of many described taxonomic groups. Although multi-locus data are now available for most darter species, uncertainty has persisted regarding the relationships of some major lineages. Here, we investigate the relationships of darters classified in Goneaperca, a clade of 46 species, many of which are characterized by distinct nuptial displays and male-only parental care. Previous phylogenetic analyses of morphological and molecular data have failed to provide strong resolution of relationships among major Goneaperca subclades, and especially the monophyly of Catonotus. We apply coalescent and phylogenetic analyses to a dataset that includes intraspecific sampling for nearly all species of Goneaperca for 13 nuclear genes. Our coalescent species tree analyses resolved a strongly supported sister relationship between Boleosoma and a monophyletic Catonotus. Ancestor state reconstructions using the posterior distribution of these newly inferred phylogenies support a single origin of male-only parental care in the most recent common ancestor of Boleosoma and Catonotus. PMID:25615427

  15. Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the digenean Tergestia acanthocephala (Stossich, 1887) (Gymnophalloidea: Fellodistomidae): An intestinal parasite of Belone belone gracilis (Pisces: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Kacem, H; Ndiaye, P I; Neifar, L; Torres, J; Miquel, J

    2015-06-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of the digenean Tergestia acanthocephala (Gymnophalloidea: Fellodistomidae) is described. Live digeneans were collected from Belone belone gracilis (Teleostei: Belonidae), caught off the Gulf of Gabès in Chebba (Tunisia). The mature spermatozoon of T. acanthocephala exhibits the general pattern described in numerous digeneans, characterized by the presence of two axonemes of the different length of the 9+'1' pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. Moreover, the morphology of the posterior spermatozoon extremity in T. acanthocephala corresponds to the fasciolidean type of Quilichini et al. (2010a). PMID:25796547

  16. From sneaker to parental male: change of reproductive traits in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Immler, Simone; Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Rasotto, Maria Berica

    2004-02-01

    This study focuses on the consequences of the switch of tactic from parasitic to parental male in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei: Gobiidae), a species showing two alternative male mating tactics. Older and larger males defend nests, court, and perform parental care on eggs, while younger and smaller ones behave as parasites, sneaking into nests while spawning occurs. Males adopting different tactics are known to present differences in primary and secondary sex traits. The social context of sneaker males was manipulated to induce a tactic switch. Sneakers were kept under two different experimental treatments with or without a female, and under exclusion of male-male competition. Males changed tactics, courting females, spawning, and performing parental care. All males showed substantial changes in primary sexual traits, such as a reduction in gonadal development and an increase in the investment in accessory structures. The experimental groups differed in the functionality of gonads and accessory organs and in the development of the secondary sex traits. These results demonstrate that the moment of switching is not genetically fixed in the black goby. Sneaker males are able to quickly reallocate energy in primary and secondary sex traits, in accordance with the adopted tactic. Several aspects of this flexible reproductive pattern resemble the socially controlled sex change found in sequential hermaphrodites. PMID:14743517

  17. Molecular taxonomy and identification within the Antarctic genus Trematomus (Notothenioidei, Teleostei): How valuable is barcoding with COI?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautredou, A.-C.; Bonillo, C.; Denys, G.; Cruaud, C.; Ozouf-Costaz, C.; Lecointre, G.; Dettai, A.

    2010-08-01

    The Trematominae are a particularly interesting subfamily within the antarctic suborder Notothenioidei (Teleostei). The 14 closely related species occupy a large range of ecological of niches, extremely useful for evolutionary and biogeography studies in the Antarctic Ocean. But some Trematomus species can be difficult to identify by using morphological criteria, specially young stages and damaged specimens. Molecular identification would therefore be highly useful, however the suitability of the cytochrome oxidase I gene in a barcoding approach needs to be assessed. We evaluated species delineation within the genus Trematomus comparing morphological identification, nuclear markers (the rhodopsin retrogene and a new nuclear marker pkd1: polycystic kidney disease 1) and COI. We show that Trematomus vicarius is not distinguishable from Trematomus bernacchii with the molecular markers used, and neither is Trematomus loennbergii from Trematomus lepidorhinus. We suggest that until this is investigated further, studies including these species list them as T. loennbergii/ T. lepidorhinus group, and keep voucher samples and specimens. Generally, COI gives a congruent result with the rhodopsin retrogene, and except for the previously cited species pairs, COI barcoding is efficient for identification in this group. Moreover pkd1 might not be suitable for a phylogenetic study at this scale for this group.

  18. Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), ?-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

  19. The attraction of virgin female hide beetles (Dermestes maculatus) to cadavers by a combination of decomposition odour and male sex pheromones

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) feeds as an adult and larva on decomposing animal remains and can also be found on human corpses. Therefore, forensic entomological questions with regard to when and how the first receptive females appear on carcasses are important, as the developmental stages of their larvae can be used to calculate the post-mortem interval. To date, we know that freshly emerged males respond to the cadaver odour of post-bloated carcasses (approximately 9 days after death at Tmean = 27°C), being attracted by benzyl butyrate. This component occurs at its highest concentration at this stage of decay. The aim of our study was to determine the principle of attraction of virgin females to the feeding and breeding substrate. For this purpose, we tested the response of these females to headspace samples of piglet cadavers and male sex pheromones [(Z9)-unsaturated fatty acid isopropyl esters] in a Y-olfactometer. Because we expected that such an odour combination is of importance for virgin female attraction, we tested the following two questions: 1) Are virgin female hide beetles attracted by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones? 2) During which decomposition stage do the first virgin females respond to cadaver odour when combined with male sex pheromones? Results We found that young virgin females were attracted to the cadaver by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones. Neither cadaver odour alone nor male sex pheromones alone was significantly more attractive than a solvent control. Our results also gave a weak indication that the first young virgin females respond as early as the post-bloating stage to its associated decomposition odour when combined with male sex pheromones. Conclusions Our results indicate that freshly emerged males possibly respond to cadaver odour and visit carcasses before virgin females. Being attracted to cadavers when male sex pheromone is perceived as well, virgin females can optimise their reproductive possibilities. PMID:22889339

  20. Protecting embryos from stress: Corticosterone effects and the corticosterone response to capture and confinement during pregnancy in a live-bearing lizard (Hoplodactylus maculatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cree, A.; Tyrrell, C.L.; Preest, M.R.; Thorburn, D.; Guillette, L.J., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Hormones in the embryonic environment, including those of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, have profound effects on development in eutherian mammals. However, little is known about their effects in reptiles that have independently evolved viviparity. We investigated whether exogenous corticosterone affected embryonic development in the viviparous gecko Hoplodactylus maculatus, and whether pregnant geckos have a corticosterone response to capture and confinement that is suppressed relative to that in non-pregnant (vitellogenic) females and males. Corticosterone implants (5 mg, slow-release) administered to females in mid-pregnancy caused a large elevation of corticosterone in maternal plasma (P<0.001), probable reductions in embryonic growth and development (P=0.069-0.073), developmental abnormalities and eventual abortions. Cool temperature produced similar reductions in embryonic growth and development (P???0.036 cf. warm controls), but pregnancies were eventually successful. Despite the potentially harmful effects of elevated plasma corticosterone, pregnant females did not suppress their corticosterone response to capture and confinement relative to vitellogenic females, and both groups of females had higher responses than males. Future research should address whether lower maternal doses of corticosterone produce non-lethal effects on development that could contribute to phenotypic plasticity. Corticosterone implants also led to increased basking in pregnant females (P<0.001), and basal corticosterone in wild geckos (independent of reproductive condition) was positively correlated with body temperature (P<0.001). Interactions between temperature and corticosterone may have broad significance to other terrestrial ectotherms, and body temperature should be considered as a variable influencing plasma corticosterone concentrations in all future studies on reptiles. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of insecticide formulations used in cotton cultivation in West Africa on the development of flat-backed toad tadpoles (Amietophrynus maculatus).

    PubMed

    Stechert, Christin; Kolb, Marit; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Bahadir, Müfit

    2015-02-01

    In the West African savanna zone, traditional subsistence farming increasingly shifts to cash crop farming and in particular to cotton cultivation, which is accompanied by application of pesticides. Increasing use of pesticides by smallholder farmers is suspected to have negative effects on non-target organisms. In this study, possible pesticide impact on the development of tadpoles was investigated. Two insecticide formulations used in cotton cultivation in Benin were compared: Cotofan® (active ingredient (a.i.): ?- and ?-endosulfan) and Tihan® (a.i.: spirotetramat and flubendiamide). Tadpoles of the widespread species Amietophrynus maculatus were kept in small water basins with increasing insecticide concentrations (1, 10 and 100 ?g a.i./L) over a period of 28?days. Tadpoles showed reduced survival at the highest endosulfan concentrations (100 ?g/L). Survival of tadpoles undergoing metamorphosis was not influenced by Tihan®. Endosulfan in concentrations of 10 and 100 ?g/L negatively impacted the movement of the tadpoles which was not the case for the mixture of spirotetramat and flubendiamide. Time to metamorphosis was not significantly different in the various treatments. Tail length of tadpoles was significantly shorter in Cotofan® treatments compared to controls. Pesticide residues in the tadpoles were relatively low after keeping them in concentrations of 1 and 10 ?g a.i./L (25 and 26 ?g/kg wet weight (w/w) for the sum of ?-endosulfan, ?-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate and below the detection limits for flubendiamide and spirotetramat). For the 100 ?g a.i./L treatments, 1,600 ?g/kg w/w was found of ?-endosulfan, ?-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate together in the survived tadpoles and 21 ?g/kg w/w of flubendiamide. PMID:25192667

  2. Four new species of Cichlidogyrus (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae) from Sarotherodon mvogoi and Tylochromis sudanensis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Pariselle, Antoine; Nyom, Arnold R Bitja; Bilong, Charles F Bilong

    2014-01-01

    The four Cichlidogyrus species (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae) found on the gills of Sarotherodon mvogoi and Tylochromis sudanensis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Cameroon are considered new and are described herein. Cichlidogyrus mvogoi n. sp. from Sarotherodon mvogoi, characterised by a long (> 100 µm), thin and spirally coiled penis and a short marginal hook pair I. Cichlidogyrus sigmocirrus n. sp. from Tylochromis sudanensis, characterised by a short marginal hook pair I, a slightly spirally coiled penis with reduced heel, an accessory piece being a spirally coiled band wrapped round the penis and attached to the penis basal bulb by a very thin filament. Cichlidogyrus chrysopiformis n. sp. from Tylochromis sudanensis, characterised by an marginal hook pair I of medium size, a thin spirally coiled penis (1.5 turn) with a developed flared heel, an accessory piece being a large gutter shaped band, ending in a narrow complex extremity, and linked to the basal bulb of the penis by a very thin filament, a short, straight and slightly ringed vagina. Cichlidogyrus djietoi n. sp. from Tylochromis sudanensis, characterised by a slightly spirally coiled penis (2 turns) with developed heel, an accessory piece being a large gutter shaped band, ending in a narrow folded back extremity, a short funnel shaped vagina. The three latter species are also remarkable by the morphology of their auricles implanted on the anterior side of the dorsal transverse bar which make them (together with the other species described from Tylochromis hosts) a homogeneous and original group within Cichlidogyrus, this distinctive feature seems to be ancestral compared to other Cichlidogyrus species. PMID:25543634

  3. Phylogeny and biogeography of highly diverged freshwater fish species (Leuciscinae, Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inferred from mitochondrial genome analysis.

    PubMed

    Imoto, Junichi M; Saitoh, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Adachi, Jun; Kartavtsev, Yuri P; Miya, Masaki; Nishida, Mutsumi; Hanzawa, Naoto

    2013-02-10

    The distribution of freshwater taxa is a good biogeographic model to study pattern and process of vicariance and dispersal. The subfamily Leuciscinae (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) consists of many species distributed widely in Eurasia and North America. Leuciscinae have been divided into two phyletic groups, leuciscin and phoxinin. The phylogenetic relationships between major clades within the subfamily are poorly understood, largely because of the overwhelming diversity of the group. The origin of the Far Eastern phoxinin is an interesting question regarding the evolutionary history of Leuciscinae. Here we present phylogenetic analysis of 31 species of Leuciscinae and outgroups based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences to clarify the phylogenetic relationships and to infer the evolutionary history of the subfamily. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Far Eastern phoxinin species comprised the monophyletic clades Tribolodon, Pseudaspius, Oreoleuciscus and Far Eastern Phoxinus. The Far Eastern phoxinin clade was independent of other Leuciscinae lineages and was closer to North American phoxinins than European leuciscins. All of our analysis also suggested that leuciscins and phoxinins each constituted monophyletic groups. Divergence time estimation suggested that Leuciscinae species diverged from outgroups such as Tincinae to be 83.3 million years ago (Mya) in the Late Cretaceous and leuciscin and phoxinin shared a common ancestor 70.7 Mya. Radiation of Leuciscinae lineages occurred during the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene. This period also witnessed the radiation of tetrapods. Reconstruction of ancestral areas indicates Leuciscinae species originated within Europe. Leuciscin species evolved in Europe and the ancestor of phoxinin was distributed in North America. The Far Eastern phoxinins would have dispersed from North America to Far East across the Beringia land bridge. The present study suggests important roles for the continental rearrangements during the Late Cretaceous to form the present-day distribution of organisms. Furthermore, the Late Cretaceous biotic turnover influenced for the modern terrestrial biodiversity. PMID:23174367

  4. Grupos de galaxias: dependencia de las propiedades de sus galaxias miembros con la emisión en radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, L.; Coldwell, G.; Valotto, C. A.

    We present a study of the observational properties of Galaxies in Groups and its AGN host galaxies. We analyze the characteristics of the emision from the host AGN galaxies, both in the optical region as in the radio fre- cuencies, and its relation with their environment. In order to make these studies, the information from AGN associated with galaxy clusters has been correlated to the FIRST radio survey. In this correlation we analyze the pa- rameters of these galaxies: luminosity, morphology, stellar mass, stellar age, etc. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  5. Non-invasive ancient DNA protocol for fluid-preserved specimens and phylogenetic systematics of the genus Orestias (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae).

    PubMed

    Garrigos, Yareli Esquer; Hugueny, Bernard; Koerner, Kellie; Ibañez, Carla; Bonillo, Celine; Pruvost, Patrice; Causse, Romain; Cruaud, Corinne; Gaubert, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Specimens stored in museum collections represent a crucial source of morphological and genetic information, notably for taxonomically problematic groups and extinct taxa. Although fluid-preserved specimens of groups such as teleosts may constitute an almost infinite source of DNA, few ancient DNA protocols have been applied to such material. In this study, we describe a non-invasive Guanidine-based (GuSCN) ancient DNA extraction protocol adapted to fluid-preserved specimens that we use to re-assess the systematics of the genus Orestias (Cyprinodontidae: Teleostei). The latter regroups pupfishes endemic to the inter-Andean basin that have been considered as a 'species flock', and for which the morphology-based taxonomic delimitations have been hotly debated. We extracted DNA from the type specimens of Orestias kept at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle of Paris, France, including the extinct species O. cuvieri. We then built the first molecular (control region [CR] and rhodopsin [RH]) phylogeny including historical and recently collected representatives of all the Orestias complexes as recognized by Parenti (1984a): agassizii, cuvieri, gilsoni and mulleri. Our ancient DNA extraction protocol was validated after PCR amplification through an approach based on fragment-by-fragment chimera detection. After optimization, we were able to amplify < 200 bp fragments from both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (CR and RH, respectively) from probably formalin-fixed type specimens bathed entirely in the extraction fluid. Most of the individuals exhibited few modifications of their external structures after GuSCN bath. Our approach combining type material and 'fresh' specimens allowed us to taxonomically delineate four clades recovered from the well-resolved CR tree into four redefined complexes: agassizii (sensu stricto, i.e. excluding luteus-like species), luteus, cuvieri and gilsoni. The mulleri complex is polyphyletic. Our phylogenetic analyses based on both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA revealed a main, deep dichotomy within the genus Orestias, separating the agassizii complex from a clade grouped under shallow dichotomies as (luteus, (cuvieri, gilsoni)). This 'deep and shallow' diversification pattern could fit within a scenario of ancient divergence between the agassizii complex and the rest of Orestias, followed by a recent diversification or adaptive radiation within each complex during the Pleistocene, in- and outside the Lake Titicaca. We could not recover the reciprocal monophyly of any of the 15 species or morphotypes that were considered in our analyses, possibly due to incomplete lineage sorting and/or hybridization events. As a consequence, our results starkly question the delineation of a series of diagnostic characters listed in the literature for Orestias. Although not included in our phylogenetic analysis, the syntype of O. jussiei could not be assigned to the agassizii complex as newly defined. The CR sequence of the extinct O. cuvieri was recovered within the cuvieri clade (same haplotype as one representative of O. pentlandii), so the mtDNA of the former species might still be represented in the wild. PMID:26000423

  6. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) infecting the south European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae) from a hypersaline environment in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Historically, non-native species of Gambusia (Poeciliidae) have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, 2004 throughout Italy. The potential utility of indigenous populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A sub-sample of ten fish collected from Cervia Saline, Italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°C) to assess their reproductive capability in captivity, harboured a moderate infection of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea). A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Results Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. is described from the skin, fins and gills of A. fasciatus. Light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM) examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, 2002 from Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas). Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G. rugiensoides. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene and a comparison with all species listed in GenBank confirmed they are unique and represent a new species (most similar to Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960, 8.3% pair-wise distance based on 5.8S+ITS2). This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 (774 bp) sequenced from any Gyrodactylus. Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, found G. salinae n. sp. to persist in conditions ranging from 35 ppt and 5°C in December to 65 ppt and 30°C in July, while in captivity a low level of infection was present, even in freshwater conditions (0 ppt). Conclusions The ability of G. salinae n. sp. to tolerate a wide range of salinities and temperatures shows its potential to readily adapt to several environmental conditions. These findings, together with the fact that A. fasciatus is a protected species and is considered as a biological control organism, necessitate further studies on the ecology and virulence of G. salinae n. sp. PMID:21658217

  7. Variable survival across low pH gradients in freshwater fish species.

    PubMed

    Jellyman, P G; Harding, J S

    2014-11-01

    A series of 14 day experiments was conducted on five common New Zealand fish species (redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni, inanga Galaxias maculatus, brown trout Salmo trutta, longfin eel Anguilla dieffenbachii and koaro Galaxias brevipinnis) to assess the effect of pH on survival and changes in body mass. No species survived in water of pH <4 although there was 100% survival of all adults at pH 4.5, G. maculatus larvae were also tested and had high mortality at this pH. Results suggest that adults are tolerant of low-pH waters; however, successful remediation of anthropogenically acidified streams will require an understanding of the susceptibility to low pH on different life cycle stages. PMID:25230112

  8. Cúmulos globulares y galaxias enanas en Pegasus I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faifer, F. R.; Escudero, C.; Smith Castelli, A. V.; González, N. M.; Forte, J. C.; Bassino, L. P.; Cellone, S. A.

    We present the first results of a photometric and spectroscopic study of the central region of the Pegasus I group. We have identified 1800 globular cluster candidates with g'_0<26 mag, and ˜ 60 possibles UCDs or young clusters, as well as the presence of at least two subpopulations of clusters in both dominant galaxies. We also present the brightness profiles and their Sérsic fits for two dwarf galaxies previously reported in the literature, as well as for a new dE,N candidate. We confirm that the two former galaxies are group members. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  9. Identificación de cúmulos de galaxias utilizando datos fotométricos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duplancic Videla, F. M.; García Lambas, D.; Sodré, L., Jr.

    We analyzed the seventh photometric release of the Sloan Digital Sky Sur- vey in order to perform a systematic search of galaxy clusters at interme- diate redshifts (z0,3). Cluster category was given to systems that verify conditions over galaxy members colors, projected distance to cluster center, radial velocity difference to the center and number of members within 0,5 Mpc. We compare the obtained sample with additional samples of galaxy clusters obtained in similar way. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  10. A specimen of Paralycoptera Chang & Chou 1977 (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei) from Hong Kong (China) with a potential Late Jurassic age that extends the temporal and geographical range of the genus.

    PubMed

    Tse, Tze-Kei; Pittman, Michael; Chang, Mee-Mann

    2015-01-01

    We describe a Mesozoic fish Paralycoptera sp. (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei), on the basis of a postcranial skeleton collected from the volcaniclastic mudstones of the Lai Chi Chong Formation of Hong Kong, China. The new finding-representing the city's first Mesozoic fish-extends the geographical distribution of Paralycoptera from eastern mainland China into Hong Kong, demonstrating a wider distribution than previously appreciated for this genus. A radiometric age for the Lai Chi Chong Formation of 146.6 ± 0.2 Ma implies a temporal range expansion for Paralycoptera of approximately 40 million years back from the Early Cretaceous (?110 Ma). However, spores found in the Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age that is consistent with the existing age assignment to Paralycoptera. We argue that the proposed temporal range extension is genuine because it is based on recent high precision radiometric age data, but given the discrepancies with the biostratigraphic ages further investigation is needed to confirm this. This study provides an important step towards revealing Hong Kong's Mesozoic vertebrate fauna and understanding its relationship to well-studied mainland Chinese ones. PMID:25834774

  11. Ligophorus spp. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) occurring in the fresh and brackish waters of the Shatt Al-Arab River and Estuary in southern Iraq, with the description of Ligophorus sagmarius sp. n. from the greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes).

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Khamees, Najim R; Ali, Atheer H

    2013-12-01

    The gills of three of five species of mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) collected from the brackish and fresh waters of southern Iraq were infected with species of Ligophorus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) as follows: greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes) infected with Ligophorus lebedevi Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina and Galli, 2012, Ligophorus bantingensis Soo and Lim, 2012, Ligophorus sagmarius n. sp., and Ligophorus fluviatilis (Bychowsky, 1949) Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina, and Galli, 2012; Klunzinger’s mullet Liza klunzingeri (Day) with L. bantingensis, L. fluviatilis, and an apparently undescribed species of Ligophorus; and abu mullet Liza abu (Heckel) with L. bantingensis and L. fluviatilis. The keeled mullet Liza carinata (Valenciennes) and Speigler’s mullet Valamugil speigleri (Bleeker) were uninfected. L. sagmarius n. sp. is described, and L. lebedevi and L. bantingensis are redescribed. Available specimens of L. fluviatilis and the undescribed species of Ligophorus from Klunzinger’s mullet were insufficient for description. PMID:24022128

  12. [Population genetic structure of the char species of the Northern Kuril Islands and the rank of the Dolly Varden Char in the system of the genus Salvelinus (Salmonidae: Teleostei)].

    PubMed

    Shubina, E A; Ponomareva, E V; Gritsenko, O F

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of the taxonomic position of most species and forms of the char (genus Salvelinus, Salmonidae: Teleostei) was made based on RAPD-PCR. The material was represented by samples from 29 populations from the Kuril Islands, coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, Kamchatka, Chukotka, Taymyr, Transbaikalia, the Kola Peninsula, Svalbard, Finland, and North America. It was shown that the genus Salvelinus splits into three well-justified clusters: (1) all the forms assigned to the Salvelinus alpinus--S. malma complex; (2) two samples of the White-Spotted Char from the Southern Kuril Islands and from Kamchatka; (3) two North American species, S. fontinalis and S. namaycush (samples of the North American species S. confluentis were absent from the collection). Analysis of the absolute values of genetic disctances of the S. alpinus--S. malma forms relative to S. leucomaenis, S. fontinalis, and S. namaycush revealed distances approaching the species rank between the following isolates: Frolikh Char, Mountain Char, Black Lake Char, Goggle-Eyed Char, and Neyva Char. Samples of Dolly Varden currently considered as "S. malma", do not constitute a separate cluster, falling within the group of the Arctic char S. alpinus. This conclusion is supported by the analysis of the results of three series of experiments by R. Phillips on ITS1 ribosome genes (Pleute et al., 1992; Phillips et al., 1995; Phillips et al., 1999). This indicates the infraspecific rank of malma within S. alpinus. Isolated populations of "Salvethymus svetovidovi" from the lake Elgygytgyn (Chukotka Peninsula) and of the char from the lake Chyornoye (Onekotan Island), recently described as S. gritzenkoi (Vasil'eva, Stygar, 2000), fell withing the S. alpinus--S. malma complex, the Onekotan char grouped together with another isolate from the same island. Comparison of genetic distances between the samples showed that the differences between the two isolated of Onekotan and migratory forms of the Kuril Islands are approximately equal, yet the homogeneity of the Chyornoye sample is higher than that of the other samples. The revealed 330-nucleotide diagnostic sequence of the Onekotan lake isolate showed identity of part of the fragment with a section of expressed DNA from the library of EST clones derived from the gills of Salmo salar, this possibly indicates the adaptive character of the evolution. PMID:17022488

  13. Extensive genetic divergence among Diptychus maculatus populations in northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Wei; Yang, Tianyan; Hai, Sa; Ma, Yanwu; Cai, Lingang; Ma, Xufa; Gao, Tianxiang; Guo, Yan

    2015-05-01

    D. maculates is a kind of specialized Schizothoracinae fish has been locally listed as a protected animal in Xinjiang Province, China. Ili River located in north of Tianshan Mountain and Tarim River located in north of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were two main distribution areas of this fish. To investigate the genetic diversity and genetic structure of D. maculates, four populations from Tarim River system and two populations from Ili River system were collected in this study. A 570-bp sequence of the control region was obtained for 105 specimens. Twenty-four haplotypes were detected from six populations, only Kunes River population and Kashi River population shared haplotypes with each other. For all the populations examined, the haplotype diversity ( h) was 0.904 8±0.012 6, nucleotide diversity (?) was 0.027 9±0.013 9, and the average number of pairwise nucleotide differences ( k) was 15.878 3±7.139 1. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 86.31% of the total genetic variation was apportioned among populations, and the variation within sampled populations was 13.69%. Genetic differences among sampled populations were highly significant. F st statistical test indicated that all populations were significantly divergent from each other ( P<0.01). The largest F st value was between Yurungkash River population and Muzat River population, while the smallest F st value was between Kunes River population and Kashi River population. NJ phylogenetic tree of D-loop haplotypes revealed two main clades. The neutrality test and mismatch distribution analysis suggested that the fish had went through a recent population expansion. The uplift of Tianshan Mountain and movement of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau might contribute to the wide genetic divergence of D. maculates in northwest China.

  14. Canibalismo Extremo y Lente Gravitacional Intensa en el Cúmulo de Galaxias Abell 3827

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. J.; West, M.; Bergmann, M.; Carrasco, E. R.; Gomez, P.; Lee, H.; Miller, B.; Turner, J.

    Abell 3827 is one of the most massive known clusters and at its center we observe an extreme example of galactic canibalism: a super giant elliptical galaxy in its formation process, devoring five massive galaxies at the same time. Using high spatial resolution Gemini+GMOS imagery and multi-object spectroscopy, we derived the redshift (z=0.099) and the radial velocity dispersion of the 55 brightest galaxies in the cluster central region (1134 +- 125 km/s). The estimated virial mass is ~ 1E14 M(sun) inside a radius of 300 kpc of the cluster center. We have also found features corresponding to a strong gravitational lense, four anular features arranged in an Einstein Ring from a galaxy (z=0.2) at double redshift than the cluster, and a fifth arclet feature corresponding to the lensed light of a farther galaxy (z=0.4). The possible Einstein Ring is of small angular size and the gravitational lense morphology would confirm that the cluster is indeed very massive and dense. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH.

  15. Canibalismo Extremo y Lente Gravitacional Intensa en el Cúmulo de Galaxias Abell 3827

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Díaz; M. Bergmann; E. R. Carrasco; P. Gomez; H. Lee; B. Miller; J. Turner

    2008-01-01

    Abell 3827 is one of the most massive known clusters and at its center we observe an extreme example of galactic canibalism: a super giant elliptical galaxy in its formation process, devoring five massive galaxies at the same time. Using high spatial resolution Gemini+GMOS imagery and multi-object spectroscopy, we derived the redshift (z=0.099) and the radial velocity dispersion of the

  16. Cinematica del gas ionizado y perfiles de luminosidad de las Galaxias Porotos Verdes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, R. J.; Aguero, M.; Schirmer, M.; Holheim, K.; Levenson, N.; Winge, C.

    We present preliminary spectroscopic results of a sample of green bean galaxies (GBG); known to show ultra-luminous; galaxy-wide; narrow-line regions. We analyze Gemini GMOS-S;N spectra of a sample of 12 GBG in order to obtain emission line ratios; gas kinematics and luminosity profiles in some continuous bands. We report here new results that confirm that the 5008 emission extends from 5 to 17 kpc; in all cases scales similar or larger than the stellar continuums at the spectra. In the extreme case of J145533.6+044643 the emission reaches a diameter of 17.51.6kpc. We find that the continuum half light radii extend from 3 to 7 kpc; the largest scale radius at shortest wavelengths; which is consistent with the scale lengths of large spiral galaxies or merging systems. Another new result is that the spatial variation of the continuum color profiles indicate the presence of extinction and possibly star formation. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  17. Una nueva galaxia IR con nucleo compuesto: Seyfert 1.5 y estallido de formacion estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipari, S. L.; Merlo, D. C.; Moyano, M. M.

    Optical aperture spectroscopy and CCD broad- and narrow-band images are presented for the barred Seyfert 1 galaxy: IRAS 22117-3903. IRAS data are also used to analyse this object. The CTIO broad band CCD imaging show interesting morphological features: a compact nucleus with a prominent bar; two bright spiral arms; and a partial/segmented inner ring. The narrow-band imaging show that the nuclear H+[NII] emission is concentrate mainly in the nucleus. We find optical spectral features characteristic of a Seyfert 1.5 nucleus; i.e.; showing hydrogen emission lines with broad and narrow components. We detected high excitation emission lines ([CaV]+[FeXIV]; [FeVII]). We study the stellar population in the nuclear region. We find that the stellar population that represent quite well the nuclear stellar population is an average of spiral galaxies dominated by the old population plus a contribution of young stars. Physical conditions are derived for the narrow emission line region; and we detected very high electron temperature (T=4400045000 K); untypical for the ordinary AGNs and probably associated to shocks in a starburst component. Finally; at the optical and IR wavelength; we find properties typical of an nucleus with compound nature; in good agreement with the AGN/QSOs evolutionary model of Lípari ; Terlevich (2006; ; 368; 1001). FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  18. Estudio del sistema de cúmulos globulares de la galaxia lenticular NGC6861: en busca de evidencias de una fusión.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, C. G.; Faifer, F. R.; Bassino, L. P.; Calderón, J. P.; Caso, J. P.

    We present a photometric study of the globular cluster system (GCS); associated to the lenticular galaxy NGC6861. It is based on GEMINI/GMOS images in the filters g'; r'; i' of three fields; one of them centered on the galaxy. Studying the colour-magnitude diagram of the system; we detect the presence of at least two populations of GCs (``blue'' and ``red'') and the presence of the phenomenon known as ``blue-tilt''. However; analyzing the colour distribution we infer the existence of a third population with intermediate colours which could be interpreted as evidence of a past interaction or fusion event. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  19. Source and trophic transfer of mercury in plankton from an ultraoligotrophic lacustrine system (Lake Nahuel Huapi, North Patagonia).

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Andrea; Arcagni, Marina; Campbell, Linda; Koron, Neža; Pavlin, Majda; Arribére, María A; Horvat, Milena; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro

    2014-09-01

    The incorporation and trophic transfer of total and methyl mercury (THg, MeHg) were examined in three size classes of plankton (10-53, 53-200, and >200 ?m size range) and a small planktivorous fish, Galaxias maculatus, from the large multi-branched Lake Nahuel Huapi (North Patagonia, Argentina). Three sites representing a large range of lake benthic-pelagic structures (based on depth and shoreline characteristics) and precipitation regimes were sampled. Nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes (?(15)N, ?(13)C) were analyzed to assess Hg trophodynamics. Selenium concentrations were determined together with THg in order to consider its potential effect on Hg trophodynamics. High THg concentrations (0.1-255 µg g(-1) dry weight (DW)) were measured in plankton, largely in inorganic form (MeHg: 3-29 ng g(-1) DW, 0.02-7% of THg, in the two larger size classes). A trend of increasing THg concentrations, varying in two to three orders of magnitude, with decreasing plankton size was associated with precipitation measured prior to each sampling event. Passive adsorption of dissolved Hg(2+) from wet deposition and runoff is considered to be the principal Hg uptake mechanism at the base of the pelagic food web. Despite the initially high THg uptake in the smaller plankton classes, the transfer to G. maculatus, and consequently to the entire food web, is likely limited due to low proportion of MeHg to THg in plankton. Furthermore, evidence of G. maculatus with benthic feeding habits having higher impact on MeHg trophic transfer compared to the same species with more pelagic (e.g., zooplankton) feeding habits, was observed. Although there is a high THg uptake in plankton, limited amounts are incorporated in the entire food web from the pelagic compartment. PMID:24844168

  20. Eugregarines reduce susceptibility of the hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus, to apicomplexan pathogens and retard larval development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eugregarines are abundant in a great diversity of invertebrates, and yet their relationships with their hosts are subject to controversy and confusion. We tested the effect of the eugregarine, Pyxinia crystalligera, on growth, development, and susceptibility to two Apicomplexa pathogens of the hide ...

  1. Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, A.; Talukder, F. A.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F1 adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F1 adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment. PMID:19537990

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Liobagrus marginatus (Teleostei, Siluriformes: Amblycipitidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Du, Jun; Liu, Ya; Zhou, Jian; Ke, Hongyu; Liu, Chao; Liu, Guangxun

    2014-04-01

    The Liobagrus marginatus is an economic fish which distribute in the upstream of Yangtze river and its distributary. For its taste fresh, environmental pollution and overfishing, its population declined drastically and body miniaturization in recent decades, so it is essential to protect its resource. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Liobagrus marginatus was sequenced, which contains 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,497 bp. The gene arrangement and composition are similar to most of other fish. Most of the genes are encoded on heavy-strand, except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes. Just like most other vertebrates, the bias of G and C has been found in statistics results of different genes/regions. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Liobagrus marginatus would contribute to better understand population genetics, evolution of this lineage, and will help administrative departments to make rules and laws to protect it. PMID:23795826

  3. Mechanisms of branchial cartilage growth in Astatotilapia elegans (Teleostei: Cichlidae).

    PubMed Central

    Huysseune, A; Verraes, W; Desender, K

    1988-01-01

    The growth of the cartilaginous infrapharyngobranchial II (part of the upper pharyngeal jaws) in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia elegans was investigated in four successive early postembryonic stages. Total cell number, individual cell volumes, total cell, total matrix and total cartilage volume were accurately measured or calculated. The share of cell and matrix volume increase in the overall growth was calculated for each of the transitions. Matrix volume increase accounted for almost 60% of the overall rudiment increase. Non-hypertrophic cells and the matrix produced by them together accounted for about three quarters of the total cartilage volume increase. Zones with particular characteristics (cell orientation, cell shape, degenerative features, etc.) were distinguished in each of the four stages separately. The sequence of increasing mean cell volume between zones was interpreted as reflecting growth directions within the cartilage. Apposition probably largely contributed to the observed cell volume increase. Mean cell volume and mean matrix volume per cell showed a highly significant positive relation. Cell density showed a highly significant negative relation to both mean cell volume and mean matrix volume. Our results indicate that the area of hypertrophy and cartilage resorption may be established quite early in the rudiment before overt manifestation of these processes. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:3225217

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Trachinotus ovatus (Teleostei, Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhenzhen; Li, Shuisheng; Yao, Mi; Lu, Danqi; Li, Zhihao; Meng, Zining; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2015-08-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome of the Trachinotus ovatus in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,563?bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of T. ovatus mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 29.03% of A, 28.86% of C, 26.23% of T and 15.88% of G. With the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Two copies of tandem repeat sequence (56?bp) was observed in the 5' end of the control region. PMID:24090004

  5. Distribution and Segregation of Two Sympatric Brevoortia Species (Teleostei: Clupeidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Rivera, M.; Kobelkowsky, A.

    2000-05-01

    The authors described and analysed the temporal and spatial distribution and segregation patterns of Brevoortia patronus and B. gunteri, in a coastal lagoon of Veracruz, Mexico. A total of 394 individuals of B. gunteri (mean SL of 61·7 mm) and 378 of B. patronus (mean SL of 128·0) were collected, in 189 monthly and 48 diel (24-h cycles) samples. Both species showed two catchability peaks—one during March-May (dry season) and the second in July-October (rainy season)—and these peaks were related with the two primary production pulses in the system. These patterns were slightly different for each species, the first peak being more important for B. gunteri (68·6%), and the second for B. patronus (78·2%). Brevoortia patronus number was correlated with rainfall ( P<0·01), and the relative abundance of both species was correlated with salinity ( P<0·05). In 24-h cycle analysis, the two species were more abundant around midday (10:00 to 14:00 h), with few individuals captured during the night, and this behaviour was probably related to light intensity and their trophic activities. Moreover, no diel separation between species was observed. Spatially, B. gunteri was principally captured (67·4%) in sites with higher salinities and with no submerged vegetation, and B. patronus was mainly captured (70·9%) in sites with low salinity and with dense beds of Ruppia maritima. Thus, the authors consider salinity as an important factor in the seasonal and spatial segregation of Brevoortia species, with B. gunteri common in periods and zones with higher salinity and B. patronus in periods and areas of low salinity. The results presented here suggest that these segregation patterns permit resource partitioning between these species and facilitate their local co-existence.

  6. Molecular systematics, phylogeny and biogeography of roaches (Rutilus, Teleostei, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Ketmaier, V; Bianco, P G; Durand, J-D

    2008-10-01

    In this study we used sequence data from the entire mtDNA cytochrome b gene to reconstruct patterns and times of diversification in the roach genus Rutilus. The genus is present with numerous endemic species in the Eastern peri-Mediterranean area and with a few widespread species in Central Europe. Our phylogenetic results do not support the subdivision into two subgenera proposed on morphological grounds. Within R. pigus and R. rutilus we identify highly divergent and allopatric mitochondrial lineages. The deeper splits in the genus phylogeny date back to the middle Miocene; the main diversification took place at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. PMID:18692146

  7. Evolutionary origin and early biogeography of otophysan fishes (Ostariophysi: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Lavoué, Sébastien; Mayden, Richard L

    2013-08-01

    The biogeography of the mega-diverse, freshwater, and globally distributed Otophysi has received considerable attention. This attraction largely stems from assumptions as to their ancient origin, the clade being almost exclusively freshwater, and their suitability as to explanations of trans-oceanic distributions. Despite multiple hypotheses explaining present-day distributions, problems remain, precluding more parsimonious explanations. Underlying previous hypotheses are alternative phylogenies for Otophysi, uncertainties as to temporal diversification and assumptions integral to various explanations. We reexamine the origin and early diversification of this clade based on a comprehensive time-calibrated, molecular-based phylogenetic analysis and event-based approaches for ancestral range inference of lineages. Our results do not corroborate current phylogenetic classifications of otophysans. We demonstrate Siluriformes are never sister to Gymnotiformes and Characiformes are most likely nonmonophyletic. Divergence time estimates specify a split between Cypriniformes and Characiphysi with the fragmentation of Pangea. The early diversification of characiphysans either predated, or was contemporary with, the separation of Africa and South America, and involved a combination of within- and between-continental divergence events for these lineages. The intercontinental diversification of siluroids and characoids postdated major intercontinental tectonic fragmentations (<90 Mya). Post-tectonic drift dispersal events are hypothesized to account for their current distribution patterns. PMID:23888847

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Rhinogobio ventralis (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Gobioninae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Li, Qiang; Gong, Quan; Li, Hua; Du, Jun

    2015-08-01

    Rhinogobio ventralis, a small-sized economic fish living in the bottom of the fast-flowing water, has a limited geographical distribution in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China. The complete mito-genome of R. ventralis is 16,607?bp in length, containing 37 genes of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a control region (D-loop). The gene order and composition of R. ventralis is similar to that of most other fishes, and its nucleotide composition is 31.10% A, 26.64% T, 26.28% C and 15.98% G, with a slight AT bias of 57.74%. It is first report of the complete mitochondrial genome in the bottom dwelling Rhinogobio species. PMID:24090006

  9. Pituitary cysts and concretions in the gasterosteidae (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Benjamin, M; Moodie, G E; Cone, D

    1987-03-01

    Pituitary cysts in the nine-spined stickleback, Pungitius pungitius, were found in the prolactin zone of the rostral pars distalis in 22 per cent of fish caught in May from freshwater, field-drainage ditches near Cardiff, Wales. They were not associated solely with some special environmental or hereditary factor in the Welsh population, for they were also present in 6 per cent of fish caught at a similar time of year in a freshwater lake at Manitoba, Canada. Although the pituitaries of other sticklebacks (Culaea inconstans, Apeltes quadracus and Gasterosteus wheatlandi) are similar to that of P. pungitius, they did not develop large cysts. There were no cysts at all in A. quadracus, and none greater than 50 microns in diameter in C. inconstans and G. wheatlandi. A minority of P. pungitius (less than 1 per cent) develop concretions either within the pituitary ("intraglandular") or in the surrounding capsule ("capsular"). Most of the concretions are filled with a strongly staining and laminated colloid. They are present in males and females, adults and juveniles, in fish killed soon after capture and in animals adapted to laboratory conditions. As far as we are aware, this is the first record of such structures in lower vertebrates. PMID:3597848

  10. The mitogenome of Pangasius sutchi (Teleostei, Siluriformes: Pangasiidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haipeng; Kong, Xianghui; Zhou, Chuanjiang

    2014-10-01

    The Pangasius sutchi is an important ornamental and economic fish in Southeast Asia e.g. Thailand, Malaysia and China. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. sutchi has been sequenced, which contains 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,522 bp. The gene order and composition are similar to most of other vertebrates. Just like most other vertebrates, the bias of G and C was found in different region/genes statistics results. Most of the genes are encoded on heavy strand, except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes. The mitogenome sequence of P. sutchi would contribute to better understand population genetics, evolution of this lineage. PMID:23795847

  11. Constraints upon the Response of Fish and Crayfish to Environmental Flow Releases in a Regulated Headwater Stream Network

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Edwin T.; Matthews, Ty G.; Howson, Travis J.; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Mackie, Jonathon K.; Strachan, Scott R.; Robson, Belinda J.

    2014-01-01

    In dry climate zones, headwater streams are often regulated for water extraction causing intermittency in perennial streams and prolonged drying in intermittent streams. Regulation thereby reduces aquatic habitat downstream of weirs that also form barriers to migration by stream fauna. Environmental flow releases may restore streamflow in rivers, but are rarely applied to headwaters. We sampled fish and crayfish in four regulated headwater streams before and after the release of summer-autumn environmental flows, and in four nearby unregulated streams, to determine whether their abundances increased in response to flow releases. Historical data of fish and crayfish occurrence spanning a 30 year period was compared with contemporary data (electrofishing surveys, Victoria Range, Australia; summer 2008 to summer 2010) to assess the longer–term effects of regulation and drought. Although fish were recorded in regulated streams before 1996, they were not recorded in the present study upstream or downstream of weirs despite recent flow releases. Crayfish (Geocharax sp. nov. 1) remained in the regulated streams throughout the study, but did not become more abundant in response to flow releases. In contrast, native fish (Gadopsis marmoratus, Galaxias oliros, Galaxias maculatus) and crayfish remained present in unregulated streams, despite prolonged drought conditions during 2006–2010, and the assemblages of each of these streams remained essentially unchanged over the 30 year period. Flow release volumes may have been too small or have operated for an insufficient time to allow fish to recolonise regulated streams. Barriers to dispersal may also be preventing recolonisation. Indefinite continuation of annual flow releases, that prevent the unnatural cessation of flow caused by weirs, may eventually facilitate upstream movement of fish and crayfish in regulated channels; but other human–made dispersal barriers downstream need to be identified and ameliorated, to allow native fish to fulfil their life cycles in these headwater streams. PMID:24647407

  12. Sistema de cúmulos globulares de la galaxia lenticular NGC 6861: en busca de indicios sobre la formación de las S0s.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, C. G.; Faifer, F. R.; Bassino, L. P.; Calderón, J. P.; Caso, J. P.

    We present a preliminar photometric study of the globular cluster system (GCS), associated to the lenticular galaxy (S0) NGC 6861, which is located in a low density environment (d˜31.8 Mpc). It is based on GEMINI/GMOS images (GS-2010B-Q-2: PI Lilia P. Bassino) in the filters g', r', i' of three fields, one of them centered in the galaxy. We find a large number of GCs candidates and detect the presence of at least two sub-populations of GCs (``blue''/metal-poor and ``red''/metal-rich). The spatial distribution of ``red'' candidates presents a higher concentration toward the galaxy (associated to the bulge?), while the distribution of ``blue'' candidates is more homogeneus over the three fields (associated to the halo?). In the color-magnitud diagram, the ``blue'' GC candidates show a possible mass-luminosity relation, known as ``blue-tilt'', probably detected for the first time in a lenticular galaxy. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  13. Egg-Dumping Behavior Is Not Correlated With Wider Host Acceptance in the Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera

    E-print Network

    Fox, Charles W.

    BEHAVIOR Egg-Dumping Behavior Is Not Correlated With Wider Host Acceptance in the Seed Beetle, some herbivorous insects "dump" eggs on unsuitable substrates, even though this can cause complete.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), the tendency to dump eggs varies genetically both within and between

  14. Morphological discrimination in juveniles of two Selene Species (Teleostei: Carangidae) using truss net distances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José de Melo Lima Filho; Rosângela Lessa; Borko Stosic; Paulo José Duarte Neto; José Wilson Vieira

    2006-01-01

    External morphological distinction between young Se lene vomer and S. brownii (Carangidae) was studied using multivariate analysis with the purpose to evaluate if other characters than the second dorsal and pelv ic fin spines could be used as distinguishing attributes for juve niles fishes. These spines are important distinct ive morphological characters, but they can be absent in juvenile fish

  15. Sex change and steroid profiles in the protandrous anemonefish Amphiprion melanopus (Pomacentridae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Godwin, J R; Thomas, P

    1993-08-01

    Plasma profiles of several gonadal steroids and cortisol were examined in a field population of the protandrous, sex-changing anemonefish Amphiprion melanopus to elucidate potential roles of these hormones in gonadal sex change. Sex change was experimentally induced in males by removal of their dominant female pair mates. These sex-changing males were captured and sampled at 5, 10, or 20 days after female removal. Unmanipulated males and females were also sampled. Males had higher plasma levels of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) than did females, but had lower levels of androstenedione (Ad), testosterone (T), and estradiol-17 beta (E2). The three androgens showed decreases from male levels at 10 days, then an increasing trend at 20 days after female removal. E2 levels exhibited no changes from male levels until 20 days, when a significant increase over male levels was observed. Mature females had higher levels of Ad, T, and E2 than the 20-day treatment group, indicating that these steroids continue to rise after Day 20. The results support hypothesized roles for androgens in male function and E2 in female function in A. melanopus. However, E2 increases lagged behind oogonial proliferation, arguing against an influence of this steroid in the initiation of female function. Cortisol levels did not differ between males and females, but exhibited an increase during sex change, peaking at 20 days. PMID:8405900

  16. Mitochondrial diversity of Opsariichthys bidens (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in three Chinese drainages.

    PubMed

    Perdices, A; Sayanda, D; Coelho, M M

    2005-12-01

    We describe the phylogeographic structure of 28 Chinese populations of the cyprinid Opsariichthys bidens across three main Chinese river drainages. Our study is based on the phylogenetic analysis of the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 bp). We combined this analysis with population processes inferred from nested clade analysis (NCA) and mismatch distributions. Both analyses showed that Chinese O. bidens consists of five mtDNA lineages (Opsariichthys 1-5) with high genetic divergence among them. Molecular divergences (TrN+G) higher than 20% among the Opsariichthys 1-5 mtDNA lineages suggest a taxonomic underestimation at the species level. About 92% of the genetic variance among samples was explained by differences among Opsariichthys mtDNA lineages. Drainage-restricted haplotypes with high frequencies and moderate nucleotide diversity show that Opsariichthys populations have evolved independently. NCA results were congruent with the phylogeny, and unimodal mismatch distributions with negative Tajima's D values suggest population expansions in some Opsariichthys lineages. The phylogeographic structure of the Opsariichthys 1-5 mtDNA lineages appears to be related to their long-term interruption of gene flow (theta(ST)>0.97). Our results suggested that fragmentation of ancestral ranges might have caused Opsariichthys diversification in Chinese waters. However, current distribution of common haplotypes across the Yangtze and Pearl drainages suggests a recent river connection that could have favoured gene flow across drainages. Overall, the results indicated that the richness of current Asian widespread species might have been underestimated, and that the cyprinid populations of O. bidens in the Yangtze, Pearl and Hai He drainages may correspond to five species. PMID:15964769

  17. Evolutionary history of the genus Rhamdia (Teleostei: Pimelodidae) in Central America.

    PubMed

    Perdices, Anabel; Bermingham, Eldredge; Montilla, Antonia; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2002-10-01

    We constructed phylogenetic hypotheses for Mesoamerican Rhamdia, the only genus of primary freshwater fish represented by sympatric species across Central America. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred from analysis of 1990 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), represented by the complete nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome b (cyt b) and the ATP synthase 8 and 6 (ATPase 8/6) genes. We sequenced 120 individuals from 53 drainages to provide a comprehensive geographic picture of Central American Rhamdia systematics and phylogeography. Phylogeographic analysis distinguished multiple Rhamdia mtDNA lineages, and the geographic congruence across evolutionarily independent Rhamdia clades indicated that vicariance has played a strong role in the Mesoamerican diversification of this genus. Phylogenetic analyses of species-level relationships provide strong support for the monophyly of a trans-Andean clade of three evolutionarily equivalent Rhamdia taxa: R. guatemalensis, R. laticauda, and R. cinerascens. Application of fish-based mitochondrial DNA clocks ticking at 1.3-1.5% sequence divergence per million years (Ma), suggests that the split between cis- and trans-Andean Rhamdia extends back about 8 Ma, and the three distinct trans-Andean Rhamdia clades split about 6 Ma ago. Thus the mtDNA divergence observed between cis- and trans-Andean Rhamdia species is too low to support an ancient colonization of Central America in the Late Cretaceous or Paleocene as had been hypothesized in one colonization model for Mesoamerican fishes. Rather the mtDNA data indicate that Rhamdia most likely colonized Central America in the late Miocene or Pliocene, promoting a strong role for the Isthmus of Panamá in the Mesoamerican expansion of this genus. Basal polytomies suggest that both the R. laticauda and R. guatemalensis clades spread rapidly across the Central American landscape, but differences in the average mtDNA genetic distances among clades comprising the two species, indicate that the R. laticauda spread and diversified across Mesoamerica about 1 million years before R. guatemalensis. PMID:12383759

  18. Skin toxins in coral-associated Gobiodon species (Teleostei: Gobiidae) affect predator preference and prey survival

    PubMed Central

    Gratzer, Barbara; Millesi, Eva; Walzl, Manfred; Herler, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Predation risk is high for the many small coral reef fishes, requiring successful sheltering or other predator defence mechanisms. Coral-dwelling gobies of the genus Gobiodon live in close association with scleractinian corals of the genus Acropora. Earlier studies indicated that the low movement frequency of adult fishes and the development of skin toxins (crinotoxicity) are predation avoidance mechanisms. Although past experiments showed that predators refuse food prepared with goby skin mucus, direct predator–prey interactions have not been studied. The present study compares the toxicity levels of two crinotoxic coral gobies – Gobiodon histrio, representative of a conspicuously coloured species, and Gobiodon sp.3 with cryptic coloration – using a standard bioassay method. The results show that toxin levels of both species differ significantly shortly after mucus release but become similar over time. Predator preferences were tested experimentally in an aquarium in which the two gobies and a juvenile damselfish Chromis viridis were exposed to the small grouper Epinephelus fasciatus. Video-analysis revealed that although coral gobies are potential prey, E. fasciatus clearly preferred the non-toxic control fish (C. viridis) over Gobiodon. When targeting a goby, the predator did not prefer one species over the other. Contrary to our expectations that toxic gobies are generally avoided, gobies were often captured, but they were expelled quickly, repeatedly and alive. This unusual post-capture avoidance confirms that these gobies have a very good chance of surviving attacks in the field due to their skin toxins. Nonetheless, some gobies were consumed: the coral shelter may therefore also provide additional protection, with toxins protecting them mainly during movement between corals. In summary, chemical deterrence by crinotoxic fishes seems to be far more efficient in predation avoidance than in physical deterrence involving body squamation and/or strong fin spines. PMID:26074654

  19. Phylogeny of moray eels (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae), with a revised classification of true eels (Teleostei: Elopomorpha: Anguilliformes).

    PubMed

    Tang, Kevin L; Fielitz, Christopher

    2013-02-01

    The family Muraenidae is one of the largest and most recognizable eel groups. Moray eels are key components of marine ecosystems but their relationships remain poorly understood. The phylogenetic relationships of the morays are examined herein using mitochondrial 12S and 16S sequence data, totaling 1673 bp for 139 taxa. The results of our analyses found support for a monophyletic family Muraenidae that is part of a monophyletic suborder Muraenoidei, which is revised to include the anguilliform families Heterenchelyidae and Myrocongridae, and to exclude the family Chlopsidae. The muraenids form two monophyletic subfamilies, Muraeninae and Uropterygiinae. Of the genera that had multiple species included for analysis, only the type genus of the family, Muraena, is found to be monophyletic. In the subfamily Uropterygiinae, Uropterygius is not recovered as a monophyletic genus. In the subfamily Muraeninae, the species-rich piscivorous genera, Enchelycore and Gymnothorax, and the durophagous genus, Echidna, are demonstrably not monophyletic. The monotypic Gymnomuraena is the sister group to all other muraenine species. The relationships within Muraenidae require much additional study and its genera remain in urgent need of revision. The order Anguilliformes is revised herein to include four suborders: Anguilloidei, Congroidei, Muraenoidei, and Synaphobranchoidei. All four families of the order Saccopharyngiformes are nested within Anguilliformes, recovered as part of a clade that includes Anguillidae; the saccopharyngiform families are referred to the suborder Anguilloidei sensu novum. PMID:22967094

  20. Petroscirtes pylei, a new saber-toothed blenny from the Fiji Islands (Teleostei: Blenniidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F.

    2005-01-01

    Petroscirtes pylei is described from three specimens, 20.3-40.9 mm SL, obtained from a deep-water reef off Suva, Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. It is distinguished from all other congeners by its color pattern, including the presence of two dark body stripes, the lower one broadly extending onto the anal fin, and the dorsal fin with a broad, dark basal stripe, superimposed by a conspicuous white spot centered on the 4th spine. Among Petroscirtes, only the new species and P. springeri typically have 12 dorsal-fin spines but they are not closely related. The holotype was collected in 104-110 m, the second deepest depth record for a species of Petroscirtes. Discovery of this new species, and an apparently second new deep-water Petroscrites (uncollected), at a different Fijian reef indicates that our knowledge of the biodiversity of this habitat and of the saber-toothed blennies is very incomplete. Copyright ?? 2005 Magnolia Press.

  1. Morphology of the Neotropical swamp eel, Synbranchus marmoratus (Pisces: Teleostei), with emphasis on adaptive features 

    E-print Network

    Conner, John Van

    1966-01-01

    magnum a portion of the exoc- ip'*al forms a ~i '* 1 ~d 1 ( . . . f'g. 4) ~ fl 'p't 1 ' p' d by 1st 1 ~i 'tal f en (l. o. f. , fig. 4) just in front of the occipital condyle. 4) forms the ventral margin of ihe foramen magnum. Its posterior face is a...

  2. Developmental Osteology of Two Species of Economically Important Sciaenids, Sciaenops ocellatus and Cynoscion nebulosus (Teleostei: Sciaenidae) 

    E-print Network

    Kubicek, Kole

    2014-04-22

    both posteriorly, to meet the ventral edge of the tectum synoticum forming the roof of the foramen magnum along with the first vertebral centrum via the exoccipital condyles, and anteriorly, within the posterolateral margin of the otic capsule... the posterior margin of the otic capsule. The exoccipital has expanded to border the entire lateral margin of the foramen magnum. The basioccipital has continued to expand laterally but remains similar in overall appearance to that described for the previous...

  3. Macropharyngodon pakoko, a new species of wrasse (Teleostei: Labridae) endemic to the Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Delrieu-Trottin, Erwan; Williams, Jeffrey T; Planes, Serge

    2014-01-01

    A new species of wrasse, Macropharyngodon pakoko, is described from the Marquesas Islands, bringing the total number of species of the genus Macropharyngodon to 12. Macropharyngodon pakoko was found at depths from 0-42 m and is endemic to the Marquesas Islands. Macropharyngodon pakoko is similar to M. meleagris, which is widely distributed from the central and western Pacific to Cocos-Keeling in the Indian Ocean, but differs genetically and in several coloration characters: males with irregularly curved black humeral blotch with incomplete iridescent blue border; inverted irregular "U"- shaped band on the cheek; a small black spot at the upper base of the pectoral fin; and background color of the body greenish with faint bluish black spots on each scale. Females lack black pigment on the chest posterior to the ventral attachment of the gill membranes; reddish black blotches on the body are widely spaced, particularly on the head where they are more reddish and half the size of those on body; caudal fin with small, bright yellow spots arranged in narrow vertical bands with pale interspaces; pelvic fins pale with three reddish yellow cross-bands; a small black spot at the upper base of the pectoral fin; and small reddish spots along the base of the anal fin. Juveniles have irregular black blotches on the body, a small black spot instead of an ocellus posteriorly on the dorsal fin and lack large black spots and ocellus on the anal fin.  PMID:25283116

  4. Comparative analysis of sex chromosomes in Leporinus species (Teleostei, Characiformes) using chromosome painting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Leporinus genus, belonging to the Anostomidae family, is an interesting model for studies of sex chromosome evolution in fish, particularly because of the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes only in some species of the genus. In this study we used W chromosome-derived probes in a series of cross species chromosome painting experiments to try to understand events of sex chromosome evolution in this family. Results W chromosome painting probes from Leporinus elongatus, L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens were hybridized to each others chromosomes. The results showed signals along their W chromosomes and the use of L. elongatus W probe against L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens also showed signals over the Z chromosome. No signals were observed when the later aforementioned probe was used in hybridization procedures against other four Anostomidae species without sex chromosomes. Conclusions Our results demonstrate a common origin of sex chromosomes in L. elongatus, L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens but suggest that the L. elongatus chromosome system is at a different evolutionary stage. The absence of signals in the species without differentiated sex chromosomes does not exclude the possibility of cryptic sex chromosomes, but they must contain other Leporinus W sequences than those described here. PMID:23822802

  5. A checklist of macroparasites of Liza haematocheila (Temminck & Schlegel) (Teleostei: Mugilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kostadinova, Aneta

    2008-01-01

    Background The mugilid fish Liza haematocheila (syn. Mugil soiuy), native to the Western North Pacific, provides opportunities to examine the changes of its parasite fauna after its translocation to the Sea of Azov and subsequent establishment in the Black Sea. However, the information on macroparasites of this host in both ranges of its current distribution comes from isolated studies published in difficult-to-access literature sources. Materials and methods Data from 53 publications, predominantly in Chinese, Russian and Ukrainian, were compiled from an extensive search of the literature and the Host-Parasite Database maintained up to 2005 at the Natural History Museum, London. Results The complete checklist of the metazoan parasites of L. haematocheila throughout its distributional range comprises summarised information for 69 nominal species of helminth and ectoparasitic crustacean parasites, from 45 genera and 27 families (370 host-parasite records in total) and includes the name of the parasite species, the area/locality of the host capture, and the author and date of the published record. The taxonomy is updated and the validity of the records and synonymies are critically evaluated. A comparison of the parasite faunas based on the records in the native and introduced/invasive range of L. haematocheila suggests that a large number of parasite species was 'lost' in the new distributional range whereas an even greater number was 'gained'. Conclusion Although the present checklist provides information that will facilitate future studies, the interesting question of macroparasite faunal diversity in L. haematocheila in its natural and introduced/invasive ranges cannot be dealt with the current data because of unreliability associated with the large number of non-documented and questionable records. This stresses the importance of data quality analysis in using host-parasite database and checklist data. PMID:19117506

  6. Molecular systematics and population structure in the North American endemic fish genus Cycleptus (Teleostei: Catostomidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Lee Bessert

    2006-01-01

    The overarching theme of this research was to investigate hierarchical levels of relatedness in natural populations of the cycleptid fishes (blue suckers), a widespread genus in North America that is of conservation concern throughout. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed that the two described Cycleptus species, C. elongatus and C. meridionalis are not reciprocally monophyletic, yet do not share

  7. Autonomic control of post-air-breathing tachycardia in Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Mariana Teodoro; Armelin, Vinicius Araújo; Abe, Augusto Shinya; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu; Florindo, Luiz Henrique

    2015-08-01

    The African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is a teleost with bimodal respiration that utilizes a paired suprabranchial chamber located in the gill cavity as an air-breathing organ. Like all air-breathing fishes studied to date, the African catfish exhibits pronounced changes in heart rate (f H) that are associated with air-breathing events. We acquired f H, gill-breathing frequency (f G) and air-breathing frequency (f AB) in situations that require or do not require air breathing (during normoxia and hypoxia), and we assessed the autonomic control of post-air-breathing tachycardia using an infusion of the ?-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist atropine. During normoxia, C. gariepinus presented low f AB (1.85 ± 0.73 AB h(-1)) and a constant f G (43.16 ± 1.74 breaths min(-1)). During non-critical hypoxia (PO2 = 60 mmHg), f AB in the African catfish increased to 5.42 ± 1.19 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 39.12 ± 1.58 breaths min(-1). During critical hypoxia (PO2 = 20 mmHg), f AB increased to 7.4 ± 1.39 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 34.97 ± 1.78 breaths min(-1). These results were expected for a facultative air breather. Each air breath (AB) was followed by a brief but significant tachycardia, which in the critical hypoxia trials, reached a maximum of 143 % of the pre-AB f H values of untreated animals. Pharmacological blockade allowed the calculation of cardiac autonomic tones, which showed that post-AB tachycardia is predominantly regulated by the parasympathetic subdivision of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:25982049

  8. Differentiated ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in Apareiodon ibitiensis (Teleostei, Parodontidae): cytotaxonomy and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Bellafronte, E; Vicari, M R; Artoni, R F; Margarido, V P; Moreira-Filho, O

    2009-12-01

    Conventional and molecular chromosomal analyses were carried out on three populations of Apareiodon ibitiensis sampled from the hydrographic basins of the São Francisco River and Upper Paraná River (Brazil). The results reveal a conserved diploid number (2n = 54 chromosomes), a karyotype formula consisting of 50 m-sm + 4st and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system that has not been previously identified for the species. C-banding analysis with propidium iodide staining revealed centromeric and terminal bands located in the chromosomes of the specimens from the three populations and allowed the identification of heteromorphism of heterochromatin regions in the Z and W chromosomes. The number of 18S sites located through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) varied between the populations of the São Francisco and Upper Paraná Rivers. The location of 5S rDNA sites proved comparable in one pair of metacentric chromosomes. Thus, the present study proposes a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system for A. ibitiensis among the Parodontidae, and a hypothesis is presented regarding possible W chromosome differentiation stages in this species through DNA accumulation, showing geographical variations for this characteristic, possibly as a consequence of geographical reproductive isolation. PMID:20738689

  9. Helminth species richness of introduced and native grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    PubMed

    Sarabeev, Volodimir

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative complex analyses of parasite communities of invaders across different native and introduced populations are largely lacking. The present study provides a comparative analysis of species richness of helminth parasites in native and invasive populations of grey mullets. The local species richness differed between regions and host species, but did not differ when compared with invasive and native hosts. The size of parasite assemblages of endohelminths was higher in the Mediterranean and Azov-Black Seas, while monogeneans were the most diverse in the Sea of Japan. The helminth diversity was apparently higher in the introduced population of Liza haematocheilus than that in their native habitat, but this trend could not be confirmed when the size of geographic range and sampling efforts were controlled for. The parasite species richness at the infracommunity level of the invasive host population is significantly lower compared with that of the native host populations that lends support to the enemy release hypothesis. A distribution pattern of the infracommunity richness of acquired parasites by the invasive host can be characterized as aggregated and it is random in native host populations. Heterogeneity in the host susceptibility and vulnerability to acquired helminth species was assumed to be a reason of the aggregation of species numbers in the population of the invasive host. PMID:25579021

  10. Microsatellite variation and genetic structuring in Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae) populations from Argentina and Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Ana C. G.; Miño, Carolina I.; Marins, Luis F. F.; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Miranda, Laura; Schwingel, Paulo R.; Lemos, Valéria M.; Gonzalez-Castro, Mariano; Castello, Jorge P.; Vieira, João P.

    2014-08-01

    The mullet Mugil liza is distributed along the Atlantic coast of South America, from Argentina to Venezuela, and it is heavily exploited in Brazil. We assessed patterns of distribution of neutral nuclear genetic variation in 250 samples from the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (latitudinal range of 23-31°S) and from Buenos Aires Province in Argentina (36°S). Nine microsatellite loci revealed 131 total alleles, 3-23 alleles per locus, He: 0.69 and Ho: 0.67. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between Rio de Janeiro samples (23°S) and those from all other locations, as indicated by FST, hierarchical analyses of genetic structure, Bayesian cluster analyses and assignment tests. The presence of two different demographic clusters better explains the allelic diversity observed in mullets from the southernmost portion of the Atlantic coast of Brazil and from Argentina. This may be taken into account when designing fisheries management plans involving Brazilian, Uruguayan and Argentinean M. liza populations.

  11. Population structure in the Gulf Killifish Fundulus grandis (Teleostei : Cyprinodontidae) inferred from allozymes and mitochondrial DNA 

    E-print Network

    Gricius, Eric Edward

    1994-01-01

    and Atlantic coast of Florida. Significant heterogeneity was revealed among sampled localities in both nuclear-gene and mtDNA allele frequencies. No consistent geographic pattern of genetic diversity was detected. UPGMA cluster analyses revealed similarities...

  12. Neoniphon pencei, a new species of holocentrid (Teleostei: Beryciformes) from Rarotonga, Cook Islands

    PubMed Central

    Pyle, Richard L.; Earle, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neoniphon pencei, n. sp., is described from thirteen specimens, 132-197 mm standard length (SL) collected from mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) at Rarotonga, Cook Islands by divers using mixed-gas closed-circuit rebreathers. It differs from all other species of the genus in number of lateral line scales, scales above and below lateral line, elements of life color, and in COI and cytochrome b DNA sequences. Of the five other known species of Neoniphon, it is most similar to the Indo-Pacific N. aurolineatus and the western Atlantic N. marianus both morphologically and genetically. PMID:25698898

  13. Phylogenetics of notothenioid fishes (Teleostei: Acanthomorpha): Inferences from mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-H. Christina Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Notothenioids represent an adaptive radiation of teleost fishes in the frigid and ice-laden waters of the Southern Ocean surrounding Antarctica. Phylogenetic hypotheses for this clade have resulted primarily from analyses of mtDNA gene sequences, and studies utilizing nuclear gene DNA sequence data have focused on particular sub-clades of notothenioid fishes. In this study, we provide the first phylogenetic analysis of

  14. Badis britzi, a new percomorph fish (Teleostei: Badidae) from the Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Dahanukar, Neelesh; Kumkar, Pradeep; Katwate, Unmesh; Raghavan, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Badis britzi, the first species of the genus endemic to southern India, is described from the Nagodi tributary of the west-flowing Sharavati River in Karnataka. It is distinguished from congeners by a combination of characters including a slender body, 21-24 pored lateral-line scales and a striking colour pattern consisting of 11 bars and a mosaic of black and red pigmentation on the side of the body including the end of caudal peduncle, and the absence of cleithral, opercular, or caudal-peduncle blotches, or an ocellus on the caudal-fin base. Badis triocellus Khynriam & Sen is considered a junior synonym of B. singenensis Geetakumari & Kadu. PMID:25947522

  15. Cryptic Diversity and Venom Glands in Western Atlantic Clingfishes of the Genus Acyrtus (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae)

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Kevin W.; Baldwin, Carole; White, Macaulay D.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of genetic data (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I) for western Atlantic clingfishes revealed two distinct lineages within a group of individuals originally identified as Acyrtus artius. Subsequent investigation of preserved voucher specimens was conducted to reconcile the genetic data and the existing classification, which is based on morphology. In addition to discovering that one of the genetic lineages is an undescribed species, which we describe as Acyrtus lanthanum, new species, we found that the nominal species Acyrtus artius has a putative venom gland associated with the subopercle that has been overlooked since the species was described nearly 60 years ago. The new species lacks the subopercular gland as does Acyrtus rubiginosus, but one is present in the related Arcos nudus. Venom glands have not been reported previously for the Gobiesocidae, and the venom gland described herein for Acyrtus and Arcos represents the first example in teleost fishes of a venom gland associated with the subopercle. PMID:24825326

  16. Structure and function of placental exchange surfaces in goodeid fishes (Teleostei: Atheriniformes).

    PubMed

    Schindler, Joachim F

    2014-05-01

    The species of the family Goodeidae have evolved reproductive strategies involving intraovarian gestation, early evacuation of nearly yolk-exhausted embryos from the ovigerous tissue into the ovarian cavity, placental matrotrophy during intraluminal gestation, and the birth of highly developed fry. The inner ovarian lining becomes hypervascularized during gestational periods and functions as the maternal component of the placental association. Embryotrophic liquid is secreted by the inner ovarian epithelium into the ovarian cavity. Comparative electrophoretic analyses of embryotrophe and maternal blood serum provide evidence for the transfer of maternal serum proteins into the embryotrophe. Trophotaeniae, proctodaeal processes of the embryos, provide a surface for nutrient absorption. Endocytic activity was demonstrated by ingestion of unspecific tracer proteins in various species. Moreover, the trophotaenial absorptive cells (TACs) in Ameca splendens ingest various proteins or random copolymers conjugated to colloidal gold as well as radioiodinated proteins in a way that satisfies the criteria of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Several aminopeptidases (APs) on the surface of TACs were identified as protein binding sites as evidenced by inhibition of binding and uptake of marker proteins in the presence of AP substrates or AP inhibitors. Morphological adaptations of the embryonic circulatory system pertaining to nutrient and gas exchange were characterized. The embryonic epidermis comprises two layers of squamous cells closely underlain by a dense capillary net. Efficient gas exchange is facilitated by a thin embryotrophe-blood barrier of both the embryonic skin and the intraovarian lining. J. Morphol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24797516

  17. Testicular interstitial cells, and steroidogenic detection in the protogynous fish, Synbranchus marmoratus (Teleostei, Synbranchidae).

    PubMed

    Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Antoneli, Fernanda N; Quagio-Grassiotto, Iraní; Guerrero, Graciela A

    2004-08-01

    The swamp eel, Synbranchus marmoratus, is a freshwater protogynic diandric species. Primary males develop directly as males while secondary males arise from the sex reversal of females. Fishes from Argentine and Brazil inland waters were collected, examined and compared for this study. In order to characterize the interstitial testicular compartment, light and electron microscopy techniques and an enzyme histochemical examination for steroidogenic cells detection were used. The interstitial compartment of S. marmoratus is composed of Leydig and myoid cells, collagen fibers, blood cells, macrophages,and amyelinic nerves. At the ultrastructural level, no differences were observed in the interstitial tissue, either between specimens from the different sampling sites or between primary and secondary males. Leydig cells are present in all testes examined throughout the year. A cytoplasmatic reaction of 3beta-HSD was detected only in Leydig cells during sex reversal and in both type of males, mainly during the regressed and early maturation classes (autumn and winter). Leydig cells possess the typical fine structural characteristics associated with steroidogenesis. Furthermore, in both type of males, during sex reversal and after the spawning period, the number of granulocytes and macrophages present in the testes increased, suggesting that they could be involved in phagocytosis and resorption of damaged cells. PMID:15261741

  18. Lake Tanganyika—A 'Melting Pot' of Ancient and Young Cichlid Lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae)?

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Juliane D.; Cotterill, Fenton P. D.; Schliewen, Ulrich K.

    2015-01-01

    A long history of research focused on the East Africa cichlid radiations (EAR) revealed discrepancies between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies, suggesting that interspecific hybridisation may have been significant during the radiation of these fishes. The approximately 250 cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika have their roots in a monophyletic African cichlid assemblage, but controversies remain about the precise phylogenetic origin and placement of different lineages and consequently about L. Tanganyika colonization scenarios. 3312 AFLP loci and the mitochondrial ND2 gene were genotyped for 91 species representing almost all major lacustrine and riverine haplotilapiine east African cichlid lineages with a focus on L. Tanganyika endemics. Explicitly testing for the possibility of ancient hybridisation events, a comprehensive phylogenetic network hypothesis is proposed for the origin and diversification of L. Tanganyika cichlids. Inference of discordant phylogenetic signal strongly suggests that the genomes of two endemic L. Tanganyika tribes, Eretmodini and Tropheini, are composed of an ancient mixture of riverine and lacustrine lineages. For the first time a strong monophyly signal of all non-haplochromine mouthbrooding species endemic to L. Tanganyika (“ancient mouthbrooders”) was detected. Further, in the genomes of early diverging L. Tanganyika endemics Trematocarini, Bathybatini, Hemibatini and Boulengerochromis genetic components of other lineages belonging to the East African Radiation appear to be present. In combination with recent palaeo-geological results showing that tectonic activity in the L. Tanganyika region resulted in highly dynamic and heterogeneous landscape evolution over the Neogene and Pleistocene, the novel phylogenetic data render a single lacustrine basin as the geographical cradle of the endemic L. Tanganyika cichlid lineages unlikely. Instead a scenario of a pre-rift origin of several independent L. Tanganyika precursor lineages which diversified in ancient rivers and precursor lakes and then amalgamated in the extant L. Tanganyika basin is put forward as an alternative: the 'melting pot Tanganyika' hypothesis. PMID:25928886

  19. Enteroendocrine APUD cells in the digestive tract of larval Barbus conchonius (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. W. M. Rombout; C. H. J. Lamers; J. H. Hanstede

    1978-01-01

    SUMMARY The development of Barbus conchonius is described with special attention to the differ- entiation of the gut. Amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD)* are present in enteroendocrine cells during development, whereas these processes are lacking in adult specimens. The first APUD cells originate on the fourth day of development in the anterior part of the gut and on the

  20. Differences in thermal tolerance in coexisting sexual and asexual mollies (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Fischer, C; Schlupp, I

    2009-05-01

    This study reports significant differences between the gynogenetic Amazon molly Poecilia formosa and one of its sperm hosts, and the sexual sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna in the critical temperatures at which individual fishes lost motion control. Based on these measurements, it is suggested that cold snaps occurring in winter, but not summer temperatures, can significantly change population composition of these closely related fishes by inflicting higher mortality on P. formosa. PMID:20735663

  1. Parasites in sexual and asexual mollies (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei): a case for the Red Queen?

    PubMed

    Tobler, Michael; Schlupp, Ingo

    2005-06-22

    The maintenance of sexual reproduction in the face of its supposed costs is a major paradox in evolutionary biology. The Red Queen hypothesis, which states that sex is an adaptation to fast-evolving parasites, is currently one of the most recognized explanations for the ubiquity of sex and predicts that asexual lineages should suffer from a higher parasite load if they coexist with closely related sexuals. We tested this prediction using four populations of the sexual fish species Poecilia latipinna and its asexual relative Poecilia formosa. Contrary to expectation, no differences in parasite load could be detected between the two species. PMID:17148156

  2. Secretory activity of Poecilia latipinna (Teleostei) pituitary in vitro: rostral pars distalis and proximal pars distalis.

    PubMed

    Batten, T F; Young, G; Ball, J N

    1983-07-01

    The ultrastructure of each adenohypophysial secretory cell type was examined in pituitaries of adult female mollies (Poecilia latipinna) after various periods in vitro, and with varied medium osmotic pressure (OP), Na+, and Ca2+ concentrations. Prolactin (PRL) cells were markedly activated by 18 hr, and after 7 or 14 days were almost totally degranulated, with massive arrays of Golgi and RER. Reduction in OP, but not Na+ or Ca2+, caused an additional activation of PRL cells after periods of 18 hr or longer. Corticotroph (ACTH) cells became noticeably activated by 4 hr, and were possibly affected by OP, but not Na+ or Ca2+. Growth hormone (GH) cells were activated by 6 hr, and after 18 hr were quite degranulated with extensive arrays of RER. OP had no effect on GH cells before 3 days, when reduced OP appeared to cause an additional activation, with the appearance of large irregular secretory granule (SG)-like inclusions. Na+ and Ca2+ again had no effect. Gonadotrophic (GtH) cells appeared to be little affected by in vitro incubation; however, the very active cells from vitellogenic fish underwent a reduction in dilated RER after prolonged culture. Thyrotrophic (TSH) cells gradually became activated in vitro, but the response again varied with the sexual condition of the fish. Neither GtH nor TSH cells were affected by OP, Na+, or Ca2+. The findings are discussed in relation to hypothalamic control, via releasing/inhibiting factors, of adenohypophysial cell activity. PMID:6309607

  3. Aspects of germinal cyst and sperm development in Poecilia latipinna (Teleostei: Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Grier, J H

    1975-06-01

    The structure of the testis of Poecilia latipinna is described with particular reference to Sertoli cell-germ cell relationships during development and maturation of the germinal cyst. The cyst develops when primary spermatocytes become surrounded by a single layer of Sertoli cells at the testis periphery. As spermatogenesis and then spermiogenesis proceed, the cyst moves centrally in the testis toward the ducts comprising the vasa efferentia. In addition to being a structural part of the germinal cyst, the Sertoli cells phagocytize residual bodies cast off by developing spermatids and form an association with mature bodies cast off by developing spermatids and form an association with mature sperm, which resembles that observed in mammals, before the sperm are released into the vasa efferentia as a spermatozeugmata. The results of this investigation are discussed in view of what is known concerning testis structure in other teleosts and similarities between cell functions in teleosts and mammals. It is concluded that teleost Sertoli cells, teleost lobule boundary cells and mammalian Sertoli cells are homologous. PMID:1152068

  4. Female mating preferences in blind cave tetras Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Teleostei)

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    .g., Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae: Parze- fall, 1970; Astyanax fasciatus, Characidae: Schemmel, 1967) have (P. mexicana: Parzefall, 1970; Cottus carolinae, Cotti- dae: Burr et al., 2001) or by enlarging

  5. A new and morphologically distinct population of cavernicolous Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae: Teleostei)

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    A new and morphologically distinct population of cavernicolous Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae Abstract The cave molly, Poecilia mexicana, from the Cueva del Azufre, a sulfur cave in Tabasco, Mexico is the cave molly (Gordon and Rosen 1962), a distinct popula- tion of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana

  6. Parasites in sexual and asexual mollies (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei): a case for the Red Queen?

    PubMed Central

    Tobler, Michael; Schlupp, Ingo

    2005-01-01

    The maintenance of sexual reproduction in the face of its supposed costs is a major paradox in evolutionary biology. The Red Queen hypothesis, which states that sex is an adaptation to fast-evolving parasites, is currently one of the most recognized explanations for the ubiquity of sex and predicts that asexual lineages should suffer from a higher parasite load if they coexist with closely related sexuals. We tested this prediction using four populations of the sexual fish species Poecilia latipinna and its asexual relative Poecilia formosa. Contrary to expectation, no differences in parasite load could be detected between the two species. PMID:17148156

  7. Ultrastructure of the sperm of blue sprat, Spratelloides gracilis; Teleostei, Clupeiformes, Clupeidae.

    PubMed

    Gwo, J-C; Lin, C-Y; Yang, W-L; Chou, Y-C

    2006-10-01

    The general sperm structure of the investigated clupeoids possess an oliviform head with a distinct deep nuclear fossa, a midpiece with one mitochondrion and a posterior flagellum. They are characterized by two apomorphies: an annular or C-shaped mitochondrion and ITDs (intratubular differentiation) in the A tubules of the axonemal doublets. The fine structure of the spermatozoa of blue sprat, Spratelloides gracilis, was investigated to see if resulting data conformed to the current hypotheses of the taxonomy of the Clupeidae. The mature sperm is characterized by the following features: (1) the nucleus is oliviform; its prominent deep nuclear fossa encloses the initial portion of flagellum, (2) a proximal centriole has not been identified, (3) a single spherical mitochondrion is located laterally in relation to the flagellum and (4) no cytoplasmic canal is present. Our blue sprat-spermatozoan morphology data suggest that the blue sprat has Clupeomorpha affinities, while indicating no close affinity with Elopomorpha. Clupeoid sperm exhibit morphological variations with the nucleus and mitochondrion being particularly variable. This study provides useful systematic characters to the existing knowledge of comparative spermatology and may provide additional clue to Euteleost phylogeny. PMID:17005223

  8. Intersexuality of Scomberomorus niphonius from the Coastal Area around Jeju Island, Korea (Teleostei: Scombridae)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Bin; Chang, Dae Soo; Kim, Hyejin; Jeon, Mi Ae; Ku, Kayeon; Lee, Jung Sick

    2013-01-01

    This study histologically describes the intersexuality of Scomberomorus niphonius collected from the coastal area near Jeju Island. A total of 126 S. niphonius, collected from March to July 2012 with a total length of 62.4 cm (±17.5) and a total weight of 1,701.9 g (±1,528.9) were used for analyses. From a histological perspective, two types of intersex were confirmed. One type had scattered germ cells from the opposite sex within the gonad. The second type developed germ cells from the opposite sex in the connective tissue of the outer gonadal membrane. The intersexuality was 14.3% (n=18/126), with females (21.3%; n=16/75) exhibiting a higher rate than males (3.9%; n=2/51). There was no displayed correlation between intersexuality and the total length and weight. PMID:25949123

  9. Redescription of Paraliparis holomelas Gilbert, 1896 (Teleostei: Liparidae), with a description of early life history stages

    E-print Network

    of early life history stages Morgan S. Busby* and Rachael L. Cartwright National Oceanic and Atmospheric and Conservation Engineering Division, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Building 4, Seattle, WA 98115, USA (e-mail: Morgan.Busby

  10. Paraliparis adustus and Paraliparis bullacephalus: two new snailfish species (Teleostei: Liparidae) from Alaska

    E-print Network

    : Liparidae) from Alaska Morgan S. Busby Æ Rachael L. Cartwright Received: 30 March 2008 / Revised: 8 November Stein (1978), Stein and Fitch (1984) and Stein et al. (2001) with the following additions: M. S. Busby Sand Point Way NE, Building 4, Seattle, WA 98115, USA e-mail: Morgan.Busby@noaa.gov 123 Ichthyol Res

  11. Eviota santanai, a new Dwarfgoby from Timor-Leste (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Greenfield, David W; Erdmann, Mark V

    2013-01-01

    Eviota santanai is described based on four specimens from Timor-Leste, taken in 5-8 m depth. In general coloration pattern, the species is most similar to E. latifasciata, but differs in the cephalic sensory-pore system pattern, the absence of an occipital spot, and live color including pinkish-mauve bars. Eviota santanai has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/8, 5th pelvic-fin ray absent, some lower pectoral-fin rays branched, and IT and PITO pores absent. PMID:25113009

  12. Phylogeny and biogeography of a shallow water fish clade (Teleostei: Blenniiformes)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Blenniiformes comprises six families, 151 genera and nearly 900 species of small teleost fishes closely associated with coastal benthic habitats. They provide an unparalleled opportunity for studying marine biogeography because they include the globally distributed families Tripterygiidae (triplefin blennies) and Blenniidae (combtooth blennies), the temperate Clinidae (kelp blennies), and three largely Neotropical families (Labrisomidae, Chaenopsidae, and Dactyloscopidae). However, interpretation of these distributional patterns has been hindered by largely unresolved inter-familial relationships and the lack of evidence of monophyly of the Labrisomidae. Results We explored the phylogenetic relationships of the Blenniiformes based on one mitochondrial (COI) and four nuclear (TMO-4C4, RAG1, Rhodopsin, and Histone H3) loci for 150 blenniiform species, and representative outgroups (Gobiesocidae, Opistognathidae and Grammatidae). According to the consensus of Bayesian Inference, Maximum Likelihood, and Maximum Parsimony analyses, the monophyly of the Blenniiformes and the Tripterygiidae, Blenniidae, Clinidae, and Dactyloscopidae is supported. The Tripterygiidae is the sister group of all other blennies, and the Blenniidae is the sister group of the remaining blennies. The monophyly of the Labrisomidae is supported with the exclusion of the Cryptotremini and inclusion of Stathmonotus, and we elevate two subgenera of Labrisomus to establish a monophyletic classification within the family. The monophyly of the Chaenopsidae is supported with the exclusion of Stathmonotus (placed in the Stathmonotini) and Neoclinus and Mccoskerichthys (placed in the Neoclinini). The origin of the Blenniiformes was estimated in the present-day IndoPacific region, corresponding to the Tethys Sea approximately 60.3 mya. A largely Neotropical lineage including the Labrisomidae, Chaenopsidae and Dactyloscopidae (node IV) evolved around 37.6 mya when the Neotropics were increasingly separated from the IndoPacific, but well before the closure of the Tethys Sea. Conclusions Relationships recovered in this study are similar to those of earlier analyses within the Clinidae and Chaenopsidae, and partially similar within the Blenniidae, but tripterygiid relationships remain poorly resolved. We present the first comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for a monophyletic Labrisomidae with five tribes (Labrisomini, Mnierpini, Paraclinini, Stathmonotini and Starksiini). Global distributions of blenny genera included in our analysis support the evolution of a largely Neotropical clade whose closest relatives (clinids and cryptotremines) are temperate in distribution. PMID:24067147

  13. Mitogenomic evidence for an Indo-West Pacific origin of the Clupeoidei (Teleostei: Clupeiformes).

    PubMed

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Miya, Masaki; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Chen, Wei-Jen; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2013-01-01

    The clupeoid fishes are distributed worldwide, with marine, freshwater and euryhaline species living in either tropical or temperate environments. Regional endemism is important at the species and genus levels, and the highest species diversity is found in the tropical marine Indo-West Pacific region. The clupeoid distribution follows two general pattern of species richness, the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients. To test historical hypotheses explaining the formation of these two gradients, we have examined the early biogeography of the Clupeoidei in reconstructing the evolution of their habitat preferences along with their ancestral range distributions on a time-calibrated mitogenomic phylogeny. The phylogenetic results support the distinction of nine main lineages within the Clupeoidei, five of them new. We infer several independent transitions from a marine to freshwater environment and from a tropical to temperate environment that occurred after the initial diversification period of the Clupeoidei. These results combined with our ancestral range reconstruction hypothesis suggest that the probable region of origin and diversification of the Clupeoidei during the Cretaceous period was the tropical marine precursor to the present Indo-West Pacific region. Thus, our study favors the hypotheses of "Region of origin" and "Tropical conservatism" to explain the origins of the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients of clupeoid species richness, respectively. Additional geological and paleontological evidence further define the tropical marine paleo-region of origin as the eastern Tethys Sea region. The Cretaceous fossil record of the Clupeoidei is partially incongruent with the results here as it contains taxa found outside this region. We discuss three possible causes of conflict between our biogeographical hypothesis and the distributions of the Cretaceous clupeoid fossils: regional extinction, incomplete taxonomic sampling and incorrect timescale estimation. PMID:23431379

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of the smallscale yellowfin, Plagiognathops microlepis (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying-Xiong; Zhou, Qiao; Song, Yong; Chen, Da-Qing; Li, Yun

    2015-06-01

    The smallscale yellowfin, Plagiognathops microlepis is the only one species in the genus Plagiognathops. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the P. microlepis. The complete mitogenome was 16,623?bp in size, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 1 control region. It has the typical circular molecule structure of vertebrate's mitochondrial genome. The whole base composition was estimated to be 30.60% A, 25.19% T, 27.32% C and 16.89% G with AT bias of 55.79%. The complete mitogenome of P. microlepis provides the basis for preservation of genetic resources and genetic breeding studies on this species. PMID:24059855

  15. Chalinochromis cyanophleps, a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika.

    PubMed

    Kullander, Sven O; Karlsson, Mikael; Karlsson, Magnus; Norén, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Chalinochromis cyanophleps is described from nine specimens, the largest 129 mm SL, from Namansi. It differs from other species of Chalinochromis in plain trunk colouration, absence of black stripes on the head, relatively narrow lips, presence of tricuspid jaw teeth, and presence of five rather than four dentary lateralis foramina. The blue iridescent stripe below the eye is shared with other lamprologin cichlids, but is broader and more conspicuous in C. cyanophleps. Chalinochromis cyanophleps occurs at depths between 6 and 45 m in rocky habitats along the Tanzanian coast of Lake Tanganyika, from Mvuna Island south to Kalala Island, a stretch of about 90 km. Field observations were made of specimens up to 18 cm total length. The COI DNA barcode sequence differs by 1.8% from that of C. popelini. PMID:24869876

  16. Lake tanganyika-a 'melting pot' of ancient and young cichlid lineages (teleostei: cichlidae)?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Juliane D; Cotterill, Fenton P D; Schliewen, Ulrich K

    2015-01-01

    A long history of research focused on the East Africa cichlid radiations (EAR) revealed discrepancies between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies, suggesting that interspecific hybridisation may have been significant during the radiation of these fishes. The approximately 250 cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika have their roots in a monophyletic African cichlid assemblage, but controversies remain about the precise phylogenetic origin and placement of different lineages and consequently about L. Tanganyika colonization scenarios. 3312 AFLP loci and the mitochondrial ND2 gene were genotyped for 91 species representing almost all major lacustrine and riverine haplotilapiine east African cichlid lineages with a focus on L. Tanganyika endemics. Explicitly testing for the possibility of ancient hybridisation events, a comprehensive phylogenetic network hypothesis is proposed for the origin and diversification of L. Tanganyika cichlids. Inference of discordant phylogenetic signal strongly suggests that the genomes of two endemic L. Tanganyika tribes, Eretmodini and Tropheini, are composed of an ancient mixture of riverine and lacustrine lineages. For the first time a strong monophyly signal of all non-haplochromine mouthbrooding species endemic to L. Tanganyika ("ancient mouthbrooders") was detected. Further, in the genomes of early diverging L. Tanganyika endemics Trematocarini, Bathybatini, Hemibatini and Boulengerochromis genetic components of other lineages belonging to the East African Radiation appear to be present. In combination with recent palaeo-geological results showing that tectonic activity in the L. Tanganyika region resulted in highly dynamic and heterogeneous landscape evolution over the Neogene and Pleistocene, the novel phylogenetic data render a single lacustrine basin as the geographical cradle of the endemic L. Tanganyika cichlid lineages unlikely. Instead a scenario of a pre-rift origin of several independent L. Tanganyika precursor lineages which diversified in ancient rivers and precursor lakes and then amalgamated in the extant L. Tanganyika basin is put forward as an alternative: the 'melting pot Tanganyika' hypothesis. PMID:25928886

  17. Morphology-diet relationships in four killifishes (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae, Orestias) from Lake Titicaca.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, E; Hubert, N; Sagnes, P; De Mérona, B

    2009-02-01

    This study explores the relationship between morphology and diet in four Andean killifishes (Orestias) from Lake Titicaca that are known to differ in habitat use. Species that fed preferentially on amphipods (Orestias albus) or molluscs (Orestias luteus) separated in multivariate space from other species that feed on cladocera and algae (Orestias agassii and Orestias jussiei). Generally, specimens feeding on cladocera were characterized by a short, blunt nose with a small mouth; whereas, specimens feeding on amphipods exhibited a long snout with a large mouth. Specimens including molluscs in their diet tended to have a larger posterior part of the head and the larger opercles than others; while the occurrence of substratum in gut content was generally related to a short but deep head. The present analysis suggests that the littoral O. jussiei has an intermediate phenotype and diet between the pelagic (O. agassii) and benthic (O. albus and O. luteus) species. Results suggest that resource partitioning was occurring and that several morphological traits relate to characteristics of the diet, and it is inferred that the benthic, the pelagic and the littoral zones in the lake host different prey communities constituting distinct adaptive landscapes. PMID:20735575

  18. A new species of Didogobius (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Van Tassell, James L; Kramer, Annemarie

    2014-01-01

    Didogobius helenae is described from the Canary Islands. It has a sensory papillae pattern that is consistent with the current diagnosis for Didogobius, but lacks all head canals and pores that are present in other members of the genus. Pores, in general, are replaced by large papillae.  The species is defined by first dorsal fin VI; second dorsal fin I,10; anal fin I,9; pectoral fin 16-17; pelvic fin I,5 and disk shaped; lateral scales 28-30, cycloid at anterior, becoming ctenoid posteriorly; cycloid scales present on belly and posterior breast; predorsal region, cheek, operculum and base of pectoral fin without scales; lower most scale on the caudal fin-base with elongate, thickened ctenii along the upper and lower posterior edges. Color in life consists of four mottled, wide brown-orange bars separated by narrower white bars on the trunk, the cheek whitish with 5 more or less circular blotches of orange, outlined in dark brown and a black spot on ventral operculum. A key to the species is provided.  PMID:24870184

  19. Two new species of the South Asian catfish genus Pseudolaguvia from northeastern India (Teleostei: Sisoridae).

    PubMed

    Tamang, Lakpa; Sinha, Bikramjit

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of sisorid catfish, Pseudolaguvia magna and P. jiyaensis, are described from the upper Brahmaputra River basin in Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. Pseudolaguvia magna differs from its congeners by its much larger size (47.0 mm standard length vs. a maximum of 35.6 mm), by having a broader rhomboid thoracic adhesive apparatus, two pale-brown or cream patches on the mid-dorsal region across the dorsal midline: one rectangular to elliptic patch on the mid-interdorsal region, and another indistinct elliptic to irregular patch between the adipose and caudal-fins; and a small, round, pale-brown to cream spot on the lateral side of the head; and except for P. inornata, P. austrina, P. virgulata, and P. assula, in lacking pale to cream cross-bands on the body. Another syntopic new species, Pseudolaguvia jiyaensis, is distinguished from its congeners by having the thoracic adhesive apparatus almost reaching the pelvic-fin origin, and by having fewer vertebrae (25-27 vs. 28-34; except in P. tenebricosa and P. tuberculata). Details of the combination of characters differentiating each of the new species from its congeners are provided in the respective diagnoses. PMID:25543922

  20. Quantitative histological studies of the optic tectum in six species of Notropis and Cyprinella (Cyprinidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Huber, R; Rylander, M K

    1991-01-01

    Significant differences in stratification and size of the visual layers of the optic tectum were found between three clear-water minnows (Notropis amabilis, N. boops, Cyprinella venustas) and three turbid-water minnows (N. atherinoides, N. bairdi, and C. lutrensis). Correlations among a variety of neural structures suggested the importance of stratum marginale (SM), stratum opticum (SO), and stratum fibrosum et griseum superficiale (SFGS), stratum griseum centrale (SGC) and stratum periventriculare (SPV) in vision, of stratum album centrale (SAC) and SGC for olfaction, and of SPV for the processing of acoustico-lateral information. PMID:1779132

  1. Multi-locus fossil-calibrated phylogeny of Atheriniformes (Teleostei, Ovalentaria).

    PubMed

    Campanella, Daniela; Hughes, Lily C; Unmack, Peter J; Bloom, Devin D; Piller, Kyle R; Ortí, Guillermo

    2015-05-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among families within the order Atheriniformes have been difficult to resolve on the basis of morphological evidence. Molecular studies so far have been fragmentary and based on a small number taxa and loci. In this study, we provide a new phylogenetic hypothesis based on sequence data collected for eight molecular markers for a representative sample of 103 atheriniform species, covering 2/3 of the genera in this order. The phylogeny is calibrated with six carefully chosen fossil taxa to provide an explicit timeframe for the diversification of this group. Our results support the subdivision of Atheriniformes into two suborders (Atherinopsoidei and Atherinoidei), the nesting of Notocheirinae within Atherinopsidae, and the monophyly of tribe Menidiini, among others. We propose taxonomic changes for Atherinopsoidei, but a few weakly supported nodes in our phylogeny suggests that further study is necessary to support a revised taxonomy of Atherinoidei. The time-calibrated phylogeny was used to infer ancestral habitat reconstructions to explain the current distribution of marine and freshwater taxa. Based on these results, the current distribution of Atheriniformes is likely due to widespread marine dispersal along the margins of continents, infrequent trans-oceanic dispersal, and repeated invasion of freshwater habitats. This conclusion is supported by post-Gondwanan divergence times among families within the order, and a high probability of a marine ancestral habitat. PMID:25769409

  2. Molecular systematics of the damselfishes (Teleostei: Pomacentridae): Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brice Quenouille; Eldredge Bermingham; Serge Planesb

    2004-01-01

    Damselfishes in the family Pomacentridae represent one of the few families of reef fishes found on coral reefs irrespective of location. At a local scale, damselfishes are often the most abundant coral reef fish, and their study has provided much of our current understanding of the ecology of tropical reef animals. The study of phylogenetic relationships among the Pomacentridae has

  3. The cryopreservation of spermatozoa of the burbot, Lota lota (Gadidae, Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz Lahnsteiner; Nabil Mansour; Thomas Weismann

    2002-01-01

    The cryopreservation of spermatozoa of a teleost fish, the burbot, Lota lota (Gadidae) was investigated. Cryopreserved semen had the highest motility rate (46.6±8.0%, fresh semen control 86.5±8.2%) and fertility (78.1±2.7% embryo survival in hatching stage, fresh semen control 82.2±2.9%) when 10% methanol, 1.5% glucose and 7% hen egg yolk were used as cryoprotectants. Freezing was performed in 0.5-ml straws in

  4. Genetic admixture of burbot (Teleostei: Lota lota ) in Lake Constance from two European glacial refugia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTA BARLUENGA; MATTHIAS SANETRA; AXEL MEYER

    The burbot, Lota lota , is the only freshwater species of the codfish family and has a Holarctic distribution. Pleistocene glaciations caused significant geographical differentiation in the past, but its life history characterized by winter spawning migrations over large distances is likely to homogenize populations by contemporary gene flow. We investigated the popu- lation genetic structure of 541 burbots from

  5. Microsatellites from the burbot ( Lota lota ), a freshwater gadoid fish (Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MATTHIAS SANETRA; AXEL MEYER

    We developed 21 polymorphic dinucleotide microsatellite loci, (CA) n and (CT) n , for the Holarctic freshwater fish, Lota lota , using an enriched genomic library protocol. The species has an interesting life history because winter-spawning adults migrate over long distances to form spawning aggregations, a behaviour which should maintain genetic homogeneity across large spatial scales. Availability of the reported

  6. Genetic admixture of burbot (Teleostei: Lota lota) in Lake Constance from two European glacial refugia.

    PubMed

    Barluenga, Marta; Sanetra, Matthias; Meyer, Axel

    2006-10-01

    The burbot, Lota lota, is the only freshwater species of the codfish family and has a Holarctic distribution. Pleistocene glaciations caused significant geographical differentiation in the past, but its life history characterized by winter spawning migrations over large distances is likely to homogenize populations by contemporary gene flow. We investigated the population genetic structure of 541 burbots from Lake Constance and adjacent Rhine and Danube tributaries in Europe using the entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and 11 microsatellites. Microsatellites revealed considerable population divergence (F(ST) = 0.26) and evidenced recent bottlenecks in two Central European rivers. In accordance to previous evidence two main phylogeographic lineages (Atlantic and Danubian) were found co-occurring at similar frequencies in Lake Constance, where they currently undergo random mating as indicated by microsatellites. The Danubian lineage contributed only a small proportion to the lake's mtDNA diversity, and probably expanded within the lake shortly after its formation approximately 10,000-15,000 BP. The larger Atlantic haplotype diversity suggested a population expansion older than the lake itself. Levels of admixture at microsatellite loci were less obvious due to their high variability, and coalescence methods were used to estimate past admixture proportions. Our results reinforce a model of a two-step colonization of Europe by burbot from an ancestral Danubian refuge, and confirm the persistence of a secondary Atlantic refuge, as proposed to exist for other freshwater fish. We conclude that the present-day burbot population in Lake Constance bears the genetic signature of both contemporary gene flow and historical separation events. PMID:17032259

  7. [Effects of thyroid hormone level alterations on the Weberian apparatus ontogeny of cyprinids (Cyprinidae; Teleostei)].

    PubMed

    Kapitanova, D V; Shkil', F N

    2014-01-01

    Effects of thyroid hormone (TH) level alterations on the development and definitive morphology of the Weberian apparatus (WA, morphofunctional complex, providing transmission of sound signals from the gas bladder to the labyrinth of inner ear) were experimentally assessed in cyprinid fishes (Labeobarbus intermedius and Danio rerio). Alterations of TH-level were shown to lead to heterochronies, changes of timing and rates of ontogenetic events resulting in changes of definitive morphology of some structures as well as of the WA as a whole. Differences, in reaction of WA structures to the TH-level alterations, and inter- and intraspecific variability of TH-responsiveness were revealed. PMID:25739296

  8. Localization and analysis of natriuretic peptide receptors in the gills of the toadfish, Opsanus beta (teleostei)

    E-print Network

    Evans, David H.

    1 natriuretic peptide; C-type natriuretic peptide; bran- chial vasculature; cardiovascular appears to be confined to the central nervous system (34). Several NPs have been sequenced from the hearts in the heart and brain of teleost, elasmobranch, and cyclostome fish (see Ref. 4), information

  9. Parasites as biological tags for Eleginops maclovinus (Teleostei: Eleginopidae) around the Falkland Islands.

    PubMed

    Brickle, Paul; Mackenzie, Ken

    2007-06-01

    This is the first study of the parasite fauna of Eleginops maclovinus in the Falkland Islands. It was undertaken to catalogue the parasite fauna of E. maclovinus in order to provide a baseline for future studies and to determine whether parasites might be used as biological tags. Between 21 January and 17 March 2002 samples were taken from three stations, Teal Creek (30 fish), Port Louis (30 fish) and Camilla Creek (10 fish), all in East Falkland, and examined for protozoan and metazoan parasites. Twenty-four parasite taxa were recorded, of which three were possible new species, two new host records and five new geographical records. Because of the small number of fish in the Camilla Creek sample it was excluded from further analyses. E. maclovinus is a protandrous hermaphrodite and all fish greater than 53 cm total length were found to be female, so these too were excluded from further analyses. The parasite data from the remaining fish were analysed by an agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis using an average linkage and a Jaccard measure of similarity, followed by a linear discriminant function analysis (LDA). Both analyses misclassified only one fish from Port Louis as being from Teal Creek, with the LDA giving an overall correct classification of 97.5% (39/40). The results support mechanical tagging data in suggesting that smaller male E. maclovinus are resident in the creeks in which they are caught, and that at this stage of their lives they tend not to migrate over long distances. PMID:17578595

  10. Comparative analysis of sex chromosomes in Leporinus species (Teleostei, Characiformes) using chromosome painting

    E-print Network

    Parise-Maltempi, Patrícia P.; da Silva, Edson L.; Rens, Willem; Dearden, Frances; O’Brien, Patricia C. M.; Trifonov, Vladimir; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.

    2013-07-03

    involving genetic and/or environmental factors, although temperature-dependent sex determinationLeporinus species (Teleos chromosome painting Patrícia Pasquali Parise-Maltempi1*, Edson Lourenço da Silv Vladimir Trifonov3 and Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith2... Man NK2 (Eppendorf) coupled to a Zeiss Axiovert 40 CFL microscope, with glass needles made with a Nikon puller and sterilized by UV radiation. About 8 chromosomes were separately placed in 9uL DNAse-free ultrapure water and were then amplified using...

  11. Cytogenetic analysis of two locariid species (Teleostei, Siluriformes) from Iguatemi River (Parana River drainage) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Alves, Diandra Soares; Guterres, Zaira da Rosa; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fishes of the Loricariidae family, known as “cascudos”, constitute an endemic group in Neotropical freshwaters. In this study, were cytogenetically examined two species of Loricariidae (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 and Farlowella amazonum (Günther, 1864) belonging to Hypostominae and Loricariinae subfamilies respectively) from Iguatemi River. Our study provide the first description regarding C-band and fluorochromic analysis in Farlowella amazonum. In Farlowella amazonum, diploid number was 58 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric regions of some chromosomes and large subtelomeric blocks were evidenced on the long arm of the pair 27, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The Pterygoplichthys anisitsi showed diploid number equal 52 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric and telomeric regions of some chromosomes and conspicuous large telomeric blocks on the long arm of the pair 10, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The results show that karyotype formula is nonconservative in Pterygoplichthys anisitsi and Farlowella amazonum. PMID:25893075

  12. Three new species of Alburnoides (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Euphrates River, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turan, Davut; Kaya, Cüneyt; Ekmekçi, F Güler; Do?an, Esra

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of Alburnoides, Alburnoides emineae sp. n., Alburnoides velioglui sp. n., Alburnoides recepi sp. n., are described from the Euphrates River drainages (Persian Gulf basin) in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Alburnoides emineae, from Beyazsu Stream (south-eastern Euphrates River drainage), is distinguished from all species of Alburnoides in Turkey and adjacent regions by a combination of the following characters (none unique to the species): a well developed ventral keel between pelvic and anal fins, commonly scaleless or very rarely 1-2 scales covering the anterior portion of the keel; a deep body (depth at dorsal-fin origin 31-36% SL); 37-43 + 1-2 lateral-line scales, 13½-15½ branched anal-fin rays; number of total vertebrae 41-42, modally 41, comprising 20-21 abdominal and 20-21 caudal vertebrae. Alburnoides velioglui, from S?rl?, Karasu, Divri?i and Sultansuyu streams (northern and northeastern Euphrates River drainages), is distinguished by a poorly developed ventral keel, completely scaled; a moderately deep body (depth at dorsal-fin origin 24-29% SL); 45-53 + 1-2 lateral-line scales, 11½ -13½ branched anal-fin rays; number of total vertebrae 41-42, modally 42, comprising 20-22 abdominal and 20-21 caudal vertebrae. Alburnoides recepi, from Merzimen Stream (southern Euphrates River drainage), is distinguished by a well developed ventral keel, completely scaleless; a deep body (depth at dorsal-fin origin 29-34% SL); 47-56 + 2-3 lateral-line scales; 13½-16½ branched anal-fin rays; number of total vertebrae 38-40, comprising 19-21 abdominal and 18-20 caudal vertebrae. PMID:24869683

  13. Nuclear gene-inferred phylogenies resolve the relationships of the enigmatic Pygmy Sunfishes, Elassoma (Teleostei: Percomorpha).

    PubMed

    Near, Thomas J; Sandel, Michael; Kuhn, Kristen L; Unmack, Peter J; Wainwright, Peter C; Smith, Wm Leo

    2012-05-01

    Elassoma, the Pygmy Sunfishes, has long proven difficult to classify among the more than 15,000 species of percomorph fishes. Hypotheses dating to the 19th Century include Elassoma in Centrarchidae or in the monogeneric Elassomatidae, and more recent phylogenetic hypotheses have classified Elassoma in Smegmamorpha that also contained Synbranchiformes, Mugiliformes, Gasterosteiformes, and Atherinomorpha. No published phylogenetic analysis of morphological or molecular data has supported the monophyly of Smegmamorpha, or a consistent resolution of Elassoma relationships. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of Elassoma and test the monophyly of Smegmamorpha with a nucleotide dataset comprising 10 protein-coding nuclear genes sampled from 65 percomorph species. Maximum likelihood analyses of each individual gene and the concatenated 10 genes all result in strong support for a clade composed of Elassoma and Centrarchidae, and no analysis supports monophyly of Smegmamorpha. Based on these results, a rank-free phylogenetic definition of Centrarchidae is presented that includes Elassoma, and the continued recognition of Smegmamorpha is discouraged. We discuss the implications of these phylogenetic analyses for relationships of several other percomorph lineages, including Kyphosidae, Terapontidae, Kuhliidae, Cheilodactylidae, Percichthyidae, Howellidae, Enoplosidae, Sinipercidae, and Cirrhitidae. PMID:22293156

  14. Phylogenetic relationships and natural hybridization in rabbitfishes (Teleostei: Siganidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses.

    PubMed

    Kuriiwa, Kaoru; Hanzawa, Naoto; Yoshino, Tetsuo; Kimura, Seishi; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2007-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of rabbitfishes (the family Siganidae), ecologically important components as primary consumers in coral reef communities, were studied using mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and nuclear ITS1 (internal transcribed spacer 1) sequence analyses. The analyses of 19 out of 22 species known in the Western Pacific region revealed that siganids are genetically clustered into three major clades, which are characterized by some morphological and ecological traits. Between closely related species, such as Siganus guttatus-S. lineatus and S. virgatus-S. doliatus, and also between two morphs recognized in S. corallinus, small but discernible genetic differentiation was found, implying that the components of each pair are incipient species. On the other hand, between some species, such as S. fuscescens-S. canaliculatus and S. unimaculatus-S.vulpinus, individuals of the components of each pair were found to construct a genetic mosaic, suggesting that the components are genetic color morphs within a single biological species, respectively. Moreover, evidence from morphological characters, mtDNA, and nuclear DNA gave an inconsistent picture of identity and relationships for several individuals. They were regarded as hybrids or individuals with hybrid origin. Such instances were observed not only between closely related species, such as S. guttatus-S. lineatus, S. virgatus-S. doliatus, and two morphs (incipient species) in S. corallinus, respectively, but also between distantly related ones, such as S. corallinus-S. puellus. In fact, more than half of the species examined (11/20, when treating the two morphs in S. corallinus as independent species) were involved in hybridization. These suggest that hybridization is much more prevalent in marine fishes than previously assumed, and may have some relevance to their diversification. PMID:17590356

  15. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of Scomber (Teleostei: Scombridae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jiao; Gao, Tianxiang; Miao, Zhenqing; Yanagimoto, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus Scomber was conducted based on mitochondrial (COI, Cyt b and control region) and nuclear (5S rDNA) DNA sequence data in multigene perspective. A variety of phylogenetic analytic methods were used to clarify the current taxonomic Classification and to assess phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history of this genus. The present study produced a well-resolved phylogeny that strongly supported the monophyly of Scomber. We confirmed that S. japonicus and S. colias were genetically distinct. Although morphologically and ecologically similar to S. colias, the molecular data showed that S. japonicus has a greater molecular affinity with S. australasicus, which conflicts with the traditional taxonomy. This phylogenetic pattern was corroborated by the mtDNA data, but incompletely by the nuclear DNA data. Phylogenetic concordance between the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA regions for the basal nodes Supports an Atlantic origin for Scomber. The present-day geographic ranges of the species were compared with the resultant molecular phylogeny derived from partition Bayesian analyses of the combined data sets to evaluate possible dispersal routes of the genus. The present-day geographic distribution of Scomber species might be best ascribed to multiple dispersal events. In addition, our results suggest that phylogenies derived from multiple genes and long sequences exhibited improved phylogenetic resolution, from which we conclude that the phylogenetic reconstruction is a reliable representation of the evolutionary history of Scomber.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of Schizopygopsis chengi baoxingensis (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Schizopygopsis).

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Huang, Yong; Li, Qiang; Chen, Yeyu; Liu, Ya; Liu, Guangxun

    2014-11-12

    Abstract Schizopygopsis chengi baoxingensis is endemic to the Baoxing River in China and may become an endangered species due to its very narrow habitat and the construction of hydropower dams. In this study, we successfully sequenced the first mitochondrial genome of S. c. baoxingensis. The mitogenome is 16,787?bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region (D-loop). The overall base composition of the H-strand is 28.5% A, 26.2% T, 18.4% C, and 26.9% G, with a slight AT bias of 54.7%. The sequenced mtDNA genome of S. c. baoxingensis is similar in gene arrangement to that of other cyprinidaes except for a 191?bp non-coding region found between tRNA(Thr) and tRNA(Pro). PMID:25391033

  17. A comparative chromosome study of the North American species of sticklebacks (Teleostei: Gasterosteidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T.-R. Chen; H. M. Reisman

    1970-01-01

    The five North American species of the stickleback family Gasterosteidae were studied karyologically. They constitute two diploid-count groups; one with 46 includes ?peltes quadracus and Culaea inconstans, and the other with 42 consists of Gasterosteus aculeatus, G. wheatlandi and Pungitius pungitius. The common occurrence of a distinctly large submetacentric pair in complements of all five species suggests a monophyletic origin

  18. Cobitis avicennae, a new species of spined loach from the Tigris River drainage (Teleostei: Cobitidae).

    PubMed

    Mousavi-Sabet, Hamed; Vatandoust, Saber; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Geiger, Matthias F; Freyhof, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Cobitis avicennae, new species, from the Karkheh and Karun sub-drainages in the Tigris catchment is distinguished from other Cobitis species in the Persian Gulf, Kor and the southern Caspian Sea basins by having a single lamina circularis in males, a small comma-shaped black spot on the upper caudal-fin base, 5½ branched anal-fin rays, 5-6 rows of dark spots on the dorsal and caudal fins, scales below the dorsal-fin base with a small focal zone and pigmentation zone Z4 with 12-17 large, partly fused blotches. It is also distinguished from other Cobitis species in the comparison group by six fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region. PMID:25661962

  19. An initial description of alternative male reproductive phenotypes in the bluebanded goby, Lythrypnus dalli (Teleostei, Gobiidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathleen C. Drilling; Matthew S. Grober

    2005-01-01

    Synopsis  Contrary to the generally accepted life history theory regarding sequential hermaphroditism (size-advantage model), we have recently identified mini males in Lythrypnus dalli, the bluebanded goby. These are small (female-sized) fish that appear male based on their external genitalia. We investigated the reproductive anatomy and demography of these mini males. Based on their small size and the sexual plasticity of this

  20. Strong reproductive skew among males in the multiply mated swordtail Xiphophorus multilineatus (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Sanetra, M; Schartl, M; Meyer, A

    2005-01-01

    Male swordtails in the genus Xiphophorus display a conspicuous ventral elongation of the caudal fin, the sword, which arose through sexual selection due to female preference. Females mate regularly and are able to store sperm for at least 6 months. If multiple mating is frequent, this would raise the intriguing question about the role of female choice and male-male competition in shaping the mating system of these fishes. Size-dependent alternate mating strategies occur in Xiphophorus; one such strategy is courtship with a sigmoid display by large dominant males, while the other is gonopodial thrusting, in which small subordinate males sneak copulations. Using microsatellite markers, we observed a frequency of multiple paternity in wild-caught Xiphophorus multilineatus in 28% of families analyzed, but the actual frequency of multiple mating suggested by the correction factor PrDM was 33%. The number of fathers contributing genetically to the brood ranged from one to three. Compared to other species in the family Poeciliidae, both frequency and degree of multiple paternity were low. Paternity was found to be highly skewed, with one male on average contributing more than 70% to the offspring. Hence in this Xiphophorus mating system, typically one male dominates and sneaker males do not appear to be particularly effective. Postcopulatory mechanisms, however, such as sperm competition, are also indicated by our data, using sex-linked phenotypes among the offspring. PMID:15743903

  1. Sexual dimorphism and male mating success in the tentacled blenny, Parablennius tentacularis (Teleostei: Blenniidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Giacomello; Maria B. Rasotto

    2005-01-01

    Although external sexually dimorphic traits are commonly found in males of combtooth blenny species, little is known about\\u000a the benefit they can convey to male mating success. Indeed, while female preferences for large males have been demonstrated\\u000a in some species, the possible role played by dimorphic ornaments has been neglected. We now report on the tentacled blenny,\\u000a Parablennius tentacularis, a

  2. Strong Reproductive Skew Among Males in the Multiply Mated Swordtail Xiphophorus multilineatus (Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Luo; M. SANETRA; M. SCHARTL; A. MEYER

    2005-01-01

    Male swordtails in the genus Xiphophorus display a conspicuous ventral elongation of the caudal fin, the sword, which arose through sexual selection due to female preference. Females mate regularly and are able to store sperm for at least 6 months. If multiplemating isfrequent,this wouldraise theintriguing question abouttherole offemalechoice andmale-malecompetition inshapingthematingsystemofthesefishes.Size-dependentalternatematingstrategiesoccurin Xiphophorus;onesuchstrategyis courtship with a sigmoid display by large dominant males,

  3. RÉVISION DE SYNTEGMODUS ALTUS (TELEOSTEI, TSELFATIIFORMES), POISSON MARIN DU CRÉTACÉ SUPÉRIEUR DU KANSAS (ÉTATS-UNIS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis TAVERNE

    RÉSUMÉ.!-!L'ostéologie crânienne de Syntegmodus altus Loomis, 1900, provenant de la Formation Niobrara (Coniacien à Sénonien) du Kansas, est étudiée. Ce poisson appartient à l'ordre des Tselfatiifor- mes. Contrairement à une opinion généralement admise, Syntegmodus n'est pas synonyme de Bananog- mius, mais représente un genre valable. Au sein de l'ordre, Syntegmodus est plus particulièrement appa- renté à Bananogmius et à Niobrara,

  4. Serranochromis altus, a New Species of Piscivorous Cichlid (Teleostei: Perciformes) from the Upper Zambezi River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KIRK O. WINEMILLER; LESLIE C. KELSO-WINEMILLER

    A new cichlid species, Serranochromis altus, from the Upper Zambezi River is described. It is sympatric with its deep-bodied sister species, S. angusticeps, within the Upper Zambezi and Kafue River drainages. Both immatures and adults of the new species can be distinguished from S. angusticeps on the basis of mor- phometric characters and color pattern, including the absence of distinct

  5. Developmental Osteology of Two Species of Economically Important Sciaenids, Sciaenops ocellatus and Cynoscion nebulosus (Teleostei: Sciaenidae)

    E-print Network

    Kubicek, Kole

    2014-04-22

    ......................................................................................................... 45 Caudal Fin ..................................................................................................... 47 Pectoral Girdle ............................................................................................... 53 Pelvic... 8 Ontogeny of the caudal skeleton of S. ocellatus ........................................ 48 9 Ontogeny of the pectoral girdle of S. ocellatus .......................................... 55 10 Ontogeny of the pelvic girdle of S. ocellatus...

  6. Aspectos cinemáticos del mecanismo de mordida premaxilar en los géneros Cauque, Basilichthys y Austromenidia (Teleostei, Atherinidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EDUARDO DE LA HOZ

    The premaxillary bite mechanism of various species ofthe genera Cauque, Austromenidia and Basilichthys are analyzed through the four-bar linkage models; these models allow the description ofthe nature ofthe buccal structures movements. In Cauque and Austromenidia the angular trajectories of premaxilla and maxilla are similar, they show an increasing premaxilla velocity towards the cIosing position. In the Basilichthys species, the premaxilla

  7. The structure and ultrastructure of the rostral cartilage in the spiny eel, Macrognathus siamensis (Teleostei: Mastacembeloidei).

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M; Sandhu, J S

    1990-01-01

    An elastic, cell-rich cartilage provides flexible support to the highly mobile, rostral tentacle of the mastacembelid, Macrognathus siamensis. Active movement of the tentacle is effected by skeletal muscles, the muscular bellies of which are located outside the organ. The tentacle returns to its original shape by elastic recoil. The cartilage resembles plant supporting tissue and the cartilages of certain invertebrates. It is surrounded by a thick perichondrium and articulates at a synovial joint with the supraethmoid. The chondrocytes are large and shrunken within lacunae. They contain glycogen and cytoplasmic stores of RNA. The matrix is reduced to thin seams between adjacent cells, and stains strongly with alcian blue and a variety of elastic stains. Parts of the matrix are trilaminar, and such an appearance recalls the distinction between the primary cell walls of adjacent plant cells and the intervening middle lamella. The perichondrium consists of an alternating sequence of cells, circularly arranged collagen fibres and a foamy, amorphous material of unknown composition. Deep to the perichondrium, the chondrocytes are packed with intermediate filaments. Membrane-bound organelles are not prominent, though mitochondria are located at the periphery of the cell. The ultrastructural similarities between these chondrocytes and those of hyaline-cell cartilage (chondroid) support the contention that Schaffer's concept of a rigid distinction between 'true' cartilage and 'chondroid' is no longer tenable. The matrix is devoid of collagen and is most distinctive. In the immediate vicinity of the cells it consists of matrix granules and matrix fibers but, where a trilaminar appearance is easily discernible, there is a central zone that consists of large masses of amorphous material that is presumed to contain elastin. Such amorphous material has not previously been seen in any teleostean elastic tissue. By contrast, elastic system fibres, readily demonstrable elsewhere in teleosts, are conspicuously absent. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:1696572

  8. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of heterochromatin in the chromosomes of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio Oliveira; Jonathan M. Wright

    1998-01-01

    The structure of the heterochromatic bands in mitotic chromosomes of the important tropical aquaculture species of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was investigated by the combination of the C-banding technique, chromosomal digestion with two restriction endonucleases and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of two satellite DNAs (SATA and SATB). The tilapia chromosomes presented heterochromatic bands in the centromeres and in the short

  9. Systematics and biogeography of Cyprinella venusta (Cyprinidae: Teleostei) inferred from analysis of mitochondrial DNA 

    E-print Network

    Kristmundsdottir, Asrun Yr

    1994-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt)DNA restriction-site analysis was used to study systematics and biogeography of the blacktail shiner, Cyprinella venusta. Taxonomically, C. venusta is comprised of three subspecies: C. v. venusta, C.v. cercostigma, and C. v...

  10. Feeding patterns in eastern tropical Pacific blennioid fishes (Teleostei: Tripterygiidae, Labrisomidae, Chaenopsidae, Blenniidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Kotrschal; Don A. Thomson

    1986-01-01

    In terms of species number (47) and numerical abundance, blennioids are the most important primary resident rocky reef fishes in the Gulf of California, Mexico. We present the feeding patterns of the 34 most abundant species of blennioid fishes, 8 of which are Gulf endemics. A total of 2,144 specimens were sampled at 51 anaesthetic stations in 9 areas throughout

  11. Paraqianlabeo lineatus, a new genus and species of labeonine fishes (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from South China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Tao; Sullivan, John P; Zhang, Yao-Guang; Peng, Zuo-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Paraqianlabeo, new genus, is described from the Chishui-He and Wu-Jiang rivers of the Yangtze River basin in Guizhou Province, South China. This new genus is distinguished from all other labeonine genera by a combination of morphological and molecular evidence. It is distinguished from all other Asian garrains by a unique oromandibular morphology; i.e., an arched, wide, rudimentary sucker formed by raised front and lateral margins of lower lip, postlabial groove and mental groove between middle and lateral lobes of lower lip chevron-shaped; anteroventral margin of rostral cap arched, thin and papillose; rostral cap not overlying upper lip, upper lip connected with lower lip around corners of mouth; well developed upper lip free from upper jaw; lower lip divided into two lateral fleshy lobes and one central plate, these two lateral fleshy lobes small and short, median lobe of lower lip large; anterior and anterolateral edges of upper and lower lip finely papillose; shallow, straight groove between lower lip and lower jaw; lower jaw bears thin, cornified cutting edge. Additionally, scales on mid-ventral region from pectoral fins to pelvic fins subcutaneous and half-hidden; dorsal fin with 3 simple and 7½-8 branched rays. Paraqianlabeo lineatus, new species, type species of this genus, has longitudinal dark stripe along side of body. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA data indicate that this new genus forms a highly diverged lineage within the Garraina group of Labeoninae.  PMID:25082039

  12. Karyotypic diversity and evolutionary trends in the Neotropical catfish genus Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Anderson Luis; de Borba, Rafael Splendore; Oliveira, Claudio; Mauro Nirchio; Granado, Angel; Foresti, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The family Loricariidae with 813 nominal species is one of the largest fish families of the world. Hypostominae, its more complex subfamily, was recently divided into five tribes. The tribe Hypostomini is composed of a single genus, Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, which exhibits the largest karyotypic diversity in the family Loricariidae. With the main objective of contributing to a better understanding of the relationship and the patterns of evolution among the karyotypes of Hypostomus species, cytogenetic studies were conducted in six species of the genus from Brazil and Venezuela. The results show a great chromosome variety with diploid numbers ranging from 2n=68 to 2n=76, with a clear predominance of acrocentric chromosomes. The Ag-NORs are located in terminal position in all species analyzed. Three species have single Ag-NORs (Hypostomus albopunctatus (Regan, 1908), Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758), and Hypostomus prope paulinus (Ihering, 1905)) and three have multiple Ag-NORs (Hypostomus ancistroides (Ihering, 1911), Hypostomus prope iheringi (Regan, 1908), and Hypostomus strigaticeps (Regan, 1908)). In the process of karyotype evolution of the group, the main type of chromosome rearrangements was possibly centric fissions, which may have been facilitated by the putative tetraploid origin of Hypostomus species. The relationship between the karyotype changes and the evolution in the genus is discussed. PMID:24260683

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Teleostei, Scatophagidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianhua; Li, Yinglei; He, Maoxian; Yan, Binlun; Meng, Xueping

    2015-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial sequence of the spotted scat Scatophagus argus has been determined using long amplification polymerase chain reaction (LA-PCR). The total length of sequence is 16,778 bp, and includes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 control region. The base composition of H-strand is 27.23% (A), 27.54% (T), 16.22% (G) and 28.81% (C), with an AT content of 55.08%. The arrangement of genes in S. argus is identical to that of other fish species. All genes are encoded on the heavy strand with the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome of S. argus presented here will contribute to resolve phylogenetic relationships within the family Scatophagidae and the Perciformes. PMID:25835066

  14. Population structure in the Gulf Killifish Fundulus grandis (Teleostei : Cyprinodontidae) inferred from allozymes and mitochondrial DNA

    E-print Network

    Gricius, Eric Edward

    1994-01-01

    population substructuring is generally present. Examples include horseshoe crab (Saunders et al. , 1986) and toadfish (Avise et al. , 1987a). In addition, differences in genetic variability between marine and freshwater species have been associated... American oyster (Reeb and Avise, 1989), lake whitefish (Bernatchez and Dodson, 1990), red drum (Gold et al. , 1993), and horseshoe crab (Saunders et al. , 1986). The experimental objective of the study is to test the (null) hypothesis that F. gr...

  15. Tracking the elusive monophyly of nototheniid fishes (Teleostei) with multiple mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    PubMed

    Dettai, A; Berkani, M; Lautredou, A-C; Couloux, A; Lecointre, G; Ozouf-Costaz, C; Gallut, C

    2012-12-01

    Since the first molecular study of the suborder Notothenioidei in 1994, many phylogenetic studies have been published. Among these, those with a sufficient number of taxa have all suggested that the Nototheniidae, as currently defined, is monophyletic only with the inclusion of the Channichthyidae, Artedidraconidae, Bathydraconidae and Harpagiferidae. This is corroborated by more recent studies including more taxa, but in these studies either the number of nuclear markers or the number of taxa included remained low. We obtained sequences for a large sampling covering most nototheniid genera for five markers described previously for other samplings (COI, Rhodopsin retrogene, Pkd1, HECW2, and SSRP1) and one nuclear marker never used before in phylogenetic inference (PPM1d). The topology for the combined analysis of the nuclear coding genes, as well as the topology for SSRP1 (non-coding) and the combined analysis for all markers all support the paraphyly of Nototheniidae, the genus Notothenia (including Paranotothenia) is the sister group of the clade Channichthyidae, Artedidraconidae, Bathydraconidae and Harpagiferidae, and genus Gobionotothen is a sister group to both. As in previous studies, Trematomus, Lepidonotothen and Patagonotothen form a clade that also includes Indonotothenia cyanobrancha. The position of Pleuragramma antarctica, Dissostichus species and Aethotaxis mitopteryx remains unstable and dependant on markers and analyses. We therefore propose the inclusion of the four families of the High Antarctic clade in the Nototheniidae, and their transformation into subfamilies. We transfer Paranotothenia magellanica to the genus Notothenia, as Notothenia magellanica. PMID:23199880

  16. Reproduction of the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia virescens (Rhamphichtyidae, Teleostei) in captivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Kirschbaum

    1979-01-01

    1.The paper describes the effect of four environmental factors, conductivity, pH, water level, and rain, on gonadal recrudescence and regression in the tropical gymnotoid fish Eigenmannia virescens. The developmental state of the gonads was either assessed quantitatively (maturity coefficient, MC) or judged by visual inspection in the transparent fish (Fig. 1). Spawning indicates that fish are mature.2.Decreasing conductivity and pH,

  17. Reproductive ecology and early life history of a lacustrine sculpin, Cottus extensus (Teleostei, Cottidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Ruzycki; Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh; Clyde Lay

    1998-01-01

    Using a variety of sampling techniques and observations we describe aspects of the reproductive ecology and early life-history of Bear Lake sculpin, Cottus extensus, a species endemic to Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho. Adult sculpin spawned in shallow water (0.5–6.0 m depths) in cavities beneath large cobbles and boulders. During 1993, egg mass densities were highest (> 4.0 m2) at 1.0–2.0 m

  18. Etheostoma erythrozonum, a new species of darter (teleostei: Percidae) from the Meramec River drainage, missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Switzer, J.F.; Wood, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of darter, Etheostoma erythrozonum, is described from the Meramec River drainage of Missouri, USA. Etheostoma erythrozonum is the first known fish species endemic to the Meramec River drainage. It differs morphologically and genetically from populations of its sister species, Etheostoma tetrazonum, from the Gasconade River, Osage River, and Moreau River drainages. Copyright ?? 2009 ?? Magnolia Press.

  19. Systematics of the subgenus Oligocephalus (Teleostei: Percidae: Etheostoma) with complete subgeneric sampling of the genus Etheostoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas J. Lang; Richard L. Mayden

    2007-01-01

    The genus Etheostoma is the most diverse clade of freshwater fishes in North America. While studies have been performed with complete sampling of a single subgenus, none have included representatives of all remaining subgenera. The subgenus Oligocephalus is the largest, consisting of 25–27 species in four species groups, and its monophyly has never been clearly demonstrated. The monophyly of this

  20. Systematics of the subgenus Oligocephalus (Teleostei: Percidae: Etheostoma) with complete subgeneric sampling of the genus Etheostoma.

    PubMed

    Lang, Nicholas J; Mayden, Richard L

    2007-05-01

    The genus Etheostoma is the most diverse clade of freshwater fishes in North America. While studies have been performed with complete sampling of a single subgenus, none have included representatives of all remaining subgenera. The subgenus Oligocephalus is the largest, consisting of 25-27 species in four species groups, and its monophyly has never been clearly demonstrated. The monophyly of this subgenus and its constituent groups was tested using parsimony and Bayesian analyses of ND2 (mtDNA) and the first intron of S7 (nDNA) with complete species sampling from Oligocephalus and complete subgeneric sampling from Etheostoma. Although the subgenus Oligocephalus was not recovered as a monophyletic group in any analyses, monophyletic E. whipplei, Southwestern Darter, and E. spectabile (in part) species groups were recovered in all analyses. All analyses agree that E. okaloosae and both subspecies of E. hopkinsi are not closely related to other members of the subgenus Oligocephalus. E. exile is, however, presenting the strongest evidence yet that recognition of the subgenus Boleichthys is unwarranted. PMID:17158072

  1. Osteology of Eubiodectes libanicus (Pictet & Humbert, 1866) and some other ichthyodectiformes (Teleostei): phylogenetic implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lionel Cavin; Peter L. Forey; Samuel Giersch

    2012-01-01

    The osteology of the ichthyodectiform Eubiodectes libanicus (Pictet & Humbert, 1866) from the Cenomanian of Lebanon is described on the basis of acid-prepared specimens. For comparative purposes, the osteology of other putative ichthyodectiforms is described or discussed. We focus on the description of hitherto poorly described species such as Chiromystus mawsoni Cope, 1885, Ghrisichthys bardacki (Cavin, 1997a), ‘Saurodon’ intermedius (Newton,

  2. A Unique Symbiosis in the Gut of Tropical Herbivorous Surgeonfish (Acanthuridae: Teleostei) from the Red Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lev Fishelson; W. Linn Montgomery; Arthur A. Myrberg

    1985-01-01

    Herbivorous surgeonfish (Acanthurus species) in the Red Sea harbor gut symbionts that include bacteria, trichomonadid flagellates, and a peculiar putative protist that attains densities of 20,000 to 100,000 cells per milliliter of gut contents. The structure, mode of reproduction, and within-gut distribution of the latter are described. This may be the first report of an organism of this type and

  3. A new Pseudophoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) species from Asi River Drainage (Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Küçük, Fahrettin; Güçlü, Salim Serkan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pseudophoxinus turani sp. n. is described from the ?ncesu Spring (Hassa-Hatay) drainage of Asi River, Turkey. It is distinguished from other Eastern Mediterranean Region Pseudophoxinus species by a combination of characters: lateral line incomplete, with 12–25 (commonly 16–21) perforated scales and 38–46+2-3 scales in lateral series (commonly 41–44+2-3); 10–11 scale rows between the lateral line and dorsal-fin origin; 3–4 scale rows between the lateral line and the pelvic–fin origin; dorsal fin with 7½ branched rays; anal fin commonly with 7½ branched rays; 8-11gill rakers on the first branchial arch; dorsal profile markedly convex with marked hump at the nape, ventral profile less convex than dorsal profile; a small, irregular, black blotch on the base of the caudal fin; mouth terminal, with slightly distinct chin, its corner not reaching vertical through anterior margin of eye; snout somewhat long, with rounded tip; and its length greater than eye diameter. PMID:24899855

  4. Stages in the early and larval development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei, Clariidae).

    PubMed

    Olaniyi, Wasiu Adekunle; Omitogun, Ofelia Galman

    2014-08-01

    The African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822 is a favourite aquaculture fish in many parts of Africa and Asia because of its hardiness and fast growth rate. In this study, early, post-embryonic and larval developmental stages of C. gariepinus were examined chronologically and described. Photomicrographs of unfertilized matured oocytes from 0 min of fertilization through all cell stages to alevin, to complete yolk absorption, to free swimming larval stages are shown and documented live from lateral and top views, with the aid of a light microscope. Extruded oocytes had a mean diameter of 1 ± 0.1 mm, and possessed a thin perivitelline membrane whose space was filled with a protoplasmic layer. Heartbeat was in the range of 115-160/min prior to hatching. Hatchability rate was 85% and hatching occurred at 17 h at a controlled temperature of 28.5 ± 0.5°C, while ontogeny of the eyes and other organs were discernible. At day 4, larvae mean length was 9.3 ± 0.5 mm, exogenous feeding had commenced fully and melanophores spread cephalocaudally but were concentrated significantly on the head parts. This paper, for the first time, presents the significant chronological developmental stages of C. gariepinus embryology that will have significant implications for genetic manipulation and catfish seed production for aquaculture. PMID:23534899

  5. Modeling prey consumption by native and non-native piscivorous fishes: implications for competition and impacts on shared prey in an ultraoligotrophic lake in Patagonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juncos, Romina; Beauchamp, David A.; Viglianoc, Pablo H.

    2013-01-01

    We examined trophic interactions of the nonnative salmonids Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalisand the main native predator Creole Perch Percichthys trucha in Lake Nahuel Huapi (Patagonia, Argentina) to determine the relative impact of each predator on their forage base and to evaluate the potential vulnerability of each predator to competitive impacts by the others. Using bioenergetics simulations, we demonstrated the overall importance of galaxiids and decapods to the energy budgets of nonnative salmonids and Creole Perch. Introduced salmonids, especially Rainbow Trout, exerted considerably heavier predatory demands on shared resources than did the native Creole Perch on both a per capita basis and in terms of relative population impacts. Rainbow Trout consumed higher quantities and a wider size range of Small Puyen (also known as Inanga) Galaxias maculatus than the other predators, including early pelagic life stages of that prey; as such, this represents an additional source of mortality for the vulnerable early life stages of Small Puyen before and during their transition from pelagic to benthic habitats. All predators were generally feeding at high feeding rates (above 40% of their maximum physiological rates), suggesting that competition for prey does not currently limit either Creole Perch or the salmonids in this lake. This study highlights the importance of keystone prey for the coexistence of native species with nonnative top predators. It provides new quantitative and qualitative evidence of the high predation pressure exerted on Small Puyen, the keystone prey species, during the larval to juvenile transition from pelagic to littoral-benthic habitat in Patagonian lakes. This study also emphasizes the importance of monitoring salmonid and Creole Perch population dynamics in order to detect signs of potential impacts through competition and shows the need to carefully consider the rationale behind any additional trout stocking.

  6. Effect of trypsin inhibitor from Crotalaria pallida seeds on  Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and  Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos E. M. Gomes; Aulus E. A. D. Barbosa; Leonardo L. P. Macedo; Joelma C. M. Pitanga; Fabiano T. Moura; Adeliana S. Oliveira; Raniere M. Moura; Alexandre F. S. Queiroz; Francisco P. Macedo; Lúcia B. S. Andrade; Márcia S. Vidal; Mauricio P. Sales

    2005-01-01

    A proteinaceous trypsin inhibitor was purified from Crotalaria pallida seeds by ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on immobilized trypsin–Sepharose and TCA precipitation. The trypsin inhibitor, named CpaTI, had Mr of 32.5 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and was composed of two subunits with 27.7 and 5.6 kDa linked by disulfide bridges. CpaTI was stable at 50 °C and lost 40% of activity at

  7. Evaluation of neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil obtained by different methods and neem powder for the management of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored cowpea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. S Lale; H. T Abdulrahman

    1999-01-01

    Neem seed oil obtained by extraction with analytical grade acetone using a Soxhlet apparatus, NSO(S) and that obtained by the traditional kneading method, NSO(K) were compared with the powder equivalent weights (PEW, the neem seed powder capable of yielding the equivalent amounts of the oil used for the treatments) for their relative efficacy in reducing the reproductive potential of the

  8. Compensatory behaviour in response to sulphide-induced hypoxia affects time budgets,

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    susceptibility to predators? Organisms and locations: Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana: Poeciliidae, Teleostei, Poecilia, Poeciliidae. Correspondence: M. Tobler, Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A

  9. Fecundidad del ángel de Cortés Pomacanthus zonipectus (Teleostei: Pomacanthidae) en la Isla Espíritu Santo, Golfo de California, México Fecundity of Cortez angelfish Pomacanthus zonipectus (Teleostei: Pomacanthidae) off Espíritu Santo Island, Gulf of California, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Arellano-Martínez; BP Ceballos-Vázquez; L Hernández-Olalde; F Galván-Magaña

    2006-01-01

    The Cortez angelfish Pomacanthus zonipectus is an important species for the aquarium market and knowledge of its reproductive potential is useful to establish strategies for its fishery management. To estimate partial and relative fecundity, samples of P. zonipectus were collected during the breeding season (June-November) off Espíritu Santo Island, Gulf of California, Mexico. After a histological study, mature ovaries that

  10. Mapping the potential distribution of the invasive Red Shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) across waterways of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poulos, Helen M.; Chernoff, Barry; Fuller, Pam L.; Butman, David

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the future spread of non-native aquatic species continues to be a high priority for natural resource managers striving to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem function. Modeling the potential distributions of alien aquatic species through spatially explicit mapping is an increasingly important tool for risk assessment and prediction. Habitat modeling also facilitates the identification of key environmental variables influencing species distributions. We modeled the potential distribution of an aggressive invasive minnow, the red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), in waterways of the conterminous United States using maximum entropy (Maxent). We used inventory records from the USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, native records for C. lutrensis from museum collections, and a geographic information system of 20 raster climatic and environmental variables to produce a map of potential red shiner habitat. Summer climatic variables were the most important environmental predictors of C. lutrensis distribution, which was consistent with the high temperature tolerance of this species. Results from this study provide insights into the locations and environmental conditions in the US that are susceptible to red shiner invasion.

  11. The boxfishes (Teleostei: Ostraciidae) are marine, mostly shallow-water, mostly tropical reef-dwelling fishes that have

    E-print Network

    Hynes, Wayne L.

    ungainly, boxfishes are capable of swimming rapidly [>6·body·lengths·(BL)·s­1 ], can spin around around delta- winged aircraft. These spiral vortices formed above the keels and increased in circulation

  12. Gonadal development and sex differentiation in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus (Teleostei, Perciformes): a light- and electron-microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Meijide, Fernando J; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Guerrero, Graciela A

    2005-05-01

    Although the overall pattern and timing of gonadal sex differentiation have been established in a considerable number of teleosts, the ultrastructure of early stages of gonadal development is not well documented. In this study, gonads from larval and juvenile stages of laboratory-reared Cichlasoma dimerus were examined at the light-microscopic and ultrastructural levels. This freshwater species adapts easily to captivity and spawns with high frequency during 8 months of the year, providing an appropriate model for developmental studies. Larvae and juveniles were kept at a water temperature of 26.5 +/- 1 degrees C and a 12:12 hour photoperiod. Gonadal development was documented from 14-100 days postfertilization, covering the period of histologically discernible sex differentiation. Gonadal tissue was processed according to standard techniques for light and electron microscopy. C. dimerus, a perciform teleost, is classified as a differentiated gonochorist, in which an indifferent gonad develops directly into a testis or ovary. On day 14, the gonadal primordium consists of a few germ cells surrounded by enveloping somatic cells. Ovarian differentiation precedes testicular differentiation, as usual in teleost fishes. The earliest signs of differentiation, detected from day 42 onward, include the onset of meiotic activity in newly formed oocytes, which is soon accompanied by increased oogonial mitotic proliferation and the somatic reorganization of the presumptive ovary. The ovarian cavity is completely formed by day 65. Numerous follicles containing perinucleolar oocytes are observed by day 100. In contrast, signs of morphological differentiation in the presumptive testis are not observed until day 72. By day 100, the unrestricted lobular organization of the testis is evident. The latest stage of spermatogenesis observed by this time of testicular development is spermatocyte II. PMID:15789420

  13. Evolutionary history of the synbranchid eels (Teleostei: Synbranchidae) in Central America and the Caribbean islands inferred from their molecular phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Perdices, A; Doadrio, I; Bermingham, E

    2005-11-01

    Swamp eels of the genera Synbranchus and Ophisternon are secondary freshwater fishes whose biogeography provides evidence of their long residence in Mesoamerica, while their impoverished species-level taxonomy might suggest a more recent diversification or a conservative morphology. We have inferred the phylogenetic relationships of Synbranchus marmoratus and Ophisternon aenigmaticum from 45 drainages throughout South, Central America, and Cuba based on mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and ATPase 8/6). Phylogeographic analysis supported the monophyly of Mesoamerican O. aenigmaticum although our results suggest that S. marmoratus is not a monophyletic group. We found a evolutionary differentiated Synbranchus mtDNA lineage inhabiting Las Perlas islands (Pacific Panama) that appeared to be taxonomically distinct and separated for a long period of time from the main Synbranchus clade. Major synbranchid clades were also corroborated with the nuclear RAG-1 gene (1171-bp). Application of two fish-based mtDNA clocks (1.05-1.3% pairwise divergence/million year (Ma)), is in accordance with the Gondwanian origin suggested for the Synbranchidae. The mtDNA lineages exhibited a remarkable geographic structure in Central America suggesting that vicariance has most likely promoted the Synbranchus and Ophisternon mtDNA diversification. Although our data indicate the importance of the Pacific area in Synbranchus differentiation, the mtDNA divergence between South and Central American Synbranchus is too small to support Cretaceous colonization via the proto-Antillean bridge suggested by Rosen [Syst. Zool. 24 (1976) 431]. Instead, our phylogeographic results suggest that Ophisternon and Synbranchus mtDNA clades most likely colonized Central America during the Miocene (12.7-23Ma) prior the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (3.3Ma). PMID:16223677

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of North American western chubs of the genus Gila (Cyprinidae, Teleostei), with emphasis on southern species.

    PubMed

    Schönhuth, Susana; Perdices, Anabel; Lozano-Vilano, Lourdes; García-de-León, Francisco J; Espinosa, Héctor; Mayden, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    Species of Gila comprise a heterogeneous and widespread group of freshwater fishes inhabiting drainage systems of western North America. The classification of species of Gila and relatives has been complicated and sometimes compromised by differences in body shapes, sizes, habitats, variable taxonomic placement by early taxonomists, and instances of hypothesized hybridization. While most attention on Gila has focused on hybridization in USA, little is actually know about their intra and intergeneric relationships. We present a molecular phylogeny using 173 specimens for all 19 recognized species of Gila, covering their entire distributions in 31 major drainages. Using one mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, specimens of Gila were analyzed with 10 other North American genera that comprise the Revised Western Clade. All analyses identified most species of Gila in a lineage that always included the monotypic genera Moapa and Acrocheilus, and we recommend the synonymy of both genera with Gila. The composition of this Gila lineage varied depending on the genes analyzed. Within the Gila lineage, similar morphotypes (forms adapted to fast currents vs. general forms) were not resolved as closest relatives. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA resolved all species of Gila from Mexico in reciprocally monophyletic clades except G. modesta. Most species of Gila in the USA were nested in 3 major clades, potentially indicating some level of historic or contemporary interspecific hybridization. Herein, we redefine the ranges for all species of Gila in Mexico. Relevant taxonomic and conservation implications stemming from the results are discussed. PMID:24096056

  15. Molecular phylogeny of the freshwater fish family Cobitidae (Cypriniformes: Teleostei): delimitation of genera, mitochondrial introgression and evolution of sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Slechtová, Vendula; Bohlen, Jörg; Perdices, Anabel

    2008-05-01

    The family Cobitidae represents a characteristic element of the Eurasian ichthyofauna. Despite diverse features of sexual dimorphism, comparably few morphological characters have been utilized for taxonomic studies resulting in many unresolved puzzles. Here we present the phylogenetic relationships of Cobitidae as inferred from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the nuclear gene RAG-1. Analyses of both markers show a group of eight nominal genera, which all occur in Europe and eastern, northern and western Asia, forming a monophyletic lineage (northern clade) while all other clades inhabit South and Southeast Asia (southern lineages). While all eight southern lineages correspond to genera as defined by morphological studies, only four lineages were reliably recovered within the northern clade, and of these only one (Sabanejewia) corresponds to a formerly considered genus. The genera Cobitis, Iksookimia and Niwaëlla were polyphyletic. A comparison of the two markers shows several incongruities within the northern clade and mitochondrial introgression at least in the genus Misgurnus. Mapping the characters of sexual dimorphism on our cladogram, we identified five character states that are diagnostic for certain lineages. Estimations of the divergence times dated the separation of the northern clade from the southern lineages to the middle Eocene (46 MYA) and the origin of "Cobitis"misgurnoides, the basal taxon of the northern clade, during early Oligocene (30-35 MYA). The geographic distribution of the major clades supports recently developed hypotheses about the river history of East Asia and further suggests that a range expansion of the northern clade in late Miocene (15 MYA) led to the colonisation of Europe by three already distinct genera. PMID:18255319

  16. A comparative study of ridge-mazes on surface epithelial cell-membranes of fish scales (Pisces, Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lev Fishelson

    1984-01-01

    Scanning EM investigation of posterio-lateral parts of teleostean fish scales showed that the membranes of their surface epithelium are covered by a complicated system of tuberculi and ridges, forming a maze-system over their cells. These ridges, which are 0.4–0.7 µm high and 0.2–0.6 µm wide, constitute swellings of the cell membrane and form a pattern comparative to the ridge-system found

  17. DNA barcoding at riverscape scales: assessing biodiversity among fishes of the genus Cottus (Teleostei) in northern Rocky Mountain streams.

    PubMed

    Young, Michael K; McKelvey, Kevin S; Pilgrim, Kristine L; Schwartz, Michael K

    2013-07-01

    There is growing interest in broad-scale biodiversity assessments that can serve as benchmarks for identifying ecological change. Genetic tools have been used for such assessments for decades, but spatial sampling considerations have largely been ignored. Here, we demonstrate how intensive sampling efforts across a large geographical scale can influence identification of taxonomic units. We used sequences of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome b, analysed with maximum parsimony networks, maximum-likelihood trees and genetic distance thresholds, as indicators of biodiversity and species identity among the taxonomically challenging fishes of the genus Cottus in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Analyses of concatenated sequences from fish collected in all major watersheds of this area revealed eight groups with species-level differences that were also geographically circumscribed. Only two of these groups, however, were assigned to recognized species, and these two assignments resulted in intraspecific genetic variation (>2.0%) regarded as atypical for individual species. An incomplete inventory of individuals from throughout the geographical ranges of many species represented in public databases, as well as sample misidentification and a poorly developed taxonomy, may have hampered species assignment and discovery. We suspect that genetic assessments based on spatially robust sampling designs will reveal previously unrecognized biodiversity in many other taxa. PMID:23496857

  18. Resolving Taxonomy and Historic Distribution for Conservation of Rare Great Plains Fishes: Hybognathus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in Eastern Colorado Basins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Scheurer; Kevin R. Bestgen; Kurt D. Fausch; S. A. Schaefer

    2003-01-01

    (brassy minnow) and Hybognathus placitus (plains minnow) have made determination of their historic distributions and conservation status unclear in eastern Colorado basins. We developed logistic regression models from morphometric measurements to predict species identity of Hybognathus collections from Colorado and adjacent counties (n 5 1154 specimens in 134 lots). A model based on orbit diameter, stan- dard length, and eye

  19. Four new species of coral gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Gobiodon), with comments on their relationships within the genus.

    PubMed

    Herler, Juergen; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    2013-09-01

    Four new species of the coral-associated gobiid genus Gobiodon were discovered in the Red Sea. Although several of these species are common not only in the Red Sea but also in the Indian and western Pacific Ocean, they have not been described before. Detailed descriptions of the four species are based on morphological and molecular genetic (mitochondrial 12s and 16s rRNA) investigations. The new species, like most species of the genus, lack scales and have species-specific life colouration. Gobiodon bilineatus sp. nov. is the closest relative to G. quinquestrigatus (Valenciennes) and of G. sp. D (Munday et al.), and has five distinct, blue lines on the head as juveniles and subadults, which disappear in adults, and which are often uniformly orange-red with two distinct, vertical blue lines through each eye. Gobiodon irregularis sp. nov. has been confused with the former new species in the past, and is closely related to G. oculolineatus Wu, but is unmistakable in live colouration. Juveniles are characterised by a transparent body, red bars on the head with bluish to greyish interspaces, and irregular red lines and dots on the nape and dorsally on the body. Adults are usually uniformly brown or green-brown, with only remnants of the bars through the eye and below the orbit. Gobiodon ater sp. nov. is a small, entirely black species and can be easily confused with other black species, although it is genetically clearly distinct from G. ceramensis Bleeker and its black relatives. Gobiodon fuscoruber sp. nov. is likely to be the closest relative of G. ater sp. nov., but is uniformly reddish-brown or brown, has bright median fin margins (at least in the Red Sea), and grows considerably larger than G. ater. It has been genetically determined that G. fuscoruber sp. nov. is identical with an Indian Ocean/western Pacific species that has been called G. unicolor Castelnau by several authors. However, examination of the holotype of G. unicolor, including the original description, revealed that the type species and original description are clearly different from the species frequently called G. unicolor. The holotype resembles G. histrio (Valenciennes) and the name G. unicolor must therefore be considered a junior synonym of G. histrio. As a consequence, a new name for this species is provided. PMID:24511221

  20. Cement gland apparatus of the angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (Teleostei, Cichlidae): Functional morphology in comparison with adhesive organs of other Chordata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Groppelli; Roberta Pennati; Cristina Sotgia; Fiorenza De Bernardi

    2003-01-01

    In this report, the developmental stages of P. scalare are described, with particular attention to the functional morphology of the adhesive apparatus, composed of three pairs of glands, two dorsal and one ventral, which serve to attach the larvae to the substrate prior to their becoming free?swimming. The results show that this apparatus is a complex structure of remarkable dimensions.

  1. Steroid levels and steroid metabolism in relation to early gonadal development in the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: cyprinoidei).

    PubMed

    Hines, G A; Boots, L R; Wibbels, T; Watts, S A

    1999-05-01

    Sex steroid levels and steroid metabolism were investigated in relation to early gonadal development in a mixed sex population of the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Androstenedione (AD), testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (KT), and estradiol (E2) were quantified by radioimmunoassay (RIA) of whole body extracts. Androstenedione metabolism was assessed by incubations in vitro with 3H-AD and metabolites were identified by thin-layer chromatography coupled with radioisotope image analysis. Histology revealed the presence of gonadal structures at 15 days postfertilization (dpf) and ovaries at 36 dpf, with other individuals exhibiting undifferentiated gonads containing germinal cells, presumably eventual testes. Androgen levels were initially high in eggs then decreased severalfold prior to the emergence of gonads. A transient increase in the levels of T and KT occurred at 22 dpf. Levels of E2 were either low or undetectable except for a transient increase (43 dpf) after ovaries were present. Levels of T approached bimodality from 57 to 64 dpf. Steroid metabolism generally increased throughout development. Metabolites were generally similar, consisting of T predominantly as well as 5beta-reduced androgen derivatives and 11-oyxgenated derivatives. Estriol was tentatively identified. Conjugated steroids were not formed. Two types of steroid metabolic profiles occurred at 50 dpf. These results demonstrate that changes in the steroidogenic profile occur during early transitions of gonadal development. Notably, (1) steroid biosynthetic capacity preceeds gonadal differentiation, (2) evidence for estrogens occurs after ovarian development has begun, and (3) bimodality of levels of T and differential steroid metabolism later in development may reflect the onset of sexual divergence. PMID:10208772

  2. Cytogenetic analysis of B chromosomes in one population of the fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907) (Teleostei, Characiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Voltolin, Diogo Teruo Hashimoto Tatiana Aparecida; Paes, Ana Danyelle Noitel Valim de Arruda; Foresti, Fausto; Bortolozzi, Jehud; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize cytogenetically one population of the fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907), with emphasis on the analysis of B chromosomes. The nucleolar activity in the B microchromosomes was characterized, and an analysis of mitotic instability of these microchromosomes was accomplished. The results showed a diploid chromosome number of 50 chromosomes. In all individuals, we observed the presence of B microchromosomes with intra- and inter-individual variability. The analysis of the nucleolus organizing regions (NORs) by silver nitrate staining demonstrated multiple NORs. We observed active sites of ribosomal DNA in the B microchromosomes, with a frequency of 20% in the analyzed cells, which shows gene activity in these chromosomal elements. The analysis of constitutive heterochromatin patterns showed that the B microchromosomes are heterochromatic or euchromatic, which demonstrates differentiation of DNA composition between these genomic elements. The calculation of the mitotic instability index implied that B chromosomes in this species might be in a final stage of instability. PMID:24260658

  3. Ovarian follicular atresia is mediated by heterophagy, autophagy, and apoptosis in Prochilodus argenteus and Leporinus taeniatus (Teleostei: Characiformes).

    PubMed

    Santos, H B; Thomé, R G; Arantes, F P; Sato, Y; Bazzoli, N; Rizzo, E

    2008-12-01

    We investigated apoptosis, cell proliferation antigen (PCNA), and heat shock protein (HSP70) during ovarian follicular atresia in two freshwater teleost species from the São Francisco River basin, Brazil: curimatã-pacu, Prochilodus argenteus and piau-jejo, Leporinus taeniatus. Fishes were maintained in captivity after the reproductive period and ovarian regression was assessed by gonadosomatic index for three stages: early, advanced, and late regression. Follicular atresia was analysed by light and transmission electron microscopy, as well as by TUNEL and immunohistochemistry for HSP70 and PCNA. During early regression, atretic follicles exhibited zona pellucida breakdown, yolk degeneration, and hypertrophied follicular cells (e.g., granulosa in mammals). Intense heterophagy to engulf the yolk, and autophagy were detected in the follicular cells during advanced and late atresia. The TUNEL assay detected DNA fragmentation, mainly in late follicular atresia. The apoptosis rate of the follicular cells increased up to 10% during follicular atresia in both species and was negatively correlated with follicular area. Immunohistochemistry reaction for HSP70 stained the follicular cells strongly during advanced atresia, when they are intensively involved in yolk engulfment, whereas the reaction for PCNA labelled theca cells. We inferred that heterophagy, autophagy, and apoptosis contributed to follicular atresia in teleost ovaries, thereby achieving a more efficient removal of the degenerating oocyte and dying follicular cells. Additionally, HSP70 may protect the follicular cells before apoptosis when they are involved in yolk engulfment, and cell proliferation in the theca contributed to ovarian remodelling. PMID:18701155

  4. Vascularization of male gonads in Blennius pavo (Teleostei, Blenniidae) as revealed by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts.

    PubMed

    Lahnsteiner, F; Lametschwandtner, A; Patzner, R A; Adam, H

    1988-12-01

    The vascular architecture of male gonads of Blennius pavo is studied by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. Arterial supply to the gonads is by a branch of the first ventral segmental artery of the tail. From the surface of the gonads, this vessel gives rise to branches which supply testes, spermatic ducts, testicular glands, blind pouches, urogenital sinus and urogenital papilla. The testis has a rope-ladder-like capillary network around the seminiferous tubules, while in the testicular gland the capillary network is irregular in form. The spermatic ducts are found to have an exterior capillary network located in the compact connective tissue layer and an interior one, lying subepithelially. Urogenital sinus and urogenital papilla show a multilayered capillary network. Angioarchitecture in mature and immature gonads does not differ. PMID:3238381

  5. Molecular phylogeny of grunts (Teleostei, Haemulidae), with an emphasis on the ecology, evolution, and speciation history of New World species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The fish family Haemulidae is divided in two subfamilies, Haemulinae and Plectorhynchinae (sweetlips), including approximately 17 genera and 145 species. The family has a broad geographic distribution that encompasses contrasting ecological habitats resulting in a unique potential for evolutionary hypotheses testing. In the present work we have examined the phylogenetic relationships of the family using selected representatives of additional Percomorpha based on Bayesian and Maximum likelihood methods by means of three mitochondrial genes. We also developed a phylogenetic hypothesis of the New World species based on five molecular markers (three mitochondrial and two nuclear) as a framework to evaluate the evolutionary history, the ecological diversification and speciation patterns of this group. Results Mitochondrial genes and different reconstruction methods consistently recovered a monophyletic Haemulidae with the Sillaginidae as its sister clade (although with low support values). Previous studies proposed different relationships that were not recovered in this analysis. We also present a robust molecular phylogeny of Haemulinae based on the combined data of two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes. All topologies support the monophyly of both sub-families (Haemulinae, Plectorhinchinae). The genus Pomadasys was shown to be polyphyletic and Haemulon, Anisotremus, and Plectorhinchus were found to be paraphyletic. Four of seven presumed geminate pairs were indeed found to be sister species, however our data did not support a contemporaneous divergence. Analyses also revealed that differential use of habitat might have played an important role in the speciation dynamics of this group of fishes, in particular among New World species where extensive sample coverage was available. Conclusions This study provides a new hypothesis for the sister clade of Hamulidae and a robust phylogeny of the latter. The presence of para- and polyphyletic genera underscores the need for a taxonomic reassessment within the family. A scarce sampling of the Old World Pomadasys species prevents us to definitively point to a New World origin of the sub-familiy Hamulinae, however our data suggest that this is likely to be the case. This study also illustrates how life history habitat influences speciation and evolutionary trajectories. PMID:22537107

  6. A review of the glyptosternine catfish genus Exostoma Blyth 1860 from Thailand, with descriptions of two new species (Teleostei: Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Ng, Heok Hee; Vidthayanon, Chavalit

    2014-01-01

    We review members of the sisorid catfish genus Exostoma known from Thailand. Three species are recognized, of which two from the headwaters of the Chao Phraya River drainage in northwestern Thailand, are described here as new: E. effrenum and E. peregrinator. In addition to the two new species, E. berdmorei (which is here redescribed) is also known from the Salween River drainage in western Thailand. The three species can be distinguished from each other and other congeners by the morphologies of the adipose and caudal fins, as well as morphometric data for the eye diameter, head width, dorsal-to-adipose distance, body depth at anus, caudal-peduncle length, caudal-peduncle depth, and numbers of branched pectoral-fin rays and preanal vertebrae.  PMID:25283928

  7. Schistura sexnubes, a new diminutive river loach from the upper Mekong basin, Yunnan Province, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-01-01

    An ichthyofaunistic survey of Mekong tributaries in Lincang Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China yielded a new species of nemacheilid loach, herein described as Schistura sexnubes species nova. The new species is readily distinguishable from its congeners by the following combination of characters: 8+8 branched caudal fin rays, an incomplete lateral line, a dissociated caudal bar, a shallow caudal peduncle depth (7.6%-9.6% SL; respectively caudal peduncle 1.76-1.95 times longer than deep), a diminutive size of less than 50 mm SL, and no sexual dimorphism. A dorsocephalic pattern consisting of a black, forward directed V-shaped formation located between the nares, and a white, ovoid blotch on the upper operculum serves as an autapomorphy. PMID:24470455

  8. Vanmanenia maculata, a new species of hillstream loach from the Chang-Jiang Basin, South China (Teleostei: Gastromyzontidae).

    PubMed

    Yi, Wen-Jing; Zhang, E; Shen, Jian-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Vanmanenia maculata, new species, is described from the middle and lower Chang-Jiang basin in Hubei, Hunan, and Jiangxi provinces, South China. This new species, along with V. caldwelli, V. stenosoma, and V. striata, is distinguished from all other Chinese species of the genus by lacking secondary rostral barbels. It is distinct from V. caldwelli and V. striata in anus placement, rostral lobule shape, and body coloration, and from V. stenosoma in having a larger scaleless area on the ventral surface of the body and a shallower caudal-peduncle. Vanmanenia polylepis should be removed from the synonymy of V. pingchowensis and regarded as valid. PMID:24870994

  9. Development of the splanchnocranium in Prochilodus argenteus (Teleostei: Characiformes) with a discussion of the basal developmental patterns in the Otophysi.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Murilo; Vari, Richard P

    2015-02-01

    Development of the mandibular, hyoid and gill arches, which constitute the splanchnocranium, are described for Prochilodus argenteus, order Characiformes, one of the basal lineages of the Otophysi. Development was examined from just hatched larvae through juveniles using whole specimens cleared and counterstained for cartilage and bone as well as histological preparations. Observations are compared with the developmental trends reported for Cypriniformes, the basalmost clade of the Otophysi. Shortened developmental sequences for Prochilodus compared to the cypriniform Catostomus were discovered in the ontogeny of the ceratohyals, ceratobranchials 1-5, epibranchials 1-4 and the symplectic portion of the hyosymplectic. Prochilodus also differs from Catostomus in having the basihyal plus the anterior copula appearing at different stages of ontogeny rather than simultaneously. Contrary to previous assumptions, developmental information indicates that hypobranchial 4 as well as likely basibranchial 5 are present in Prochilodus. Various developmental patterns in Prochilodus considered basal for the Otophysi, the predominant component of the Ostariophysi, are likely conserved from patterns prevalent in basal groups in the Actinopterygii. PMID:25595854

  10. Oogenesis in the swamp eel Synbranchus marmoratus (Bloch, 1795) (Teleostei; Synbranchidae). Ovarian anatomy, stages of oocyte development and micropyle structure.

    PubMed

    Aldo Ravaglia, Mario; Maggese, María Cristina

    2002-12-01

    Synbranchus marmoratus (Synbranchidae), commonly known as the swamp eel, is a protogynous diandric teleost fish widely distributed throughout South America. The purpose of this work was to study the ovarian anatomy and to describe oocyte developmental stages in the swamp eel, Synbranchus marmoratus. S. marmoratus has a unique sacular ovary. It is covered by a conspicuous muscular wall, probably involved in an egg-releasing system acting as a peristaltic-like mechanism. The internal ovarian anatomy shows a U-shaped ovarian lamella delimiting a dorsal ovarian lumen. The microscopic study shows evidence of the existence of a germinal epithelium in the inner surface of the lamella, which contains germinal cells, pre-follicular cells and epithelial cells. The complete oogenesis process is divided into four stages: oogonia, primary growth, cortical alveoli and vitellogenesis. Besides, the ovulated oocytes, and atretic structures were described. The structure of the micropyle was studied by scanning electron microscopy (MEB). Near the animal pole the vitelline envelope forms crests that fuse together becoming furrow-like structures with a slightly spiraled direction that converge into the micropyle pit where is located the micropylar canal. Although the sex reversal process of Synbranchids has been subject of many studies, this is the first complete description of the ovarian anatomy and oogenesis. PMID:12619565

  11. Pollution biomonitoring in the Bizerte lagoon (Tunisia), using combined chemical and biomarker analyses in grass goby, Zosterisessor ophiocephalus (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Barhoumi, Badreddine; Clérandeau, Christelle; Gourves, Pierre-Yves; Le Menach, Karyn; El Megdiche, Yassine; Peluhet, Laurent; Budzinski, Hélène; Baudrimont, Magalie; Driss, Mohamed Ridha; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-10-01

    In this study, biological responses and contaminant levels in biological tissues were investigated in grass goby fish specimens (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) collected from five stations in a moderately polluted ecosystem, namely the Bizerte lagoon on the north coast of Tunisia. The following biomarkers were measured: muscular acetylcholinesterase (AChE), hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), lipoperoxidation (TBARS), condition factor (CF), and hepatosomatic index (HSI). These measurements were taken in parallel with the content of Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace metals (As, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, V, Zn, Ag, Cd, Co and Ni) in muscle tissue. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 20.09 ± 0.68 to 105.77 ± 42.58 ng g(-1) dw, PCB from 33.19 ± 6.25 to 126.28 ± 7.37 ng g(-1) dw, OCP from 11.26 ± 1.62 to 19.17 ± 2.06 ng g(-1) dw, and metals from 107.83 ± 1.83 to 187.21 ± 2.00 mg/kg dw. The highest levels of pollutants and biomarkers were observed at station S1, located in the Bizerte channel. Elevated EROD, GST and CAT activities, as well as TBARS levels in liver were positively correlated with tissue contaminant levels at station S1. Significant negative correlations were also found between hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) body burden with AChE activity in muscle at station S2. The integration of biological responses and contaminant tissue content indicated that certain areas of the Bizerte lagoon, notably station S1, are significantly impacted by various human activities, which likely represent a threat for aquatic wildlife. On the basis of these results, and due to its ecological characteristics, the grass goby appears a suitable indicator species for pollution biomonitoring in coastal marine areas along the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:25106667

  12. A new Pseudophoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) species from Southwestern Anatolia, with remarks on the distribution of the genus in western Anatolia

    PubMed Central

    Küçük, Fahrettin; Gülle, ?skender; Güçlü, S. Serkan; Çiftçi, Y?lmaz; Erdo?an, Ömer

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Pseudophoxinus burduricus sp. n. is described from drainages of Salda and Burdur lakes, southwestern Turkey. It is distinguished from other Anatolian Pseudophoxinus by a combination of characters: lateral line incomplete, with 21–39 (commonly 26–37) perforated scales and 47–57+1-2 scales in lateral series; 10½–12½ scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin, 3–4(5) scale rows between lateral line and the pelvic fin origin; dorsal fin commonly with 7½ branched rays; anal fin commonly with 6½ branched rays; 7–8(9) gill rakers on the first branchial arch; a faint and diffuse epidermal black stripe from eye to caudal fin base in alive and preserved individuals; mouth slightly subterminal, tip of mouth cleft on about level of lower margin of eye; snout rounded, its length greater than eye diameter. Comparison is given with all Pseudophoxinus species from western Anatolia. PMID:23950681

  13. Otolith morphology and hearing abilities in cave- and surface-dwelling ecotypes of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Ladich, Friedrich; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Cave fish have rarely been investigated with regard to their inner ear morphology, hearing abilities, and acoustic communication. Based on a previous study that revealed morphological differences in the saccular otolith between a cave and two surface populations of Poecilia mexicana, we checked for additional differences in utricular and lagenar otoliths and tested whether different populations have similar hearing sensitivities. We found pronounced differences in the shape of all three otoliths. Otoliths of the saccule and lagena from cave fish differed from those of surface fish in the features of the face oriented towards the sensory epithelium. In addition, otoliths of the utricle and lagena were significantly heavier in cave fish. Auditory sensitivities were measured between 100 and 1500 Hz, utilizing the auditory evoked potential recording technique. We found similar hearing abilities in cave and surface fish, with greatest sensitivity between 200 and 300 Hz. An acoustic survey revealed that neither ecotype produced species-specific sounds. Our data indicate that cave dwelling altered the otolith morphology in Atlantic mollies, probably due to metabolic differences. Different otolith morphology, however, did not affect general auditory sensitivity or acoustic behavior. PMID:20430090

  14. Karyotype and genome size of Iberochondrostoma almacai (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) and comparison with the sister-species I.lusitanicum

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to define the karyotype of the recently described Iberian endemic Iberochondrostoma almacai, to revisit the previously documented chromosome polymorphisms of its sister species I.lusitanicum using C-, Ag-/CMA3 and RE-banding, and to compare the two species genome sizes. A 2n = 50 karyotype (with the exception of a triploid I.lusitanicum specimen) and a corresponding haploid chromosome formula of 7M:15SM:3A (FN = 94) were found. Multiple NORs were observed in both species (in two submetacentric chromosome pairs, one of them clearly homologous) and a higher intra and interpopulational variability was evidenced in I.lusitanicum. Flow cytometry measurements of nuclear DNA content showed some significant differences in genome size both between and within species: the genome of I. almacai was smaller than that of I.lusitanicum (mean values 2.61 and 2.93 pg, respectively), which presented a clear interpopulational variability (mean values ranging from 2.72 to 3.00 pg). These data allowed the distinction of both taxa and confirmed the existence of two well differentiated groups within I. lusitanicum: one that includes the populations from the right bank of the Tejo and Samarra drainages, and another that reunites the southern populations. The peculiar differences between the two species, presently listed as “Critically Endangered”, reinforced the importance of this study for future conservation plans. PMID:21637679

  15. Otolith morphology and hearing abilities in cave- and surface-dwelling ecotypes of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei: Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Ladich, Friedrich; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Cave fish have rarely been investigated with regard to their inner ear morphology, hearing abilities, and acoustic communication. Based on a previous study that revealed morphological differences in the saccular otolith between a cave and two surface populations of Poecilia mexicana, we checked for additional differences in utricular and lagenar otoliths and tested whether different populations have similar hearing sensitivities. We found pronounced differences in the shape of all three otoliths. Otoliths of the saccule and lagena from cave fish differed from those of surface fish in the features of the face oriented towards the sensory epithelium. In addition, otoliths of the utricle and lagena were significantly heavier in cave fish. Auditory sensitivities were measured between 100 and 1500Hz, utilizing the auditory evoked potential recording technique. We found similar hearing abilities in cave and surface fish, with greatest sensitivity between 200 and 300Hz. An acoustic survey revealed that neither ecotype produced species-specific sounds. Our data indicate that cave dwelling altered the otolith morphology in Atlantic mollies, probably due to metabolic differences. Different otolith morphology, however, did not affect general auditory sensitivity or acoustic behavior. PMID:20430090

  16. Comparative cytogenetics of two endangered leuciscine fish, Squalius aradensis and S. torgalensis (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), from the Iberian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Nabais, Catarina; Rampin, Massimiliano; Collares-Pereira, Maria João

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the description of the karyotypes of the endangered chubs Squalius aradensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998) and Squalius torgalensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998) is presented by means of conventional (Giemsa-staining, Chromomycin A3 (CMA3)-fluorescence, Silver-impregnation (Ag-NORs)) and molecular (fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA probe) protocols. These endemic sister-species have an allopatric but adjacent distribution in the most southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Diploid chromosome number was invariably 2n = 50 and karyotypes of both species were grossly similar, composed of metacentric and submetacentric elements with a reduced number of acrocentric pairs. Sequential staining using FISH with an 18S rDNA probe, CMA3 and Ag-NORs treatments revealed consistent positive signals located at the end of the short arms of a submetacentric chromosome pair, likely homologous in both species. While providing useful cytogenetic comparative data against other members of the genus Squalius Bonaparte, 1837, the work aimed to draw attention towards the conservation of two narrow-range and highly confined fish species. PMID:24260688

  17. Male mate choice and sperm allocation in a sexual/asexual mating complex of Poecilia (Poeciliidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Schlupp, I; Plath, M

    2005-06-22

    Male mate choice is critical for understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual/asexual mating complexes involving sperm-dependent, gynogenetic species. Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa) require sperm to trigger embryogenesis, but the males (e.g. Poecilia mexicana) do not contribute genes. Males benefit from mating with Amazon mollies, because such matings make males more attractive to conspecific females, but they might control the cost of such matings by providing less sperm to Amazon mollies. We examined this at the behavioural and sperm levels. P. mexicana males preferred to mate with, and transferred more sperm to conspecific females. However, if males mated with P. formosa, sperm was readily transferred. This underscores the importance of male choice in this system. PMID:17148157

  18. Male mate choice and sperm allocation in a sexual/asexual mating complex of Poecilia (Poeciliidae, Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Schlupp, I; Plath, M

    2005-01-01

    Male mate choice is critical for understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual/asexual mating complexes involving sperm-dependent, gynogenetic species. Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa) require sperm to trigger embryogenesis, but the males (e.g. Poecilia mexicana) do not contribute genes. Males benefit from mating with Amazon mollies, because such matings make males more attractive to conspecific females, but they might control the cost of such matings by providing less sperm to Amazon mollies. We examined this at the behavioural and sperm levels. P. mexicana males preferred to mate with, and transferred more sperm to conspecific females. However, if males mated with P. formosa, sperm was readily transferred. This underscores the importance of male choice in this system. PMID:17148157

  19. [Association of sardine fishery, Sardinella aurita (Teleostei: Clupeidae) and environmental variability of the coastal upwelling ecosystem of Nueva Esparta, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Gonz?lez, Leo W; Euán, Jorge; Eslava, Nora; Suniaga, Jesús

    2007-03-01

    The present research is an analysis of Spanish sardine fishing (Sardinella aurita) associated with some climatic and meteorologic parameters of the ecosystem from El Morro Nueva Esparta, Venezuela. The catch and environmental data from the area were taken in the period 1996-2000. Catch data as a function of wind speed, sea surface temperature, air temperature and rain were analyzed by means of simple lineal regression and multiple models. We found a positive correlation of catch with wind speed, and a negative correlation with sea surface temperature, air temperature, and rain. The multiple regression model with intercept had a poor fit, therefore, we made a model without intercept, which improve greatly the fit. A selection of the variables using the forward procedure verified that the independent variables "wind speed" and "air temperature" have a significant relation with catch (p < 0.001) at real time. This method suggests that sea surface temperature and rain have little influence on the catch, and suggests a major availability of resources in the months with low air temperature and the highest wind speed (January-June). Rev. PMID:18457137

  20. Marine-freshwater transitions are associated with the evolution of dietary diversification in terapontid grunters (Teleostei: Terapontidae).

    PubMed

    Davis, A M; Unmack, P J; Pusey, B J; Johnson, J B; Pearson, R G

    2012-06-01

    The ecological opportunities associated with transitions across the marine-freshwater interface are regarded as an important catalyst of diversification in a range of aquatic taxa. Here, we examined the role of these major habitat transitions and trophic diversification in a radiation of Australasian fishes using a new molecular phylogeny incorporating 37 Terapontidae species. A combined mitochondrial and nuclear gene analysis yielded a well-supported tree with most nodes resolved. Ancestral terapontids appear to have been euryhaline in habitat affiliation, with a single transition to freshwater environments producing all Australasian freshwater species. Mapping of terapontid feeding modes onto the molecular phylogeny-predicted carnivorous dietary habits was displayed by ancestral terapontids, which subsequently diversified into a range of additional carnivorous, omnivorous, herbivorous and detritivorous dietary modes upon transition to freshwater habitats. Comparative analyses suggested that following the freshwater invasion, the single freshwater clade has exhibited an increased rate of diversification at almost three times the background rate evident across the rest of the family. The marine-freshwater transition within Terapontidae appears to have resulted in substantial dietary radiation in freshwater environments, as well as increased lineage diversification rates relative to euryhaline-marine habitats. PMID:22519660

  1. Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea) of Lake Tanganyika: II: description of the first Cichlidogyrus spp. parasites from Tropheini fish hosts (Teleostei, Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Gillardin, Céline; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Pariselle, Antoine; Huyse, Tine; Volckaert, Filip A M

    2012-01-01

    Although Lake Tanganyika hosts the most diverse endemic cichlid fish assemblage, its monogenean parasite fauna has hardly been documented. The cichlid tribe Tropheini has generated great interest because of its systematic position within the Haplochromini s.l. and its diversity in trophic morphology, reproductive behaviour and population structure. It has the potential to host a diverse Monogenea fauna. Here, we describe the first Cichlidogyrus spp.: Cichlidogyrus steenbergei sp. n., Cichlidogyrus irenae sp. n. and Cichlidogyrus gistelincki sp. n. The three host species, Limnotilapia dardennii, Ctenochromis horei and Gnathochromis pfefferi, are all infected by a single unique Cichlidogyrus sp. The genital and haptoral structure of the new species suggests a close relationship, which might mirror the close affinities between the hosts within the Tropheini. Based on haptoral configuration, the new species belong to a morphological group within the genus containing parasites both of West African cichlids and of Haplochromini, and hence, do not represent a new organisation of the attachment organ (as has recently been described of congeners infecting the ectodine cichlid Ophthalmotilapia). PMID:21710349

  2. Genetic and Morphological Evidence Implies Existence of Two Sympatric Species in Cyathopharynx furcifer (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tetsumi; Hori, Michio

    2012-01-01

    Although the cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika are treated as a textbook example of adaptive radiation, many taxonomic problems remain unresolved. Cyathopharynx furcifer, which belongs to the currently monospecific genus Cyathopharynx, contains two colour morphs at the southern end of the lake: one has a yellow anal fin, and the other has a black anal fin. Some books for hobbyists of ornamental fish treat these morphs as different species, but taxonomic studies have neither mentioned the existence nor addressed the status of these colour morphs. In the present paper, we analysed these two colour morphs using mitochondrial, microsatellite, morphometric, and meristic data sets. Both molecular and morphological data allowed clear discrimination between these morphs, suggesting the existence of two distinct sympatric species. Three taxonomic species have been described in this genus, and only C. furcifer is currently considered valid. Observations of type specimens of these three nominal species will be needed to determine the scientific names of these colour morphs. PMID:22675655

  3. Evolutionary history of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Lamprologini (Teleostei: Perciformes) derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data.

    PubMed

    Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter; Duftner, Nina; Schelly, Robert; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2010-10-01

    Lake Tanganyika comprises a cichlid species flock with substrate-breeding and mouthbrooding lineages. While sexual selection via mate choice on male mating color is thought to boost speciation rates in mouthbrooding cichlids, this is not the case in substrate-breeding lamprologines, which mostly form stable pairs and lack sexual dichromatism. We present a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolution of the cichlid tribe Lamprologini, based upon mtDNA sequences and multilocus nuclear DNA (AFLP) markers. Twelve mtDNA clades were identified, seven of which were corroborated by the AFLP tree. The radiation is likely to have started about 5.3 MYA, contemporarily with that of the mouthbrooding C-lineage, and probably triggered by the onset of deep-water conditions in Lake Tanganyika. Neither the Congo- nor the Malagarazi River species form the most ancestral branch. Several conflicts in the mtDNA phylogeny with taxonomic assignments based upon color, eco-morphology and behavior could be resolved and complemented by the AFLP analysis. Introgressive hybridization upon secondary contact seems to be the most likely cause for paraphyly of taxa due to mtDNA capture in species involving brood-care helpers, while accidental hybridization best explains the para- or polyphyly of several gastropod shell breeders. Taxonomic error or paraphyly due to the survival of ancestral lineages appear responsible for inconsistencies in the genera Lamprologus and Neolamprologus. PMID:20601006

  4. Phylogenetic patterns in populations of Chilean species of the genus Orestias (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae): results of mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Lüssen, Arne; Falk, Thomas M; Villwock, Wolfgang

    2003-10-01

    Patterns of molecular genetic differentiation among taxa of the "agassii species complex" (Parenti, 1984) were analysed based on partial mtDNA control region sequences. Special attention has been paid to Chilean populations of Orestias agassii and species from isolated lakes of northern Chile, e.g., O. agassii, Orestias chungarensis, Orestias parinacotensis, Orestias laucaensis, and Orestias ascotanensis. Orestias tschudii, Orestias luteus, and Orestias ispi were analysed comparatively. Our findings support the utility of mtDNA control region sequences for phylogenetic studies within the "agassii species complex" and confirmed the monophyly of this particular lineage, excluding O. luteus. However, the monophyly of further morphologically defined lineages within the "agassii complex" appears doubtful. No support was found for the utility of these data sets for inferring phylogenetic relationships between more distantly related taxa originating from Lake Titicaca. PMID:12967616

  5. Gut length and mass in herbivorous and carnivorous prickleback fishes (Teleostei: Stichaeidae): ontogenetic, dietary, and phylogenetic effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donovan P. German; Michael H. Horn

    2006-01-01

    Relative gut length, Zihler’s index, and relative gut mass were measured in four species of prickleback fishes and the effects\\u000a of ontogeny, diet, and phylogeny on these gut dimensions were determined. Of the four species, Cebidichthys violaceus and Xiphister mucosus shift to herbivory with growth (>45 mm SL), whereas X. atropurpureus and Anoplarchus purpurescens remain carnivores. A. purpurescens belongs to a

  6. Crevice spawning behavior in Dionda dichroma , with comments on the evolution of spawning modes in North American shiners (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Mayden; Andrew M. Simons

    2002-01-01

    The crevice spawning behavior of Diondadichroma is described for the first time, andcompared to spawning behavior in the genusCyprinella. The evolution of crevice spawningwith respect to other spawning behaviors ofNorth American shiners is examined usingexplicitly phylogenetic hypotheses for thisgroup. We present evidence that broadcastspawning is plesiomorphic and all otherspawning behaviors are independently derived. There is evidence that crevice spawning hasevolved

  7. From conical to spatulate: intra- and interspecific changes in tooth shape in closely related cichlids (Teleostei; Cichlidae: Eretmodini).

    PubMed

    Vandervennet, E; Wautier, K; Verheyen, E; Huysseune, A

    2006-04-01

    The Eretmodini are closely related cichlids endemic to Lake Tanganyika with very divergent oral tooth shapes, ranging from spatulate in Eretmodus to conical in Tanganicodus. To study how closely related cichlids can generate such divergent tooth shapes, we investigated how the enamel organ directs the development of spatulate teeth in Eretmodus cf. cyanostictus (lineage A), both in ontogeny and in adults, and of conical teeth in adult Tanganicodus cf. irsacae, using 3D-reconstructions from serially sectioned tooth germs. The spatulate oral tooth shape that characterizes adult E. cf. cyanostictus (lineage A) is preceded early in ontogeny by a conical tooth shape. We propose two possible hypotheses to account for changes in the folding of the enamel organ (in particular its epithelio-mesenchymal boundary) capable of generating such distinct tooth shapes. Different arguments lead us to favor the hypothesis of an asymmetric growth and differentiation of the enamel organ, such that the tip of a conical tooth corresponds to one "corner" of a spatulate tooth. Applying current molecular models of tooth shape variation, this would imply the existence of asymmetric fields of inhibition. Whether such asymmetric growth reflects the reutilization of a simple mechanism operating in ontogeny has to be clarified. PMID:16429441

  8. Lepocreadiidae (Digenea) from the batfish of the genus Platax Cuvier (Teleostei: Ephippidae) from the southern Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Cribb, Thomas H

    2003-05-01

    The following species are described from Platax spp.: Neomultitestis aspidogastriformis n. sp., from P. teira, off Heron Island, Queensland, which can be distinguished from its congeners by the transversely elongate ventral sucker divided into three loculi and probably by testis number; Multitestis magnacetabulum Mamaev, 1970, from P. teira, off Heron Island, Queensland; Diploproctodaeum rutellum (Mamaev, 1970), from P. teira, off Heron Island, Queensland; Diploproctodaeum tsubameuo n. sp., from P. batavianus, from the Swain Reefs, off Queensland, which differs from its congeners in its overlapping, posteriorly attenuated testes and 38-55 ovarian lobes; and Diplocreadium sp., from P. batavianus, from the Swain Reefs, off Queensland. PMID:12815210

  9. A comparative study of Ligophorus uruguayense and L. saladensis (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Natalia C; Pariselle, Antoine; Pereira, Joaber; Agnese, Jean-Francois; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Vanhove, Maarten P M

    2015-01-01

    Representatives of Ligophorus Euzet et Suriano, 1977 were found on the gills of Mugil liza Valenciennes caught in southern Brazil. They were identified as Ligophorus uruguayense Failla Siquier et Ostrowski de Núñez, 2009 and Ligophorus saladensis Marcotegui et Martorelli, 2009, even though specific identification proved to be difficult due to inconsistencies in some diagnostic features reported for these two species. Therefore, a combined morphological and molecular approach was used to critically review the validity of these species, by means of phase contrast and confocal fluorescence microscopical examination of sclerotised hard parts, and assessing the genetic divergence between L. saladensis, L. uruguayense and their congeners using rDNA sequences. The main morphological differences between the two species relate to the shape of the accessory piece of the penis and the median process of the ventral bar. The accessory piece in L. uruguayense is shorter than in L. saladensis, has a cylindrical, convex upper lobe and straight lower lobe (vs with the distal tip of the lower lobe turning away from the upper lobe in the latter species). The ventral bar has a V-shaped anterior median part in L. uruguayense (vs U-shaped in L. saladensis). The two species are suggested to be part of a species complex together with L. mediterraneus Sarabeev, Balbuena et Euzet, 2005. We recommend to generalise such comparative assessment of species of Ligophorus for a reliable picture of the diversity and diversification mechanisms within the genus, and to make full use of its potential as an additional marker for mullet taxonomy and systematics. PMID:25960568

  10. Fishery of the Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) based on local ecological knowledge and fishery records in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; González-Salas, Carlos; Tuz-Sulub, Armin; Villegas-Hernández, Harold

    2009-09-01

    The Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara, a large-bodied (approximately 2.5 m TL, > 400 kg) and critically endangered fish (Epinephelidae), is highly vulnerable to overfishing. Although protected from fishing in many countries, its exploitation in Mexico is unregulated; a situation that puts its populations at risk. Fishery records of E. itajara are scarce, which prevents determination of its fishery status. This work aimed to elucidate the E. itajara fishery in the northern Yucatan Peninsula by 1) analyzing available catch records and 2) interviewing veteran fishermen (local ecological knowledge) from two traditional landing sites: Dzilam de Bravo and Puerto Progreso. Historic fishery records from two fishing cooperatives were analyzed in order to elucidate the current situation and offer viable alternatives for conservation and management. Catches have decreased severely. Local knowledge obtained from fishermen represented a very important source of information for reconstructing the fisheries history of this species. Conservation measures that incorporate regional and international regulations on critically endangered fish species are suggested. PMID:19928454

  11. Four new species of coral gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Gobiodon), with comments on their relationships within the genus

    PubMed Central

    Bogorodsky, Sergey V.; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of the coral-associated gobiid genus Gobiodon were discovered in the Red Sea. Although several of these species are common not only in the Red Sea but also in the Indian and western Pacific Ocean, they have not been described before. Detailed descriptions of the four species are based on morphological and molecular genetic (mitochondrial 12s and 16s rRNA) investigations. The new species, like most species of the genus, lack scales and have species-specific life colouration. Gobiodon bilineatus sp. nov. is the closest relative to G. quinquestrigatus (Valenciennes) and of G. sp. D (Munday et al.), and has five distinct, blue lines on the head as juveniles and subadults, which disappear in adults, and which are often uniformly orange-red with two distinct, vertical blue lines through each eye. Gobiodon irregularis sp. nov. has been confused with the former new species in the past, and is closely related to G. oculolineatus Wu, but is unmistakable in live colouration. Juveniles are characterised by a transparent body, red bars on the head with bluish to greyish interspaces, and irregular red lines and dots on the nape and dorsally on the body. Adults are usually uniformly brown or green-brown, with only remnants of the bars through the eye and below the orbit. Gobiodon ater sp. nov. is a small, entirely black species and can be easily confused with other black species, although it is genetically clearly distinct from G. ceramensis Bleeker and its black relatives. Gobiodon fuscoruber sp. nov. is likely to be the closest relative of G. ater sp. nov., but is uniformly reddish-brown or brown, has bright median fin margins (at least in the Red Sea), and grows considerably larger than G. ater. It has been genetically determined that G. fuscoruber sp. nov. is identical with an Indian Ocean/western Pacific species that has been called G. unicolor Castelnau by several authors. However, examination of the holotype of G. unicolor, including the original description, revealed that the type species and original description are clearly different from the species frequently called G. unicolor. The holotype resembles G. histrio (Valenciennes) and the name G. unicolor must therefore be considered a junior synonym of G. histrio. As a consequence, a new name for this species is provided. PMID:24511221

  12. Two new species of Hyphessobrycon (Teleostei: Characidae) from upper rio Tapajós basin on Chapada dos Parecis, central Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiago Pinto Carvalho; Vinicius Araújo Bertaco

    2006-01-01

    Two new species of Hyphessobrycon are described from the upper rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Hyphessobrycon melanostichos is distinguished from its congeners by the combination of a conspicuous longitudinal broad black band beginning on the posterior margin of orbit and reaching the tip of middle caudal fin rays, a distinct vertically elongate humeral spot, and 16 to 18 branched

  13. Phylogenetic relationships within the speciose family Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) based on multilocus analysis and extensive ingroup sampling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With nearly 1,100 species, the fish family Characidae represents more than half of the species of Characiformes, and is a key component of Neotropical freshwater ecosystems. The composition, phylogeny, and classification of Characidae is currently uncertain, despite significant efforts based on analysis of morphological and molecular data. No consensus about the monophyly of this group or its position within the order Characiformes has been reached, challenged by the fact that many key studies to date have non-overlapping taxonomic representation and focus only on subsets of this diversity. Results In the present study we propose a new definition of the family Characidae and a hypothesis of relationships for the Characiformes based on phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (4,680 base pairs). The sequences were obtained from 211 samples representing 166 genera distributed among all 18 recognized families in the order Characiformes, all 14 recognized subfamilies in the Characidae, plus 56 of the genera so far considered incertae sedis in the Characidae. The phylogeny obtained is robust, with most lineages significantly supported by posterior probabilities in Bayesian analysis, and high bootstrap values from maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses. Conclusion A monophyletic assemblage strongly supported in all our phylogenetic analysis is herein defined as the Characidae and includes the characiform species lacking a supraorbital bone and with a derived position of the emergence of the hyoid artery from the anterior ceratohyal. To recognize this and several other monophyletic groups within characiforms we propose changes in the limits of several families to facilitate future studies in the Characiformes and particularly the Characidae. This work presents a new phylogenetic framework for a speciose and morphologically diverse group of freshwater fishes of significant ecological and evolutionary importance across the Neotropics and portions of Africa. PMID:21943181

  14. Experimentally induced pigment changes in small African 'Barbus' (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): Synonymy of 'Barbus' amphigramma and 'Barbus' taitensis with 'Barbus' paludinosus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farm, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    Pigmentation in fishes is known to be variable both among individuals of a species and within individuals over time. Use of pigment characters for taxonomic diagnoses must, therefore, be carefully considered. I present experimental evidence showing that pigment characters previously considered diagnostic for three small African 'Barbus' species may differ between living and preserved specimens and that lasting changes in these characters can be induced experimentally by placing fishes in a different, less turbid environment. Lateral line pigmentation and presence of a spot on the caudal peduncle showed significant changes that resulted in different species identifications before and after the experiment. These pigment patterns are thereby shown to be labile, nontrenchant characters having little or no diagnostic utility. 'Barbus' amphigramma Boulenger, 1903, and 'Barbus' taitensis Gu??nther, 1894, are thus shown to be junior synonyms of 'Barbus' paludinosus Peters, 1852.

  15. Addressing gene tree discordance and non-stationarity to resolve a multi-locus phylogeny of the flatfishes (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes).

    PubMed

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Li, Chenhong; Munroe, Thomas A; Ballesteros, Jesus A; Ortí, Guillermo

    2013-09-01

    Non-homogeneous processes and, in particular, base compositional non-stationarity have long been recognized as a critical source of systematic error. But only a small fraction of current molecular systematic studies methodically examine and effectively account for the potentially confounding effect of non-stationarity. The problem is especially overlooked in multi-locus or phylogenomic scale analyses, in part because no efficient tools exist to accommodate base composition heterogeneity in large data sets. We present a detailed analysis of a data set with 20 genes and 214 taxa to study the phylogeny of flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) and their position among percomorphs. Most genes vary significantly in base composition among taxa and fail to resolve flatfish monophyly and other emblematic groups, suggesting that non-stationarity may be causing systematic error. We show a strong association between base compositional bias and topological discordance among individual gene partitions and their inferred trees. Phylogenetic methods applying non-homogeneous models to accommodate non-stationarity have relatively minor effect to reduce gene tree discordance, suggesting that available computer programs applying these methods do not scale up efficiently to the data set of modest size analysed in this study. By comparing phylogenetic trees obtained with species tree (STAR) and concatenation approaches, we show that gene tree discordance in our data set is most likely due to base compositional biases than to incomplete lineage sorting. Multi-locus analyses suggest that the combined phylogenetic signal from all loci in a concatenated data set overcomes systematic biases induced by non-stationarity at each partition. Finally, relationships among flatfishes and their relatives are discussed in the light of these results. We find support for the monophyly of flatfishes and confirm findings from previous molecular phylogenetic studies suggesting their close affinity with several carangimorph groups (i.e., jack and allies, barracuda, archerfish, billfish and swordfish, threadfin, moonfish, beach salmon, and snook and barramundi). PMID:23749787

  16. Evolutionary history of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Lamprologini (Teleostei: Perciformes) derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data

    PubMed Central

    Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter; Duftner, Nina; Schelly, Robert; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika comprises a cichlid species flock with substrate-breeding and mouthbrooding lineages. While sexual selection via mate choice on male mating color is thought to boost speciation rates in mouthbrooding cichlids, this is not the case in substrate-breeding lamprologines, which mostly form stable pairs and lack sexual dichromatism. We present a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolution of the cichlid tribe Lamprologini, based upon mtDNA sequences and multilocus nuclear DNA (AFLP) markers. Twelve mtDNA clades were identified, seven of which were corroborated by the AFLP tree. The radiation is likely to have started about 5.3 MYA, contemporarily with that of the mouthbrooding C-lineage, and probably triggered by the onset of deep-water conditions in Lake Tanganyika. Neither the Congo- nor the Malagarazi River species form the most ancestral branch. Several conflicts in the mtDNA phylogeny with taxonomic assignments based upon color, eco-morphology and behavior could be resolved and complemented by the AFLP analysis. Introgressive hybridization upon secondary contact seems to be the most likely cause for paraphyly of taxa due to mtDNA capture in species involving brood-care helpers, while accidental hybridization best explains the para- or polyphyly of several gastropod shell breeders. Taxonomic error or paraphyly due to the survival of ancestral lineages appear responsible for inconsistencies in the genera Lamprologus and Neolamprologus. PMID:20601006

  17. Evolutionary history of Otophysi (Teleostei), a major clade of the modern freshwater fishes: Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masanori Nakatani; Masaki Miya; Kohji Mabuchi; Kenji Saitoh; Mutsumi Nishida

    2011-01-01

    Background  Freshwater harbors approximately 12,000 fish species accounting for 43% of the diversity of all modern fish. A single ancestral\\u000a lineage evolved into about two-thirds of this enormous biodiversity (? 7900 spp.) and is currently distributed throughout\\u000a the world's continents except Antarctica. Despite such remarkable species diversity and ubiquity, the evolutionary history\\u000a of this major freshwater fish clade, Otophysi, remains largely

  18. DISTRIBUTION, ADVECfION, AND GROWTH OF LARVAE OF THE SOUTHERN TEMPERATE GADOID, MACRURONUSNOVAEZELANDIAE (TELEOSTEI: MERLUCCIIDAE), IN AUSTRALIAN COASTAL WATERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. THRESHER; B. D. BRUCE; D. M. FURLANI; J. S. GUNN

    ABSTRACf Ichthyoplankton surveys in southern Australian coastal waters indicate that larvae of the temperate gadoid, Macruro7l1U1 no1lQ.11Z1.'landiae, differed consistently in mean size and age between sample sites. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that larvae are being passively advected by longshore currents from a spawningarea on the west coast of Tasmania to habitats along the southeastern and eastern coasts.

  19. Comparative cytogenetics of ten species of cichlid fishes (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from the Araguaia River system, Brazil, by conventional cytogenetic methods.

    PubMed

    Valente, G Targino; Vitorino, C de Andrade; Cabral-de-Mello, D C; Oliveira, C; Souza, I Lima; Martins, C; Venere, P C

    2012-01-01

    Cichlids represent one of the most species-rich families of fishes and have attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists due to the rapid radiation occurring in some groups and the importance of some species in the world aquaculture. Cytogenetic analysis was conducted in 10 cichlid species from the Araguaia River, Amazon Basin, Brazil. The chromosome number was 2n=48 for all analyzed species except for Laetacara araguaiae Ottoni et Costa, 2009 (2n=44). Chromosomal polymorphism was detected only in Geophagus proximus (Castelnau, 1855), which exhibits an extra large submetacentric and and a dot-like chromosomes. Moreover, the C-banding revealed a general pericentromeric heterochromatic pattern and some additional blocks for some species. The heterochromatic blocks corresponding to AgNOR bearing regions were observed in all species and also corresponded to CMA3 positive blocks, which were observed in terminal regions. Besides the general conserved chromosomal and heterochromatin patterns for South American cichlids, the presence of GC-rich heterochromatin was quite different in the species Biotodoma cupido (Heckel, 1840), Geophagus proximus, Retroculus lapidifer (Castelnau, 1855), Crenicichla strigata Günther, 1862 and Heros efasciatus Heckel, 1840. The results suggest that independent events of heterochromatin modification occurred during chromosome evolution in the group, regardless of the conservation of macro-chromosomal structure. PMID:24260660

  20. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters.

    PubMed

    Hermida, M; Cruz, C; Saraiva, A

    2014-06-01

    A study was carried out on the gastrointestinal helminth communities of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from the Portuguese mainland and island waters. Fifteen helminth parasite species were detected, including the following new records in this host: the digeneans Accacladocoelium petasiporum, Brachyenteron helicoleni, Glomericirrus macrouri, Lecithocladium excisum, Lepocreadium album and Pachycreadium carnosum; the nematode Camallanus sp. and the acanthocephalan Rhadinorhynchus pristis. Infection levels were generally low. Samples from mainland waters had a significantly higher prevalence of digeneans than those from the islands, probably due to the greater availability of invertebrate intermediate hosts on the continental slope. The helminth community of P. bogaraveo from Azores was diverse but mostly composed of species that infected no more than a single host, whereas in Madeira the helminth community was very depauperate. Most helminth species exhibited niche preferences within the gastrointestinal tract of the host. Higher functional richness and evenness were obtained in helminth communities of P. bogaraveo from mainland waters, indicating a balanced use of available resources, which is suggestive of more stable gastrointestinal helminth communities in these waters. PMID:23182041

  1. Molecular and cytogenetic analysis of the telomeric (TTAGGG) n repetitive sequences in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joyce S. K. Chew; Claudio Oliveira; Jonathan M. Wright; Melanie J. Dobson

    2002-01-01

    The majority of chromosomes in Oreochromis niloticus, as with most fish karyotyped to date, cannot be individually identified owing to their small size. As a first step in establishing a physical map for this important aquaculture species of tilapia we have analyzed the location of the vertebrate telomeric repeat sequence, (TTAGGG)n, in O. niloticus. Southern blot hybridization analysis and a

  2. Functional microsatellite and possible selective sweep in natural populations of the black-chinned tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron (Teleostei, Cichlidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-François Agnèse; Béatrice Adépo-Gourène; Dorothy Nyingi

    2008-01-01

    The Prolactin I (PrlI) gene is a key locus involved in fish osmotic regulation. Two microsatellites, PrlI GT and PrlI AC, are present in the promoter region of this gene in tilapias. One of these microsatellite is associated to PrlI gene expression and growth rate. Aquaria reared individuals homozygous for long microsatellite alleles at the PrlI AC locus expressed less

  3. Not a simple case - A first comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for the Midas cichlid complex in Nicaragua (Teleostei: Cichlidae: Amphilophus).

    PubMed

    Geiger, Matthias F; McCrary, Jeffrey K; Schliewen, Ulrich K

    2010-09-01

    Nicaraguan Midas cichlids from crater lakes have recently attracted attention as potential model systems for speciation research, but no attempt has been made to comprehensively reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of this highly diverse and recently evolved species complex. We present a first AFLP (2793 loci) and mtDNA based phylogenetic hypothesis including all described and several undescribed species from six crater lakes (Apoyeque, Apoyo, Asososca Leon, Masaya, Tiscapa and Xiloá), the two great Lakes Managua and Nicaragua and the San Juan River. Our analyses demonstrate that the relationships between the Midas cichlid members are complex, and that phylogenetic information from different markers and methods do not always yield congruent results. Nevertheless, monophyly support for crater lake assemblages from Lakes Apoyeque, Apoyo, A. Leon is high as compared to those from L. Xiloá indicating occurrence of sympatric speciation. Further, we demonstrate that a 'three species' concept for the Midas cichlid complex is inapplicable and consequently that an individualized and voucher based approach in speciation research of the Midas cichlid complex is necessary at least as long as there is no comprehensive revision of the species complex available. PMID:20580847

  4. Development of electrical signalling in larvae of the African fish, Pollimyrus adspersus (Mormyridae, Teleostei): the patterns of interdischarge intervals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Kramer; Martin Postner

    1997-01-01

    The ontogenetic development of the overt motor and the electrical signalling behaviour in larvae of a West African elephantfish, Pollimyms adspersus, were studied. At an age of 35-40 days, hovering in mid-water was first observed. Before that time, the larvae moved only occasionally and rested in the nest that was guarded by the male parent. The very low electric organ

  5. Phylogenetic patterns in populations of Chilean species of the genus Orestias (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae): results of mitochondrial DNA analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Lüssen; Thomas M. Falk; Wolfgang Villwock

    2003-01-01

    Patterns of molecular genetic differentiation among taxa of the “agassii species complex” (Parenti, 1984) were analysed based on partial mtDNA control region sequences. Special attention has been paid to Chilean populations of Orestias agassii and species from isolated lakes of northern Chile, e.g., O. agassii, Orestias chungarensis, Orestias parinacotensis, Orestias laucaensis, and Orestias ascotanensis. Orestias tschudii, Orestias luteus, and Orestias

  6. Isolation and characterization of 13 polymorphic microsatellite loci in Hypostomus ancistroides (Teleostei, Loricariidae) and cross-amplification in related species.

    PubMed

    Galindo, B A; Ferreira, D G; Almeida, F S; Carlsson, J; Sofia, S H

    2015-06-01

    This study details 13 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci in the armoured catfish Hypostomus ancistroides, and assesses their utility for population genetic studies. The analysis of 30 individuals revealed a total of 99 different alleles (ranging from two to 15 alleles per locus), with an average of 7·62 alleles per locus, with observed and expected heterozygosities ranging from 0·103 to 0·931 and from 0·102 to 0·906, respectively. One of the 13 loci showed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, probably due to the presence of null alleles, inferred from the excess of homozygotes. PMID:25912318

  7. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 134:641652, 2005 [Article]Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005

    E-print Network

    Bonar, Scott A.

    nigro- maculatus, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, green sunfish L. cyanellus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, rainbow trout O. mykiss, warmouth

  8. Author's personal copy Research paper

    E-print Network

    Ladich, Friedrich

    -dwelling ecotypes of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei: Poeciliidae) Tanja Schulz-Mirbach a of Poecilia mexicana, we checked for additional differences in utricular and lagenar otoliths and tested ecotypes of the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mex-

  9. Behav Ecol Sociobiol (2003) 54:303309 DOI 10.1007/s00265-003-0625-0

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    2003-01-01

    populations of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei) Received: 18 February 2003 populations of the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana). Of these populations, one originated from a typical. Keywords Belostoma · Cave-fish · Mating tactics · Poecilia mexicana · Sexual harassment Introduction

  10. Phylogeny, diversity, and species delimitation of the North American Round-Nosed Minnows (Teleostei: Dionda), as inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Schönhuth, Susana; Hillis, David M; Neely, David A; Lozano-Vilano, Lourdes; Perdices, Anabel; Mayden, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    Accurate delimitation of species is a critical first step in protecting biodiversity. Detection of distinct species is especially important for groups of organisms that inhabit sensitive environments subject to recent degradation, such as creeks, springs, and rivers in arid or semi-desert regions. The genus Dionda currently includes six recognized and described species of minnows that live in clear springs and spring-fed creeks of Texas, New Mexico (USA), and northern Mexico, but the boundaries, delimitation, and characterization of species in this genus have not been examined rigorously. The habitats of some of the species in this genus are rapidly deteriorating, and many local populations of Dionda have been extirpated. Considering the increasing concerns over degradation of their habitat, and pending a more detailed morphological revision of the genus, we undertook a molecular survey based on four DNA regions to examine variation over the range of the genus, test species boundaries, and infer phylogenetic relationships within Dionda. Based on analyses of two mitochondrial (cytb and D-loop) and two nuclear (Rag1 and S7) DNA regions from specimens collected throughout the range of Dionda, we identified 12 distinct species in the genus. Formerly synonymized names are available for two of these species, and four other species remain undescribed. We also redefine the known range of six species. The limited distribution of several of the species, coupled with widespread habitat degradation, suggests that many of the species in this genus should be targets for conservation and recovery efforts. PMID:22056492

  11. Nuclear and mitochondrial data reveal high genetic divergence among Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of the Iberian killifish Aphanius iberus (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae).

    PubMed

    Perdices, A; Carmona, J A; Fernández-Delgado, C; Doadrio, I

    2001-09-01

    The molecular divergence and phylogenetic relationships of the Iberian populations of Aphanius iberus were established using allozymes and the complete cytochrome b gene sequence. Congruent results were found with both nuclear and mitochondrial molecular markers. The Mediterranean and Atlantic populations are clearly differentiated into two independent lineages. Their high molecular divergence suggests an early isolation, and the absence of gene flow among the populations indicates their independent evolution. The nuclear and mitochondrial data reveal monophyletic clustering of the two geographical lineages, but provide weak support for the population relationships. However, the mitochondrial results differentiated the Villena population as a distinct mitochondrial unit within the Mediterranean group. Geographically broad studies across the distribution range of A. iberus have helped to elucidate the patterns of diversification of this species. The genetic divergence found between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean populations is of the same order as those found among recognized species of cyprinodontids. The identification of two discrete evolutionary lineages has important implications for the conservation of this species, since its recovery requires the recognition and preservation of natural diversity. The Mediterranean and Atlantic lineages should be managed separately to avoid loss of their genetic identity, and the genetic uniqueness of the populations should be preserved by using wild stocks as the source of genetic diversity in captive breeding programmes. PMID:11737278

  12. Phylogenetic structure of Zacco platypus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) populations on the upper and middle Chang Jiang (=Yangtze) drainage inferred from cytochrome b sequences.

    PubMed

    Perdices, A; Cunha, C; Coelho, M M

    2004-04-01

    We examined the genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships of some Chinese populations from the Chang Jiang (=Yangtze) drainage of the cyprinid Zacco platypus. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 64 individuals from 6 upper and middle tributaries of the Sichuan and Hunan Provinces to assess their population structure and systematics. The combined analyses of the phylogenetic information and the population structure suggested that Chinese Z. platypus consist of four distinct mtDNA lineages which exhibit high genetic variation and haplotypic diversity (Zacco A-D). The high molecular divergence observed among Zacco A-D mtDNA lineages (TrN+I (0.76) distance, mean 8.9%+/-1.7%) and their phylogeographic structure indicate that all four lineages have evolved independently. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicates that most of the genetic variation observed is found among the four Zacco mtDNA lineages (thetaCT = 0.94) suggesting restricted gene flow among the Chang Jiang populations. Long-term interruption of gene flow was also evidenced by thetaST values higher than 0.9 that could be favoured by the discontinuous distributions of the lineages inhabiting upper (Sichuan Province) and middle (Hunan Province) Chang Jiang tributaries. The significant correlation between the geographic and genetic distances provide support for the importance of geographic discontinuity in shaping the Zacco genetic structure. Nested clade analysis (NCA) results were congruent with phylogenetic relationships recovered and confirm the genetic distinctiveness of four independent Zacco groups. These four groups correspond to the four Zacco A-D mtDNA lineages recovered in the phylogeny and were defined by nucleotide synapomorphies permitting bootstrapped and Bayesian confidence of 95% or greater. The high level of mitochondrial sequence divergence separating all Zacco mtDNA lineages suggested that the Z. platypus populations from the Chang Jiang drainage probably correspond to four different species. PMID:15019619

  13. Phylogeography of Rhinichthys cataractae (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): pre-glacial colonization across the Great Continental Divide and Pleistocene diversification within the Rio Grande drainage 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Dae Min

    2013-09-16

    The longnose dace, Rhinichthys cataractae, is a primary freshwater fish inhibiting riffle habitats in small headwater rivers and streams across the North American continent, including drainages east and west of the Continental Divide. Phylogenetic...

  14. Delimiting the Origin of a B Chromosome by FISH Mapping, Chromosome Painting and DNA Sequence Analysis in Astyanax paranae (Teleostei, Characiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Duílio M. Z. de A.; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Daniel, Sandro Natal; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Cláudio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Foresti, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    Supernumerary (B) chromosomes have been shown to contain a wide variety of repetitive sequences. For this reason, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) is a useful tool for ascertaining the origin of these genomic elements, especially when combined with painting from microdissected B chromosomes. In order to investigate the origin of B chromosomes in the fish species Astyanax paranae, these two approaches were used along with PCR amplification of specific DNA sequences obtained from the B chromosomes and its comparison with those residing in the A chromosomes. Remarkably, chromosome painting with the one-arm metacentric B chromosome probe showed hybridization signals on entire B chromosome, while FISH mapping revealed the presence of H1 histone and 18S rDNA genes symmetrically placed in both arms of the B chromosome. These results support the hypothesis that the B chromosome of A. paranae is an isochromosome. Additionally, the chromosome pairs Nos. 2 or 23 are considered the possible B chromosome ancestors since both contain syntenic H1 and 18S rRNA sequences. The analysis of DNA sequence fragments of the histone and rRNA genes obtained from the microdissected B chromosomes showed high similarity with those obtained from 0B individuals, which supports the intraspecific origin of B chromosomes in A. paranae. Finally, the population hereby analysed showed a female-biased B chromosome presence suggesting that B chromosomes in this species could influence sex determinism. PMID:24736529

  15. An invasive lineage of sculpins, Cottus sp. (Pisces, Teleostei) in the Rhine with new habitat adaptations has originated from hybridization between old phylogeographic groups

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Arne W; Freyhof, Jörg; Stemshorn, Kathryn C; Tautz, Diethard

    2005-01-01

    Fish abundance surveys in the Rhine system have shown in the past two decades that there is a rapid upriver invasion of a freshwater sculpin of the genus Cottus. These fish are found in habitats that are atypical for the known species Cottus gobio, which is confined to small cold streams within the Rhine drainage. Phylogeographic analysis based on mitochondrial haplotypes and diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms indicates that the invasive sculpins are hybrids between two old lineages from the River Scheldt drainage and the River Rhine drainage, although it is morphologically more similar to the Scheldt sculpins. Most importantly, however, the invasive population possesses a unique ecological potential that does not occur in either of the source populations from the Rhine or the Scheldt, which allows the colonization of new habitats that have previously been free of sculpins. Microsatellite analysis shows that the new lineage is genetically intermediate between the old lineages and that it forms a distinct genetic group across its whole expansion range. We conclude that hybridization between long separated groups has lead to the fast emergence of a new, adaptationally distinct sculpin lineage. PMID:16243698

  16. Ligophorus pilengas n. sp. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from the introduced So-iuy mullet, Mugil soiuy (Teleostei: Mugilidae), in the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Sarabeev, Volodimir Leonidovich; Balbuena, Juan Antonio

    2004-04-01

    The monogenean Ligophorus chabaudi was originally described on the gills of the flathead mullet, Mugil cephalus, and was subsequently reported on the So-iuy mullet, Mugil soiuy. However, the morphology of sclerotized parts and multivariate statistical analyses suggest that the form from the So-iuy mullet represents a new species. This study provides a description of the new species Ligophorus pilengas n. sp. and provides additional morphological data concerning the morphology of the ventral bar that might be useful for the diagnosis of Ligophorus. Ligophorus pilengas n. sp. is the second species of Ligophorus reported on the So-iuy mullet. Zoogeographical records indicate that L. pilengas n. sp. was probably introduced to the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov from the western Pacific Ocean together with its host. PMID:15165041

  17. Redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) and description of a new species from freshwater cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo

    2013-05-01

    A redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado (An Inst Biol Univ Nal Autón Méx, Ser Zool 49:35-47, 1978) is presented, based on adult specimens collected from the type host Paraneetroplus fenestratus from the type location, the Lago de Catemaco lake, Veracruz state, Mexico, and its presence is recorded in other cichlids. Detailed studies of N. (N.) golvani using light microscopy revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported features, such as the size and shape of fully developed adult males and females, and the structure of the eggs. Morphological variability in N. (N.) golvani is described. Based on these data, the geographic distribution of this species is documented. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) panucensis n. sp. is described from Herichthys labridens (Pellegrin), Amatitlania nigrofasciata (Günther), and Herichthys cyanoguttatus Baird and Girard (all of them Cichlidae), collected in the Río Atlapexco, a tributary to the upper Río Panuco basin, Hidalgo State, Mexico. This new species stand up alone because of its minute proboscis (? 50?×?60, ? 42-55 (48.5)?×?48-63 (57.7)) and anterior hooks (? 27-30 (28.8)?×?3-5 (4), ? 28-32 (30)?×?5 (5)). A key to the species of Neoechinorhynchus recorded from freshwater fishes in Central and South America is included. PMID:23532542

  18. Description of karyotype in Hypostomus regani (Ihering, 1905) (Teleostei, oricariidae) from the Piumhi river in Brazil with comments on karyotype variation found in Hypostomus.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Neto, Ernani de Oliveira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Moreira-Filho, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    The paper represents a comparative cytogenetic analysis of three populations of Hypostomus regani in Brazil.Two populations belong to the Upper Paraná River Basin and the third one, the karyotype of which is described for the first time, was probably introduced into the São Francisco River Basin through transposition from the Piumhi River. Karyotype features of populations of Hypostomus regani from the Piracicaba and Tietê River Basins are also discussed. The occurrence of Hypostomus regani in the São Francisco River Basin is reported for the first time here. The study also revealed distinct differences in the location of the Ag-NORs between the analyzed populations that enable individuals from the Piumhi River, Mogi-Guaçu River and Tietê River to be distinguished from one another. Thus, the data obtained indicate the possibility of geographic variation fixing different karyotypes even in the same basin of origin. PMID:24260625

  19. The Gyrodactylus (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) parasite fauna of freshwater sand gobies (Teleostei, Gobioidei) in their centre of endemism, with description of seven new species.

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Maarten P M; Economou, Alcibiades N; Zogaris, Stamatis; Giakoumi, Sofia; Zanella, Davor; Volckaert, Filip A M; Huyse, Tine

    2014-02-01

    While Gobioidei comprises showcases of (adaptive) radiation, the scientific interest they yielded did not ensure full understanding of goby biodiversity. Even in a well-studied region like Europe, wide knowledge gaps remain. Sand gobies represent one of the few clades whose monogenean parasites have been thoroughly studied. However, in the Balkans, part of the sand gobies' centre of endemism, these parasites were unstudied. We focus on Greek and Croatian freshwater gobies. From five sand goby species, the first parasites are reported, describing seven new Gyrodactylus species. Economidichthys pygmaeus harbours Gyrodactylus benedeni sp. n. and Gyrodactylus dorlodoti sp. n. Its congener E. trichonis hosts G. meelkopae sp. n. Knipowitschia milleri was found to host G. charon sp. n., K. thessala is infected by G. bios sp. n., and K. croatica by G. douglasadamsi sp. n. and G. hellemansi sp. n. Gyrodactylus bubyri was found on its type host K. caucasica. A diverse parasite fauna is expected for a region known for its biodiversity and endemism. The contribution of parasites to species richness in such hotspots is overlooked. The observed species richness per host is rather low compared to the better-studied eastern Atlantic sand gobies. Host vicariance is considered to mediate parasite specificity in this fauna. Some new flatworm species display unique morphological features, such as the remarkable size of the marginal hook sickle proper compared to its foot in the Economidichthys parasites, or a characteristically kinked marginal hook sickle in G. douglasadamsi sp. n. These features reflect their hosts' endemism in the Balkans. PMID:24288050

  20. Population genetic evidence for the east–west division of the narrow-barred Spanish mackerel ( Scomberomorus commerson, Perciformes: Teleostei) along Wallace’s Line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zohrah Haji Sulaiman; Jennifer R. Ovenden

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA D-loop (control) region (426-bp) was used to infer the genetic structure of Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) from populations in Southeast Asia (Brunei, East and West Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, and China) and northern\\u000a Australia (including western Timor). An east–west division along Wallace’s Line was strongly supported by a significant AMOVA,\\u000a with 43% of the total sequence variation partitioned

  1. Rangewide microsatellite phylogeography of the endangered tidewater goby, Eucyclogobius newberryi (Teleostei: Gobiidae), a genetically subdivided coastal fish with limited marine dispersal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dent A. Earl; Kristina D. Louie; Carolyne Bardeleben; Camm C. Swift; David K. Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    The federally endangered tidewater goby, Eucyclogobius newberryi, is the most locally differentiated vertebrate with marine dispersal on the California Coast. It inhabits seasonally closed\\u000a estuaries along the California coast; a habitat heavily impacted by anthropogenic filling and artificial opening, and exhibits\\u000a varied metapopulation behavior as a consequence of hydrologic variation and anthropogenic impact. We describe 19 taxon-specific\\u000a microsatellite loci, and

  2. Effects of orally administered chemotherapeutics (quinine, salinomycin) against Henneguya sp. Thelohán, 1892 (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), a gill parasite in the tapir fish Gnathonemus petersii Günther, 1862 (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Dohle, Angelika; Schmahl, Günter; Raether, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Hartmut; Ritter, Günter

    2002-09-01

    When given orally, quinine or salinomycin cause irreversible damage to the plasmodial developmental stages of Henneguya sp., a gill parasite in the tapir fish Gnathonemus petersii. Naturally infected tapir fish measured 75-169 mm in total length and their total weight ranged over 4.3-11.7 g. The fish bore 7-77 plasmodia in their gill arches. Medicinal food containing either quinine (5 g/1000 g food) or salinomycin (0.075 g/1000 g food) was given once a day to naturally infected fish in a food chain via water fleas ( Daphnia spp) for a period of 3, 6, or 9 days. From the monitored feeding of the tapir fish and weight determinations of the water fleas, it was calculated that gross uptake was 18.5 micro g/kg body weight fish daily for pure salinomycin and was 1.25 mg/kg body weight daily for quinine. After the end of the experiments, the fish were sacrificed and the plasmodia were carefully prepared from the gill arches and processed for transmission electron microscopy. As seen by ultrastructure investigations, for both substances the grade of damage in the parasites correlated positively with the period of application. When quinine was given for a 3-day period, the trophozoite ecto- and endoplasm exerted numerous vacuoles, caused by the drug, and the presporogonous and the pansporoblastic stages were malformed. Following a 6-day period, numerous abortive polar capsules were found in the trophozoite cytoplasm. To a large extent, the limiting membranes of the polaroblasts and valvogenic cells were destroyed. In addition, deep clefts between the polaroblasts, the valvogenic cells and between the two sporoblasts were observed. Following a 9-day treatment, all damage increased and, in addition, generative cells and two-cell stages were no longer detectable. As a first sign for the effects of salinomycin, following a 3-day treatment, a shrinking of the whole plasmodia occurred and the sutures in the pansporoblasts were enlarged. The polar capsules were malformed and the zonar structures of the polar filament were no longer detectable. The sporoplasmosomes were more electron-pale than those of the control samples. After a 9-day treatment, the pansporoblasts were completely destroyed. Under the experimental conditions chosen, both compounds were very well tolerated by the fishes. PMID:12172820

  3. Effects of orally administered chemotherapeutics (quinine, salinomycin) against Henneguya sp. Thelohán, 1892 (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), a gill parasite in the tapir fish Gnathonemus petersii Günther, 1862 (Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelika Dohle; Günter Schmahl; Wolfgang Raether; Hartmut Schmidt; Günter Ritter

    2002-01-01

    When given orally, quinine or salinomycin cause irreversible damage to the plasmodial developmental stages of Henneguya sp., a gill parasite in the tapir fish Gnathonemus petersii. Naturally infected tapir fish measured 75-169 mm in total length and their total weight ranged over 4.3-11.7 g. The fish bore 7-77 plasmodia in their gill arches. Medicinal food containing either quinine (5 g\\/1000

  4. Post-glacial expansion into the Paleozoic Plateau: evidence of an Ozarkian refugium for the Ozark minnow Notropis nubilus (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Berendzen, P B; Dugan, J F; Gamble, T

    2010-10-01

    Genetic variation was examined within the Ozark minnow Notropis nubilus using complete mtDNA cytochrome b gene sequences from 160 individuals representing 30 localities to test hypotheses on the origin of the distribution. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three strongly supported clades of haplotypes consistent with geographic distributions: a clade from the Western Ozarks, a clade from the Southern Ozarks and a clade from the Northern Ozarks and upper Mississippi River basin. The estimated mean ages of these clades indicated that they diverged during pre-Illinoian glacial cycles extending from the late Pliocene into the early Pleistocene. Results of demographic analyses based on coalescent approaches supported the hypothesis that the Paleozoic Plateau was not a refugium for N. nubilus during periodic glacial advances. There is evidence of a genetic signature of northern expansion into the Paleozoic Plateau from a Southern Ozarkian refugium. Populations expanded out of drainages in the Northern Ozarks into the Paleozoic Plateau during the late Pleistocene. Subsequently, the two regions were isolated due to the recent extirpation of intervening populations caused by the loss of suitable habitat. PMID:21039494

  5. Genetic heterogeneity reveals on-going speciation and cryptic taxonomic diversity of stream-dwelling gudgeons (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the middle Danubian hydrosystem (Hungary).

    PubMed

    Takács, Péter; Bihari, Péter; Er?s, Tibor; Specziár, András; Szivák, Ildikó; Bíró, Péter; Csoma, Eszter

    2014-01-01

    Although stream-dwelling gudgeons (Cyprinidae, genus: Gobio) are widespread in Central Europe, the taxonomy of this group and the distribution of its species are still unexplored in detail. The aims of our study are to ascertain taxonomic composition and distribution of the former Gobio gobio superspecies in the inner area of the Carpathian Basin. Since the presence of cryptic species is suspected in this area, we examined the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Central European Gobio taxa by sequencing the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtCR). Additionally, we characterized the genetic structure of 27 stream-dwelling gudgeon populations of this area by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP). Results of mtCR analysis proved the presence of three species already known as G. obtusirostris (dominant in NW-Hungary), G. gobio (sporadic) and G. carpathicus (sporadic). Additionally, the analysis revealed the existence of one doubtful taxon, G. sp1 (dominant in NE-Hungary), and a new isolated haplogroup (dominant in SW-Hungary). Although Network analysis showed significant detachment among haplogroups, their genetic distances were quite small. Therefore Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed weak nodal support for the branching pattern both for newly described haplotypes, and for the already accepted species. AFLP data showed distinct population structure and a clear pattern of isolation was revealed by distance of stocks. At the same time, level of separation was not affected by the altitudinal position of sites. Moreover we found three major clusters of populations which were separated according to hydrographic regions, and corresponded to the findings of mtCR analysis. Our results suggest the on-going speciation of gudgeons in the Carpathian Basin, however the separation of haplogroups seems to only be an intermediate phase. The discovered natural pattern seems to be only slightly influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Additionally our results put into question the suitability of the recently accepted within Gobio genus taxonomy. PMID:24824751

  6. Salinity tolerance of non-native Asian swamp eels (Teleostei: Synbranchidae) in Florida, USA: Comparison of three populations and implications for dispersal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, P.J.; Nico, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Three populations of non-native Asian swamp eels are established in peninsular Florida (USA), and comprise two different genetic lineages. To assess potential for these fish to penetrate estuarine habitats or use coastal waters as dispersal routes, we determined their salinity tolerances. Swamp eels from the three Florida populations were tested by gradual (chronic) salinity increases; additionally, individuals from the Miami population were tested by abrupt (acute) salinity increases. Results showed significant tolerance by all populations to mesohaline waters: Mean survival time at 14 ppt was 63 days. The Homestead population, a genetically distinct lineage, exhibited greater tolerance to higher salinity than Tampa and Miami populations. Acute experiments indicated that swamp eels were capable of tolerating abrupt shifts from 0 to 16 ppt, with little mortality over 10 days. The broad salinity tolerance demonstrated by these experiments provides evidence that swamp eels are physiologically capable of infiltrating estuarine environments and using coastal waters to invade new freshwater systems. ?? 2009 US Government.

  7. Involvement of the gonadal germinal epithelium during sex reversal and seasonal testicular cycling in the protogynous swamp eel, Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795 (Teleostei, Synbranchidae).

    PubMed

    Lo Nostro, F; Grier, H; Andreone, L; Guerrero, G A

    2003-07-01

    The swamp eel, Synbranchus marmoratus, is a protogynous, diandric species. During sex reversal, the ovarian germinal epithelium, which forms follicles containing an oocyte and encompassing follicle cells during the female portion of the life cycle, produces numerous invaginations, or acini, into the ovarian stroma. Within the acini, the gonia that formerly produced oocytes become spermatogonia, enter meiosis, and produce sperm. The acini are bounded by the basement membrane of the germinal epithelium. Epithelial cells of the female germinal epithelium, which formerly became follicle (granulosa) cells, now become Sertoli cells in the developing testis. Subsequently, lobules and testicular ducts form. The swamp eel testis has a lobular germinal compartment in both primary and secondary males, although the germinal compartment in testes of secondary males resides within the former ovarian lamellae. The germinal compartment, supported by a basement membrane, is composed of Sertoli and germ cells that give rise to sperm. Histological and immunohistochemical techniques were used to describe the five reproductive classes that were observed to occur during the annual reproductive cycle: regressed, early maturation, mid-maturation, late maturation, and regression. These classes are differentiated by the presence of continuous or discontinuous germinal epithelia and by the types of germ cells present. Synbranchus marmoratus has a permanent germinal epithelium. Differences between the germinal compartment of the testes of primary and secondary males were not observed. PMID:12740902

  8. Evaluation of genotoxicity using the micronucleus assay and nuclear abnormalities in the tropical sea fish Bathygobius soporator (Valenciennes, 1837) (Teleostei, Gobiidae)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities assays have been used increasingly to evaluate genotoxicity of many compounds in polluted aquatic ecossystems. The aim of this study is to verify the efficiency of the micronucleus assay and nuclear abnormality assay in field and laboratory work, when using erythrocytes of the tropical marine fish Bathygobius soporator as genotoxicity biomarkers. Gill peripheral blood samples were obtained from specimens of Bathygobius soporator. In order to investigate the frequencies of micronuclei and to assess the sensitivity of species, the results were compared with samples taken at the reference site and maintained in the laboratory, and fish treated with cyclophosphamide. The micronucleus assay was efficient in demonstrating field pollution and reproducing results in the labotatory. There were significant higher frequencies of micronuclei in two sites subject to discharge of urban and industrial effluents. The nuclear abnormality assay did not appear to be an efficient tool for genotoxicity evaluation when compared with field samples taken at a reference site in laboratory, with a positive control. PMID:21637697

  9. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences?

    PubMed Central

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-01-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed. PMID:25606392

  10. Pseudanthocotyloides heterocotyle (van Beneden, 1871) Euzet & Prost, 1969 (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea: Mazocraeidae), a parasite of herring Clupea harengus L. and sprat Sprattus sprattus L. (Teleostei: Clupeidae).

    PubMed

    Rahimian, H; Longshaw, M; MacKenzie, K; Thulin, J

    1999-03-01

    A total of 690 herring Clupea harengus L. and 88 sprat Sprattus sprattus L. caught off the west coast of Sweden, in the North Sea and off the west and south coasts of the United Kingdom, were examined for gill parasites. The monogenean Pseudanthocotyloides heterocotyle (van Beneden, 1871) Euzet & Prost, 1969 was found in 38 (5.5%) herring and one (1.1%) sprat. The parasite was significantly (P<0.05) more common off the west coast of Sweden than elsewhere and most specimens (62.5%) were found on the pseudobranchs. Only the smaller herring were infected. P. heterocotyle is redescribed and its taxonomy discussed, together with the possibility of host and parasite misidentification in previous reports. PMID:10613537

  11. Schistura megalodon species nova, a new river loach from the Irra-waddy basin in Dehong, Yunnan, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-09-01

    A new species of river loach, Schistura megalodon sp. nov., is described from the Irrawaddy basin in Yingjiang County, Dehong Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The following combination of diagnostic characters serve to distinguish it from all other congeners in the given zoogeographical region: a large processus dentiformes in the upper jaw, a short pre-anus length of 65.4%-66.3% of SL, long paired fins (pectoral: 20.8%-24.2% of SL; pelvic: 17.9%-20.6% of SL), a wide body of 9.7%-11.3% of SL at anal fin origin, an incomplete lateral line, the absence of an orbital lobe, and a oad and distinct basicaudal bar with forward extensions. PMID:25297074

  12. First description of monogenean parasites in Lake Tanganyika: the cichlid Simochromis diagramma (Teleostei, Cichlidae) harbours a high diversity of Gyrodactylus species (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea).

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Maarten P M; Snoeks, Jos; Volckaert, Filip A M; Huyse, Tine

    2011-03-01

    Lake Tanganyika harbours the most diverse endemic cichlid fish assemblage of Africa, but its monogenean fish parasites have not been investigated. Here we report, for the first time, on the Gyrodactylus parasites in this hotspot of fish biodiversity. Haptor morphometrics and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences revealed 3 new species on Zambian Simochromis diagramma: Gyrodactylus sturmbaueri n. sp., G. thysi n. sp. and G. zimbae n. sp. Their distinct morphology and strong genetic differentiation suggest that they belong to distant lineages within the genus Gyrodactylus, and phylogenetic reconstructions suggest affinities with other genera of gyrodactylids. Additional U-shaped haptoral plates in G. thysi n. sp. and a second large spine-like structure in the male copulatory organ of G. zimbae seem to represent new features for the genus. Such large diversity on a single host species can probably be explained by host-switching events during the course of evolution, in agreement with the generally accepted concept that ecological transfer is an important aspect of gyrodactylid speciation. Additional parasitological surveys on other host species, covering a broader phylogenetic and geographical range, should clarify the evolutionary history of Gyrodactylidae on cichlids in the African Great Lake and other parts of Africa. PMID:20946697

  13. Distinguishing between Incomplete Lineage Sorting and Genomic Introgressions: Complete Fixation of Allospecific Mitochondrial DNA in a Sexually Reproducing Fish (Cobitis; Teleostei), despite Clonal Reproduction of Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Choleva, Lukas; Musilova, Zuzana; Kohoutova-Sediva, Alena; Paces, Jan; Rab, Petr; Janko, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Distinguishing between hybrid introgression and incomplete lineage sorting causing incongruence among gene trees in that they exhibit topological differences requires application of statistical approaches that are based on biologically relevant models. Such study is especially challenging in hybrid systems, where usual vectors mediating interspecific gene transfers - hybrids with Mendelian heredity - are absent or unknown. Here we study a complex of hybridizing species, which are known to produce clonal hybrids, to discover how one of the species, Cobitis tanaitica, has achieved a pattern of mito-nuclear mosaic genome over the whole geographic range. We appplied three distinct methods, including the method using solely the information on gene tree topologies, and found that the contrasting mito-nuclear signal might not have resulted from the retention of ancestral polymorphism. Instead, we found two signs of hybridization events related to C. tanaitica; one concerning nuclear gene flow and the other suggested mitochondrial capture. Interestingly, clonal inheritance (gynogenesis) of contemporary hybrids prevents genomic introgressions and non-clonal hybrids are either absent or too rare to be detected among European Cobitis. Our analyses therefore suggest that introgressive hybridizations are rather old episodes, mediated by previously existing hybrids whose inheritance was not entirely clonal. Cobitis complex thus supports the view that the type of resulting hybrids depends on a level of genomic divergence between sexual species. PMID:24971792

  14. Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea) of Lake Tanganyika: III: Cichlidogyrus infecting the world's biggest cichlid and the non-endemic tribes Haplochromini, Oreochromini and Tylochromini (Teleostei, Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Muterezi Bukinga, Fidel; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Van Steenberge, Maarten; Pariselle, Antoine

    2012-11-01

    Lake Tanganyika is the deepest and oldest African Great Lake and of economic importance. While the diversity of its endemic cichlid radiations yielded scientific interest, a number of cichlid tribes have few representatives in the lake. Some of those, namely Oreochromini (ex-Tilapiini), Haplochromini and Tylochromini, reach higher species numbers in riverine systems. Conversely, the phylogenetic position of the monospecific and endemic Boulengerochromini is unclear. The oreochromines Oreochromis tanganicae and Oreochromis niloticus, the haplochromine Astatotilapia burtoni, the tylochromine Tylochromis polylepis and the boulengerochromine Boulengerochromis microlepis, the largest cichlid species worldwide, were surveyed for ancyrocephalid monogenean gill parasites. Five new species are proposed. Cichlidogyrus gillardinae sp. n. is described from A. burtoni, Cichlidogyrus mbirizei sp. n. from O. tanganicae and Cichlidogyrus nshomboi sp. n. from B. microlepis. T. polylepis harbours Cichlidogyrus mulimbwai sp. n., Cichlidogyrus muzumanii sp. n. and a third, presently undescribed species. Four species known from outside the Tanganyika Basin were retrieved on the oreochromines. The host species are scientific models or important in the sectors of fisheries or ornamental fish trade. Moreover, their phylogenetic positions render them well-suited to help elucidate the historic relationships between riverine and lacustrine African cichlids. In this framework, their Cichlidogyrus fauna is compared to congeners known from African rivers and to the few Tanganyika representatives described. While the parasites of Oreochromis, A. burtoni and T. polylepis are reminiscent of those infecting related hosts throughout Africa, B. microlepis hosts a Cichlidogyrus morphotype typical of Lake Tanganyika. This supports its placement within an endemic cichlid radiation. PMID:22983218

  15. Evaluating the resolution power of new microsatellites for species identification and stock delimitation in the Cape hakes Merluccius paradoxus and Merluccius capensis (Teleostei: Merlucciidae).

    PubMed

    Hoareau, T B; Klopper, A W; Dos Santos, S M R; Oosthuizen, C J; Bloomer, P

    2015-05-01

    The utility of 15 new and 17 previously published microsatellite markers was evaluated for species identification and stock delimitation in the deep-water hake Merluccius paradoxus and the shallow-water hake Merluccius capensis. A total of 14 microsatellites were polymorphic in M. paradoxus and 10 in M. capensis. Two markers could individually discriminate the species using Bayesian clustering methods and a statistical power analysis showed that the set of markers for each species is likely to detect subtle genetic differentiation (FST < 0·006) that will be valuable to delimit and characterize genetic stocks. PMID:25943151

  16. Population morphometric variation of the endemic freshwater killifish, Fundulus lima (Teleostei: Fundulidae), and its coastal relative F. parvipinnis from the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Alejandra Reyes-Valdez; Gorgonio Ruiz-Campos; Faustino Camarena-Rosales; José Luis Castro-Aguirre; Giacomo Bernardi

    The population morphometric variation of the endangered freshwater killifish (Fundulus lima) was evaluated and compared with that of its euryhaline coastal relatives (F. parvipinnis parvipinnis and F. p. brevis) on the basis of 384 specimens from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Forty five standardized body distances were compared\\u000a by means of discriminant function analysis (DFA). Sixteen body distances were significant

  17. Phylogeography of Rhinichthys cataractae (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): pre-glacial colonization across the Great Continental Divide and Pleistocene diversification within the Rio Grande drainage

    E-print Network

    Kim, Dae Min

    2013-09-16

    -genetic studies on fishes with a trans- continental distribution (e.g., Catostomus catostomus; McPhail and Taylor, 1999; Salvelinus confluentus; Taylor et al., 1999; Lota lota; Van Houdt et al., 2005) have provided evidence for post-glacial or late... and Wilson, 1998; Rempel and Smith, 1998) and predate the hypothesized post-glacial or late-Pleistocene dispersal of Catostomus catostomus (McPhail and Taylor, 1999), Salvelinus confluentus (Taylor et al., 1999) and Lota lota (Van Houdt et al., 2005) across...

  18. New data on the morphology of Comephoronema oschmarini (Nematoda, Cystidicolidae), a little-known gastrointestinal parasite of Lota lota (Teleostei) in Palaearctic Eurasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    František Moravec; Vladimíra Hanzelová; Daniel Gerdeaux

    2007-01-01

    The nematode Comephoronema oschmarini Trofimenko, 1974 (Cystidicolidae) was found in the stomach of the burbot Lota lota (Linnaeus) of Lake Geneva, Savoy, France, collected on 23 March 2000 [prevalence 60% (3\\/5); intensity of infection 2–66 (mean\\u000a 35)]. This material made it possible to study in detail the morphology of this so far little-known parasite, using both light\\u000a and scanning electron

  19. Genetic Heterogeneity Reveals On-Going Speciation and Cryptic Taxonomic Diversity of Stream-Dwelling Gudgeons (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the Middle Danubian Hydrosystem (Hungary)

    PubMed Central

    Takács, Péter; Bihari, Péter; Er?s, Tibor; Specziár, András; Szivák, Ildikó; Bíró, Péter; Csoma, Eszter

    2014-01-01

    Although stream-dwelling gudgeons (Cyprinidae, genus: Gobio) are widespread in Central Europe, the taxonomy of this group and the distribution of its species are still unexplored in detail. The aims of our study are to ascertain taxonomic composition and distribution of the former Gobio gobio superspecies in the inner area of the Carpathian Basin. Since the presence of cryptic species is suspected in this area, we examined the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Central European Gobio taxa by sequencing the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtCR). Additionally, we characterized the genetic structure of 27 stream-dwelling gudgeon populations of this area by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP). Results of mtCR analysis proved the presence of three species already known as G. obtusirostris (dominant in NW-Hungary), G. gobio (sporadic) and G. carpathicus (sporadic). Additionally, the analysis revealed the existence of one doubtful taxon, G. sp1 (dominant in NE-Hungary), and a new isolated haplogroup (dominant in SW-Hungary). Although Network analysis showed significant detachment among haplogroups, their genetic distances were quite small. Therefore Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed weak nodal support for the branching pattern both for newly described haplotypes, and for the already accepted species. AFLP data showed distinct population structure and a clear pattern of isolation was revealed by distance of stocks. At the same time, level of separation was not affected by the altitudinal position of sites. Moreover we found three major clusters of populations which were separated according to hydrographic regions, and corresponded to the findings of mtCR analysis. Our results suggest the on-going speciation of gudgeons in the Carpathian Basin, however the separation of haplogroups seems to only be an intermediate phase. The discovered natural pattern seems to be only slightly influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Additionally our results put into question the suitability of the recently accepted within Gobio genus taxonomy. PMID:24824751

  20. Evaluation of pre- and post-zygotic mating barriers, hybrid fitness and phylogenetic relationship between Cyprinodon variegatus variegatus and Cyprinodon variegatus hubbsi (Cyprinodontiformes, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Brix, K V; Grosell, M

    2013-04-01

    The euryhaline fish Cyprinodon variegatus variegatus (Cvv) is capable of tolerating ambient salinities ranging from 0.3 to 167 g l(-1) , but incapable of long-term survival in freshwater (< 2 mM Na(+) ). However, a population of this species, now designated as a subspecies (Cyprinodon variegatus hubbsi; Cvh), has been isolated in several freshwater (0.4-1 mM Na(+) ) lakes in central Florida for the past ~150 ky. We previously demonstrated that Cvh has a significantly higher affinity for Na(+) uptake suggesting that it has adapted to its dilute freshwater environment. We here evaluate whether Cvh should be considered a separate species by characterizing pre- and post-zygotic isolation, Na(+) transport characteristics of the two populations and their hybrids, and developing a molecular phylogeny of Cvv and Cvh populations in Florida using mtDNA sequence data. We found evidence of partial prezygotic isolation with Cvv females mating almost exclusively (89%) with con-specific males in choice mating experiments. Partial post-zygotic isolation was also observed with significant (59-89%) reductions in hatching success of hybrid embryos compared with con-specific embryos. Na(+) uptake kinetics in hybrids (both Cvv x Cvh and Cvh x Cvv) bred and raised under common garden conditions were intermediate to Cvh (high affinity) and Cvv (low affinity) indicating that observed differences are genetically based. Similar observations were made with respect to short-term (96 h) survival of juveniles acutely transferred from 7 mM Na(+) to a range of more dilute (0.1-2 mM Na(+) ) freshwater. Finally, although phylogenetic analysis of Cvv and Cvh populations using mtDNA sequence for ND2 were unable to fully resolve a polytomy between Cvh and Cvv populations from northeastern Florida, these data do not falsify the hypothesis that Cvh is of monophyletic origin. Overall, the available data suggest that Cvh should be considered a separate species or at a minimum an evolutionarily significant unit. PMID:23480788

  1. Karyotype, C-banding and AgNORs of two endemic leuciscine fish, Pseudophoxinus crassus (Ladiges, 1960) and P. hittitorum Freyhof & Özulug, 2010 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Sevgi; Gaffaro?lu, Muhammet; Ayata, Muradiye Karasu; Yüksel, E?ref

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Pseudophoxinus Bleeker, 1860 is found in a wide range of habitats in central Anatolia, but it is not well known from a cytogenetic aspect. In this study the first karyotypic description of the spring minnows Pseudophoxinus crassus (Ladiges, 1960) and Pseudophoxinus hittitorum Freyhof & Özulug, 2010 by means of conventional methods (Giemsa staining, C-banding, silver nitrate impregnation (Ag-NORs)) was performed. Both species are endemic and have restricted distributions in Central Anatolia. Pseudophoxinus crassus and Pseudophoxinus hittitorum have the same diploid chromosome number, 2n = 50, patterns of distribution of constitutive heterochromatin (CH), and localization of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs), but differ in their karyotypic formulae (KFs). The C-banding technique revealed clear pericentromeric blocks of CH in many chromosomes; Ag-NORs treatment revealed consistent positive signals at the end of the short arms of a submetacentric chromosome pair, likely homologous in both species. The karyotypic differences found between these species can be used for their taxonomical study. PMID:25610540

  2. Salmo kottelati, a new species of trout from Alak?r Stream, draining to the Mediterranean in southern Anatolia, Turkey (Teleostei, Salmonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Davut; Do?an, Esra; Kaya, Cüneyt; Kany?lmaz, Mahir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Salmo kottelati sp. n., is described from Alak?r Stream (Mediterranean basin) in Turkey. It is distinguished from other Anatolian Salmo species by a combination of the following characters (none unique to the species): general body colour greenish to silvery in life; 7–9 parr marks along lateral line; four dark bands on flank absent in both sexes; black ocellated spots few, present only on upper part of flank in individuals smaller than 160 mm SL but in larger both males and females black spots numerous and located on back and middle and upper part of flank; red spots few to numerous, scattered on median, and half of lower and upper part of flank; head long (length 29–33% SL in males, 26–32 in females); mouth large (length of mouth gape 13–19% SL in males, 12–15 in females); maxilla long (length 10–13% SL in males, 8–12 in females); 105–113 lateral line scales; 24–29 scale rows between lateral line and dorsal-fin origin, 17–19 scale rows between lateral line and anal-fin origin; 13–15 scales between lateral line and adipose-fin insertion. PMID:25589858

  3. Infrapopulations of Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 (Trematoda: Gyliauchenidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei: Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jahdali, M.O.

    2012-01-01

    In hermaphroditic helminth parasites, infrapopulation size or mating group size mostly affects some processes acting within the infrapopulation. Here, 30 natural infrapopulations (12-154 individuals) of the intestinal trematode Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 from the fish Siganus rivulatus consisting of newly excysted juveniles, immature and mature worms were found distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (anterior 40 % of the intestine). In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were alive. In larger infrapopulations, differential mortality was only and consistently observed among newly excysted juveniles, and gradually increased to include most or all juveniles in the largest infrapopulations. Among mature worms, the mean worm length seemed unaffected by the infrapopulation size. However, the ratio mean testis size-mean ovary size, a reliable indicator of resource allocation to the male function and of opportunities for crossfertilization, significantly increased with mating group size. In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were scattered along the niche, and never seen in mating pairs (possibly reproduced by selffertilization). In larger infrapopulations, newly excysted juveniles and immature worms were scattered along the anterior two thirds of the niche, while mature worms were constantly found aggregated in its posterior third (narrow microhabitat), where some were arranged in mating pairs. The probability of mating reciprocally or unilaterally was dependent on body size. The mean number of uterine eggs per worm significantly decreased and their mean sizes significantly increased with mating group size. The results are statistically significant and suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is greatly associated with its size. PMID:22910665

  4. Environmental Degradation at a Public Park in Southern Brazil as Revealed Through a Genotoxicity Test (MN) on Peripheral Blood Cells from Poecilia vivipara (Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mônica L. Adam; Rodrigo A. Torres; Graziela Sponchiado; Thalita S. Motta; Cíntia M. R. Oliveira; Marco A. Carvalho-Filho; M. T. S. Correia

    2010-01-01

    The effects of anthropogenic activities on water, environment, and consequently quality of life can be evaluated using genetic,\\u000a biochemical, and microbiological parameters. Regarding genetic parameters, the micronucleus test is a fast, efficient, inexpensive\\u000a method for detecting alterations in genetic material induced by a variety of genotoxic agents. In the present study, blood\\u000a cells from Poecilia vivipara from the Belém River

  5. Cytogenetic analysis of three sea catfish species (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Ariidae) with the first report of Ag-NOR in this fish family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Despite their ecological and economical importance, fishes of the family Ariidae are still genetically and cytogenetically poorly studied. Among the 133 known species of ariids, only eight have been karyotyped. Cytogenetic analyses performed on Genidens barbus and Sciades herzbergii revealed that both species have 2n = 56 chromosomes and Cathorops aff. mapale has 2n = 52 chromosomes: Genidens barbus has 10 Metacentrics (M), 14 Submetacentrics (SM), 26 Subtelocentrics (ST), and 6 Acrocentrics (A), Sciades herzbergii has 14M, 20SM, 18ST and 4A, whereas Cathorops aff. mapale has 14M, 20SM, and 18ST. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were found in a single chromosome pair on the short arm of a large-sized ST pair in Genidens barbus and on the short arm of a middle-size SM pair in Cathorops aff. mapale. Multiple NORs on the short arms of two large-sized ST pairs were found in Sciades herzbergii. The occurrence of diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 52 through 56 chromosomes and the presence of different karyotypic compositions, besides the number and position of NORs suggest that several numeric and structural chromosome rearrangements were fixed during the evolutionary history of this fish family. PMID:21637480

  6. Changes along the male reproductive axis in response to social context in a gonochoristic gobiid, Zosterisessor ophiocephalus (Teleostei, Gobiidae), with alternative mating tactics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Scaggiante; Matthew S. Grober; Varenka Lorenzi; Maria B. Rasotto

    2004-01-01

    Sexual selection has given rise, in several taxa, to intrasexual variation in male phenotype. While evolutionary studies have provided explanations of the adaptive function of this dramatic male phenotypic diversity, the proximate control of its expression has still to be completely understood. Several observations, primarily from sex-changing species, indicated a major role of social interactions in reproductive axis regulation and

  7. Two new species of Haliotrema Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål) and A. triostegus (Linnaeus) (Teleostei: Acanthuridae) in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Yang, Chaopin; Yang, Tingbao

    2015-07-01

    Haliotrema nanhaiense n. sp. and Haliotrema triostegum n. sp. are described respectively from the gills of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål) and Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus) in the South China Sea. Haliotrema nanhaiense n. sp. differs from other existing congeneric species by its male copulatory complex, comprising a C-shaped copulatory tube, a saucer-shaped base and a sickle-shaped accessory piece. Haliotrema triostegum n. sp. can be differentiated from all other members of Haliotrema by having a unique copulatory complex, a cup-shaped base, inverted L-shaped copulatory tube with a small sclerotised piece arising from its distal portion, and a large accessory piece from the proximal portion of copulatory tube. PMID:26063302

  8. Genetic, comparative genomic, and expression analyses of the Mc1r locus in the polychromatic Midas cichlid fish (Teleostei, Cichlidae Amphilophus sp.) species group.

    PubMed

    Henning, Frederico; Renz, Adina Josepha; Fukamachi, Shoji; Meyer, Axel

    2010-05-01

    Natural populations of the Midas cichlid species in several different crater lakes in Nicaragua exhibit a conspicuous color polymorphism. Most individuals are dark and the remaining have a gold coloration. The color morphs mate assortatively and sympatric population differentiation has been shown based on neutral molecular data. We investigated the color polymorphism using segregation analysis and a candidate gene approach. The segregation patterns observed in a mapping cross between a gold and a dark individual were consistent with a single dominant gene as a cause of the gold phenotype. This suggests that a simple genetic architecture underlies some of the speciation events in the Midas cichlids. We compared the expression levels of several candidate color genes Mc1r, Ednrb1, Slc45a2, and Tfap1a between the color morphs. Mc1r was found to be up regulated in the gold morph. Given its widespread association in color evolution and role on melanin synthesis, the Mc1r locus was further investigated using sequences derived from a genomic library. Comparative analysis revealed conserved synteny in relation to the majority of teleosts and highlighted several previously unidentified conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) in the upstream and downstream regions in the vicinity of Mc1r. The identification of the CNEs regions allowed the comparison of sequences from gold and dark specimens of natural populations. No polymorphisms were found between in the population sample and Mc1r showed no linkage to the gold phenotype in the mapping cross, demonstrating that it is not causally related to the color polymorphism in the Midas cichlid. PMID:20449580

  9. Molecular systematics and historical biogeography of the Nocomis biguttatus species group (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): nuclear and mitochondrial introgression and a cryptic Ozark species.

    PubMed

    Echelle, Anthony A; Schwemm, Michael R; Lang, Nicholas J; Nagle, Brett C; Simons, Andrew M; Unmack, Peter J; Fisher, William L; Hoagstrom, Christopher W

    2014-12-01

    The Nocomis biguttatus species group ranges widely across North America from the Red River in Oklahoma and Arkansas north to Minnesota and east-west from Wyoming to Ontario. The group includes three traditionally recognized allopatric species: the wide-ranging N. biguttatus and two geographically more restricted species, N. asper from the western Ozarks (Arkansas River system) and two disjunct locations in the Red River system, and N. effusus from the Green, Cumberland, and lower Tennessee rivers. Separate analyses of the mitochondrial cytb gene and two nuclear genes (S7 intron 1 and a portion of the gene for growth hormone, GH), each resolved a cryptic species previously treated as N. biguttatus from the southern Ozarks (White River). Relationships among the four species were unresolved because of conflicts between cytb and S7 and a lack of resolution for GH. A previously indicated N. biguttatus-N. effusus sister-relationship appears to reflect past hybridization and mtDNA capture by N. effusus. Nocomis biguttatus includes four primary cytb clades with unresolved inter-relationships. A Northern Ozarks-Great Plains-Upper Midwest Clade and an Ohio River-Eastern Great Lakes Clade presumably represent late Quaternary dispersal from glacial refugia in, respectively, the northern Ozarks and an unglaciated portion of the Ohio River system. Other clades include one from the Meramec River and a Black River-St. Francis River Clade. There was evidence in N. effusus for a phylogeographic break between the lower Tennessee River and the Green-Cumberland basins. Geographic structure is weak in N. asper, indicating relatively recent contact between now disjunct populations in the Arkansas and Red river basins. The Blue River population of N. asper appears to reflect late Pleistocene or Holocene hybridization and genetic swamping of a resident native population of N. biguttatus by an invading population of N. asper. This postulates past occurrence of N. biguttatus far south of its present range. PMID:25251937

  10. Predator–prey interactions between Synbranchus marmoratus (Teleostei: Synbranchidae) and Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpoles (Amphibia: Hylidae): Importance of lateral line in nocturnal predation and effects of fenitrothion exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celina M. Junges; Rafael C. Lajmanovich; Paola M. Peltzer; Andres M. Attademo; Agustín Bassó

    Environmental contaminants can disrupt interactions between aquatic species by altering community structure. We explored predator–prey interactions between marbled swamp juvenile eels (Synbranchus marmoratus; predator) and anuran tadpoles (Hypsiboas pulchellus; prey) in relation to two aspects: the importance of lateral line in the predator and whether the absence of light modifies predation rates; and the effect of a sub-lethal concentration of

  11. Phylogeography of Pteronotropis signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus Complex (Teleostei: Cypriniformes), with Comments on Diversity and History of the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Streams

    PubMed Central

    Mayden, Richard L.; Allen, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The cyprinid genus Pteronotropis is endemic to southeastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean of North America. Never before has the genus been demonstrated to be monophyletic. We investigate both the phylogenetic relationships and the phylogeography of some species in the genus using mitochondrial ND2 sequences. In no analysis is the genus resolved as monophyletic if Notropis harperi is not included in the genus. Biogeographic and phylogeographic evaluations are conducted with Pteronotropis, including P. signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus complex. Patterns of relationships and population genetic analyses support divergences within multiple clades both at the species level and within species that are tied to abiotic changes in the region. Replicated patterns across clades are observed, as well as patterns previously found in other taxa. Pteronotropis hypselopterus is likely not a natural grouping as populations from some drainages form clades more closely related to other species of the genus. The general patterns of relationships indicate likely cryptic species not currently recognized. Finally, the patterns of species relationships and clades and population structuring within species serve as another example of replicated divergences in the biodiversity east and west of the Mobile Bay.

  12. Acheilognathus changtingensis sp. nov., a new species of the cyprinid genus Acheilognathus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Southeastern China based on morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Zhu, Yurong; Xiong, Bangxi; Liu, Huanzhang

    2011-02-01

    A new species of the bitterling genus Acheilognathus, Acheilognathus changtingensis sp. nov., was recently discovered from Changting County in Hanjiang River, Fujian Province, Southeastern China. It can be diagnosed by the following combination of characters: dorsal fin with three simple and 15 (occasionally 14) branched fin rays, anal fin with three simple and 12 (occasionally 11) branched fin rays; dorsal fin pale and anal fin slightly pale; white spots on anal-fin rays forming a transverse band, and anal fin margined with white band in males. Its unique characters are the many dispersed black spots on the dorsal, anal, pelvic, caudal fins, and on the head. Using the mitochondrial cytochrome Jb gene as a molecular marker, we reconstructed phylogenetic trees of A. changtingensis sp. nov. and other species in Acheilognathus to confirm its taxonomic status and study its speciation. Analyses of both morphological and molecular data consistently indicated the taxonomic status of the present new species. The results also show that A. changtingensis sp. nov. and Acheilognathus macropterus are sister species that diverged about 14.50 MYA by geographical isolation. PMID:21303208

  13. AGE AND GROwtH OF SPANISH MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS MACULAroS,

    E-print Network

    AGE AND GROwtH OF SPANISH MACKEREL, SCOMBEROMORUS MACULAroS, FROM FLORIDA AND THE GULF OF MEXICO mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, were used to estimate age and growth rates of this species from Florida.731, where I = fork length (mm) and t = years. Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, are found

  14. OCCURRENCE OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR KING, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, AND SPANISH,

    E-print Network

    OCCURRENCE OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR KING, SCOMBEROMORUS CAVALLA, AND SPANISH, S. MACULATUS. MACKERELS IN COMMERCIAL-lYPE SHRIMP TRAWLS ALONG THE ATLANTIC COAST OF THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES1 King mackerel, Scomberomorus caualla, and Spanish mackerel, S. maculatus, are migratory scombrids that support large

  15. V. P. Buonaccorsi E. Starkey J. E. Graves Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analysis of population subdivision among

    E-print Network

    Graves, John E.

    subdivision among young-of-the-year Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus) from the western Atlantic regions was consistent with the hypothesis that Spanish mackerel comprise a single intermingling genetic. Introduction The Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus) is a migratory, coastal pelagic species that has

  16. MEXUS-Gulf Coastal Pelagic Fish Research, 1977-84 Introduction

    E-print Network

    on Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, and king mackerel, S. cavalla, fished by both Mexico. Mackerel Tagging Marking, or tagging, fish has long been a practical method of determining movements-Gulf, 1977-84. Species Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus King mackerel, S. cavalla Little tunny

  17. David J. Schmidt Mark R. Collins**

    E-print Network

    , maturity, and spawning of Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill), from the Atlantic Coast of the southeastern United States* Abstract.-Sectioned sagittae of 1,039 Spanish mackerel, Scombero- morus maculatus- rity and the disadvantages of their inclusion are discussed. The Spanish mackerel, Scombero- morus

  18. Ecological Applications, 22(3), 2012, pp. 828842 2012 by the Ecological Society of America

    E-print Network

    Hendry, Andrew

    -invaded lakes. Abundance indices (AI) of Galaxias platei and salmonids (Salmo trutta and Oncorhynchus mykiss rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), native to the northern hemisphere

  19. 77 FR 35358 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Gulf of Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ...Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus) and Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  20. Dactylogyrids (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea) parasitizing butterfly fishes (Teleostei: Chaetodontidae) from the coral reefs of Palau, Moorea, Wallis, New Caledonia, and Australia: species of Euryhaliotrematoides n. gen. and Aliatrema n. gen.

    PubMed

    Plaisance, Laetitia; Kritsky, Delane C

    2004-04-01

    Seven species of Euryhaliotrematoides n. gen. and 1 species of Aliatrema n. gen. (Monogenoidea; Dactylogyridae) are described and reported from the gills of 15 species of butterfly fishes (Chaetodontidae) from the coral reefs of Moorea (French Polynesia), Wallis (Wallis and Futuna), Heron and Lizard (Australia), Palau (Micronesia), and New Caledonia: Aliatrema cribbi n. sp. from Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon lunula, Chaetodon trifasciatus, Chaetodon ulietensis, Chaetodon vagabundus, Forcipiger flavisissimus, and Heniochus chrysostomus; Euryhaliotrematoides annulocirrus n. comb. from C. auriga, C. lunula, and C. vagabundus; Euryhaliotrematoides aspistis n. sp. from C. auriga, Chaetodon citrinellus, C. lunula, Chaetodon reticulatus, C. ulietensis, and C. vagabundus; Euryhaliotrematoides berenguelae n. sp. from C. citrinellus, Chaetodon ornatissimus, and F. flavisissimus; Euryhaliotrematoides grandis n. comb. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, Chaetodon ephippium, Chaetodon kleinii, Chaetodon lineolatus, C. lunula, C. ornatissimus, C. trifasciatus, C. vagabundus, and H. chrysostomus; Euryhaliotrematoides microphallus n. comb. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. ephippium, C. kleinii, C. lunula, C. ornatissimus, C. reticulatus, Chaetodon trifascialis, C. trifasciatus, C. vagabundus, F. flavisissimus, and H. chrysostomus; Euryhaliotrematoides pirulum n. sp. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. lunula, C. trifasciatus, and C. vagabundus; and Euryhaliotrematoides triangulovagina n. comb. from C. auriga, C. citrinellus, C. kleinii, C. lunula, C. ornatissimus, C. vagabundus, F. flavisissimus, H. chrysostomus, and Hemitaurichthys polylepis. All reports of previously described species are new locality records. With exceptions of E. grandis and E. annulocirrus on C. auriga and C. lunula and E. triangulovagina and E. microphallus on C. auriga, all reports are new host records. Haliotrema hainanensis and H. affinis are considered junior subjective synonyms of E. triangulovagina and E. annulocirrus, respectively. Aliatrema n. gen. is characterized by marine dactylogyrids with tandem gonads (germarium pretesticular), haptoral hooks with upright acute thumbs, a coiled copulatory organ with counterclockwise rings and funnel-shaped base but lacking an accessory piece, and a dextral vaginal pore. Euryhaliotrematoides n. gen. is characterized by marine dactylogyrids having tandem gonads (germarium pretesticular), haptoral hooks with upright acute thumbs, a coiled copulatory organ with counterclockwise rings and funnel-shaped base, a vas deferens looping the left intestinal cecum, and a dextral vaginal pore. PMID:15165056

  1. Deep-sea bigscales, pricklefishes, gibberfishes and whalefishes (Teleostei: Stephanoberycoidei) off Brazil: new records, range extensions for the south-western Atlantic Ocean and remarks on the taxonomy of Poromitra.

    PubMed

    Mincarone, M M; Di Dario, F; Costa, P A S

    2014-11-01

    The Stephanoberycoidei includes 23 genera and c. 94 species of deep-sea teleosts commonly known as bigscales, pricklefishes, gibberfishes and whalefishes. Stephanoberycoidei is one of the least known groups of deep-sea fishes, in spite of their apparent relative abundance in meso and bathypelagic depths. Nine species of the Stephanoberycoidei are reported here for the first time in Brazilian waters, and most of them represent new range extensions for the south-western Atlantic Ocean. Those species are Melamphaes polylepis, Melamphaes typhlops, Poromitra sp. and Scopeloberyx robustus (Melamphaidae), Acanthochaenus luetkenii and Stephanoberyx monae (Stephanoberycidae), Rondeletia bicolor and Rondeletia loricata (Rondeletiidae) and Gyrinomimus sp. (Cetomimidae). Occurrences of the pricklefish Scopelogadus mizolepis (Melamphaidae), the gibberfish Gibberichthys pumilus (Gibberichthyidae) and the velvet whalefish Barbourisia rufa (Barbourisiidae) are confirmed in the Brazilian exclusive economic zone, but previously published records of Poromitra capito and Melamphaes simus (Melamphaidae) in the region most likely represent misidentifications. Validities of the recently described Poromitra kukuevi and Poromitra indooceanica are discussed in light of new specimens of the genus collected in the south-western Atlantic Ocean. An identification key for the 13 species of Stephanoberycoidei reported off Brazil is also provided. PMID:25315883

  2. Possible cytoskeletal structures of rainbow trout sperm revealed by electron microscopic observation after detergent extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maya D. Markova; Ralitsa S. Zhivkova

    2003-01-01

    Despite the considerable research interest in fish sperm ultrastructure, little is known about the functions of different sperm cell components. Our electron microscopic study was aimed at identifying possible tissue-specific cytoskeletal structures in spermatozoa of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Teleostei, Salmoniformes, Salmonidae; formerly Salmo gairdneri). Based on the known resistance of the cytoskeleton to nonionic detergents, we compared the ultrastructure

  3. AFRICAN CICHLID FISHES: Model Systems for Evolutionary Biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irv Kornfield; Peter F. Smith

    2000-01-01

    ? Abstract Cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Teleostei) found in the lakes of Africa have served as model systems for the study of evolution. The enormous number of species (1000 in Lake Malawi alone), the great diversity of trophic adaptations and behaviors, and the extreme rapidity of their divergence (<50,000 y for some faunas) single out these organisms as examples of evolution

  4. The sculpin family, Cottidae, is a spe-ciose, morphologically diverse group of

    E-print Network

    by the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Cottid species, including the northern sculpin (Icelinus borealis, 2006). Icelinus borealis is the most com- mon species of Icelinus in the Gulf of Alaska and the only of early life history stages of the northern sculpin (Icelinus borealis Gilbert) (Teleostei: Cottidae

  5. INTRODUCTION In animals moving from surface to cave living, be-

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    traits gain a new function in perceiving relevant signals. The Cave molly Poecilia mexicana inhabits females (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae, Teleostei)? Martina ARNDT , Jakob PARZEFALL and Martin PLATH(1 tetra Astyanax fasciatus Cuvier, 1819 (Characidae; Plath et al in prep.) and in the Cave molly Poecilia

  6. The offspring size/fecundity trade-off and female fitness in the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae)

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    The offspring size/fecundity trade-off and female fitness in the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana environments. Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana: Poeciliidae, Teleostei), inhabiting a sulfidic cave conditions. We tested 30-day newborn survival of offspring from wild- caught P. mexicana females from

  7. Behav Ecol Sociobiol (2006) 60: 159165 DOI 10.1007/s00265-005-0152-2

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    2006-01-01

    and Poecilia mexicana), which were involved in the natural hybridisation leading to the amazon molly. Contrary in a sexual/ asexual mating complex (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei) Received: 6 August 2005 / Revised: 15: a gynogenetic hybrid species, Poecilia formosa (amazon molly) and two sexual species (Poecilia latipinna

  8. Subterranean Biology 2: 59-64, 2004 INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    they reach sexual maturity (Snelson 1989). For example, Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana) males may mature-dependent male mating behaviour in the Cave molly, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei) Martin PLATH(1@zimserver.zoologie.uni-hamburg.de ABSTRACT We investigated male mating behaviour in a population of Poecilia mexicana from a Mexican

  9. Behav Ecol Sociobiol (2004) 55:596601 DOI 10.1007/s00265-003-0750-9

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    2004-01-01

    preferences in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei size in different populations of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana, living in light population of Atlantic mollies, Poecilia mexi- cana, as a model, we asked whether the female mating

  10. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Comparative analysis of the gonadal

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    -female species Poecilia formosa and its maternal ancestor Poecilia mexicana Ina Maria Schedina1 , Stefanie ancestor, the Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana. The transcriptome data were produced through sequencing, Poecilia formosa (Teleostei: Poeciliinae) is an unisexual, all-female species. It evolved through

  11. INTRODUCTION Mate choice in Cave mollies

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    , the Mexican livebearer Poecilia mexicana. The cave form of P. mexicana (the Cave molly) inhabits a sulphurous- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei) Martin PLATH(1,2) , Kay E-dwelling Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) in simultaneous choice tests. When females could evaluate the stimulus

  12. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 118 Pictorial Guide to the Groupers

    E-print Network

    NOAA Technical Report NMFS 118 Pictorial Guide to the Groupers (Teleostei: Serranidae A. Schmitten Assistant Administrator for Fisheries The NOAA Technical Report NMFS (ISSN 0892 of the Office of Management and Budget. For sale by the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Informa

  13. Population genetic structure of North American burbot ( Lota lota maculosa ) across the Nearctic and at its contact zone with Eurasian burbot ( Lota lota lota )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn R. Elmer; Jeroen K. J. Van Houdt; Axel Meyer; Filip A. M. Volckaert

    2008-01-01

    The burbot, Lota lota (Teleostei: Gadidae), has a holarctic distribution, with one subspecies (Lota lota lota) liv- ing in the lakes and rivers of the Palaearctic and northwestern North America and the other (Lota lota maculosa) living in the Nearctic (except the northwest). We analysed nine microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial DNA control region of 350 burbot sampled across North

  14. High genetic diversity in cryptic populations of the migratory sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in the Mekong River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N So; G E Maes; F A M Volckaert

    2006-01-01

    The detection and conservation of spawning units is of crucial importance in highly migratory species. The sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Pangasiidae; Teleostei) is a common large-sized tropical fish, which migrates annually to several upstream spawning sites on the Lower Mekong River and feeds on the huge floodplain of the Lower Mekong and Tonle Sap for the other half of the

  15. Primary gene products as plant defenses. Final report, November 1, 1983-October 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Murdock, L.L.

    1986-04-01

    Using the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, as a model insect we sought to understand the effects of proteinaceous inhibitors of insect digestive proteinases on growth and development of a representative pest species. We found that C. maculatus has a major migut proteinase of the thiol type which is powerfully inhibited by E-64. We devised a technique for preparing and incorporating proteinases inhibitors into artificial cowpeas: E-64, at concentrations as low as 0.01% (w/w), slowed development, increased mortality, and reduced fecundity. Clearly, thiol proteinase inhibitors in the diet of C. maculatus have a severe impact on this insect and could prevent economic infestations from developing were such inhibitors present in their natural food, i.e., cowpeas.

  16. Review of the Teleostean Adductor Mandibulae and Its Significance to the Systematic Positions of the Polymixiiformes, Lampridiformes, and Triacanthoidei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kao-yi Wu; Shih-chieh Shen

    2004-01-01

    Kao-yi Wu and Shih-chieh Shen (2004) Review of the teleostean adductor mandibulae and its significance to the systematic positions of the Polymixiiformes, Lampridiformes, and Triacanthoidei. Zoological Studies 43(4): 712-736. Divisions of the adductor mandibulae among a wide spectrum of teleostei were surveyed. Feeding habits do not generally dominate the number or nature of divisions of the adductor mandibulae. This muscle

  17. Light and ultrastructural data on Henneguya testicularis n. sp. (Myxozoa, Myxobolidae), a parasite from the testis of the Amazonian fish Moenkhausia oligolepis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Azevedo; Laura Corral; Edilson Matos

    1997-01-01

    Light and electron microscopical data on a myxosporidian found in the testis of Moenkhausia oligolepis Gunther (Teleostei, Characidae, Tetragonopterinae) from the lower Amazon River near Belém, Brazil, are described. Based on spore morphology, we conclude that this species belongs to the family Myxobolidae and genus Henneguya. Mature spores (total length 27.5 (27.0–28.5) µm) were observed at the periphery of the

  18. Astroglial architecture of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) brain as revealed by immunohistochemical staining against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kálmán

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is the first comprehensive study on the astroglia of a teleost fish that is based on the immunohistochemical\\u000a staining of GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, an immunohistochemical marker of astroglia). The ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii)\\u000a and their largest group, the Teleostei, represent a separate pathway of vertebrate evolution. Their brain has a very complex\\u000a macroscopic structure; several parts

  19. Consistency of individual differences in behaviour of the lion-headed cichlid, Steatocranus casuarius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey V Budaev; Dmitry D Zworykin; Andrei D Mochek

    1999-01-01

    The development of individual differences in behaviour in a novel environment, in the presence of a strange fish and during aggressive interactions with a mirror-image was studied in the lion-headed cichlid (Steatocranus casuarius, Teleostei, Cichlidae). No consistency in behaviour was found at 4–5.5 months of age. However, behaviours scored in situations involving a discrete source of stress (a strange fish

  20. The Jaw Adductor Muscle Complex in Teleostean Fishes: Evolution, Homologies and Revised Nomenclature (Osteichthyes: Actinopterygii)

    PubMed Central

    Datovo, Aléssio; Vari, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The infraclass Teleostei is a highly diversified group of bony fishes that encompasses 96% of all species of living fishes and almost half of extant vertebrates. Evolution of various morphological complexes in teleosts, particularly those involving soft anatomy, remains poorly understood. Notable among these problematic complexes is the adductor mandibulae, the muscle that provides the primary force for jaw adduction and mouth closure and whose architecture varies from a simple arrangement of two segments to an intricate complex of up to ten discrete subdivisions. The present study analyzed multiple morphological attributes of the adductor mandibulae in representatives of 53 of the 55 extant teleostean orders, as well as significant information from the literature in order to elucidate the homologies of the main subdivisions of this muscle. The traditional alphanumeric terminology applied to the four main divisions of the adductor mandibulae – A1, A2, A3, and A? – patently fails to reflect homologous components of that muscle across the expanse of the Teleostei. Some features traditionally used as landmarks for identification of some divisions of the adductor mandibulae proved highly variable across the Teleostei; notably the insertion on the maxilla and the position of muscle components relative to the path of the ramus mandibularis trigeminus nerve. The evolutionary model of gain and loss of sections of the adductor mandibulae most commonly adopted under the alphanumeric system additionally proved ontogenetically incongruent and less parsimonious than a model of subdivision and coalescence of facial muscle sections. Results of the analysis demonstrate the impossibility of adapting the alphanumeric terminology so as to reflect homologous entities across the spectrum of teleosts. A new nomenclatural scheme is proposed in order to achieve congruence between homology and nomenclature of the adductor mandibulae components across the entire Teleostei. PMID:23565279

  1. Description of the muscular system of the fantail Carassius auratus gibelio (Cyprinidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. K. Kuznetsov

    2007-01-01

    The muscular system of a variety of the goldfish Carassius auratus gibelio fantail is investigated and described in detail for the first time. The structure of the muscular system principally corresponds\\u000a to that of other Teleostei. At the same time, in contrast to other fish, in the fantail three posterior lower-keel muscles\\u000a are found for the first time, which depends

  2. Geology and paleontology of late Cenozoic marine deposits in the Sacaco area (Peru)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian de Muizon; Thomas J. Devries

    1985-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Paläontologische, stratigraphische und geochronologische (K-Ar) Daten belegen ein obermiozänes und pliozänes Alter der Pisco-Formation. Die Sequenz wird etwa 350 m mächtig und besteht aus tuffartigen Sandsteinen, Silten und Schillsanden. Die feineren Sedimente sind in großen Lagunen, die gröberen im geschützten Strandbereich abgelagert worden. Die reiche Fauna enthält Fische (Teleostei und Selachii), Meeres-Vögel, eine Edentata und an Wirbellosen hauptsächlich Veneriden und

  3. Sexual selection affects lifespan and aging in the seed beetle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexei A. Maklakov; Claudia Fricke; Göran Arnqvist

    2007-01-01

    Summary Sexual selection in general, and sexual conflict in particular, should affect the evolution of lifespan and aging. Using experimental evolution, we tested whether removal of sexual selection leads to the evolution of accelerated or decelerated senescence. We subjected replicated popula- tions of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus to either of two selection regimes for 35 generations. These regimes either

  4. Three New Genera and Six New Species of Lecanicephalideans (Cestoda) from Eagle Rays of the Genus Aetomylaeus (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) from Northern Australia and Borneo

    E-print Network

    Koch, Kendra Rae; Jensen, Kirsten; Caira, Janine N.

    2012-02-01

    of Aetomylaeus maculatus from Borneo, 10 of Aetomylaeus nichofii sensu stricto from Borneo, and 7 of Aetomylaeus cf. nichofii 2 from northern Australia. As a result of these new collections, 3 new genera and 6 new species of lecanicephalideans are formally...

  5. Inbreeding depression in two seed-feeding beetles, Callosobruchus

    E-print Network

    Fox, Charles W.

    Inbreeding depression in two seed-feeding beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus and Stator limbatus, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546-0091, USA Abstract Inbreeding depression is well documented in insects but the degree to which inbreeding depression varies among populations within species, and among

  6. Genetic and meristic variation in black and smooth oreos in the New Zealand exclusive economic zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Smith; P. J. McMillan; B. Bull; S. M. McVeagh; P. M. Gaffney; S. Chow

    2002-01-01

    Meristic and genetic methods were used to determine the stock relationships of black Allocytus niger (James, Inada & Nakamura, 1988) and smooth oreo Pseudocyttus maculatus (Gilchrist, 1906) in the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Samples were collected from four management areas—OEO 1 (south?west), OEO 3A (Chatham Rise west), OEO 4 (Chatham Rise east), and OEO 6 (subantarctic) during the

  7. Fish species composition on seamounts and adjacent slope in New Zealand waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Tracey; B. Bull; M. R. Clark; K. A. MaCkay

    2004-01-01

    Datasets from deep?water fisheries abundance surveys on the commercially important species—orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus), smooth oreo (Pseudocyttus maculatus), and black oreo (Allocyttus niger) —were used to compare fish fauna between seamounts in 10 different parts of the New Zealand region. For five of these areas, fauna was also compared between the seamounts and nearby areas of the relatively flat slope.

  8. Lipid contents and fatty acid composition of some New Zealand freshwater finfish and marine finfish, shellfish, and roes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Vlieg; Denis R. Body

    1988-01-01

    Lipid and fatty acid levels in the edible flesh of 6 freshwater finfish, 60 marine finfish, 9 molluscs, 3 crustaceans, and 6 fish roes from the New Zealand fishing area were determined. Marine wax esters were detected in the fillet of orange roughy (Hoplosthetus atlanticus), black oreo dory (Neocyttus rhomboidalis), and smooth oreo dory (Pseudocyttus maculatus), and in all finfish

  9. The morphology and chemistry of the scales of the orange roughy and the smooth and spiky oreo dories.

    PubMed

    Gauldie, R W; Coote, G; West, I F; Mulligan, K P

    1991-01-01

    Proton and deuteron microprobes were used to establish the two-, and three-dimensional patterns of calcium, fluorine, carbon and oxygen variation in the scales of the orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) smooth oreo dory (Pseudocyttus maculatus) and spiky oreo dory (Neocyttus rhomboidalis). PMID:18621182

  10. Some pathological abnormalities of New Zealand fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Diggles

    2003-01-01

    A number of pathological abnormalities previously unrecorded in New Zealand fishes are described. A silver trevally (Pseudocaranx dentex) captured from the Bay of Islands exhibited swim bladder ectasia. Black oreo (Allocyttus niger) and smooth oreo (Pseudocyttus maculatus) had cysts of unknown aetiology (CUEs) in the gills at prevalences up to 76% and 81%, respectively, in some fishing areas. The CUEs

  11. Quantifying the relative intensity of fishing on New Zealand seamounts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. ODriscoll; Malcolm R. Clark

    2005-01-01

    New Zealand seamounts support major fisheries for several deepwater fish species, including orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) and smooth oreo (Pseudocyttus maculatus). Although a high proportion of features in the depth range 500–1000 m have been fished, very little is known about the ecological impacts of bottom trawling on seamounts. The potential impact is likely to be influenced by the spatial

  12. Vector abundance and behaviour in an area of low malaria endemicity in Bataan, the Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. P Torres; N. P Salazar; V. Y Belizario; A Saul

    1997-01-01

    The vectorial importance of known and potential vectors in Morong, Bataan, Philippines was assessed based on human and animal baited collections of adult mosquitoes and on larval collections. Anopheles flavirostris, the principal vector in the Philippines, was the most abundant among human landing catches, followed by An. maculatus sensu lato (s.l.). Both showed similar seasonal abundance with a peak during

  13. Female preference for symmetric calls in a grasshopper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Pape Møller

    2001-01-01

    Grasshoppers produce calls by alternating use of a row of pegs on the two hind legs. The number of pegs per row in the grasshopper Myrmeleotettix maculatus demonstrated fluctuating asymmetry as shown by signed right-minus-left number of pegs having a frequency distribution not differing from a normal distribution with a mean value of zero. Peg asymmetry was significantly negatively related

  14. Ectoparasitismo en tiuque común Milvago chimango chimango (Vieillot, 1816) (Aves, Falconidae) en la zona de Ñuble, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio San-Martín Órdenes; Cristina Brevis Ibáñez; Luis Rubilar Contreras; Ronald Schmäschke; Arwid Daugschies

    Ectoparasitism in the common chimango caracara Milvago chimango chimango (Vieillot, 1816) (Aves, Falconidae) in the Ñuble Area, Chile. The ectoparasites of Milvago c. chimango (Vieillot) in the Ñuble area were identified for qualitative and quantitative descriptive analyses. Three species of Phthiraptera were recorded (prevalences between parentheses): One Amblycera, Aquiligogus maculatus (Menoponidae - 100%), and two Ischnocera, Acutifrons vierai chimango (73.9

  15. Guided-Inquiry Labs Using Bean Beetles for Teaching the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlueter, Mark A.; D'Costa, Allison R.

    2013-01-01

    Guided-inquiry lab activities with bean beetles ("Callosobruchus maculatus") teach students how to develop hypotheses, design experiments, identify experimental variables, collect and interpret data, and formulate conclusions. These activities provide students with real hands-on experiences and skills that reinforce their understanding of the…

  16. Alteration in enzyme activities in liver and kidney of Channa punctatus exposed to endrin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Sharma; K. V. Sastry

    1979-01-01

    ELLER (1971) studied the histopathological changes in the liver, gill, brain, pancreas and gonads of Salmo clarki. Hyperplasia of the islets of Langerhans was observed when chronically exposed to endrin by bath or in food. EISLER and EDMUNDS (1966) observed that northern puffers (Sphaeroides maculatus) exposed acutely to sublethal concentrations of endrin and impaired liver function as evidenced by the

  17. VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY Evaluation of a Barrier to Inhibit Lesser Mealworm (Coleoptera

    E-print Network

    Kaufman, Phillip E.

    ) and Dermestidae Movement in High-Rise, Caged-Layer Poultry Facilities PHILLIP E. KAUFMAN,1 COLLEEN REASOR, Dermestes lardarius L.; and hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus De Geer was conducted in caged-layer poultry, disease transmission, feed infestation, and bird productivity and health. Observations on cost

  18. Ecology of large piscivorous fishes in Guri Reservoir, Venezuela, with notes on fish community structure

    E-print Network

    Williams, John David

    1995-01-01

    species: Hemi g rammus mt cropterus =80. 2%, Curl matella i mmaculata =3. 5%, Bryconops caudamaculatus=2. 1%, Hemigrammus rodwayi=1. 6%, Hemlodopsis gracilis=1. 4%, and Mesonauta festivus=1. 2%) (Figure 4). In Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil, a similar fish... fasciatus Leporinus fasciatus Leporinus friderici Leporinus maculatus Hemi odopsis semi teniatus Hemiodopsis goeldii Hemiodopsis gracilis Hemiodopsis quadrimaculatus Hemiodus unimaculatus Curimatella immaculate Curimatopsis macrolepis Prochilodus...

  19. Studies on dermestid beetle: materials interactions. II. Tests for survival with insulating and packaging materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Brannen; A. L. Gennaro; T. J. Salb; B. J. Aday; C. D. Woolfolk

    1973-01-01

    Samples of various packaging and electrical insulating materials were ; exposed to larvae of Anthrenus flavipes and Dermestes maculatus under conditions ; of controlled light, temperature, and relative humidity. Of the materials ; tested, the only population survival was on vulcanized curled hair by Anthrenus ; flavipes. Starvation and cannibalistic characteristics of the two species were ; analyzed. (auth)

  20. Radio Frequency Heat Treatments to Disinfest Dried Pulses of Cowpea Weevil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore the potential of radio frequency (RF) heat treatments as an alternative to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of dried pulses, the relative heat tolerance and dielectric properties of different stages of the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) was determined. Among the immature st...

  1. Population biology of coral trout species in eastern Torres Strait: Implications for fishery management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ashley J.; Currey, Leanne M.; Begg, Gavin A.; Murchie, Cameron D.; Ballagh, Aaron C.

    2008-09-01

    Coral trout ( Plectropomus spp.) are the main target species for commercial fishers in the eastern Torres Strait Reef Line Fishery (ETS RLF). The four species of coral trout known to occur in Torres Strait: Plectropomus leopardus, Plectropomus maculatus, Plectropomus areolatus and Plectropomus laevis are currently managed as a single species in Torres Strait, as there is no species-specific biological information available for the region which could be used to assess whether species differ in their response to fishing pressure. The aim of our study was to determine whether it is appropriate (biologically) to manage coral trout in the ETS RLF as a single species group or whether different management arrangements are required for some species. We used catch data and biological data from samples collected by commercial fishers to examine the distribution within Torres Strait and estimate a range of biological parameters for P. leopardus, P. maculatus and P. areolatus. Insufficient P. laevis samples were collected to reliably examine this species. Results indicated that the population biology, particularly the reproductive biology, of P. areolatus was substantially different to both P. leopardus and P. maculatus. Although it is difficult to predict the response to fishing, P. areolatus may be more vulnerable to fishing than P. leopardus and P. maculatus, due to the larger size at sex change observed for this species and the very low proportion of males protected by the current minimum size limit. Therefore, while the common management arrangements for P. leopardus and P. maculatus appear to be adequate for these species, separate management arrangements are needed for the sustainable harvest of P. areolatus populations in the ETS. Specifically, we recommend the introduction of a maximum size limit for P. areolatus, in addition to the current minimum size limit, which may allow a proportion of males some protection from fishing.

  2. Curvas de rotación - Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, C.

    Se está elaborando un atlas con imágenes y datos publicados en las revistas principales por diversos autores, de las curvas de rotación en galaxias observadas en diferentes frecuencias. Las curvas de rotación constituyen uno de los medios más apropiados para el estudio de las diferencias cinemáticas entre los diversos componentes y quizá la mejor prueba observacional de la existencia de materia oscura en el universo. Este atlas tiene el propósito de servir como una guía cualitativa y cuantitativa para estos estudios.

  3. Voluntary emergence and water detection in a newly recognized amphibious fish.

    PubMed

    Magellan, K

    2015-06-01

    Galaxias 'nebula', a small fish which has adaptations for air-breathing but is not known to be amphibious, voluntarily emerged from water and, in an unfamiliar environment, moved preferentially towards an alternative water source. Nebula may thus be considered one of the few truly amphibious fishes, and their ability to detect water provides a selective advantage which aids their survival in unpredictable natural environments. PMID:25924804

  4. Radiation in the Cape flora and the phylogeny of peacock irises Moraea (Iridaceae) based on four plastid DNA regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Goldblatt; Vincent Savolainen; Obie Porteous; Ivan Sostaric; Martyn Powell; Gail Reeves; John C. Manning; Timothy G. Barraclough; Mark W. Chase

    2002-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of four plastid DNA regions, the rbcL exon, trnL intron, trnL–trnF intergenic spacer, and rps16 intron from each of 73 species in the African genus Moraea (Iridaceae: Irideae) including accessions of all major species clusters in the genus, show Moraea to be paraphyletic when Barnardiella, Galaxia, Hexaglottis, Homeria (all southern African), and Gynandriris (Eurasian as well) were recognized

  5. Historical abiotic events or human-aided dispersal: inferring the evolutionary history of a newly discovered galaxiid fish

    PubMed Central

    Chakona, Gamuchirai; Swartz, Ernst R; Chakona, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Range expansion of obligate freshwater fishes in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa has mostly been attributed to river capture events and confluence of rivers following sea-level regression. The role of low drainage divides and interbasin water transfers has received less attention. This study analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to assess the processes that could have influenced the phylogeographic patterns of a newly discovered lineage of Galaxias zebratus (hereafter Galaxias zebratus “Joubertina”) that occurs across two currently isolated river systems close to the Joubertina area in the eastern CFR. Results from both analyses revealed that observed genetic differentiation cannot be explained by isolation between the two river systems. No genetic differentiation was found between the Krom River system and a population from one of the Gamtoos tributaries. Shallow genetic differentiation was found between the Krom and the other Gamtoos populations. Historical river capture events and sea-level changes do not explain the present distribution of Galaxias zebratus “Joubertina” across the Krom and Gamtoos River systems. Interbasin dispersal during pluvial periods, recent river capture, or recent human-mediated translocation seems to be the most plausible explanations. PMID:25897377

  6. Redescription of the male and first description of the female of Capillaria carioca Freitas et Lent, 1935 (Nematoda: Capillariidae), a parasite of the marine fish Sphoeroides testudineus.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Vargas Vázquez, J; Mendoza Franco, E; Vivas Rodríguez, C

    1995-01-01

    A redescription of the male and the first description of the female of the intestinal nematode Capillaria carioca Freitas et Lent, 1935 are presented on the basis of specimens collected from the type host, the marine fish Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus) (Teleostei, Tetraodontoidei), from the Lagoon of Yucalpetén in the northern coast of Yucatan (Gulf of Mexico), Mexico. This species is characterized by a well-sclerotized spicule and by the presence of two large ventrolateral lobe-like papillae on the male caudal end and, therefore, is assigned to the subgenus Neocapillaria Moravec, 1987. C. carioca is reported from Mexico for the first time. PMID:8570582

  7. Taphonomic marks on pig tissue due to cadaveric Coleoptera activity under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Néstor D

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study taphonomic marks that cadaveric coleopteran can produce under controlled conditions. To evaluate this, pig trotters were initially exposed to adults of Dermestes maculatus De Geer at 21 ± 5°C and a 12:12-h day/night cycle. Observations were made and photographs taken every 4-5 days for 9 months. When feeding and reproducing, D. maculatus produced, in both adult and larvae stages, different types of marks such as holes, striations, scratches, and pits in several kinds of tissue such as integumental, connective, and muscular, in both their fresh and dried stages. Bite marks were also evident. The results in this study provide not only taphonomic but also biological and forensic information. This is the first time that this kind of experiment has been performed. PMID:24502355

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chickpea with alpha-amylase inhibitor gene for insect resistance.

    PubMed

    Ignacimuthu, S; Prakash, S

    2006-09-01

    Chickpea is the world's third most important pulse crop and India produces 75% of the world's supply. Chickpea seeds are attacked by Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis which cause extensive damage. The alpha-amylase inhibitor gene isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris seeds was introduced into chickpea cultivar K850 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A total of 288 kanamycin resistant plants were regenerated. Only 0.3% of these were true transformants. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and Southern hybridization confirmed the presence of 4.9 kb alpha-amylase inhibitor gene in the transformed plants. Western blot confirmed the presence of alpha-amylase inhibitor protein. The results of bioassay study revealed a significant reduction in the survival rate of bruchid weevil C. maculatus reared on transgenic chickpea seeds. All the transgenic plants exhibited a segregation ratio of 3:1. PMID:17006016

  9. Studies on the Indochina I/CDC strain of Plasmodium falciparum in Colombian and Bolivian Aotus monkeys and different anophelines.

    PubMed

    Collins, W E; Campbell, C C; Skinner, J C; Chin, W; Nguyen-Dinh, P; Huong, A Y

    1983-02-01

    The Indochina I/CDC strain of Plasmodium falciparum was isolated from a physician returning to the United States after working in the refugee camps along the Thailand-Kampuchean border. The strain was established in splenectomized Aotus monkeys from Colombia after being grown in vitro for 50 days. During the first three passages in Colombian monkeys, the parasites were not infective to Bolivian Aotus monkeys. After six intervening passages in Saimiri sciureus monkeys, the parasites produced high parasitemias in both Colombian and Bolivian Aotus, but gametocytes were no longer produced. Mosquito infections were obtained only during the first three passages in the Colombian monkeys. The most susceptible mosquito was Anopheles freeborni, followed by An. dirus, An. stephensi, An. maculatus, An. culicifacies, and, rarely, An. gambiae. Sporozoites were found in the salivary glands of the An. freeborni, An. dirus, An. stephensi, and An. maculatus. PMID:6338191

  10. Subjects: Trematoda and Trematode Diseases, Part 6: Supergenera And Genera N-Q

    E-print Network

    Doss, Mildred A.; Roach, Katharine F.; Breen, Virginia L.

    1967-01-01

    lineolatus, Micropterus d. dolomieu,Huro salmoides, Lepomis cyanellus, L. gibbosus, L. m. macrochirus, Ambloplites r. ruprestris, Pomoxis nig ? ? -maculatus, Cottus b. bair- dii.Eucalia inconstans; Wisconsin), species Fischthal, J. ?. , 1947b, 277... (Salmo trutta fario, S. gairdnerii irideus, Salveli- nus f . fontinalis , Catostomus c.commer- sonnii, Boleosoma n. nigrum, Cottus b. bairdii ; ? rule River), species Fischthal, J. H. , 1949a,191(over- wintering)(Perca flavescens, Ambloplites r...

  11. Are deepwater fisheries sustainable? — the example of orange roughy ( Hoplostethus atlanticus) in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm Clark

    2001-01-01

    The deepsea environment is generally regarded as being one of low energy and productivity. Species exploited at depths of over 600m like orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus), oreos (e.g. Allocyttus niger, Pseudocyttus maculatus), and macrourid rattails (e.g. Coryphaenoides rupestris, Macrourus berglax) have slow growth rates and high longevity compared to traditional commercial species from the continental shelf. They have low levels

  12. Oil from deep water fish species as a substitute for sperm whale and jojoba oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Buisson; D. R. Body; G. J. Dougherty; L. Eyres; P. Vlieg

    1982-01-01

    The lipid fraction of the deep water fish species orange roughy (Hoplostetbus atlanticus), black oreo (Allocyttus sp.) and small spined oreo (Pseudocyttus maculatus) had wax esters with even carbon numbers over the range C30 to C46 as the major components. The component acids and alcohols of the wax ester fraction were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography\\u000a and compared with those

  13. The effect of reproductive condition on thermoregulation in a viviparous gecko from a cool climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Rock; Alison Cree; Robin M. Andrews

    2002-01-01

    (1) Hoplodactylus maculatus, is a nocturnal, viviparous gecko that inhabits a cool-temperate region. (2) To determine if pregnant females expend more effort thermoregulating than non-pregnant females or males, we compared field body temperature (Tb) with microhabitat thermal maxima (Ttop), thermal minima (Tbot) and selected temperature (Tsel) among males, non-pregnant females and pregnant females. (3) An index of thermoregulatory effectiveness that

  14. SITE-SPECIFIC SURVIVAL OF BLACK-HEADED GROSBEAKS AND SPOTTED TOWHEES AT FOUR SITES WITHIN THE SACRAMENTO VALLEY, CALIFORNIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS GARDALI; NADAV NUR

    2006-01-01

    We estimated apparent annual survival and recapture probabilities for adult Black-headed Grosbeaks (Pheucticus melanocephalus ) and Spotted Towhees (Pipilo maculatus) at four sites along the Sacra- mento River, California. To calculate our estimates, we used capture-recapture mist-net data collected over two time periods at four study sites: from 1993 to 1995 at Flynn, Ohm, and Sul Norte, and from 1995

  15. Cortisol Release in Response to UVB Exposure in Xiphophorus Fish

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Adam J.; Boswell, Mikki; Downs, Kevin P.; Pasquali, Amanda; Walter, Ronald B.

    2014-01-01

    Xiphophorus fishes are comprised of 26 known species. Interspecies hybridization between select species has been utilized to produce experimental models to study melanoma development. Xiphophorus melanoma induction protocols utilize ultraviolet light (UVB) to induce DNA damage and associated downstream tumorigenesis. However, the impact of induced stress caused by the UVB treatment of the experimental animals undergoing tumor induction protocols has not been assessed. Stress is an adaptive physiological response to excessive or unpredictable environmental stimuli. The stress response in fishes may be measured by assay of cortisol released into the water. Here, we present results from investigations of stress response during experimental treatment and UVB exposure in X. maculatus Jp 163 B, X. couchianus, and F1 interspecies hybrids produced from the mating X. maculatus Jp 163 B x X. couchianus. Overall, cortisol release rates for males and females after UVB exposure showed no statistical differences. At lower UVB doses (8 and 16 kJ/m2), X. couchianus exhibited 2 fold higher levels of DNA damage then either X. maculatus or the F1 hybrid. However, based on cortisol release rates, none of the fish types tested induced a primary stress response at the UVB lower doses (8 and 16 kJ/m2). In contrast, at a very high UVB dose (32 kJ/m2) both X. maculatus and the F1 hybrid showed a 5 fold increase in cortisol release rate. To determine the effect of pigmentation on UVB induced stress, wild type and albino X. hellerii were exposed to UVB (32 kJ/m2). Albino X. hellerii exhibited 3.7 fold increase in cortisol release while wild type X. hellerii did not exhibit a significant cortisol response to UVB. Overall, the data suggest the rather low UVB doses often employed in tumour induction protocols do not induce a primary stress response in Xiphophorus fishes. PMID:24625568

  16. Effects of Endrin on Blood and Tissue Chemistry of a Marine Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Eisler; Philip H. Edmunds

    1966-01-01

    Adult northern puffers, Sphaeroides maculatus, were exposed to graded concentrations of endrin, a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, at 20 C, 24‰ salinity, and pH 8.0. All animals subjected to 10.0 ppb of endrin died within 24 hours. At concentrations of 1.0 ppb of endrin, or lower, no mortality occurred within 96 hours.Blood and tissue samples from fish surviving the 96-hour exposure

  17. Use of dermestid beetles for cleaning bones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Hefti; U. Trechsel; H. Rüfenacht; H. Fleisch

    1980-01-01

    Summary  Various parts of the skeleton of normal and osteoporotic rats were compared with respect to their dry weight, ash weight,\\u000a and calcium content when the bones were cleaned byDermestes maculatus beetles or manually. Both techniques gave similar results. This was also true when whole body calcium measured by neutron\\u000a activation and total skeletal calcium from bones cleaned by the beetles

  18. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Marchiori, N; Roumbedakis, K; Lami, F

    2012-05-01

    In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed. PMID:22735135

  19. Gram-negative intestinal indigenous microbiota from two Siluriform fishes in a tropical reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Silvana; Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula e; Zauli, Danielle Alves Gomes; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of Hypostomus auroguttatus and Pimelodus maculatus, a detritivorous and an omnivorous fish species, respectively, were compared between fishes from the reservoir and the stretch of the river below the dam of the Funil hydroelectric plant, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Four selective culture media were used under aerobic and two under anaerobic conditions. The omnivorous species had microbiota with higher population levels compared to the detritivorous species. The number of morphotypes and population levels of total bacteria, vibrio and Bacteroides tended to be higher in summer and autumn in the reservoir, and not different in the river. The number of morphotypes of enterobacteria and total bacteria were higher in the lotic environment compared with the lentic one. The bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides and the obligate anaerobic Fusobacterium mortiferum were the most frequently identified microorganisms in the intestine of both H. auroguttatus and P. maculatus. Both season and habitat influenced the Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of H. auroguttatus and P. maculatus. Environmental factors influenced the Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of both species with possible impact on the interrelationship between the fishes and their digestive ecosystem, although the gut microbiota composition of fishes may result from host-specific selective pressures within the gut. PMID:25763032

  20. Sensory epithelia of the fish inner ear in 3D: studied with high-resolution contrast enhanced microCT

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction While a number of studies have illustrated and analyzed 3D models of inner ears in higher vertebrates, inner ears in fishes have rarely been investigated in 3D, especially with regard to the sensory epithelia of the end organs, the maculae. It has been suggested that the 3D curvature of these maculae may also play an important role in hearing abilities in fishes. We therefore set out to develop a fast and reliable approach for detailed 3D visualization of whole inner ears as well as maculae. Results High-resolution microCT imaging of black mollies Poecilia sp. (Poeciliidae, Teleostei) and Steatocranus tinanti (Cichlidae, Teleostei) stained with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) resulted in good tissue contrast, enabling us to perform a reliable 3D reconstruction of all three sensory maculae of the inner ears. Comparison with maculae that have been 3D reconstructed based on histological serial sections and phalloidin-stained maculae showed high congruence in overall shape of the maculae studied here. Conclusions PTA staining and subsequent high-resolution contrast enhanced microCT imaging is a powerful method to obtain 3D models of fish inner ears and maculae in a fast and more reliable manner. Future studies investigating functional morphology, phylogenetic potential of inner ear features, or evolution of hearing and inner ear specialization in fishes may benefit from the use of 3D models of inner ears and maculae. PMID:24160754

  1. ALHAMBRA-survey: a new tool for photo-z calibrations in absence of spec-z information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molino Benito, A.; Benitez Lozano, N.; The Alhambra-Team

    2013-05-01

    La estimación de los desplazamientos al rojo (redshift) de las galaxias, derivados mediante fotometría multi-banda, se conoce con el nombre de photometric redshifts (photo-z). Es bien sabido que la precisión alcanzable por estas técnicas puede verse incrementada si se dispone de una muestra espectroscópica de galaxias (cuyos redshifts (spec-z) sean conocidos) con la que re-calibrar los puntos cero fotométricos. (Coe et al. 2006, Ilbert et al. 2008, Molino et al. 2012 in prep). ALHAMBRA-survey, que es un cartografiado extragaláctico (de ˜4 grados cuadrados) dedicado a la realización de un estudio de la evolución de las propiedades y contenido del Universo (Moles et al. 2005, 2008), presenta solapamientos parciales con otros cartografiados espectroscópicos ya existentes con el objetivo de validar y mejorar la precisión de sus photo-z. Sin embargo, dada la variabilidad fotométrica entre sus campos, resulta ineficiente extrapolar las correcciones de punto cero, introduciendo sesgos de inhomogeneidad en la precisión de los resultados. En este trabajo se presenta una nueva metodología que permite mejorar la calibración de los puntos cero fotométricos mediante la utilización de la información estadística proporcionada por los propios photo-z. Mediante esta técnica resulta posible no sólo mejorar la precisión de las estimaciones sino, además, soslayar la necesidad de obtener grandes muestras espectroscópicas.

  2. Relationship between Swim Bladder Morphology and Hearing Abilities–A Case Study on Asian and African Cichlids

    PubMed Central

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Metscher, Brian; Ladich, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Background Several teleost species have evolved anterior extensions of the swim bladder which come close to or directly contact the inner ears. A few comparative studies have shown that these morphological specializations may enhance hearing abilities. This study investigates the diversity of swim bladder morphology in four Asian and African cichlid species and analyzes how this diversity affects their hearing sensitivity. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied swim bladder morphology by dissections and by making 3D reconstructions from high-resolution microCT scans. The auditory sensitivity was determined in terms of sound pressure levels (SPL) and particle acceleration levels (PAL) using the auditory evoked potential (AEP) recording technique. The swim bladders in Hemichromis guttatus and Steatocranus tinanti lacked anterior extensions and the swim bladder was considerably small in the latter species. In contrast, Paratilapia polleni and especially Etroplus maculatus possessed anterior extensions bringing the swim bladder close to the inner ears. All species were able to detect frequencies up to 3 kHz (SPL) except S. tinanti which only responded to frequencies up to 0.7 kHz. P. polleni and E. maculatus showed significantly higher auditory sensitivities at 0.5 and 1 kHz than the two species lacking anterior swim bladder extensions. The highest auditory sensitivities were found in E. maculatus, which possessed the most intimate swim bladder-inner ear relationship (maximum sensitivity 66 dB re 1 µPa at 0.5 kHz). Conclusions Our results indicate that anterior swim bladder extensions seem to improve mean absolute auditory sensitivities by 21–42 dB (SPLs) and 21–36 dB (PALs) between 0.5 and 1 kHz. Besides anterior extensions, the size of the swim bladder appears to be an important factor for extending the detectable frequency range (up to 3 kHz). PMID:22879934

  3. Characterization of telomeres and telomerase expression in Xiphophorus.

    PubMed

    Downs, Kevin P; Shen, Yingjia; Pasquali, Amanda; Beldorth, Ion; Savage, Markita; Gallier, Katelyn; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Booth, Rachell E; Walter, Ronald B

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating telomere lengths and telomerase expression in vertebrates has progressively become important due to the association of these two biological endpoints with cellular aging and cancer in humans. Studies that rely upon the traditional use of laboratory mice have been faced with limitations largely due to inbred mice possessing large telomeres and ubiquitous expression of telomerase. Recently, a number of small fish species have been shown to provide potentially informative models for examining the role of telomeres and telomerase within intact vertebrate animals. Xiphophorus fishes represent a new world live-bearing genus that has not previously been assessed for telomere length or telomerase expression. To add to the knowledge base of telomere and telomerase biology in vertebrates we assessed telomere length and telomerase expression among several species of Xiphophorus. The telomere lengths in several organs (gill, brain, eyes, testis, ovary and liver) in three species (Xiphophorus hellerii, Xiphophorus maculatus, Xiphophorus couchianus) and also in F(1) interspecies hybrids were approximately 2-6 kb. This size was consistent within the same organs of the same species, as well as between species and F(1) hybrids. Despite possessing relatively short telomere lengths compared to humans, the consistency of size among Xiphophorus species and organs may allow experimental detection of telomere shortening. The relative expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Expression levels of TERT was measured in seven organs (ovary, testis, liver, gill, brain, heart, skin) from X. maculatus, X. hellerii and in control and ultraviolet light (UVB) exposed skin samples from X. maculatus, X. hellerii, and F(1) interspecies hybrids. TERT gene expression was significantly higher in ovary and testis, while all other organs showed low relative TERT expression. Detectable increases in TERT expression were found in skin samples upon UVB exposure. Our findings suggest that Xiphophorus may serve as a suitable model for future studies investigating the association of telomere length and telomerase expression in regard to aging and disease. PMID:21619941

  4. Is There a Risk of Suburban Transmission of Malaria in Selangor, Malaysia?

    PubMed Central

    Braima, Kamil A.; Sum, Jia-Siang; Ghazali, Amir-Ridhwan M.; Muslimin, Mustakiza; Jeffery, John; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Shaker, Mohammed R.; Elamin, Alaa-Eldeen M.; Jamaiah, Ibrahim; Lau, Yee-Ling; Rohela, Mahmud; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Sitam, Frankie; Mohd-Noh, Rosnida; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The suburban transmission of malaria in Selangor, Malaysia’s most developed and populous state still remains a concern for public health in this region. Despite much successful control efforts directed at its reduction, sporadic cases, mostly brought in by foreigners have continued to occur. In addition, cases of simian malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi, some with fatal outcome have caused grave concern to health workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of local malaria transmission in suburban regions of Selangor, which are adjacent to secondary rainforests. Findings A malaria survey spanning 7 years (2006 - 2012) was conducted in Selangor. A total of 1623 laboratory confirmed malaria cases were reported from Selangor’s nine districts. While 72.6% of these cases (1178/1623) were attributed to imported malaria (cases originating from other countries), 25.5% (414/1623) were local cases and 1.9% (31/1623) were considered as relapse and unclassified cases combined. In this study, the most prevalent infection was P. vivax (1239 cases, prevalence 76.3%) followed by P. falciparum (211, 13.0%), P. knowlesi (75, 4.6%), P. malariae (71, 4.4%) and P. ovale (1, 0.06%). Mixed infections comprising of P. vivax and P. falciparum were confirmed (26, 1.6%). Entomological surveys targeting the residences of malaria patients’ showed that the most commonly trapped Anopheles species was An. maculatus. No oocysts or sporozoites were found in the An. maculatus collected. Nevertheless, the possibility of An. maculatus being the malaria vector in the investigated locations was high due to its persistent occurrence in these areas. Conclusions Malaria cases reported in this study were mostly imported cases. However the co-existence of local cases and potential Plasmodium spp. vectors should be cause for concern. The results of this survey reflect the need of maintaining closely monitored malaria control programs and continuous extensive malaria surveillance in Peninsula Malaysia. PMID:24194901

  5. Freeze-fracture study of the epidermal cells of a teleost with particular reference to intercellular junctions and permeability to tracer.

    PubMed

    Ferri, S; Sesso, A

    1979-01-01

    The plasmatic membranes, the intercellular junctions and the intercellular spaces of the epidermis of the fish Pimelodus maculatus were studied by freeze-fracture and by lanthanum methods. The observations has confirmed the presence of desmosomes. Gap junctions were not found and the tight junctions can be seen very rarely, arranged to form small discrete maculae. The finger-print pattern due to the microridges of the apical plasma membrane of the superficial cells was studied by direct replicas. The tracer penetrates all the intercellular epidermal spaces but failed to penetrate the dermis, suggesting the presence of a barrier at the dermo-epidermal level. PMID:574691

  6. Niche Modeling Perspective on Geographic Range Predictions in the Marine Environment Using a Machine-learning Algorithm

    E-print Network

    Wiley, Edward O.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Robins, C. Richard; Stewart, Aimee M.

    2003-01-01

    Scomberomorus maculatus is northern continental. In southern continental waters it is replaced by S. brasiliensis, which is not regarded as a sister species. Although S. regalis occurs widely in the insular region, it also is common in conti- nental waters... of competitive exclusion and com- petitive release in South American pocket mice. Oikos, 93, 3–16. Austin, G.E., C.J. Thomas, D.C. Houston and D.B.A. Thompson, 1996: Predicting the spatial distribution of buzzard Buteo buteo nesting areas using a Geographical...

  7. Glutathion S-transferase activity and DDT-susceptibility of Malaysian mosquitos.

    PubMed

    Lee, H L; Chong, W L

    1995-03-01

    Comparative DDT-susceptibility status and glutathion s-transferase (GST) activity of Malaysian Anopheles maculatus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was investigated to ascertain the role of this enzyme in DDT resistance. The standardised WHO dose-mortality bioassay tests were used to determine DDT susceptibility in these mosquitos, whilst GST microassay (Brogdon and Barber, 1990) was conducted to measure the activity of this enzyme in mosquito homogenate. It appeared that DDT susceptibility status of Malaysian mosquitos was not correlated with GST activity. PMID:8525405

  8. Use of dermestid beetles for cleaning bones.

    PubMed

    Hefti, E; Trechsel, U; Rüfenacht, H; Fleisch, H

    1980-01-01

    Various parts of the skeleton of normal and osteoporotic rats were compared with respect to their dry weight, ash weight, and calcium content when the bones were cleaned by Dermestes maculatus beetles or manually. Both techniques gave similar results. This was also true when whole body calcium measured by neutron activation and total skeletal calcium from bones cleaned by the beetles were compared. Thus dermestid beetles are useful as a technique to clean bones, especially for the parts of the skeleton which are difficult to dissect by hand. PMID:6770972

  9. [Genetic variation of Azov and Black sea herring Alosa pontica (Eihwald, 1838), (Clupeiformes, Alosinae) in Danube river: analysis of biochemical gene markers].

    PubMed

    Mezhzherin, S V; Fedorenko, L V

    2005-01-01

    Genetic variation and structure of Danube stock of Aloca pontica pontica were investigated during the spawning moving by means of biochemical genetic marking. The level of heterozygosity was Hobs = 0,009. It is essentially lower than the average level for populations of other Teleostei and Clupeidae representatives. Polymorphism was defined only for Es-D of 20 analyzed loci expressed in muscle tissues. The allele frequencies for this locus were reliably different in the early spawning and later spawning parts of the stock, as well as proportion of heterozygotes and genotype diversity which was higher at the beginning of spawning moving. These results are discussed from two points of view: genetic differences between subpopulations in the course of spawning moving and presence of two close species of herring which come for the spawning together and hybridize to each other. PMID:16161412

  10. Possible cytoskeletal structures of rainbow trout sperm revealed by electron microscopic observation after detergent extraction.

    PubMed

    Markova, Maya D; Zhivkova, Ralitsa S

    2003-11-20

    Despite the considerable research interest in fish sperm ultrastructure, little is known about the functions of different sperm cell components. Our electron microscopic study was aimed at identifying possible tissue-specific cytoskeletal structures in spermatozoa of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Teleostei, Salmoniformes, Salmonidae; formerly Salmo gairdneri). Based on the known resistance of the cytoskeleton to nonionic detergents, we compared the ultrastructure of unextracted and Triton-extracted sperm cells. Besides the nucleus, the centrioles and the axoneme, there were also other structures preserved in Triton-treated spermatozoa: the lateral extensions (sidefins) and a thin layer corresponding in position to the membrane-like structure underlying the midpiece plasma membrane in intact cells. Because of their stability, it could be hypothesized that these cytoplasmic components are likely to have cytoskeletal nature. They are possibly analogous to the well known tissue-specific cytoskeletal components of mammalian spermatozoa with periaxonemal and submitochondrial localization. PMID:12853186

  11. Neotropical Monogenoidea: Euryhaliotrema dontykoleos n. sp. (Dactylogyridae) from the gills of the freshwater sciaenid, Pachyurus junki (Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Fehlauer, Karin Hoch; Boeger, Walter A

    2005-10-01

    Euryhaliotrema dontykoleos n. sp. (Monogenoidea, Polyonchoinea, Dactylogyridae) is described based on specimens collected from the gills of Pachyurus junki (Teleostei, Sciaenidae, Pachyurinae) in the Rio Tocantins and its tributaries, State of Tocantins, Brazil. The new species, the first species of Monogenoidea reported from a pachyurine, is easily differentiated from its congener by the presence of toothlike projections in the border of the vaginal opening and by having a trapezoidal anteromedial projection on the ventral bar. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the new species is not a member of the clade that includes the Euryhaliotrema spp. from Plagioscion spp., a second lineage of freshwater sciaenids in South America. Euryhaliotrema dontykoleos shares an immediate ancestor with the clade formed by parasites infecting marine Paralonchurus spp., (Sciaenidae), and those of Plagioscion spp. PMID:16419743

  12. Host-defense peptides of the skin with therapeutic potential: From hagfish to human.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael

    2015-05-01

    It is now well established that peptides that were first identified on the basis of their ability to inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi are multifunctional and so are more informatively described as host-defense peptides. In some cases, their role in protecting the organism against pathogenic microorganisms, although of importance, may be secondary. A previous article in the journal (Peptides 2014; 57:67-77) assessed the potential of peptides present in the skin secretions of frogs for development into anticancer, antiviral, immunomodulatory and antidiabetic drugs. This review aims to extend the scope of this earlier article by focusing upon therapeutic applications of host-defense peptides present in skin secretions and/or skin extracts of species belonging to other vertebrate classes (Agnatha, Elasmobranchii, Teleostei, Reptilia, and Mammalia as represented by the human) that supplement their potential role as anti-infectives for use against multidrug-resistant microorganisms. PMID:25794853

  13. Morphology and SSU rDNA sequences of Ortholinea orientalis (Shul'man and Shul'man-Albova, 1953) (Myxozoa, Ortholineidae) from Clupea harengus and Sprattus sprattus (Clupeidae) from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Karlsbakk, Egil; Køie, Marianne

    2011-07-01

    Ortholinea orientalis (Shul'man and Shul'man-Albova 1953) Shul'man 1956 is redescribed from Clupea harengus L. and Sprattus sprattus (L.) (Teleostei, Clupeidae) from the northern Øresund, Denmark. S. sprattus is a new host record. Polysporic plasmodia and most myxospores were found in the ureters of both hosts. The myxospores have external valvular ridges, which were not observed in the original description. The presence of this character causes us to consider Ortholinea clupeidae Aseeva 2000 as a likely synonym of O. orientalis. Ortholinea antipae Moshu and Trombitsky, 2006 from a Black Sea clupeid is also similar and represent a possible synonym. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of partial SSU rDNA sequences of O. orientalis reveal closest affinity (82-86% identity) to members of the 'Freshwater Urinary Bladder Clade' sensu Fiala (2006), a clade among the Platysporina containing members of the myxosporean genera Myxobilatus, Hoferellus, Myxidium, Zschokkella and Chloromyxum from freshwater fishes. PMID:21301876

  14. The lengthening of a giant protein: when, how, and why?

    PubMed

    Meiniel, Olivier; Meiniel, Robert; Lalloué, Fabrice; Didier, Robert; Jauberteau, Marie-Odile; Meiniel, Annie; Petit, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Subcommissural organ (SCO)-spondin is a giant glycoprotein of more than 5000 amino acids found in Vertebrata, expressed in the central nervous system and constitutive of Reissner's fiber. For the first time, in situ hybridization performed on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos shows that the gene encoding this protein is expressed transitionally in the floor plate, the ventral midline of the neural tube, and later in the diencephalic third ventricle roof, the SCO. The modular organization of the protein in Echinodermata (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), Urochordata (Ciona savignyi and C. intestinalis), and Vertebrata (Teleostei, Amphibia, Aves and Mammalia) is also described. As the thrombospondin type 1 repeat motifs represent an increasingly large part of the protein during Deuterostomia evolution, the duplication mechanisms leading to this complex organization are examined. The functional significance of the particularly well-preserved arrangement of the series of SCO-spondin repeat motifs and thombospondin type 1 repeats is discussed. PMID:18046595

  15. A genomic view of the NOD-like receptor family in teleost fish: Identification of a novel NLR subfamily in zebrafish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laing, K.J.; Purcell, M.K.; Winton, J.R.; Hansen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Background. A large multigene family of NOD-like receptor (NLR) molecules have been described in mammals and implicated in immunity and apoptosis. Little information, however, exists concerning this gene family in non-mammalian taxa. This current study, therefore, provides an in-depth investigation of this gene family in lower vertebrates including extensive phylogenetic comparison of zebrafish NLRs with orthologs in tetrapods, and analysis of their tissue-specific expression. Results. Three distinct NLR subfamilies were identified by mining genome databases of various non-mammalian vertebrates; the first subfamily (NLR-A) resembles mammalian NODs, the second (NLR-B) resembles mammalian NALPs, while the third (NLR-C) appears to be unique to teleost fish. In zebrafish, NLR-A and NLR-B subfamilies contain five and six genes respectively. The third subfamily is large, containing several hundred NLR-C genes, many of which are predicted to encode a C-terminal B30.2 domain. This subfamily most likely evolved from a NOD3-like molecule. Gene predictions for zebrafish NLRs were verified using sequence derived from ESTs or direct sequencing of cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis confirmed expression of representative genes from each subfamily in selected tissues. Conclusion. Our findings confirm the presence of multiple NLR gene orthologs, which form a large multigene family in teleostei. Although the functional significance of the three major NLR subfamilies is unclear, we speculate that conservation and abundance of NLR molecules in all teleostei genomes, reflects an essential role in cellular control, apoptosis or immunity throughout bony fish. ?? 2008 Laing et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  16. A clinical study of viper bite poisoning.

    PubMed

    Pugh, R N; Theakston, R D

    1987-04-01

    Thirty-one consecutive cases of snake bite were studied in the Benue Valley, Nigeria where carpet viper (Echis carinatus) bite constitutes a serious health problem. E. carinatus was responsible for 26 cases, the night adder (Causus maculatus) for three and the puff adder (Bitis arietans) for two. There were two fatalities, both late admissions following E. carinatus poisoning. One patient died after a subarachnoid haemorrhage and the other after tissue necrosis and the complications of a tightly applied tourniquet. Another fatality after E. carinatus bite was suspected in a patient who discharged himself from hospital after Behringwerke antivenom failed to control bleeding and coagulopathy. Other cases of Behringwerke antivenom's failure and of slow response to treatment confirmed the pressing need for a more effective Echis antivenom in West Africa. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for diagnosing the biting species and was the only means of identifying the three cases bitten by C. maculatus and one case bitten by B. arietans. PMID:3689023

  17. Fumigant Toxicity and Oviposition Deterrency of the Essential Oil from Cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum, Against Three Stored—product Insects

    PubMed Central

    Abbasipour, Habib; Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Rastegar, Fahimeh; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Use of insecticides can have disruptive effects on the environment. Replacing the chemical compounds in these insecticides with plant materials, however, can be a safe method with low environmental risk. In the current study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum L. (Maton) (Zingiberales: Zingiberaceae) on the adults of three stored product pests was investigated. Results indicated that essential oil of E. cardamomum toxic to the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Adults of E. kuehniella were more sensitive than the Coleoptera. Also, the highest mortality of these insects was seen after 12 hours. Results of the LT50 tests showed that the lethal time of mortality occurred between 10–20 hours in various test concentrations. Essential oil of E. cardamomum had a good efficacy on oviposition deterrence of C. maculatus females, too. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. The major constituents of cardamom were identified as 1,8-cineol, ?-terpinyl acetate, terpinene and fenchyl alcohol. These results suggest that essential oil of E. cardamomum is a good choice for control of stored product pests. PMID:22242564

  18. Female germ cell renewal during the annual reproductive cycle in Ostariophysians fish.

    PubMed

    Wildner, Daniel Dantas; Grier, Harry; Quagio-Grassiotto, Irani

    2013-03-01

    The objective was to characterize female germ cell renewal during the annual reproductive cycle in two species of ostariophysian fish with distinct reproductive strategies: a siluriform, Pimelodus maculatus, in which oocyte development is group synchronous and the annual reproductive period is short; and a characiform, Serrasalmus maculatus, with asynchronous oocyte development and a prolonged reproductive period. These reproductive strategies result in fish determinate and indeterminate fecundity, respectively. Annual reproductive phases were determined by biometric and histologic analysis of gonads and interpreted according to new proposals for phase classification and stages of oocyte development (with special attention to germinal epithelium activity). Histologically, there were two types of oogonia in the germinal epithelium: single oogonia and those in mitotic proliferation. Oogonial proliferation and their entry into meiosis resulted in formation of cell nests (clusters of cells in the ovarian lamellae). Morphometric analysis was used to estimate germ cell renewal. Based on numbers of single oogonia in the lamellar epithelium, and nests with proliferating oogonia or early prophase oocytes throughout the annual reproductive cycle, oogonial proliferation and entrance into meiosis were more intense during the regenerating phase and developing phase, but decreased sharply (P < 0.05) during the spawning-capable phase. Oogonial proliferation gradually recovered during the regressing phase. We concluded that, independent of species or features of the reproductive cycle, germ cell renewal occurred during the regenerating phase, ensuring availability of eggs for the spawning event. PMID:23317762

  19. Exaggerated male genitalia intensify interspecific reproductive interference by damaging heterospecific female genitalia.

    PubMed

    Kyogoku, D; Sota, T

    2015-06-01

    Male-male competition over fertilization can select for harmful male genital structures that reduce the fitness of their mates, if the structures increase the male's fertilization success. During secondary contact between two allopatrically formed, closely related species, harmful male genitalia may also reduce the fitness of heterospecific females given interspecific copulation. We performed a laboratory experiment to determine whether the extent of genital spine exaggeration in Callosobruchus chinensis males affects the fitness of C. maculatus females by injuring their reproductive organs. We found that males with more exaggerated genital spines were more likely to injure the females via interspecific copulation and that the genital injury translated into fecundity loss. Thus, as predicted, reproductive interference by C. chinensis males on C. maculatus females is mediated by exaggeration of the genital spine, which is the evolutionary consequence of intraspecific male-male competition. Harmful male traits, such as genital spines, might generally affect the extent of interaction between closely related species. PMID:25882439

  20. Characterization and Differential Expression of CPD and 6-4 DNA Photolyases in Xiphophorus Species and Interspecies Hybrids?

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Dylan J.; Boswell, Mikki; Volk de García, Sara M.; Walter, Sean M.; Breitenfeldt, Eric W.; Boswell, William; Walter, Ronald B.

    2014-01-01

    Among the many Xiphophorus interspecies hybrid tumor models are those that exhibit ultraviolet light (UVB) induced melanoma. In previous studies, assessment of UVB induced DNA damage and nucleotide excision DNA repair has been performed in parental lines and interspecies hybrids. Species and hybrid specific differences in the levels of DNA damage induced and the dark repair rates for cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 6-4 pyrimidine pyrimidine photoproducts (6-4PPs) have been reported. However, UVB induced DNA lesions in Xiphophorus fishes are thought to primarily be repaired via light dependent CPD and 6-4PP specific photolyases. Photolyases are of evolutionary interest since they are ancient and presumably function solely to ameliorate the deleterious effects of UVB exposure. Herein, we report results from detailed studies of CPD and 6-4PP photolyase gene expression within several Xiphophorus tissues. We determined photolyase gene expression patterns before and after exposure to fluorescent light in X. maculatus, X. couchianus, and for F1 interspecies hybrids produced from crossing these two parental lines (×. maculatus Jp 163 B × X. couchianus). We present novel results showing these two photolyase genes exhibit species, tissue, and hybrid-specific differences in basal and light induced gene expression. PMID:24496042

  1. Vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central Vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector Anopheles dirus is uncommon. In these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. Basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species. Methods In two rural villages - Khe Ngang and Hang Chuon - in Truong Xuan Commune, Quang Binh Province, north central Vietnam, a series of longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted during the wet and dry seasons from 2003 - 2007. In these surveys anopheline mosquitoes were collected in human landing catches, paired human and animal bait collections, and from larval surveys. Specimens belonging to species complexes were identified by PCR and sequence analysis, incrimination of vectors was by detection of circumsporozoite protein using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Over 80% of the anopheline fauna was made up of Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles harrisoni, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles philippinensis. PCR and sequence analysis resolved identification issues in the Funestus Group, Maculatus Group, Hyrcanus Group and Dirus Complex. Most species were zoophilic and while all species could be collected biting humans significantly higher densities were attracted to cattle and buffalo. Anopheles dirus was the most anthropophilic species but was uncommon making up only 1.24% of all anophelines collected. Anopheles sinensis, An. aconitus, An. harrisoni, An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni, Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. philippinensis were all found positive for circumsporozoite protein. Heterogeneity in oviposition site preference between species enabled vector densities to be high in both the wet and dry seasons allowing for year round transmission. Conclusions In rural communities in north central Vietnam, malaria transmission was maintained by a number of anopheline species which though collected feeding on humans were predominantly zoophilic, this behaviour allows for low level but persistent malaria transmission. The important animal baits - cattle and buffalo - were kept in the village and barrier spraying around these animals may be more effective at reducing vector densities and longevity than the currently used indoor residual spraying. PMID:20846447

  2. Osteology and ontogeny of the wrymouths, genus Cryptacanthodes (Cottiformes: Zoarcoidei: Cryptacanthodidae).

    PubMed

    Schnell, Nalani K; Hilton, Eric J

    2015-02-01

    The four species included in the family Cryptacanthodidae are eel-like, burrowing fishes distributed in the cold-temperate coastal waters of the North Pacific and the western North Atlantic. This study describes the osteology and aspects of the ontogenetic skeletal development of two species, Cryptacanthodes maculatus from the western North Atlantic and C. aleutensis from the eastern North Pacific. We discuss the relationships of Cryptacanthodidae among other zoarcoid families. The Cryptacanthodidae have been previously included in the Stichaeidae, but removed and classified as a separate family based on the skull, pectoral radial, and cephalic lateral-line morphology. Our observations (similarities in gill arch and pectoral girdle morphology; specifically, a thin sheet-like flange of bone from the posterior margin of the supracleithrum) suggest a close relationship to at least some of the members of the family Stichaeidae. PMID:25327966

  3. Female song sparrow, Melospiza melodia, response to simulated conspecific and heterospecific intrusion across three seasons.

    PubMed

    Elekonich

    2000-03-01

    To investigate female responses to territorial intrusion I presented female song sparrows with either a simulated female song sparrow intrusion or a simulated spotted towhee, Pipilo maculatus, intrusion as a control during either the prebreeding, breeding or postmoult seasons. Aggressive and nonaggressive behaviours and vocalizations were compared between intrusion types and across seasons. Principle components analysis suggested that female responses fell into three categories: (1) responses directed towards the intruder, mostly aggressive; (2) responses directed towards the mate; and (3) lack of response to the intruder. In every season, females responded more aggressively to simulated female song sparrow intrusion than simulated towhee intrusion. Responses directed towards female song sparrow intruders dropped across the three seasons and were significantly higher in the prebreeding season than in the breeding or postmoult seasons. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10715177

  4. Does reproductive isolation evolve faster in larger populations via sexually antagonistic coevolution?

    PubMed

    Gay, L; Eady, P E; Vasudev, R; Hosken, D J; Tregenza, T

    2009-10-23

    Sexual conflict over reproductive investment can lead to sexually antagonistic coevolution and reproductive isolation. It has been suggested that, unlike most models of allopatric speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation through sexually antagonistic coevolution will occur faster in large populations as these harbour greater levels of standing genetic variation, receive larger numbers of mutations and experience more intense sexual selection. We tested this in bruchid beetle populations (Callosobruchus maculatus) by manipulating population size and standing genetic variability in replicated lines derived from founders that had been released from sexual conflict for 90 generations. We found that after 19 generations of reintroduced sexual conflict, none of our treatments had evolved significant overall reproductive isolation among replicate lines. However, as predicted, measures of reproductive isolation tended to be greater among larger populations. We discuss our methodology, arguing that reproductive isolation is best examined by performing a matrix of allopatric and sympatric crosses whereas measurement of divergence requires crosses with a tester line. PMID:19364716

  5. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 December 2012-31 January 2013.

    PubMed

    Arranz, Silvia E; Avarre, Jean-Christophe; Balasundaram, Chellam; Bouza, Carmen; Calcaterra, Nora B; Cezilly, Frank; Chen, Shi-long; Cipriani, Guido; Cruz, V P; D'Esposito, D; Daniel, Carla; Dejean, Alain; Dharaneedharan, Subramanian; Díaz, Juan; Du, Man; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Dziadek, Jaros?aw; Foresti, F; Peng-cheng, Fu; Gao, Qing-bo; García, Graciela; Gauffre-Autelin, Pauline; Giovino, Antonio; Goswami, Mukunda; Guarino, Carmine; Guerra-Varela, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Verónica; Harris, D J; Heo, Moon-Soo; Khan, Gulzar; Kim, Mija; Lakra, Wazir S; Lauth, Jérémie; Leclercq, Pierre; Lee, Jeonghwa; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Soohyung; Lee, Theresa; Li, Yin-hu; Liu, Hongbo; Liu, Shufang; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Mandhan, Rishi Pal; Martinez, Paulino; Mayer, Veronika E; Mendel, Jan; Mendes, N J; Mendonça, F F; Minias, Alina; Minias, Piotr; Oh, Kyeong-Suk; Oliveira, C; Orivel, Jérôme; Orsini, L; Pardo, Belén G; Perera, A; Procaccini, G; Rato, C; Ríos, Néstor; Scibetta, Silvia; Sharma, Bhagwati S; Sierens, Tim; Singh, Akhilesh; Terer, Taita; Triest, Ludwig; Urbánková, So?a; Vera, Manuel; Villanova, Gabriela V; Voglmayr, Hermann; Vysko?ilová, Martina; Wang, Hongying; Wang, Jiu-li; Wattier, Rémi A; Xing, Rui; Yadav, Kamalendra; Yin, Guibo; Yuan, Yanjiao; Yun, Jong-Chul; Zhang, Fa-qi; Zhang, Jing-hua; Zhuang, Zhimeng

    2013-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 268 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alburnoides bipunctatus, Chamaerops humilis, Chlidonias hybrida, Cyperus papyrus, Fusarium graminearum, Loxigilla barbadensis, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Odontesthes bonariensis, Pelteobagrus vachelli, Posidonia oceanica, Potamotrygon motoro, Rhamdia quelen, Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii, Sibiraea angustata, Takifugu rubripes, Tarentola mauritanica, Trimmatostroma sp. and Wallago attu. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Alburnoides fasciatus, Alburnoides kubanicus, Alburnoides maculatus, Alburnoides ohridanus, Alburnoides prespensis, Alburnoides rossicus, Alburnoides strymonicus, Alburnoides thessalicus, Alburnoides tzanevi, Carassius carassius, Fusarium asiaticum, Leucaspius delineatus, Loxigilla noctis dominica, Pelecus cultratus, Phoenix canariensis, Potamotrygon falkneri, Trachycarpus fortune and Vimba vimba. PMID:23521844

  6. Learning predator promotes coexistence of prey species in host-parasitoid systems.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yumiko; Shimada, Masakazu

    2012-03-27

    Ecological theory suggests that frequency-dependent predation, in which more common prey types are disproportionately favored, promotes the coexistence of competing prey species. However, many of the earlier empirical studies that investigated the effect of frequency-dependent predation were short-term and ignored predator-prey dynamics and system persistence. Therefore, we used long-term observation of population dynamics to test how frequency-dependent predation influences the dynamics and coexistence of competing prey species using insect laboratory populations. We established two-host-one-parasitoid populations with two bruchid beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus, as the hosts and the pteromalid wasp Anisopteromalus calandrae as their common parasitoid. When the parasitoid was absent, C. chinensis was competitively excluded in ?20 wk. Introducing the parasitoid greatly enhanced the coexistence time to a maximum of 118 wk. In the replicates of long-lasting coexistence, the two host species C. maculatus and C. chinensis exhibited periodic antiphase oscillations. Behavioral experiments showed frequency-dependent predation of A. calandrae that was caused by learning. Females of A. calandrae learned host-related olfactory cues during oviposition and increased their preference for the common host species. Numerical simulations showed that parasitoid learning was the essential mechanism that promoted persistence in this host-parasitoid system. Our study is an empirical demonstration that frequency-dependent predation has an important role in greatly enhancing the coexistence of prey populations, suggesting that predator learning affects predator-prey population dynamics and shapes biological communities in nature. PMID:22411808

  7. A review of the leafhopper tribe Hyalojassini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Iassinae) with description of new taxa.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wu; Dietrich, Christopher H; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The morphologically diverse leafhopper tribe Hyalojassini is reinstated from synonymy under Iassini based on distinctive features of the male genitalia and a key to the Oriental genera is given. The previously monotypic genera Hyalojassus Evans and Coriojassus Evans are revised and redescribed based on study of the type species. The following new genera and species are described from Thailand and China and placed in Hyalojassini: Kanchanaburiassus maculatus gen. nov. & sp. nov. from Kanchanaburi, Thailand; Lamelliassus chaingmaiensis gen. & sp. nov. from Chaingmai, Thailand; Siamiassus constanti gen. & sp. nov. from Loei, Thailand ; Decliviassus gen nov. with D. bipunctatus sp. nov., D. maculatus sp. nov., and D. nudus sp. nov., from Thailand; Trocniassus gen. nov. with T. shaanxiensis and T. henanensis sp. nov.; Hyalojassus elongatus sp. nov. and H. punctulatus sp. nov. from Thailand and H. yunnanensis sp. nov. from China; Coriojassus loeiensis sp. nov. from Thailand, C. yunnanensis sp. nov. and C. zhejiangensis sp. nov. from Yunnan and Zhejiang, China, respectively, the latter representing the first records of the genus from China. Sinojassus Dai et al. 2010 (nec Zhang 1985) is a junior homonym, thus a new replacement name, Siniassus nom. nov., is proposed, the genus is transferred to Hyalojassini, and the following new combinations are made: Siniassus loberus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010), Siniassus aspinus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010), Siniassus compressus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010) and Siniassus webbi (Dai & Dietrich, 2010). Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations for all new taxa are provided. The following New World genera share the diagnostic morphological features of Hyalojassini and are newly placed in this tribe: Absheta Blocker, Aztrania Blocker, Baldriga Blocker, Bertawolia Blocker, Betawala Blocker, Comanopa Blocker, Daveyoungana Blocker & Webb, Derakandra Blocker, Donleva Blocker, Gargaropsis Fowler, Garlica Blocker, Gehundra Blocker, Goblinaja Kramer, Grunchia Kramer, Jivena Blocker, Julipopa Blocker, Maranata Blocker, Mogenola Blocker, Momoria Blocker, Neotrocnada Krishnankutty & Dietrich, Penestragania Beamer & Lawson, Redaprata Blocker, Stragania Stål, Torenadoga Blocker, and Webaskola Blocker.  PMID:25661594

  8. Learning predator promotes coexistence of prey species in host–parasitoid systems

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Yumiko; Shimada, Masakazu

    2012-01-01

    Ecological theory suggests that frequency-dependent predation, in which more common prey types are disproportionately favored, promotes the coexistence of competing prey species. However, many of the earlier empirical studies that investigated the effect of frequency-dependent predation were short-term and ignored predator–prey dynamics and system persistence. Therefore, we used long-term observation of population dynamics to test how frequency-dependent predation influences the dynamics and coexistence of competing prey species using insect laboratory populations. We established two-host–one-parasitoid populations with two bruchid beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus, as the hosts and the pteromalid wasp Anisopteromalus calandrae as their common parasitoid. When the parasitoid was absent, C. chinensis was competitively excluded in ?20 wk. Introducing the parasitoid greatly enhanced the coexistence time to a maximum of 118 wk. In the replicates of long-lasting coexistence, the two host species C. maculatus and C. chinensis exhibited periodic antiphase oscillations. Behavioral experiments showed frequency-dependent predation of A. calandrae that was caused by learning. Females of A. calandrae learned host-related olfactory cues during oviposition and increased their preference for the common host species. Numerical simulations showed that parasitoid learning was the essential mechanism that promoted persistence in this host–parasitoid system. Our study is an empirical demonstration that frequency-dependent predation has an important role in greatly enhancing the coexistence of prey populations, suggesting that predator learning affects predator–prey population dynamics and shapes biological communities in nature. PMID:22411808

  9. Quantification of the maternal-embryonal nutritional relationship of elasmobranchs: case study of wobbegong sharks (genus Orectolobus).

    PubMed

    Huveneers, C; Otway, N M; Harcourt, R G; Ellis, M

    2011-05-01

    The present study used wobbegong sharks (genus Orectolobus) to assess the threshold value proposed by previous research to categorize strict lecithotrophic from incipient histotrophic species. Totals of 236 and 135 ornate wobbegong Orectolobus ornatus and spotted wobbegong Orectolobus maculatus, respectively, were collected from the New South Wales commercial fishery between June 2003 and May 2006. Eight pregnant gulf wobbegong Orectolobus halei were also recorded outside the sampling period for the first time. The three species were reproductively synchronous with a gestation of c. 10-11 months. Embryos started to be macroscopically visible during January and external yolk sacs were fully absorbed by June to July when embryos were c. 200 mm total length (L(T) ). Internal yolk sacs were first observed during April to May when embryos were c. 160 mm L(T) , reached a peak during June and persisted in embryos immediately prior to parturition. The total wet mass from uterine egg to full-term embryos increased by 44-89% and 45-62%, whereas the total organic mass decreased by 32-33% and 26%, for O. ornatus and O. maculatus, respectively, suggesting that these species are strict lecithotrophic yolk-sac viviparous sharks with no maternal nutrient input. A review of the literature identified various issues and suggested that the previously proposed organic mass loss threshold value separating strict lecithotrophic species from incipient histotrophic species might not be appropriate. Instead, it is recommended that a combination of methods (e.g. estimation of organic mass gain or loss between ovarian egg and developed embryo, histology and electron microscopy of the uterus, radio-tracer assay and uterine fluid analysis throughout gestation) is used to discern between strict lecithotrophic and incipient histotrophic species. PMID:21539548

  10. A new stem-neopterygian fish from the Middle Triassic of China shows the earliest over-water gliding strategy of the vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Hui; Zhao, Li-Jun; Gao, Ke-Qin; Wu, Fei-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Flying fishes are extraordinary aquatic vertebrates capable of gliding great distances over water by exploiting their enlarged pectoral fins and asymmetrical caudal fin. Some 50 species of extant flying fishes are classified in the Exocoetidae (Neopterygii: Teleostei), which have a fossil record no older than the Eocene. The Thoracopteridae is the only pre-Cenozoic group of non-teleosts that shows an array of features associated with the capability of over-water gliding. Until recently, however, the fossil record of the Thoracopteridae has been limited to the Upper Triassic of Austria and Italy. Here, we report the discovery of exceptionally well-preserved fossils of a new thoracopterid flying fish from the Middle Triassic of China, which represents the earliest evidence of an over-water gliding strategy in vertebrates. The results of a phylogenetic analysis resolve the Thoracopteridae as a stem-group of the Neopterygii that is more crown-ward than the Peltopleuriformes, yet more basal than the Luganoiiformes. As the first record of the Thoracopteride in Asia, this new discovery extends the geographical distribution of this group from the western to eastern rim of the Palaeotethys Ocean, providing new evidence to support the Triassic biological exchanges between Europe and southern China. Additionally, the Middle Triassic date of the new thoracopterid supports the hypothesis that the re-establishment of marine ecosystems after end-Permian mass extinction is more rapid than previously thought. PMID:23118437

  11. The effects of heavy metal mine drainage on population size structure, reproduction, and condition of western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis.

    PubMed

    Franssen, Courtney M

    2009-07-01

    Anthropogenic degradation of aquatic environments worldwide results in disturbed habitats, altered communities, and stressed populations. Surface waters located in an abandoned lead-zinc mining district in northeastern Oklahoma are no exception. This study examines the reproductive and somatic responses of a pollution-tolerant fish, the western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis (Teleostei: Poeciliidae), living in mine outflow waters contaminated by heavy metals. Populations were sampled from four streams, which were classified into three habitat types. Populations from Tar Creek and an Unnamed Tributary of Tar Creek receive direct input of mine drainage, while populations living in reference creeks are not known to have mining influence. The influence of mine drainage directly or indirectly (via altered competitor and predator regimes or changes in food availability) affects G. affinis at both the population and the individual level. Metal-contaminated sites had reduced proportions of males and reproductively active females and altered male population size structures. Individual-level effects were apparent, as all G. affinis from Tar Creek invested less in liver weights, and mature males and reproductively active females from Tar Creek invested less in gonad weights. Furthermore, males from impacted sites were significantly lighter than those from reference creeks. Gravid females from Tar Creek had smaller clutch sizes, but average embryo weight did not differ among streams. PMID:18846312

  12. The oldest ionoscopiform from China sheds new light on the early evolution of halecomorph fishes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guang-Hui; Zhao, Li-Jun; Coates, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    The Halecomorphi are a major subdivision of the ray-finned fishes. Although living halecomorphs are represented solely by the freshwater bowfin, Amia calva, this clade has a rich fossil history, and the resolution of interrelationships among extinct members is central to the problem of understanding the origin of the Teleostei, the largest clade of extant vertebrates. The Ionoscopiformes are extinct marine halecomorphs that were inferred to have originated in the Late Jurassic of Europe, and subsequently dispersed to the Early Cretaceous of the New World. Here, we report the discovery of a new ionoscopiform, Robustichthys luopingensis gen. et sp. nov., based on eight well-preserved specimens from the Anisian (242–247 Ma), Middle Triassic marine deposits of Luoping, eastern Yunnan Province, China. The new species documents the oldest known ionoscopiform, extending the stratigraphic range of this group by approximately 90 Ma, and the geographical distribution of this group into the Middle Triassic of South China, a part of eastern Palaeotethys Ocean. These new data provide a minimum estimate for the split of Ionoscopiformes from its sister clade Amiiformes and shed new light on the origin of ionoscopiform fishes. PMID:24872460

  13. Bichir HoxA Cluster Sequence Reveals Surprising Trends in Ray-Finned Fish Genomic Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chi-hua; Dewar, Ken; Wagner, Günter P.; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Ruddle, Frank; Ledje, Christina; Bartsch, Peter; Scemama, Jean-Luc; Stellwag, Edmund; Fried, Claudia; Prohaska, Sonja J.; Stadler, Peter F.; Amemiya, Chris T.

    2004-01-01

    The study of Hox clusters and genes provides insights into the evolution of genomic regulation of development. Derived ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii, Teleostei) such as zebrafish and pufferfish possess duplicated Hox clusters that have undergone considerable sequence evolution. Whether these changes are associated with the duplication(s) that produced extra Hox clusters is unresolved because comparison with basal lineages is unavailable. We sequenced and analyzed the HoxA cluster of the bichir (Polypterus senegalus), a phylogenetically basal actinopterygian. Independent lines of evidence indicate that bichir has one HoxA cluster that is mosaic in its patterns of noncoding sequence conservation and gene retention relative to the HoxA clusters of human and shark, and the HoxA? and HoxA? clusters of zebrafish, pufferfish, and striped bass. HoxA cluster noncoding sequences conserved between bichir and euteleosts indicate that novel cis-sequences were acquired in the stem actinopterygians and maintained after cluster duplication. Hence, in the earliest actinopterygians, evolution of the single HoxA cluster was already more dynamic than in human and shark. This tendency peaked among teleosts after HoxA cluster duplication. PMID:14707166

  14. A parvicapsulid (Myxozoa) infecting Sprattus sprattus and Clupea harengus (Clupeidae) in the Northeast Atlantic uses Hydroides norvegicus (Serpulidae) as invertebrate host.

    PubMed

    Køie, Marianne; Karlsbakk, Egil; Einen, Ann-Cathrine Bårdsgjtere; Nylund, Are

    2013-05-01

    A myxosporean producing actinospores of the tetractinomyxon type in Hydroides norvegicus Gunnerus (Serpulidae) in Denmark was identified as a member of the family Parvicapsulidae based on small-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences. Myxosporean samples from various Danish and Norwegian marine fishes were examined with primers that detect the novel myxosporean. Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus) and Clupea harengus Linnaeus (Teleostei, Clupeidae) were found to be infected. The sequences of this parvicapsulid from these hosts were consistently slightly different (0.8% divergence), but both these genotypes were found in H. norvegicus. Disporic trophozoites and minute spores of a novel myxosporean type were observed in the renal tubules of some of the hosts found infected through PCR. The spores appear most similar to those of species of Gadimyxa Køie, Karlsbakk et Nylund, 2007, but are much smaller. The actinospores of the tetractinomyxon type from H. norvegicus have been described previously. In GenBank, the SSU rDNA sequences of Parvicapsulidae gen. sp. show highest identity (82%) with Parvicapsula minibicornis Kent, Whitaker et Dawe, 1997 infecting salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in fresh water in the western North America. A phylogenetic analysis places P. minibicornis and Parvicapsulidae gen. sp. in a sister clade to the other parvicapsulids (Parvicapsula spp. and Gadimyxa spp.). PMID:23724734

  15. A new stem-neopterygian fish from the Middle Triassic of China shows the earliest over-water gliding strategy of the vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guang-Hui; Zhao, Li-Jun; Gao, Ke-Qin; Wu, Fei-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Flying fishes are extraordinary aquatic vertebrates capable of gliding great distances over water by exploiting their enlarged pectoral fins and asymmetrical caudal fin. Some 50 species of extant flying fishes are classified in the Exocoetidae (Neopterygii: Teleostei), which have a fossil record no older than the Eocene. The Thoracopteridae is the only pre-Cenozoic group of non-teleosts that shows an array of features associated with the capability of over-water gliding. Until recently, however, the fossil record of the Thoracopteridae has been limited to the Upper Triassic of Austria and Italy. Here, we report the discovery of exceptionally well-preserved fossils of a new thoracopterid flying fish from the Middle Triassic of China, which represents the earliest evidence of an over-water gliding strategy in vertebrates. The results of a phylogenetic analysis resolve the Thoracopteridae as a stem-group of the Neopterygii that is more crown-ward than the Peltopleuriformes, yet more basal than the Luganoiiformes. As the first record of the Thoracopteride in Asia, this new discovery extends the geographical distribution of this group from the western to eastern rim of the Palaeotethys Ocean, providing new evidence to support the Triassic biological exchanges between Europe and southern China. Additionally, the Middle Triassic date of the new thoracopterid supports the hypothesis that the re-establishment of marine ecosystems after end-Permian mass extinction is more rapid than previously thought. PMID:23118437

  16. A mitogenic view on the evolutionary history of the Holarctic freshwater gadoid, burbot (Lota lota).

    PubMed

    Van Houdt, J K J; De Cleyn, L; Perretti, A; Volckaert, F A M

    2005-07-01

    Climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene epoch had a dramatic impact on the distribution of biota in the northern hemisphere. In order to trace glacial refugia and postglacial colonization routes on a global scale, we studied mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in a freshwater fish (burbot, Lota lota; Teleostei, Gadidae) with a circumpolar distribution. The subdivision of burbot in the subspecies Lota lota lota (Eurasia and Alaska) and Lota lota maculosa (North America, south of the Great Slave Lake) was reflected in two distinct mitochondrial lineages (average genetic distance is 2.08%). The lota form was characterized by 30 closely related haplotypes and a large part of its range (from Central Europe to Beringia) was characterized by two widespread ancestral haplotypes, implying that transcontinental exchange/migration was possible for cold-adapted freshwater taxa in recent evolutionary time. However, the derived mitochondrial variants observed in peripheral populations point to a recent separation from the core group and postglacial recolonization from distinct refugia. Beringia served as refuge from where L. l. lota dispersed southward into North America after the last glacial maximum. Genetic variation in the maculosa form consisted of three mitochondrial clades, which were linked to at least three southern refugia in North America. Two mitochondrial clades east of the Continental Divide (Mississippian and Missourian clades) had a distinct geographical distribution in the southern refuge zones but intergraded in the previously glaciated area. The third clade (Pacific) was exclusively found west of the Continental Divide. PMID:15969726

  17. Reduced sperm counts in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) following exposure to low levels of tributyltin and bisphenol A.

    PubMed Central

    Haubruge, E; Petit, F; Gage, M J

    2000-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that normal male reproductive function can be disrupted by exposure to pollutants in the environment that can exogenously mimic, antagonize or block sex-hormone function. One possible consequence of exposure to these xenobiotics is disruption to spermatogenesis, but results thus far provide only indirect and inconsistent evidence. In this study we exposed adult male guppies (Poeciliidae: Teleostei) to environmentally relevant levels of the common xenobiotics tributyltin (11.2-22.3 ngl-1) and bisphenol A (274-549 micrograms l-1) in experimental aquaria. After 21 days of exposure, we found significant declines (by 40-75%) in total sperm counts for male fishes exposed to tributyltin and bisphenol A compared with controls. This short-term decline in sperm count is unlikely to be the result of endocrine-mediated alteration of the germ line, and we found no change in testis size or sperm lengths between treatments. However, Sertoli cells, which facilitate the transport of maturing sperm into the testicular deferent duct (where they are stored prior to ejaculation), are directly sensitive to xenobiotic action and it is therefore possible that spermatogenesis was inhibited through in vivo interference with normal Sertoli-cell function. PMID:11413652

  18. Abundance/host size relationship in a fish trematode community.

    PubMed

    Saad-Fares, A; Combes, C

    1992-09-01

    The abundance of six species of trematodes: Aphanurus stossichi, Bacciger israelensis, Diphterostomum israelense, Plagioporus idoneus, Leprocreadium album and L. pegorchis, parasitic in the digestive tract of marine teleostei (Sparidae) collected near Jounieh (east Mediterranean), was analysed as a function of the host-size. In two parasite/host systems, infections were observed from the lowest size classes of the sample, with a clear tendency to an increase of abundance in older fish. In four others, parasites appear only above a rather high threshold class, young individuals never being infected. In the last three parasite/host systems, host invasion may occur early or late, but infection decreases above a well defined size class, old fishes rarely or never being infected. A given trematode species, when parasitizing several host species, shows similar abundance/host size relationships, e.g., P. idoneus in Diplodus vulgaris and Oblada melanura. When more than one species of trematode infects a single host species, curves can be markedly distinct; for instance, L. pegorchis was collected from Pagellus erythrinus below 15 cm. whereas D. israelense parasitized the same fish approximately above the same size. There is no evidence that such a replacement of one trematode by another in the course of host growth is a result of inter-specific competition. PMID:1452993

  19. Isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Ayson, F G; de Jesus, E G; Amemiya, Y; Moriyama, S; Hirano, T; Kawauchi, H

    2000-02-01

    We report the isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus; Teleostei; Perciformes; Siganidae) growth hormone (GH). Rabbitfish GH was extracted from pituitary glands under alkaline conditions, fractionated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The fractions containing GH were identified by immunoblotting with bonito GH antiserum. Under nonreducing conditions, the molecular weight of rabbitfish GH is about 19 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. The purified hormone was potent in promoting growth in rabbitfish fry. Weekly intraperitoneal injections of the hormone significantly accelerated growth. This was evident 3 weeks after the start of the treatment, and its effect was still significant 2 weeks after the treatment was terminated. Rabbitfish GH cDNA was cloned to determine its nucleotide sequence. Excluding the poly (A) tail, rabbitfish GH cDNA is 860 base pairs (bp) long. It contained untranslated regions of 94 and 175 bp in the 5' and 3' ends, respectively. It has an open reading frame of 588 bp coding for a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a mature protein of 178 amino acid residues. Rabbitfish GH has 4 cysteine residues. On the amino acid level, rabbitfish GH shows high identity (71-74%) with GHs of other perciforms, such as tuna, sea bass, yellow tail, bonito, and tilapia, and less (47-49%) identity with salmonid and carp GHs. PMID:10642447

  20. Otolithic apparatus of tetrapods after space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    In vertebrates the otolithic membrane is formed of three components: the gelatinous layer, the subcupular meshwork and the otolithic apparatus (Fermin et al., 1998; Lim, 1974; Lindeman, 1969; Lychakov, 1988, 2002). The otolithic apparatus consists of a set of small crystalline otoconia (Tetrapoda), or a single large crystalline otolith (Teleostei). Despite similar functions, the otoconia (Tetrapoda) and otolith otolithic apparatus differ significantly in their embryogenesis, postembryonic growth, chemical composition, etc. It may be suggested that the gravitational challenges may have different effects on otoconia or otoliths. Unfortunately, we have only a few quantitative data on structural adaptation of tetrapod otolithic apparatus to microgravity (Lychakov, 2002; Lychakov, Lavrova,1985; Wiederhold et al., 1997). The BION-M1 provides an opportunity for a quantitative morphological analysis of otolithic apparatus of adult mice exposed to 30 days in a biosatellite on orbit. We expect to analyse otoconia of utriculus and sacculus. Our principal aims are to investigate the morphological characteristics of otoconia. We expect to get novel insights in microgravity induced otoconia adaptation of tetrapods. This work was partly supported by Russian grant RFFI 14-04-00601.

  1. Purification and characterization of galanin and scyliorhinin I from the hybrid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus platorynchus x Scaphirhynchus albus (Acipenseriformes).

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Barton, B A; Thim, L; Nielsen, P F; Conlon, J M

    1999-01-01

    The sturgeons (order Acipenseriformes) are extant representatives of a group of ancient Actinopterygian (ray-finned) fish. Galanin and scyliorhinin I (a tachykinin with limited structural similarity to mammalian substance P) have been isolated from an extract of the gastrointestinal tract of a sturgeon (an F1 hybrid between the shovelnose sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, and the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus). The primary structure of sturgeon galanin (Gly-Trp-Thr-Leu-Asn-Ser-Ala-Gly-Tyr-Leu10-Leu-Gly-Pro-His-Ala-Val -As p-Gly-His-Arg20-Ser-Leu-Ser-Asp-Lys-His-Gly-Leu-Pro.NH2) contains only two amino acid substitutions (Ser23 --> Asn and Pro29 --> Ala) compared with galanin from the bowfin, Amia calva (Amiiformes), but five amino acid substitutions compared with galanin from the trout (Teleostei). Similarly, the sturgeon tachykinin (Ser-Lys-Tyr-His-Gln-Phe-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Met.NH2) contains only one amino acid substitution (Tyr3 --> Ser) compared with scyliorhinin I previously isolated from bowfin stomach but five amino acid substitutions compared with trout substance P. The data support the hypothesis that the Acipenseriformes and the basal Neopterygians (gars and bowfin) share a close phylogenetic relationship. PMID:9882542

  2. Waterscape genetics of the yellow perch (Perca flavescens): patterns across large connected ecosystems and isolated relict populations.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda-Villet, Osvaldo J; Stepien, Carol A

    2012-12-01

    Comparisons of a species' genetic diversity and divergence patterns across large connected populations vs. isolated relict areas provide important data for understanding potential response to global warming, habitat alterations and other perturbations. Aquatic taxa offer ideal case studies for interpreting these patterns, because their dispersal and gene flow often are constrained through narrow connectivity channels that have changed over geological time and/or from contemporary anthropogenic perturbations. Our research objective is to better understand the interplay between historic influences and modern-day factors (fishery exploitation, stocking supplementation and habitat loss) in shaping population genetic patterns of the yellow perch Perca flavescens (Percidae: Teleostei) across its native North American range. We employ a modified landscape genetics approach, analysing sequences from the entire mitochondrial DNA control region and 15 nuclear DNA microsatellite loci of 664 spawning adults from 24 populations. Results support that perch from primary glacial refugium areas (Missourian, Mississippian and Atlantic) founded contemporary northern populations. Genetic diversity today is highest in southern (never glaciated) populations and also is appreciable in northern areas that were founded from multiple refugia. Divergence is greater among isolated populations, both north and south; the southern Gulf Coast relict populations are the most divergent, reflecting their long history of isolation. Understanding the influence of past and current waterway connections on the genetic structure of yellow perch populations may help us to assess the roles of ongoing climate change and habitat disruptions towards conserving aquatic biodiversity. PMID:23078285

  3. Tachykinins (substance P and neuropeptide gamma) from the brains of the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus and the paddlefish, Polyodon spathula (Acipenseriformes).

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Barton, B A; Nielsen, P F; Conlon, J M

    1999-10-01

    A peptide with substance P-like immunoreactivity was isolated from extracts of the brains of the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus and the North American paddlefish, Polyodon spathula. The primary structure of the peptide (Lys-Pro-Lys-Pro-His-Gln-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met.NH(2)) is the same in both species and contains 2 amino acid substitutions (Arg(1) --> Lys and Gln(5) --> His) compared with human substance P and 1 substitution (Arg(3) --> Lys) compared with substance P from the trout (Teleostei). Scyliorhinin I, a tachykinin previously isolated from an extract of sturgeon intestine, was not detected in either brain extract. A peptide with neurokinin A-like immunoreactivity (Ser-Ser-Ala-Asn-Arg-Gln-Ile-Thr-Gly-Lys(10)Arg-Gln-Lys-Ile-Asn-Ser-P he-Val-Gly-Leu(20)Met.NH(2)) was isolated from sturgeon brain and contains 10 amino acid substitutions compared with human neuropeptide gamma (a specific product of the posttranslational processing of gamma-preprotachykinin A) but only 4 substitutions compared with trout neuropeptide gamma. It was not possible to obtain the paddlefish neurokinin A-related peptide in pure form. The structural similarity between the sturgeon and the trout tachykinins supports the hypothesis that the Acipenseriformes (sturgeons and paddlefish) represent the sister group of the Neopterygii (gars, bowfin, and teleosts). PMID:10525358

  4. High genetic diversity in cryptic populations of the migratory sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in the Mekong River.

    PubMed

    So, N; Maes, G E; Volckaert, F A M

    2006-02-01

    The detection and conservation of spawning units is of crucial importance in highly migratory species. The sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Pangasiidae; Teleostei) is a common large-sized tropical fish, which migrates annually to several upstream spawning sites on the Lower Mekong River and feeds on the huge floodplain of the Lower Mekong and Tonle Sap for the other half of the year. We hypothesised that because of the relative size of the feeding and spawning habitat, genetic variability would be high and homogeneous in foraging populations, but that spawning stocks would be distinct in space and time. To test these predictions, 567 individuals from 10 geographic locations separated by up to 1230 km along the Lower Mekong River were genotyped at seven microsatellite loci. The level of genetic diversity was much higher than other freshwater fish and reached values comparable to marine species (mean H(e)=0.757). All samples collected at the potential spawning sites deviated from Hardy-Weinberg expectations, suggesting admixture. Individual-based clustering methods revealed genetic heterogeneity and enabled the detection of three genetically distinct sympatric populations. There was no evidence of recent reduction in effective population size in any population. Contrasting with the vast extent of the feeding grounds, the shortage of spawning grounds seems to have moved sutchi catfish towards diachronous spawning. Hence the sustainable exploitation of this natural resource hinges on the conservation of the limited spawning grounds and open migration routes between the spawning and feeding grounds. PMID:16369576

  5. Diets and trophic-guild structure of a diverse fish assemblage in Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Buchheister, A; Latour, R J

    2015-03-01

    Dietary habits and trophic-guild structure were examined in a fish assemblage (47 species) of the Chesapeake Bay estuary, U.S.A., using 10 years of data from >25 000 fish stomachs. The assemblage was comprised of 10 statistically significant trophic guilds that were principally differentiated by the relative amounts of Mysida, Bivalvia, Polychaeta, Teleostei and other Crustacea in the diets. These guilds were broadly aggregated into five trophic categories: piscivores, zooplanktivores, benthivores, crustacivores and miscellaneous consumers. Food web structure was largely dictated by gradients in habitat (benthic to pelagic) and prey size. Size classes within piscivorous species were more likely to be classified into different guilds, reflecting stronger dietary changes through ontogeny relative to benthivores and other guilds. Relative to predator species and predator size, the month of sampling had negligible effects on dietary differences within the assemblage. A majority of sampled fishes derived most of their nutrition from non-pelagic prey sources, suggesting a strong coupling of fish production to benthic and demersal food resources. Mysida (predominantly the opossum shrimp Neomysis americana) contributed substantially to the diets of over 25% of the sampled predator groups, indicating that this species is a critical, but underappreciated, node in the Chesapeake Bay food web. PMID:25627041

  6. Reliable micro-measurement of strontium is the key to cracking the life-history code in the fish otolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwitz, A.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.; Trompetter, W. J.; Dioses, T.; Gauldie, R. W.

    2000-05-01

    The fish otolith is a calcium carbonate (usually aragonite) crystal that grows continuously by accretion over the life of the fish and unlike bone is not continuously re-metabolised. Consequently, the otolith has long been regarded as a potential store of information about the life history of an individual fish, and this information is encoded in the deposition pattern of trace elements in the otolith. The code has been difficult to crack. However, recent developments have show that: (1) Sr is one of the few non-mobile trace elements in the otolith; and (2) the pattern of Sr deposition summarises the effects of environment changes that affect the growth rate of the otolith crystal. The remaining difficulties in cracking the chemical code in the otolith have hinged about making reliable micro-measurements of the stable Sr content at spatial resolutions of 10 ?m or less; this interval represents about 4-6 days of otolith growth in most species of fish. This paper describes high beam resolution 2 ?m linear measurements, and 6 ?m square measurements over narrow windows of about 300 ?m square, and links these micro-measures to macro-measures of 2D maps of the entire surface of sections of otoliths up to 5 mm square at beam resolutions of 25 ?m square. The otoliths used in this study are from the Jurel, or Peruvian Jack mackerel, Trachurus murphyi (Carangidae: Teleostei).

  7. Molecular evolution of GPCRs: Ghrelin/ghrelin receptors.

    PubMed

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya

    2014-06-01

    After the discovery in 1996 of the GH secretagogue-receptor type-1a (GHS-R1a) as an orphan G-protein coupled receptor, many research groups attempted to identify the endogenous ligand. Finally, Kojima and colleagues successfully isolated the peptide ligand from rat stomach extracts, determined its structure, and named it ghrelin. The GHS-R1a is now accepted to be the ghrelin receptor. The existence of the ghrelin system has been demonstrated in many animal classes through biochemical and molecular biological strategies as well as through genome projects. Our work, focused on identifying the ghrelin receptor and its ligand ghrelin in laboratory animals, particularly nonmammalian vertebrates, has provided new insights into the molecular evolution of the ghrelin receptor. In mammals, it is assumed that the ghrelin receptor evolution is in line with the plate tectonics theory. In contrast, the evolution of the ghrelin receptor in nonmammalian vertebrates differs from that of mammals: multiplicity of the ghrelin receptor isoforms is observed in nonmammalian vertebrates only. This multiplicity is due to genome duplication and polyploidization events that particularly occurred in Teleostei. Furthermore, it is likely that the evolution of the ghrelin receptor is distinct from that of its ligand, ghrelin, because only one ghrelin isoform has been detected in all species examined so far. In this review, we summarize current knowledge related to the molecular evolution of the ghrelin receptor in mammalian and nonmammalian vertebrates. PMID:24353285

  8. A complementary LC-ESI-MS and MALDI-TOF approach for screening antibacterial proteomic signature of farmed European sea bass mucus.

    PubMed

    Fekih-Zaghbib, Sonia; Fildier, Aurélie; Barrek, Sami; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss

    2013-08-01

    Antibacterial protection in the mucus is provided by antimicrobial compounds and till now few numbers of AMP and proteins were identified. Herein, mass spectral profiling of fresh mucus from farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry is investigated in order to survey the infective/healthy status of the mucus. We identify AMP peptides of 2891.7, 2919.45 and 2286.6 Da molecular weight respectively and characterize Chrysophsins in the mucus of Dicentrarchus labrax. These peptides display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against Gram-negative (Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations namely MICs < 0.5 ?M) and Gram-positive bacteria (MICs < 0.5 ?M) including Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Furthermore, sensitivity to yeast Candida albicans is reported for the first time and shows interesting MICs of less than 2 ?M. We also demonstrate that the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonoicida is sensitive to Chrysophsins (MICs ranging between 5 and 14 ?M). Our mucus molecular mass mapping developed approach allows for fast exploration of immune status. Our data provides evidence that Chrysophsins are secreted by immune cells and are released in mucus of non-challenged farmed European sea bass. These results suggest that Chrysophsins, secreted by gills of red sea bream, are an important widespread component of Teleostei defense against disease. PMID:23643872

  9. Hydrological disturbance benefits native fish at the expense of exotic fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leprieur, F.; Hickey, M.; Arbuckle, C. J.; Closs, G. P.; Brosse, S.; Townsend, C. R.

    2005-05-01

    Many of New Zealand's native fish do not coexist with introduced salmonids. Previous studies of disjunct distributions of exotic brown trout and native galaxiids in the Taieri River demonstrated native extirpation except where major waterfalls prevented trout upstream migration. In the nearby Manuherikia River, waterfalls are not significant and we predicted water abstraction for irrigation might mediate non-overlapping distributions. We used multivariate analyses to test for differences in environmental conditions (catchment and instream scales) in sympatry and allopatry, and a supervised artificial neural network to identify factors mediating non-overlapping distributions (139 sites). Brown trout are capable of reaching most locations in the Manuherikia catchment, and often occur upstream of Galaxias anomalus. In this river, their largely disjunct distributions are mediated by water abstraction for irrigation, together with pool habitat and valley slope. Brown trout are more susceptible than the natives to stresses associated with low flows and high temperatures and it seems trout are prevented from eliminating galaxiid populations from sites in low gradient streams where there is a high level of water abstraction. In contrast to many reports in the literature, hydrological disturbance associated with human activity benefits native fish at the expense of exotics in the Manuherikia River.

  10. Geology shapes biogeography: Quaternary river-capture explains New Zealand's biologically 'composite' Taieri River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Jonathan M.; Wallis, Graham P.; Burridge, Christopher P.; Craw, Dave

    2015-07-01

    Geological processes are hypothesised to strongly affect species distributions. In particular, a combination of geological and biological data has suggested that tectonic processes can drive vicariant isolation and speciation in freshwater-limited taxa. Here we synthesise geological and biological evidence to demonstrate a composite geological and biological history for New Zealand's 290-km long Taieri River. Specifically, we assess evidence from structural geology and petrology, combined with phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of galaxiid fishes, to show that the modern Taieri River was formed via capture of the ancestral Kye Burn during the mid-late Quaternary. Molecular dating analyses support a late-Quaternary timeframe for the geologically-mediated divergence between formerly-connected sister taxa Galaxias depressiceps and G. 'teviot'. Fish biogeography lends further support to the geological hypothesis, as there is a substantial biogeographic disjunction between the lower- (ancestral) and upper (captured) portions of the Taieri River. Geological and biological data are assessed independently yet yield consilient patterns and timeframes for the evolutionary events inferred. Broadly, this study highlights the interplay between physical and biological processes in a geologically dynamic setting.

  11. A multicopy Y-chromosomal SGNH hydrolase gene expressed in the testis of the platyfish has been captured and mobilized by a Helitron transposon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Teleost fish present a high diversity of sex determination systems, with possible frequent evolutionary turnover of sex chromosomes and sex-determining genes. In order to identify genes involved in male sex determination and differentiation in the platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus, bacterial artificial chromosome contigs from the sex-determining region differentiating the Y from the X chromosome have been assembled and analyzed. Results A novel three-copy gene called teximY (for testis-expressed in Xiphophorus maculatus on the Y) was identified on the Y but not on the X chromosome. A highly related sequence called texim1, probably at the origin of the Y-linked genes, as well as three more divergent texim genes were detected in (pseudo)autosomal regions of the platyfish genome. Texim genes, for which no functional data are available so far in any organism, encode predicted esterases/lipases with a SGNH hydrolase domain. Texim proteins are related to proteins from very different origins, including proteins encoded by animal CR1 retrotransposons, animal platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolases (PAFah) and bacterial hydrolases. Texim gene distribution is patchy in animals. Texim sequences were detected in several fish species including killifish, medaka, pufferfish, sea bass, cod and gar, but not in zebrafish. Texim-like genes are also present in Oikopleura (urochordate), Amphioxus (cephalochordate) and sea urchin (echinoderm) but absent from mammals and other tetrapods. Interestingly, texim genes are associated with a Helitron transposon in different fish species but not in urochordates, cephalochordates and echinoderms, suggesting capture and mobilization of an ancestral texim gene in the bony fish lineage. RT-qPCR analyses showed that Y-linked teximY genes are preferentially expressed in testis, with expression at late stages of spermatogenesis (late spermatids and spermatozeugmata). Conclusions These observations suggest either that TeximY proteins play a role in Helitron transposition in the male germ line in fish, or that texim genes are spermatogenesis genes mobilized and spread by transposable elements in fish genomes. PMID:24712907

  12. A unique swim bladder-inner ear connection in a teleost fish revealed by a combined high-resolution microtomographic and three-dimensional histological study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In most modern bony fishes (teleosts) hearing improvement is often correlated with a close morphological relationship between the swim bladder or other gas-filled cavities and the saccule or more rarely with the utricle. A connection of an accessory hearing structure to the third end organ, the lagena, has not yet been reported. A recent study in the Asian cichlid Etroplus maculatus provided the first evidence that a swim bladder may come close to the lagena. Our study was designed to uncover the swim bladder-inner ear relationship in this species. We used a new approach by applying a combination of two high-resolution techniques, namely microtomographic (microCT) imaging and histological serial semithin sectioning, providing the basis for subsequent three-dimensional reconstructions. Prior to the morphological study, we additionally measured auditory evoked potentials at four frequencies (0.5, 1, 2, 3 kHz) to test the hearing abilities of the fish. Results E. maculatus revealed a complex swim bladder-inner ear connection in which a bipartite swim bladder extension contacts the upper as well as the lower parts of each inner ear, a condition not observed in any other teleost species studied so far. The gas-filled part of the extension is connected to the lagena via a thin bony lamella and is firmly attached to this bony lamella with connective material. The second part of the extension, a pad-like structure, approaches the posterior and horizontal semicircular canals and a recessus located posterior to the utricle. Conclusions Our study is the first detailed report of a link between the swim bladder and the lagena in a teleost species. We suggest that the lagena has an auditory function in this species because the most intimate contact exists between the swim bladder and this end organ. The specialized attachment of the saccule to the cranial bone and the close proximity of the swim bladder extension to the recessus located posterior to the utricle indicate that the saccule and the utricle also receive parallel inputs from the swim bladder extension. We further showed that a combination of non-destructive microCT imaging with histological analyses on the same specimen provides a powerful tool to decipher and interpret fine structures and to compensate for methodological artifacts. PMID:23826967

  13. Influence of host origin on host choice of the parasitoid Dinarmus basalis: does upbringing influence choices later in life?

    PubMed

    Sankara, F; Dabiré, L C B; Ilboudo, Z; Dugravot, S; Cortesero, A M; Sanon, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of volatile compounds from four secondary host plants on the ability of Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to locate, recognize, and parasitize its host, 4(th)instar larvae or pupae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). To examine this, strains of D. basalis were transferred from cow-pea seeds (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)) to pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and two varieties of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds. The ability of D. basalis females to recognize the volatile compounds emanating from their complex host plant was tested by using a Y-tube olfactometer and a three-dimensional device. The results suggest that when females have a choice between pure air and the air emanating from their complex host of origin, they are attracted to the air tainted by the volatile compounds they have become accustomed to. They spent significantly more time (p < 0.0001) in the branch of the tube leading to the odorous air than in the tube leading to the pure air. When females from pigeon pea seed hosts were offered a choice between cowpea and pigeon pea seeds, all containing 4(th)instar larvae, the familiar odor of pigeon pea seeds were most attractive. When females from Bambara groundnut (white and striped) seed hosts were offered a choice between cowpea and pigeon pea seeds, all containing 4(th)instar larvae, they were significantly attracted to the odour of cowpea seeds. In the three-dimensional system, the females from the four strains did not appear to have any preference for a given type of seed containing 4(th)instar larvae or pupae. The parasitism rate remained high on all four types of seeds used. These results show that the use of D. basalis as a biological control agent is possible in host changing situations where C. maculatus starts to attack other legumes. The results of this study also provide information supporting the behavioral plasticity of D. basalis. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the adaptive phenomena of biological control agents is discussed in the context of the development of adequate methods of pest control. PMID:25373173

  14. Influence of Host Origin on Host Choice of the Parasitoid Dinarmus basalis: Does Upbringing Influence Choices Later in Life?

    PubMed Central

    Sankara, F.; Dabiré, L. C. B.; Ilboudo, Z.; Dugravot, S.; Cortesero, A. M.; Sanon, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of volatile compounds from four secondary host plants on the ability of Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to locate, recognize, and parasitize its host, 4th instar larvae or pupae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). To examine this, strains of D. basalis were transferred from cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)) to pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and two varieties of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds. The ability of D. basalis females to recognize the volatile compounds emanating from their complex host plant was tested by using a Y-tube olfactometer and a three-dimensional device. The results suggest that when females have a choice between pure air and the air emanating from their complex host of origin, they are attracted to the air tainted by the volatile compounds they have become accustomed to. They spent significantly more time (p < 0.0001) in the branch of the tube leading to the odorous air than in the tube leading to the pure air. When females from pigeon pea seed hosts were offered a choice between cowpea and pigeon pea seeds, all containing 4th instar larvae, the familiar odor of pigeon pea seeds were most attractive. When females from Bambara groundnut (white and striped) seed hosts were offered a choice between cowpea and pigeon pea seeds, all containing 4th instar larvae, they were significantly attracted to the odour of cowpea seeds. In the three-dimensional system, the females from the four strains did not appear to have any preference for a given type of seed containing 4th instar larvae or pupae. The parasitism rate remained high on all four types of seeds used. These results show that the use of D. basalis as a biological control agent is possible in host changing situations where C. maculatus starts to attack other legumes. The results of this study also provide information supporting the behavioral plasticity of D. basalis. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the adaptive phenomena of biological control agents is discussed in the context of the development of adequate methods of pest control. PMID:25373173

  15. The European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax genome puzzle: comparative BAC-mapping and low coverage shotgun sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Food supply from the ocean is constrained by the shortage of domesticated and selected fish. Development of genomic models of economically important fishes should assist with the removal of this bottleneck. European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. (Moronidae, Perciformes, Teleostei) is one of the most important fishes in European marine aquaculture; growing genomic resources put it on its way to serve as an economic model. Results End sequencing of a sea bass genomic BAC-library enabled the comparative mapping of the sea bass genome using the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus genome as a reference. BAC-end sequences (102,690) were aligned to the stickleback genome. The number of mappable BACs was improved using a two-fold coverage WGS dataset of sea bass resulting in a comparative BAC-map covering 87% of stickleback chromosomes with 588 BAC-contigs. The minimum size of 83 contigs covering 50% of the reference was 1.2 Mbp; the largest BAC-contig comprised 8.86 Mbp. More than 22,000 BAC-clones aligned with both ends to the reference genome. Intra-chromosomal rearrangements between sea bass and stickleback were identified. Size distributions of mapped BACs were used to calculate that the genome of sea bass may be only 1.3 fold larger than the 460 Mbp stickleback genome. Conclusions The BAC map is used for sequencing single BACs or BAC-pools covering defined genomic entities by second generation sequencing technologies. Together with the WGS dataset it initiates a sea bass genome sequencing project. This will allow the quantification of polymorphisms through resequencing, which is important for selecting highly performing domesticated fish. PMID:20105308

  16. Lineage-specific evolution of the vertebrate Otopetrin gene family revealed by comparative genomic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mutations in the Otopetrin 1 gene (Otop1) in mice and fish produce an unusual bilateral vestibular pathology that involves the absence of otoconia without hearing impairment. The encoded protein, Otop1, is the only functionally characterized member of the Otopetrin Domain Protein (ODP) family; the extended sequence and structural preservation of ODP proteins in metazoans suggest a conserved functional role. Here, we use the tools of sequence- and cytogenetic-based comparative genomics to study the Otop1 and the Otop2-Otop3 genes and to establish their genomic context in 25 vertebrates. We extend our evolutionary study to include the gene mutated in Usher syndrome (USH) subtype 1G (Ush1g), both because of the head-to-tail clustering of Ush1g with Otop2 and because Otop1 and Ush1g mutations result in inner ear phenotypes. Results We established that OTOP1 is the boundary gene of an inversion polymorphism on human chromosome 4p16 that originated in the common human-chimpanzee lineage more than 6 million years ago. Other lineage-specific evolutionary events included a three-fold expansion of the Otop genes in Xenopus tropicalis and of Ush1g in teleostei fish. The tight physical linkage between Otop2 and Ush1g is conserved in all vertebrates. To further understand the functional organization of the Ushg1-Otop2 locus, we deduced a putative map of binding sites for CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), a mammalian insulator transcription factor, from genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) data in mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells combined with detection of CTCF-binding motifs. Conclusions The results presented here clarify the evolutionary history of the vertebrate Otop and Ush1g families, and establish a framework for studying the possible interaction(s) of Ush1g and Otop in developmental pathways. PMID:21261979

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of the Trachinotus ovatus: Identification of Reproduction, Growth and Immune-Related Genes and Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Fang; Qiongyu, Liu; Zihao, Li; Xiaochun, Liu; Yong, Zhang; Shuisheng, Li; Haoran, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Background The Trachinotus ovatus (Teleostei, Carangidae) is an economically important marine fish species in the world. However, the lack of genomic information regarding this species limits our understanding of the genetics and biological mechanisms in Trachinotus ovatus. In this study, high throughput transcriptome sequencing was used to obtain comprehensive genomic information in Trachinotus ovatus. Principal Findings Transcriptome sequencing was performed by using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. The 98,534,862 high quality reads were yielded, and were de novo assembled into 156,094 unigenes with an average sequence length of 1179 bp. Transcriptome annotation revealed that 75,586 and 67,923 unigenes were functionally annotated in the NCBI non-redundant database and Swiss-Prot protein database, respectively. Functional analysis demonstrated that 67,923 unigenes were grouped into 25 Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) functional categories, 37,976 unigenes were clustered into 61 Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and 38,172 unigenes were assigned to 275 different Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Based on the transcriptome dataset, a large number of unigenes associated with reproduction, growth and immunity were identified. Furthermore, a total number of 38,794 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were discovered and 16 polymorphic loci were characterized in Trachinotus ovatus. Conclusion/Significance The present study is the first transcriptome analysis of a fish species belonging to the genus Trachinotus and provides a valuable genomic resource for novel gene discovery, gene expression and regulation studies, and the identification of genetic markers in Trachinotus ovatus and the other fish of the genus Trachinotus. PMID:25303650

  18. Comparative analysis of the gonadal transcriptomes of the all-female species Poecilia formosa and its maternal ancestor Poecilia mexicana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa (Teleostei: Poeciliinae) is an unisexual, all-female species. It evolved through the hybridisation of two closely related sexual species and exhibits clonal reproduction by sperm dependent parthenogenesis (or gynogenesis) where the sperm of a parental species is only used to activate embryogenesis of the apomictic, diploid eggs but does not contribute genetic material to the offspring. Here we provide and describe the first de novo assembled transcriptome of the Amazon molly in comparison with its maternal ancestor, the Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana. The transcriptome data were produced through sequencing of single end libraries (100 bp) with the Illumina sequencing technique. Results 83,504,382 reads for the Amazon molly and 81,625,840 for the Atlantic molly were assembled into 127,283 and 78,961 contigs for the Amazon molly and the Atlantic molly, respectively. 63% resp. 57% of the contigs could be annotated with gene ontology terms after sequence similarity comparisons. Furthermore, we were able to identify genes normally involved in reproduction and especially in meiosis also in the transcriptome dataset of the apomictic reproducing Amazon molly. Conclusions We assembled and annotated the transcriptome of a non-model organism, the Amazon molly, without a reference genome (de novo). The obtained dataset is a fundamental resource for future research in functional and expression analysis. Also, the presence of 30 meiosis-specific genes within a species where no meiosis is known to take place is remarkable and raises new questions for future research. PMID:24742317

  19. Feeding habits of the bluemouth, Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus (Delaroche, 1809) (Pisces: Sebastidae) in the Portuguese coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Ana; Sequeira, Vera; Paiva, Rafaela Barros; Vieira, Ana Rita; Gordo, Leonel Serrano

    2012-06-01

    In order to investigate the feeding habits of Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus along the continental Portuguese coast, a total of 619 individuals were sampled of which 60% contained food in their stomach and 35% had more than one prey item. Among the 81 prey items that were identified in the stomachs, benthic and benthopelagic prey prevail on this species diet. Acantephyra sp, Pasiphaea sp, mysidacea, and teleostei n.i. were the prey with the higher percent index of relative importance (%IRI) value. Three length groups (5-20 cm, 21-27 cm, and 28-48 cm) were defined through cluster analysis of the mean abundance of prey items. A permutational MANOVA detected significant differences in the diet and stomach fullness index for TLG, season, and maturation stage. Smaller fishes had a generalized diet, feeding mainly on mysidacea changing their diet above 20 cm TL, where a major consumption of natantia was found. The larger individuals, >28 cm TL, present a less generalized diet with pisces as dominant prey group. Seasonally, natantia and pisces were the principal prey groups during spring and winter, respectively, while mysidacea and other crustaceans were predominant during the rest of the year. Mysidacea were also the main prey group for immature individuals while natantia and pisces were the principal prey groups to the other maturity stages. The results of this study indicate that H. d. dactylopterus has a diverse diet focused on small crustaceans such as misyds and as specimens grow shrimps and fishes become more consumed, with larger specimens having a more specialized diet. The different nutritional needs during spawning season also seemed to influence the feeding habits of H. d. dactylopterus.

  20. Pleistocene desiccation in East Africa bottlenecked but did not extirpate the adaptive radiation of Lake Victoria haplochromine cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Kathryn R; Reggio, Chiara; Wirth, Thierry; Verheyen, Erik; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    2009-08-11

    The Great Lakes region of East Africa, including Lake Victoria, is the center of diversity of the mega-diverse cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Teleostei). Paleolimnological evidence indicates dramatic desiccation of this lake ca. 18,000-15,000 years ago. Consequently, the hundreds of extant endemic haplochromine species in the lake must have either evolved since then or refugia must have existed, within that lake basin or elsewhere, from which Lake Victoria was recolonized. We studied the population history of the Lake Victoria region superflock (LVRS) of haplochromine cichlids based on nuclear genetic analysis (12 microsatellite loci from 400 haplochomines) of populations from Lake Kivu, Lake Victoria, and the connected and surrounding rivers and lakes. Population genetic analyses confirmed that Lake Kivu haplochromines colonized Lake Victoria. Coalescent analyses show a 30- to 50-fold decline in the haplochromine populations of Lake Victoria, Lake Kivu, and the region ca. 18,000-15,000 years ago. We suggest that this coincides with drastic climatic and geological changes in the late Pleistocene. The most recent common ancestor of the Lake Victoria region haplochromines was estimated to have existed about 4.5 million years ago, which corresponds to the first radiation of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika and the origin of the tribe Haplochrominii. This relatively old evolutionary origin may explain the high levels of polymorphism still found in modern haplochromines. This degree of polymorphism might have acted as a "genetic reservoir" that permitted the explosive radiation of hundreds of haplochromines and their array of contemporary adaptive morphologies. PMID:19651614

  1. Bipteria vetusta n. sp. – an old parasite in an old host: tracing the origin of myxosporean parasitism in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kodádková, Alena; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; Holzer, Astrid S; Fiala, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    Myxosporea (Myxozoa), a group of parasitic Cnidaria, use mostly bony fishes (Teleostei) as intermediate hosts; however, they can also parasitize other vertebrates such as cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes). Molecular data of myxosporeans from sharks and rays (Elasmobranchii) revealed these parasites to be one of the most basal representatives in the myxosporean phylogenetic tree, suggesting their ancient evolutionary history. A new myxosporean species, Bipteria vetusta n. sp., was found in the gall bladder of rabbit fish, Chimaera monstrosa (Holocephali; Chondrichthyes), and ssrDNA-based phylogeny revealed its basal position within the marine myxosporean lineage. Molecular dating based on ssrDNA analysis suggested the origin of a stem lineage leading to the marine myxosporean lineage at the time of the origin of Chondrichthyes in the Silurian era. The two common lineages of Myxozoa, Myxosporea and Malacosporea, were estimated to have split from their common ancestor in the Cambrian era. Tracing the history of evolution of the "vertebrate host type" character in the context of molecular dating showed that cartilaginous fish represented an ancestral state for all myxosporeans. Teleosts were very likely subsequently parasitized by myxozoans four times, independently. Myxosporean radiation and diversification appear to correlate with intermediate host evolution. The first intermediate hosts of myxosporeans were cartilaginous fish. When bony fish evolved and radiated, myxosporeans switched and adapted to bony fish, and subsequently greatly diversified in this new host niche. We believe that the present study is the first attempt at molecular dating of myxozoan evolution based on an old myxosporean species – a living myxosporean fossil. PMID:25659495

  2. Housekeeping genes for quantitative expression studies in the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    PubMed Central

    Hibbeler, Sascha; Scharsack, Joern P; Becker, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Background During the last years the quantification of immune response under immunological challenges, e.g. parasitation, has been a major focus of research. In this context, the expression of immune response genes in teleost fish has been surveyed for scientific and commercial purposes. Despite the fact that it was shown in teleostei and other taxa that the gene for beta-actin is not the most stably expressed housekeeping gene (HKG), depending on the tissue and experimental treatment, the gene has been used as a reference gene in such studies. In the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, other HKG than the one for beta-actin have not been established so far. Results To establish a reliable method for the measurement of immune gene expression in Gasterosteus aculeatus, sequences from the now available genome database and an EST library of the same species were used to select oligonucleotide primers for HKG, in order to perform quantitative reverse-transcription (RT) PCR. The expression stability of ten candidate reference genes was evaluated in three different tissues, and in five parasite treatment groups, using the three algorithms BestKeeper, geNorm and NormFinder. Our results showed that in most of the tissues and treatments HKG that could not be used so far due to unknown sequences, proved to be more stably expressed than the one for beta-actin. Conclusion As they were the most stably expressed genes in all tissues examined, we suggest using the genes for the L13a ribosomal binding protein and ubiquitin as alternative or additional reference genes in expression analysis in Gasterosteus aculeatus. PMID:18230138

  3. [Ecological approach to the problem of monophyly of Neodermata (Platyhelminthes)].

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, T A

    2005-01-01

    The ecological scenario of the evolution of main branches of Neodermata is described. The first neodermateans (= promonogeneans) were parasites of the gill lamellae of Paleozoic jawless vertebrates, which were microphagous suspension-feeding animals. The main apomorphic characters of the primary neodermateans are neodermis, cercomer (posterior hooked attachment organ) and swimming infective larva. All subsequent evolution of Neodermata was related with their acquisition new niches in hosts, which were intensively diverging in that time adapting to new food types and conquering new ecological niches. The acquisition of new microhabitats was accompanied by the development of morphological diversity in Neodermata especially in a structure of attachment and genital organs. Trematoda, Cestoda and Polyopisthocotylea comprise specialized evolutionary lineages and Monopisthocotylea is a basal taxon. Polyopisthocotylea is specialized to the blood feeding on fish gills. The common ancestors of the Trematoda and Cestoda inhabited walls of gills and pharyngeal cavities, from where they penetrated the digestive tract. The aspidogastridean multiloculate hold fast appears to be a highly specialized attachment organ of the monogenean ancestor, which inhabited muscular pharyngeal walls of Paleozoic vertebrates. The loss of cercomer hooks probably took place when mollusk-hosts have been involved in the aspidogastridean life cycle. The extinction of many chondrichthiean groups and progress of small plankton fishes (Teleostei) has led to the appearance Digenea. New vertebrate hosts needed a new infestation type and the cercaria appeared. Parthenogenesis has been developed in stages living in mollusks to counterbalance the loss of individuals at two transmission stages in the digenean cycle; this was resulted in a strong specificity to mollusk-host. Evolutionary tendencies of Trematoda and Cestoda show noticeable similarities. PMID:15907023

  4. Distribution, adaptation and physiological meaning of thiols from vertebrate hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Reischl, Evaldo; Dafre, Alcir Luiz; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Wilhelm Filho, Danilo

    2007-01-01

    In the present review, the sequences of hemoglobins (Hb) of 267 adult vertebrate species belonging to eight major vertebrate taxa are examined for the presence and location of cysteinyl residues in an attempt at correlation with their ecophysiology. Essentially, all vertebrates have surface cysteinyl residues in Hb molecules whereby their thiol groups may become highly reactive. Thiol-rich Hbs may display eight or more thiols per tetramer. In vertebrates so far examined, the cysteinyl residues occur in 44 different sequence positions in alpha chains and 41 positions in beta chains. Most of them are conservatively located and occur in only a few positions in Teleostei, Aves and Mammalia, whereas they are dispersed in Amphibia. The internal cysteinyl residue alpha104 is ubiquitous in vertebrates. Residue beta93 is highly conserved in reptiles, birds and mammals. The number of cysteine residues per tetramer with solvent access varies in vertebrates, mammalians and bony fish having the lowest number of external residues, whereas nearly all external cysteine residues in Aves and Lepidosauria are of the surface crevice type. In cartilaginous fish, amphibians, Crocodylidae and fresh water turtles, a substantial portion of the solvent accessible thiols are of the totally external type. Recent evidence shows that some Hb thiol groups are highly reactive and undergo extensive and reversible S-thiolation, and that they may be implicated in interorgan redox equilibrium processes. Participation of thiol groups in nitric oxide ((*)NO) metabolism has also been proved. The evidence argues for a new physiologically relevant role for Hb via involvement in free radical and antioxidant metabolism. PMID:17368111

  5. Ontogeny of microhabitat use and two-step recruitment in a specialist reef fish, the Browncheek Blenny (Chaenopsidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, P. A.; Galland, G. R.

    2010-03-01

    Ecological specialization is common on coral reefs and almost certainly contributes to the high diversity of fishes and invertebrates associated with reefs. Here, the recruitment pathway of an endemic Gulf of California fish, the Browncheek Blenny, Acanthemblemaria crockeri (Teleostei: Chaenopsidae), which specializes as an adult on vacant invertebrate tests or tubes, is reported. Like most reef fishes, Browncheek Blennies have a planktonic larval stage that leaves the reef and later settles on suitable habitat as a fully developed juvenile. These blennies follow a clear, “two-step” recruitment pathway, however, and do not reside in invertebrate tests until reaching an adult body size. Individual juveniles and adults were observed for 3 min intervals in order to develop average time budgets for this species. Members of both sexes and all post-settlement life-history stages were included in the analysis. The difference in habitat use by post-settlement juveniles and adults is striking; the average juvenile spends none of its time inside a test, and the average large adult spends all of its time inside a test. Using data on intermediate-sized individuals, the behavioral change associated with invading a test was determined to be size-cued, and it occurs between 20 and 30 mm standard length. Changes in feeding and predator avoidance behaviors are also associated with the ontogenetic shift from life in the open to life in a shelter. Addition of artificial shelters demonstrated the essential role of access to this specialized resource in the population regulation of adults but not juveniles of these blennies.

  6. Molecular evidence for the existence of species complexes within Macvicaria Gibson & Bray, 1982 (Digenea: Opecoelidae) in the western Mediterranean, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Antar, Rym; Georgieva, Simona; Gargouri, Lamia; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2015-07-01

    Morphological and molecular characterisation of specimens of Macvicaria spp. (Digenea: Opecoelidae) from five species of Mediterranean sparids (Teleostei: Sparidae) sampled in the Bizerte Lagoon and the Bay of Bizerte (Tunisia) revealed the presence of two species complexes designated as "obovata" and "crassigula" groups. Detailed comparative morphological and phylogenetic analyses revealed that two of the specimen sets, one from each complex, represent species new to science. M. maamouriae n. sp. from Sparus aurata L. and Lithognathus mormyrus (L.) appeared genetically similar to M. obovata (Molin, 1859) but differs in having a much larger ventral sucker relative to body width, a cirrus-sac extending dorsally to the posterior margin of the ventral sucker or more posterior, vitelline fields comprising distinctly more abundant vitelline follicles, reaching the level of the pharynx both ventrally and dorsally and confluent dorsally in the forebody, and an ovary contiguous with the anterior testis. Macvicaria bartolii n. sp. from Diplodus annularis (L.) and Spondyliosoma cantharus (L.) belongs to the "crassigula" group and is characterised by having almost exclusively dorsal vitelline follicles forming two non-confluent fields in the forebody. Additional morphological data are provided for Macvicaria dubia (Stossich, 1905), a poorly known parasite of Oblada melanura (L.). Morphological descriptions are associated with ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 28S rDNA sequences for the three Mediterranean species of Macvicaria Gibson & Bray, 1982. The results of our study suggest that further exploration of the species diversity within this genus should be based on both morphological and molecular data. PMID:26063299

  7. A ZFY-like sequence in fish, with comments on the evolution of the ZFY family of genes in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerer, E.J.; Threlkeld, L. [Murray State Univ., KY (United States)

    1995-08-01

    ZFY-like genes have been observed in a variety of vertebrate species. Although originally implicated as the primary testis-determining gene in humans and other placental mammals, more recent evidence indicates a role(s) outside that of testis determination. In this study, DNA from five species of fish, Carasius auratus, Rivulus marmoratus, Xiphophorus maculatus, X. milleri, and X. nigrensis was subjected to Southern blot analysis using a PCR-amplified fragment of mouse ZFY-like sequence as a probe. Restriction fragment patterns were not polymorphic between sexes in any one species but showed a different pattern for each species. With one exception, Rivulus, a 3.1-kb band from the EcoRI digestion was common to all. Sequence and open reading frame analysis of this fragment showed a strong homology to other known vertebrate ZFY-like genes. Of particular interest in this gene is a novel third finger domain similar to one human and one alligator ZFY-like gene. Our studies and others provide evidence for a family of vertebrate ZFY genes, with those having this novel third finger being representative of the ancestral condition. 30 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Assessing the alignment of sexual and natural selection using radiomutagenized seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Power, D J; Holman, L

    2015-05-01

    A major unsolved question in evolutionary biology concerns the relationship between natural and sexual selection. Sexual selection might augment natural selection, for example if mutations that harm female fecundity also reduce male mating success. Conversely, sexual selection might favour traits that impair naturally selected fitness components. We induced detrimental mutations in Callosobruchus maculatus beetles using X-ray irradiation and then experimentally measured the effect of precopulatory sexual selection on offspring number and survival rate. Sexual selection treatment had a negative effect on egg-to-adult survivorship, although the number of progeny reaching adulthood was unaffected, perhaps because eggs and juveniles that failed to develop lessened competition on the survivors. We hypothesize that the negative effect of sexual selection arose because sexually competitive males transmitted a smaller nuptial gift or carried alleles that conferred reduced survival. Although we found no evidence that sexual selection on males can purge alleles that are detrimental to naturally selected fitness components, such benefits might exist in other environmental or genetic contexts. PMID:25808294

  9. Fishborne Trematode Metacercariae in Freshwater Fish from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Keeseon S.; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yang, Yichao; Li, Xueming

    2009-01-01

    A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of fishborne trematode (FBT) metacercariae in freshwater fish from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. A total of 307 freshwater fish of 31 species were collected from 5 administrative regions of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. They were examined by artificial digestion method from July 2003 to August 2004. No metacercariae were detected in fish from Fusui-xian. In fish from Mashan-xian and a market in Nanning, 3 species of metacercariae, Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchis pumilio, and Centrocestus formosanus, were mainly detected. Metacercariae (8 in number) of Clonorchis sinensis were found in 1 Chanodichthys dabryi purchased from a market in Nanning. In fish from Yangshuo, Metagonimus yokogawai metacercariae were detected from all 18 fish species examined. Total 13 C. sinensis metacercariae were found in 3 out of 10 Hemibarbus maculatus from Yangshuo. All 7 Zacco platypus from Yangshuo were infected with 8-112 Echinochasmus perfoliatus metacercariae. In fish from Binyang-xian, H. pumilo metacercariae were mainly detected in all 5 fish species examined, and only 1 metacercaria of C. sinensis was found in a Hemiculter leucisculus. From the above results, it was confirmed that some species of freshwater fish play a role of second intermediate hosts for FBT in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. In particular, 4 species of intestinal flukes, M. yokogawai, H. taichui, H. pumilio, and C. formosanus, were prevalent in fish hosts, whereas C. sinensis metacercariae were detected only in 3 fish species. PMID:19724698

  10. Identification and characterization of a new IgE-binding protein in mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) by MALDI-TOF-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bangping; Li, Zhenxing; Zheng, Lina; Liu, Yixuan; Lin, Hong

    2011-03-01

    As fish is one source of the `big eight' food allergens, the prevalence of fish allergy has increased over the past few years. In order to better understand fish allergy, it is necessary to identify fish allergens. Based on the sera from fish-allergenic patients, a 28 kDa protein from local mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), which has not been reported as a fish allergen, was found to be reactive with most of the patients' sera. The 28 kDa protein was analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry). Mascot search in NCBI database (Date: 08/07/2010) showed that the top protein matched, i.e. triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) from Xiphophorus maculatus and Poecilia reticulata, had a mowse (molecular weight search) score of 98. In addition, TPI from Epinephelus coioides also matched this mackerel protein with a mowse score of 96. Because TPI is considered as an allergen in other non-fish organisms, such as lychee, wheat, latex, archaeopotamobius ( Archaeopotamobius sibiriensis) and crangon ( Crangon crangon), we consider that it may also be an allergen in mackerel.

  11. High mortality from snakebite in south-eastern Senegal.

    PubMed

    Trape, J F; Pison, G; Guyavarch, E; Mane, Y

    2001-01-01

    Over 24 years, from 1976 to 1999, we conducted a prospective study of overall and cause-specific mortality among the population of 42 villages of south-eastern Senegal. Of 4228 deaths registered during this period, 26 were caused by snakebite, 4 by invertebrate stings and 8 by other wild or domestic animals. The average annual mortality rate from snakebite was 14 deaths per 100,000 population. Among persons aged > or = 1 year, 0.9% (26/2880) of deaths were caused by snakebite and this cause represented 28% (26/94) of total deaths by accidents. We also investigated the snake fauna of the area. Of 1280 snakes belonging to 34 species that were collected, one-third were dangerous and the proportion of Viperidae, Elapidae and Atractaspidae was 23%, 11% and 0.6%, respectively. The saw-scaled viper Echis ocellatus was the most abundant species (13.6%). Other venomous species were Causus maculatus (6.5%), Naja katiensis (5.5%), Bitis arietans (2.7%), Elapsoidea trapei (2.4%), Naja nigricollis (1.2%), Naja melanoleuca (1.1%), Atractaspis aterrima (0.4%), Dendroaspis polylepis (0.3%) and Naja haje (0.1%). PMID:11579888

  12. Three new Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) species from freshwater fishes in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Salgado-Maldonado, G; Caspeta-Mandujano, J

    2000-02-01

    The following 3 new species of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) are described from the intestines of freshwater fishes in Mexico, all belonging to the morphological group characterized by the presence of wide caudal alae, 3 pairs of subventral preanal papillae, and unequal spicules in the male: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) jaliscensis n. sp. (type host: Agonostomus monticola) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) gobiomori n. sp. (hosts: Gobiomorus maculatus [type host], Gobiomorus polylepis and Eleotris picta) from 2 rivers in Jalisco State, western Mexico, and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) mexicanus n. sp. (type host: Cichlasoma geddesi) from Xalapa District, Veracruz State (Gulf of Mexico region), southeastern Mexico. Procamallanus jaliscensis is characterized by the length of the spicules (606-900 microm and 282-354 microm), number (15-16) of spiral ridges in the buccal capsule, and the digit-like protrusion with 1 terminal cuticular spike on the female tail; P. mexicanus by the length of the spicules (456-480 microm and 231-233 microm), number (10-12) of spiral ridges in the capsule, and the shape of the female tail (conical with a suddenly narrowed distal part, without any terminal spikes); and P. gobiomori by the length of spicules (318-348 microm and 156-192 microm), number (8-10) of spiral ridges and by the digit-like protrusion with 2 terminal cuticular spikes on the female tail. PMID:10701574

  13. [Mortality from snake bites, wild and domestic animal bites and arthropod stings in the savannah zone of eastern Senegal].

    PubMed

    Trape, J F; Pison, G; Guyavarch, E; Mane, Y

    2002-08-01

    From 1976 to 1999, we conducted a prospective study of overall and cause-specific mortality among the population of 42 villages of south-eastern Senegal. Of 4,228 deaths registered during this period, 26 were brought on by snakebites, 4 by invertebrate stings and 8 by other wild or domestic animals. The average annual mortality rate from snakebite was 14 deaths per 100,000 population. Among persons aged 1 year or more, 0.9% (26/2,880) of deaths were caused by snakebite and this cause represented 28% (26/94) of the total number of deaths by accident. We also investigated the snake fauna of the area. Of 1,280 snakes belonging to 34 species that were collected, one-third were dangerous and the proportion of Viperidae, Elapidae and Atractaspididae was 23%, 11% and 0.6%, respectively. The saw-scaled viper Echis ocellatus was the most abundant species (13.6%). Other venomous species were Causus maculatus (6.5%), Naja katiensis (5.5%), Bitis arietans (2.7%), Elapsoidea trapei (2.4%), Naja nigricollis (1.2%), Naja melanoleuca (1.1%), Atractaspis aterrima (0.4%), Dendroaspis polylepis (0.3%) and Naja haje (0.1%). PMID:12404858

  14. Spatial variability in structural and functional aspects of macrofauna communities and their environmental parameters in the Jade Bay (Wadden Sea Lower Saxony, southern North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schückel, Ulrike; Beck, Melanie; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    Spatial distribution and functional structure of intertidal benthic macrofauna in relation to environmental variables in the Jade Bay (southern North Sea) were studied and compared with other intertidal areas of the Wadden Sea. A total of 128 stations covering the whole Jade Bay were sampled in summer 2009. A total of 114 taxa were found. Highest species numbers occurred in the subtidal areas, whereas highest mean abundances were found in the upper intertidal areas. Based on species abundance data, six significantly distinct macrofauna communities in the Jade Bay were identified and evaluated with multivariate statistics, univariate correlations and canonical correspondence analysis. Differences in these community patterns were caused by the response of the dominant species ( Hydrobia ulvae, Tubificoides benedii, Pygospio elegans, Caulleriella killariensis, Scoloplos armiger, Urothoe poseidonis, Microprotopus maculatus) to prevailing environmental conditions along the gradient from the lower and exposed sandy intertidal areas via intermediate mixed sediments to the upper mudflat areas. Distribution patterns in relation to tidal zonation were best explained by variability in submergence time, Chlorophyll a (chl a) content and sediment composition (mud content), which are proxies for hydrodynamic conditions and food availability. Species inventory and species richness were comparable with other intertidal areas of the Wadden Sea, but the Jade Bay differs from these areas regarding dominant species. Differences in sediment composition and morphological characteristics (macrotidal versus mesotidal Wadden Sea areas) are discussed for comparison of regional differences.

  15. Larval export from marine reserves and the recruitment benefit for fish and fisheries.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Hugo B; Williamson, David H; Evans, Richard D; Almany, Glenn R; Thorrold, Simon R; Russ, Garry R; Feldheim, Kevin A; van Herwerden, Lynne; Planes, Serge; Srinivasan, Maya; Berumen, Michael L; Jones, Geoffrey P

    2012-06-01

    Marine reserves, areas closed to all forms of fishing, continue to be advocated and implemented to supplement fisheries and conserve populations. However, although the reproductive potential of important fishery species can dramatically increase inside reserves, the extent to which larval offspring are exported and the relative contribution of reserves to recruitment in fished and protected populations are unknown. Using genetic parentage analyses, we resolve patterns of larval dispersal for two species of exploited coral reef fish within a network of marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef. In a 1,000 km(2) study area, populations resident in three reserves exported 83% (coral trout, Plectropomus maculatus) and 55% (stripey snapper, Lutjanus carponotatus) of assigned offspring to fished reefs, with the remainder having recruited to natal reserves or other reserves in the region. We estimate that reserves, which account for just 28% of the local reef area, produced approximately half of all juvenile recruitment to both reserve and fished reefs within 30 km. Our results provide compelling evidence that adequately protected reserve networks can make a significant contribution to the replenishment of populations on both reserve and fished reefs at a scale that benefits local stakeholders. PMID:22633811

  16. Responses of songbirds to aerial spraying of the microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (FORAY 48B) on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sopuck, Lennart; Ovaska, Kristiina; Whittington, Bruce

    2002-08-01

    Use of bacterial insecticides containing Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) is gaining popularity as an environmentally safe control measure against lepidopteran pests, but indirect effects on nontarget organisms through reduced prey base have received little attention. Aerial spraying of Btk (Foray 48B) over a 12,803-ha area on southeastern Vancouver Island (BC, Canada) in May to June 1999 as part of a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) control program provided us with an opportunity to examine the responses of songbirds to spray application. To obtain an estimate of species richness and relative abundance, we conducted standard songbird point-count surveys in Garry oak (Quercus garryana)-dominated habitats in Btk-sprayed and unsprayed areas in April to June 1999 and, one year after spraying, in 2000. These surveys revealed no patterns consistent with adverse effects of spraying on the relative abundance of adult birds or singing males for any of the species, whether examined individually or when combined into foraging guilds. An exception was the spotted towhee (Pipilo maculatus), which in 1999, but not in 2000, occurred at significantly lower numbers in sprayed plots after Btk treatment. Intensive searches of plots in sprayed and unsprayed areas revealed no differences in the numbers of songbird broods between the two areas for any of the species examined. PMID:12152767

  17. Evaluation of three formulations of Beauveria bassiana for control of lesser mealworm and hide beetle in Georgia poultry houses.

    PubMed

    Geden, Christopher J; Steinkraus, Donald C

    2003-10-01

    Initial screening of 12 Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin isolates against larvae of the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus [Panzer]) resulted in the selection of two isolates, GHA and 707, for further testing under field conditions. Three formulations of each strain were prepared: an EC, a ground corn granular formulation, and waste product of fungal propagation containing spent media, mycelia, and unharvested conidia ("residue" formulation). Two field trials were conducted in commercial caged-layer houses in Georgia with 5-6 mo of manure accumulation and established populations of A. diaperinus and hide beetles (Dermestes maculatus DeGeer). In the first trial field, B. bassiana was applied a single time to the manure surface at either 10(9) (EC and granular cornmeal bait formulations) or 10(8) (residue formulation) fungal spores per square meter. In the second trial, two successive weekly treatments were applied, using a total of 6x the rate of application used in the first trial, Significant treatment effects were short-lived and only detected 2 wk after treatment in both trials. The granular formulations of both strains and the residue formulation of the GHA strain provided the greatest degree of suppression (60-90%) of beetle larvae. A laboratory bioassay confirmed that the granular bait was the most effective formulation. More frequent applications made earlier in the manure accumulation cycle may be necessary to achieve satisfactory control of these beetles. PMID:14650537

  18. Incidence of Sitophilus oryzae and other stored-product pests on cowpea in local markets in Accra: management strategies employed by retailers.

    PubMed

    Egbon, I N; Ayertey, J N

    2013-05-01

    In recent times, the unusual presence of Sitophilus on cowpea has become an issue in Ghana as it constitutes a threat to food sufficiency and food security; this, by extension, necessitated the execution of this survey to establish the specific identity of the insect and its incidence, on stored cowpea in Ghana and consequently assess the level of awareness of traders and the management strategies employed. Using internal morphological identification techniques, the insect was identified as Sitophilus oryzae with an incidence rate of 12, 22 and 20% as against 50, 41 and 42% incidence rate of Callosobruchus maculatus after 30, 60 and 90 days respectively, of undisturbed storage of cowpea within the marketing systems in Accra, Ghana. Relatively low number of retailers (35.44%, N = 79) was aware of this occurrence, with 91.14% of this employing the energy-demanding and time-consuming sieving techniques as their main control strategies. This paper draws attention to the possible worsening of food insecurity already eminent in Africa for insects are no respecters of international or geo-political boundaries as they can spread to other countries, should this observation be left unchecked. PMID:24498808

  19. Nutritional and antinutritional composition of the five species of aquatic edible insects consumed in Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Shantibala, T; Lokeshwari, R K; Debaraj, H

    2014-01-01

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability. PMID:25373161

  20. Two new species of Ornithodoros (Ixodida; Argasidae) from the Southern Cone of South America.

    PubMed

    Venzal, José M; González-Acuña, Daniel; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Mangold, Atilio J; Nava, Santiago

    2015-05-01

    Two new species of the genus Ornithodoros were described from larvae collected in Argentina and Chile. Ornithodoros xerophylus n. sp. was described from specimens collected on the small rodent Graomys centralis in Argentina. The diagnostic characters for this species are a combination of dorsal plate slightly oval with a length of approximately 250 µm, 16 pairs of dorsal setae, hypostome with apex rounded and dental formula 2/2 in most rows, 3/3 apically, and capsule of the Haller's organ oval in shape without reticulations. Larvae of Ornithodoros lahillei n. sp. were collected on the reptiles Philodryas chamissonis and Callopistes maculatus in Chile. The diagnostic characters for O. lahillei are a combination of dorsal plate subtriangular with margins corrugated and posterior margin convex, dorsal surface with 14 pairs of setae, absence of postcoxal setae, and hypostome with apex pointed and dental formula 3/3 in anterior third and 2/2 in the middle and basal portion. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences and a Principal Component Analysis based on morphometric characters provided additional support to the description of O. lahillei and O. xerophylus as two independent lineages within the genus Ornithodoros. PMID:25702203

  1. [Preliminary results of an herpetology investigation in sugar cane plantation in Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Malukisa, J; Collet, M; Bokata, S; Odio, W

    2005-11-01

    Out of the 3,000 species of snakes described in the world, 163 are currently known from D.R. of Congo. We performed a systematic survey in sugar-cane plantations of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo (Bas-Congo), located at 160 km South-West from Kinshasa and exploiting nearly 10,000 ha. The plantation is divided into 3 sectors in the middle of which we deposited barrels filled of formaldehyde. All the employees of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo were requested to collect encountered snakes and put them in the nearest barrel. Between August 9th and September 21st, 2004, we collected 36 snakes in two different sites, revealing the presence of 3 families and 12 species. The most abundant species in Causus maculatus (47% in the first site--Point 8--and 29% in the second site--Point 13). The most poisonous and dangerous species were captured only in the first site--point 8, and were Dendroaspis jamesoni and Naja melanoleuca, both young. PMID:16402584

  2. Conspecific sperm precedence in Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): mechanisms and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Eady, Paul E

    2007-01-01

    Conspecific sperm precedence (CSP) has been identified as an important post-copulatory, pre-zygotic mechanism that can act to reduce gene flow between populations. The evolution of CSP is thought to have arisen as a by-product of male and female coevolution in response to intraspecific post-copulatory sexual selection. However, little is known about the mechanisms that generate CSP. When Callosobruchus subinnotatus females copulate with both C. subinnotatus and Callosobruchus maculatus males, regardless of mating order, the majority of eggs are fertilized by conspecific sperm. The low number of heterospecific fertilizations does not result from general differences in the viability of sperm in the female reproductive tract, as heterospecific sperm fertilized equivalent numbers of eggs as conspecific sperm in the absence of sperm competition. Instead, CSP results from disadvantages to heterospecific sperm that are manifest only when in competition with conspecific sperm. CSP in C. subinnotatus appears to result from two, not mutually exclusive, mechanisms. First, conspecific sperm are better able to displace heterospecific sperm from female storage. Second, conspecific sperm achieve disproportionately higher numbers of fertilizations relative to their proportional representation in the fertilization set. Thus, we provide evidence of differential sperm use from the female spermatheca. PMID:17251102

  3. Bionomics and polymorphism in Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Appleby, J H; Credland, P F

    2001-08-01

    Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic) is the major insect pest of stored bambara groundnuts, Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt, in sub-Saharan West Africa, but little is currently known about its biology or how it may be controlled. A series of laboratory studies was performed to investigate the bionomics of and differences between two apparently different morphs of adult of each sex of this species, here termed 'active' and 'normal'. Major differences in their morphology, physiology and behaviour were identified and are described in detail for the first time. They provide clear evidence of the existence of an adult polymorphism among populations of this species, which is comparable in certain respects to that previously described for C. maculatus (Fabricius) and C. chinensis Linnaeus. Adults can be separated into the correct morph based on characteristic differences in elytral and pygidial colour and pattern. 'Normal' adults are characterized by having high fecundity, short adult life and are relatively sedentary while 'active' adults exhibit reproductive diapause (suspension of reproductive activity), are long lived, and show (at least in females) increased dispersal tendencies. These characteristics suggest adaptation of the 'active' and 'normal' morphs respectively to the different environments of field and seed stores, and the significance of the polymorphism in the life history of C. subinnotatus is discussed in this context. The design of any effective control regime for this bruchid needs to take account of and could potentially be based upon the existence of polymorphism in C. subinnotatus. PMID:11567585

  4. Conspecific sperm precedence in Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): mechanisms and consequences.

    PubMed

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Eady, Paul E

    2007-04-01

    Conspecific sperm precedence (CSP) has been identified as an important post-copulatory, pre-zygotic mechanism that can act to reduce gene flow between populations. The evolution of CSP is thought to have arisen as a by-product of male and female coevolution in response to intraspecific post-copulatory sexual selection. However, little is known about the mechanisms that generate CSP. When Callosobruchus subinnotatus females copulate with both C. subinnotatus and Callosobruchus maculatus males, regardless of mating order, the majority of eggs are fertilized by conspecific sperm. The low number of heterospecific fertilizations does not result from general differences in the viability of sperm in the female reproductive tract, as heterospecific sperm fertilized equivalent numbers of eggs as conspecific sperm in the absence of sperm competition. Instead, CSP results from disadvantages to heterospecific sperm that are manifest only when in competition with conspecific sperm. CSP in C. subinnotatus appears to result from two, not mutually exclusive, mechanisms. First, conspecific sperm are better able to displace heterospecific sperm from female storage. Second, conspecific sperm achieve disproportionately higher numbers of fertilizations relative to their proportional representation in the fertilization set. Thus, we provide evidence of differential sperm use from the female spermatheca. PMID:17251102

  5. A transcriptome derived female-specific marker from the invasive Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).

    PubMed

    Lamatsch, Dunja K; Adolfsson, Sofia; Senior, Alistair M; Christiansen, Guntram; Pichler, Maria; Ozaki, Yuichi; Smeds, Linnea; Schartl, Manfred; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Sex-specific markers are a prerequisite for understanding reproductive biology, genetic factors involved in sex differences, mechanisms of sex determination, and ultimately the evolution of sex chromosomes. The Western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, may be considered a model species for sex-chromosome evolution, as it displays female heterogamety (ZW/ZZ), and is also ecologically interesting as a worldwide invasive species. Here, de novo RNA-sequencing on the gonads of sexually mature G. affinis was used to identify contigs that were highly transcribed in females but not in males (i.e., transcripts with ovary-specific expression). Subsequently, 129 primer pairs spanning 79 contigs were tested by PCR to identify sex-specific transcripts. Of those primer pairs, one female-specific DNA marker was identified, Sanger sequenced and subsequently validated in 115 fish. Sequence analyses revealed a high similarity between the identified sex-specific marker and the 3´ UTR of the aminomethyl transferase (amt) gene of the closely related platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus). This is the first time that RNA-seq has been used to successfully characterize a sex-specific marker in a fish species in the absence of a genome map. Additionally, the identified sex-specific marker represents one of only a handful of such markers in fishes. PMID:25707007

  6. Species composition and gear characteristics of the Macrobrachium fishery of the Cross River Estuary, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwosu, Francis M.

    2010-03-01

    The Cross River Estuary, Nigeria, is an important shrimping area for artisanal fishermen of the coastal communities. The multi-species Macrobrachium fishery is exploited with three main gears, namely beach seine, push net and trap. Studies on species composition of this fishery recorded thirteen shrimp species, one swimming crab ( Callinectes amnicola) and two fish species ( Eleotris sp. and Pellonula leonensis). The shrimp species identified included Macrobrachium macrobrachion (83.39% and 55.69% by number and weight, respectively), M. vollenhovenii (9.66% and 37.18%), M. equidens (3.8% and 2.87%), juveniles-sub-adults of Penaeus notialis (1.11% and 1.3%), M. dux, M. felicinum, Palaemonetes africanus, Palaemon maculatus, Palaemon elegans, Desmocaris sp., Leander sp., Nematopalaemon hastatus and Alpheus pontederiae. While the selectivity index for trap was 0.25, beach seine and push net had a lower index of 0.063. The results present the first comprehensive and representative report for the Estuary shrimp fishery and will assist in the management of the biodiversity of this ecosystem.

  7. Fishborne trematode metacercariae in freshwater fish from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yang, Yichao; Li, Xueming

    2009-09-01

    A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of fishborne trematode (FBT) metacercariae in freshwater fish from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. A total of 307 freshwater fish of 31 species were collected from 5 administrative regions of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. They were examined by artificial digestion method from July 2003 to August 2004. No metacercariae were detected in fish from Fusui-xian. In fish from Mashan-xian and a market in Nanning, 3 species of metacercariae, Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchis pumilio, and Centrocestus formosanus, were mainly detected. Metacercariae (8 in number) of Clonorchis sinensis were found in 1 Chanodichthys dabryi purchased from a market in Nanning. In fish from Yangshuo, Metagonimus yokogawai metacercariae were detected from all 18 fish species examined. Total 13 C. sinensis metacercariae were found in 3 out of 10 Hemibarbus maculatus from Yangshuo. All 7 Zacco platypus from Yangshuo were infected with 8-112 Echinochasmus perfoliatus metacercariae. In fish from Binyang-xian, H. pumilo metacercariae were mainly detected in all 5 fish species examined, and only 1 metacercaria of C. sinensis was found in a Hemiculter leucisculus. From the above results, it was confirmed that some species of freshwater fish play a role of second intermediate hosts for FBT in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. In particular, 4 species of intestinal flukes, M. yokogawai, H. taichui, H. pumilio, and C. formosanus, were prevalent in fish hosts, whereas C. sinensis metacercariae were detected only in 3 fish species. PMID:19724698

  8. Plasmodium ovale infection in Malaysia: first imported case

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plasmodium ovale infection is rarely reported in Malaysia. This is the first imported case of P. ovale infection in Malaysia which was initially misdiagnosed as Plasmodium vivax. Methods Peripheral blood sample was first examined by Giemsa-stained microscopy examination and further confirmed using a patented in-house multiplex PCR followed by sequencing. Results and Discussion Initial results from peripheral blood smear examination diagnosed P. vivax infection. However further analysis using a patented in-house multiplex PCR followed by sequencing confirmed the presence of P. ovale. Given that Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles dirus, vectors of P. ovale are found in Malaysia, this finding has significant implication on Malaysia's public health sector. Conclusions The current finding should serve as an alert to epidemiologists, clinicians and laboratory technicians in the possibility of finding P. ovale in Malaysia. P. ovale should be considered in the differential diagnosis of imported malaria cases in Malaysia due to the exponential increase in the number of visitors from P. ovale endemic regions and the long latent period of P. ovale. It is also timely that conventional diagnosis of malaria via microscopy should be coupled with more advanced molecular tools for effective diagnosis. PMID:20929588

  9. Risk factors for malaria infection among rubber tappers living in a malaria control program area in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pattanasin, Sarika; Satitvipawee, Pratana; Wongklang, Warunnee; Viwatwongkasem, Chukiat; Bhumiratana, Adisak; Soontornpipit, Pichitpong; Jareinpituk, Sutthi

    2012-11-01

    Rubber tappers work begins at midnight during the feeding time of Anopheles maculatus and An. minimus, two common malaria vectors in southern Thailand. We studied the association between rubber tapper behavior and malaria infections as reported to the Notified Disease Surveillance System during 2010 in Prachuab Khiri Khan Province, Thailand. In that province insecticide treated bednets are distributed free to the population and insecticide residual spraying is performed annually. A random sample of 394 rubber tapper households was interviewed from October 2010 to May 2011. Twenty-six households (6.6%) had at least one family member who contracted malaria during 2010. Poisson regression was used to identify potential characteristics associated with malaria. Multilevel Poisson regression was used to test for simultaneous effects of tapper behavior and household risk for malaria infection. The estimated incidence rate ratio (IRR) for contracting malaria among those owning a farming hut was 2.9 (95% CI 1.1-7.3, p < 0.05) after controlling for other variables. Even in areas where control programs are in place, malaria infection among rubber tappers is common. Given the Thai Government's plan to expand the rubber plantation areas to other regions of the country without specific prevention for this at-risk population, the malaria burden in Thailand may increase. PMID:23413693

  10. A Transcriptome Derived Female-Specific Marker from the Invasive Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)

    PubMed Central

    Lamatsch, Dunja K.; Adolfsson, Sofia; Senior, Alistair M.; Christiansen, Guntram; Pichler, Maria; Ozaki, Yuichi; Smeds, Linnea; Schartl, Manfred; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Sex-specific markers are a prerequisite for understanding reproductive biology, genetic factors involved in sex differences, mechanisms of sex determination, and ultimately the evolution of sex chromosomes. The Western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, may be considered a model species for sex-chromosome evolution, as it displays female heterogamety (ZW/ZZ), and is also ecologically interesting as a worldwide invasive species. Here, de novo RNA-sequencing on the gonads of sexually mature G. affinis was used to identify contigs that were highly transcribed in females but not in males (i.e., transcripts with ovary-specific expression). Subsequently, 129 primer pairs spanning 79 contigs were tested by PCR to identify sex-specific transcripts. Of those primer pairs, one female-specific DNA marker was identified, Sanger sequenced and subsequently validated in 115 fish. Sequence analyses revealed a high similarity between the identified sex-specific marker and the 3´ UTR of the aminomethyl transferase (amt) gene of the closely related platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus). This is the first time that RNA-seq has been used to successfully characterize a sex-specific marker in a fish species in the absence of a genome map. Additionally, the identified sex-specific marker represents one of only a handful of such markers in fishes. PMID:25707007

  11. Protein Polymorphisms, Segregation in Genetic Crosses and Genetic Distances among Fishes of the Genus Xiphophorus (Poeciliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Morizot, Don C.; Siciliano, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    The products of 49 protein-coding loci were examined by starch gel electrophoresis for populational variation in six species of Xiphophorus fishes and/or segregation in intra- and interspecific backcross and intercross hybrids. Electrophoretic variation was observed for 29 of the 35 locus products in a survey of 42 population samples. The highest frequency of polymorphic loci observed in noninbred populations was 0.143. After ten or more generations of inbreeding, all loci studied were monomorphic. Inbred strains generally exhibited the commonest electrophoretic alleles of the population from which they were derived. An assessment of genetic distances among Xiphophorus populations reflected classical systematic relationships and suggested incipient subspeciation between X. maculatus from different drainages as well as several species groups. Thirty-three loci were analyzed with respect to segregation in hybrids. The goodness of fit of segregations to Mendelian expectations at all loci analyzed (except loci in linkage group I) is interpreted as evidence for high genetic compatibility of the genomes of Xiphophorus species. It is anticipated that these data will result in a rapid expansion of the assignment of protein-coding loci to linkage groups in these lower vertebrate species. PMID:7173606

  12. The life cycle of Mesostephanus indicum Mehra, 1947 (Digenea: Cyathocotylidae).

    PubMed

    Sheena, P; Manjula, K T; Subair, K T; Janardanan, K P

    2007-09-01

    The life cycle of the cyathocotylid fluke, Mesostephanus indicum Mehra, 1947 infecting the pariah kite, Milvus migrans govinda (Accipitridae), is elucidated. The species, reported by Mehra (Proc Nat Acad Sci India 17:1-52, 1947) from Buteo rufinus rufinus (Accipitridae), was transferred to the genus Prohemistomum by Dubois (Rev Suiss de Zool 58:639-691, 1951). However, it is retained in the genus Mesostephanus because of the presence of vaginal sphincter and caudal appendage, which are the characters of the genus. Its first intermediate host is the gastropod snail, Bellamya bengalensis (Viviparidae), which released the furcocercous cercariae. The prohemistomulum-type metacercariae encysted in the muscle tissues of the freshwater fish Rasbora daniconius and Puntius sophore (Cyprinidae), Mystus malabaricus (Bagridae), Heteropneustes fossilis (Heteropneustidae), Aplocheilus lineatus (Cyprinodontidae), Etroplus maculatus and E. suratensis (Cichlidae), and Pseudosphromenus cupanus (Belontidae). Recovery of M. indicum from M. m. govinda forms a new host record, and this is the first report of the life cycle of the genus from India. PMID:17514481

  13. Spatial distribution of malaria in Peninsular Malaysia from 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria is still an endemic disease of public health importance in Malaysia. Populations at risk of contracting malaria includes indigenous people, traditional villagers, mobile ethnic groups and land scheme settlers, immigrants from malaria endemic countries as well as jungle workers and loggers. The predominant species are Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. An increasing number of P. knowlesi infections have also been encountered. The principal vectors in Peninsular Malaysia are Anopheles maculatus and An. cracens. This study aims to determine the changes in spatial distribution of malaria in Peninsular Malaysia from year 2000–2009. Methods Data for the study was collected from Ministry of Health, Malaysia and was analysed using Geographic Information System (GIS). Results Changes for a period of 10 years of malaria spatial distribution in 12 states of Peninsular Malaysia were documented and discussed. This is illustrated by digital mapping according to five variables; incidence rate (IR), fatality rate (FR), annual blood examination rate (ABER), annual parasite index (API) and slide positivity rate (SPR). Conclusion There is a profound change in the spatial distribution of malaria within a 10-year period. This is evident from the digital mapping of the infection in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:24735583

  14. Effects of exposure to pile-driving sounds on the lake sturgeon, Nile tilapia and hogchoker

    PubMed Central

    Halvorsen, Michele B.; Casper, Brandon M.; Matthews, Frazer; Carlson, Thomas J.; Popper, Arthur N.

    2012-01-01

    Pile-driving and other impulsive sound sources have the potential to injure or kill fishes. One mechanism that produces injuries is the rapid motion of the walls of the swim bladder as it repeatedly contacts nearby tissues. To further understand the involvement of the swim bladder in tissue damage, a specially designed wave tube was used to expose three species to pile-driving sounds. Species included lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)—with an open (physostomous) swim bladder, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)—with a closed (physoclistous) swim bladder and the hogchoker (Trinectes maculatus)—a flatfish without a swim bladder. There were no visible injuries in any of the exposed hogchokers, whereas a variety of injuries were observed in the lake sturgeon and Nile tilapia. At the loudest cumulative and single-strike sound exposure levels (SELcum and SELss respectively), the Nile tilapia had the highest total injuries and the most severe injuries per fish. As exposure levels decreased, the number and severity of injuries were more similar between the two species. These results suggest that the presence and type of swim bladder correlated with injury at higher sound levels, while the extent of injury at lower sound levels was similar for both kinds of swim bladders. PMID:23055066

  15. Infection experiments with Aphanomyces invadans in four species of estuarine fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.A.; Zabrecky, J.; Kiryu, Y.; Shields, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Along the eastern seaboard of the US, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, develop characteristic ulcerative lesions, a condition termed ulcerative mycosis. These lesions are identical to those seen across Asia in fish affected by epizootic ulcerative syndrome, a condition caused by the fungus-like oomycete Aphanomyces Invadans. Young-of-the-year menhaden inhabiting estuarine environments are the primary species affected in the USA and little is known about the factors involved in the initiation of the lesions, or why menhaden are predominantly infected. Atlantic menhaden, hogchoker, Trinectus maculatus, striped killifish, Fundulus majalis, and mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, were inoculated with A. invadans (80 zoospores per fish) to explore species differences in infection and lesion development. All four species developed lesions. Killifish developed frank lesions similar to those observed in menhaden but the gross lesions occurred later, approximately 5-10 days after those on menhaden. Hogchoker and mummichog did not develop gross skin ulcers; rather, their lesions appeared as reddened areas under the epidermis. Mummichogs also showed evidence of significant healing with a well-developed granuloma and significant myocyte regeneration. These experiments show that species barriers as well as ecological barriers can explain some of the factors involved in the development of lesions in, and specificity of the water mould for, menhaden.

  16. Entomological and epidemiological investigations of malaria transmission in relation to population movements in forest areas of north-west Thailand.

    PubMed

    Somboon, P; Aramrattana, A; Lines, J; Webber, R

    1998-03-01

    Transmission of forest-related malaria was observed entomologically and epidemiologically for 2 transmission seasons in 1990 and 1991 in 5 villages of Mae Sariang district, Mae Hong Son Province, north-west Thailand. The entomological study included collections of mosquitos and determination of infection rate by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the residential villages and the farm huts. The epidemiological study included fortnightly visits to 30% of the households to interview and record movement activities and illness of villagers. Circumsporozoite proteins, in most cases of Plasmodium falciparum, were detected in Anopheles minimus species A, An. dirus s.l., An. maculatus s.s. and An. sawadwongporni in residential villages and/or farm huts, suggesting transmission could occur there. Movement of people away from their residences occurred throughout the year for several reasons with a sharp peak in July for agricultural activity, mainly ploughing and planting for rice cultivation. The relative risk of infection for people engaged in agricultural activity was 3 times that of people living in the residential villages. Although a higher biting density of vectors was generally evident at the farm huts, the estimated inoculation rates in the 2 settings were similar. Movement for forest activity increased after harvesting rice in the cool dry season and carried the highest malaria risk, suggesting different epidemiological and probably entomological conditions which need further investigation. The significance is discussed of discrepancies between the case classification system used by this study and that used by malaria sector staff. PMID:9740259

  17. Naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungi infecting stored grain insect species in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Wakil, Waqas; Usman Ghazanfar, Muhammad; Yasin, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi isolated from stored grain insect pests sampled from various geographical regions of Punjab, Pakistan, was investigated. In total, 25,720 insects from six different species were evaluated, and 195 isolates from 24 different fungal species were recovered. These included the Ascomycetes Beauveria bassiana sensu lato (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thorn) Samson (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae), and Lecanicillium attenuatum (Zare and W. Gams) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The cadavers of red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) were significantly infected with the fungi followed by rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), rusty grain beetle Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae), and cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae); however, the least were recovered from khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium (Everts) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). The geographical attributes (altitude, longitude, and latitude) greatly influenced the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi with highest number of isolates found from >400 (m) altitude, 33°-34' N latitude, and 73°-74' E longitude. The findings of the current surveys clearly indicated that the entomopathogenic fungi are widely distributed in the insect cadavers, which may later be used in successful Integrated Pest Management programs. PMID:25480970

  18. Three-dimensional analysis of avian song control nuclei.

    PubMed

    Bentley, George E; Brenowitz, Eliot A

    2002-11-15

    Analysis of seasonal and developmental changes in the morphology of avian song control nuclei has traditionally been performed using two-dimensional (2-D) cross-sectional traces from brain sections. This method, although reliable, does not encompass the possibility that subdivisions of a nucleus might change in size to different degrees. Three-dimensional (3-D) analysis of song nuclei under different conditions could provide insight on this issue. This approach could also be of value in guiding and evaluating the use of lesions to study the functions of subdivisions of song nuclei. We used customized computer software to produce 3-D images of song nuclei from 2-D brain sections of spotted towhees (Pipilo maculatus) in different hormonal status, and from Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) with unilateral lesions of the higher vocal center (HVc). 3-D images show that some sub-regions of song nuclei indeed change in size to a greater extent than others. 3-D analysis of HVc lesions provides a clearer view of the size and shape of the lesion site within the target nucleus and relative to the surrounding tissue. Used in conjunction with 2-D analysis, the 3-D method will aid investigations of the song system and contribute to the understanding of its regulation by hormones. PMID:12393163

  19. Nutritional and Antinutritional Composition of the Five Species of Aquatic Edible Insects Consumed in Manipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Shantibala, T.; Lokeshwari, R. K.; Debaraj, H.

    2014-01-01

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability. PMID:25373161

  20. Mechanical barrier for preventing climbing by lesser mealworm (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and hide beetle (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) larvae in poultry houses.

    PubMed

    Geden, C J; Carlson, D A

    2001-12-01

    Mechanical barriers consisting of bands of polyethylene terepthalate resin attached to wooden posts by latex caulk adhesive and staples were 100% effective in preventing passage of dispersing lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), larvae in the laboratory. Barriers continued to be 100% effective after beinig held in a caged layer poultry house for 3 mo. Polyethylene terepthalate barriers installed on support posts in a pullet house in Brooker, FL, were >92% effective against natural populations of lesser mealworm larvae 6 mo after installation. The barriers also were >94% effective against natural populations of larvae of the hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus DeGeer, when fly populations were low. Fecal spot depositions by house flies in excess of 31 cumulative fly spots per square centimeter on spot cards reduced the effectiveness of the barriers to 79-90%, and barrier efficacy was reduced to 40-56% when fly spots covered >80% of the surface of the plastic. Washing the barriers with water to remove fly spots restored their effectiveness against hide beetle larvae to >99%. PMID:11777072

  1. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  2. Fish Predation by Semi-Aquatic Spiders: A Global Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Nyffeler, Martin; Pusey, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    More than 80 incidences of fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders – observed at the fringes of shallow freshwater streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, swamps, and fens – are reviewed. We provide evidence that fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders is geographically widespread, occurring on all continents except Antarctica. Fish predation by spiders appears to be more common in warmer areas between 40° S and 40° N. The fish captured by spiders, usually ranging from 2–6 cm in length, are among the most common fish taxa occurring in their respective geographic area (e.g., mosquitofish [Gambusia spp.] in the southeastern USA, fish of the order Characiformes in the Neotropics, killifish [Aphyosemion spp.] in Central and West Africa, as well as Australian native fish of the genera Galaxias, Melanotaenia, and Pseudomugil). Naturally occurring fish predation has been witnessed in more than a dozen spider species from the superfamily Lycosoidea (families Pisauridae, Trechaleidae, and Lycosidae), in two species of the superfamily Ctenoidea (family Ctenidae), and in one species of the superfamily Corinnoidea (family Liocranidae). The majority of reports on fish predation by spiders referred to pisaurid spiders of the genera Dolomedes and Nilus (>75% of observed incidences). There is laboratory evidence that spiders from several more families (e.g., the water spider Argyroneta aquatica [Cybaeidae], the intertidal spider Desis marina [Desidae], and the ‘swimming’ huntsman spider Heteropoda natans [Sparassidae]) predate fish as well. Our finding of such a large diversity of spider families being engaged in fish predation is novel. Semi-aquatic spiders captured fish whose body length exceeded the spiders’ body length (the captured fish being, on average, 2.2 times as long as the spiders). Evidence suggests that fish prey might be an occasional prey item of substantial nutritional importance. PMID:24940885

  3. Age estimates for an adaptive lake fish radiation, its mitochondrial introgression, and an unexpected sister group: Sailfin silversides of the Malili Lakes system in Sulawesi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Malili Lakes system in central Sulawesi (Indonesia) is a hotspot of freshwater biodiversity in the Wallacea, characterized by endemic species flocks like the sailfin silversides (Teleostei: Atherinomorpha: Telmatherinidae) radiation. Phylogenetic reconstructions of these freshwater fishes have previously revealed two Lake Matano Telmatherina lineages (sharpfins and roundfins) forming an ancient monophyletic group, which is however masked by introgressive hybridization of sharpfins with riverine populations. The present study uses mitochondrial data, newly included taxa, and different external calibration points, to estimate the age of speciation and hybridization processes, and to test for phylogeographic relationships between Kalyptatherina from ancient islands off New Guinea, Marosatherina from SW Sulawesi, and the Malili Lakes flock. Results Contrary to previous expectations, Kalyptatherina is the closest relative to the Malili Lakes Telmatherinidae, and Marosatherina is the sister to this clade. Palaeogeographic reconstructions of Sulawesi suggest that the closer relationship of the Malili Lakes radiation to Kalyptatherina might be explained by a 'terrane-rafting’ scenario, while proto-Marosatherina might have colonized Sulawesi by marine dispersal. The most plausible analysis conducted here implies an age of c. 1.9 My for the onset of divergence between the two major clades endemic to Lake Matano. Diversification within both lineages is apparently considerably more recent (c. 1.0 My); stream haplotypes present in the sharpfins are of even more recent origin (c. 0.4 My). Conclusions Sulawesi’s Telmatherinidae have most likely originated in the Sahul Shelf area, have possibly reached the island by both, marine dispersal and island/terrane-rafting, and have colonized the Malili Lakes system from rivers. Estimates for the split between the epibenthic sharpfins and the predominantly pelagic to benthopelagic roundfins in Lake Matano widely coincide with geological age estimates of this rift lake. Diversification within both clades clearly predates hybridization events with stream populations. For Lake Matano, these results support a scenario of initial benthic-pelagic divergence after colonization of the lake by riverine populations, followed by rapid radiation within both clades within the last 1 My. Secondary hybridization of stream populations with the sharpfins occurred more recently, and has thus most likely not contributed to the initial divergence of this benthic species flock. PMID:24886257

  4. Real-time PCR analysis of p53 mRNA levels in tissues of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Brzuzan, P; Jurczyk, L; Luczy?ski, M K; Góra, M

    2006-01-01

    We developed a real-time PCR assay for measuring relative quantities (RQ) of p53 tumor suppressor mRNA in the whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus, Salmonidae, Teleostei). Real-time PCR primers for the p53 gene were designed from a region that was found to be conserved among salmonid p53 genes. To test for the usefulness of the assay we performed a treatment study, using benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) a putative p53-inducer. Two groups of hatchery raised whitefish, with an average body mass of 15 g and total length of 12 cm were either given an intraperitoneal injection (10 mg x kg(-1)) of B[a]P in corn oil (2 mg B[a]P ml(-1) corn oil) or corn oil alone (Control). After treatment (48 h, 7 degrees C), two random fish from each group were anesthetized and the liver, head kidney and brain were collected for mRNA isolation and analysis. In the control fish, relative quantification analysis based on the p53 mRNA levels in liver (RQ=1.00) showed higher basal levels of p53 mRNA in the head kidney (RQ= 1.69), and lower in the brain (RQ=0.41). In all three tissues sampled, p53 mRNA was affected by treatment with B[a]P. Liver tissue showed the greatest induction (RQ=1.53) from base levels (RQ=1.00), followed by brain (RQ=1.36), and head kidney (RQ=1.23). These results confirm that p53 mRNA is generally present at lower levels in differentiated tissues (liver and brain) than in those tissues with cell lines (head kidney), and demonstrate that p53 is moderately inducible by B[a]P in the whitefish. The approach presented here has the advantage of providing rapid and accurate measures of p53 induction in various tissues of fish responding to PAH contaminant exposure. PMID:16780182

  5. Wildlife disease ecology in changing landscapes: Mesopredator release and toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Hollings, Tracey; Jones, Menna; Mooney, Nick; McCallum, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    Changing ecosystem dynamics are increasing the threat of disease epidemics arising in wildlife populations. Several recent disease outbreaks have highlighted the critical need for understanding pathogen dynamics, including the role host densities play in disease transmission. In Australia, introduced feral cats are of immense concern because of the risk they pose to native wildlife through predation and competition. They are also the only known definitive host of the coccidian parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, the population-level impacts of which are unknown in any species. Australia’s native wildlife have not evolved in the presence of cats or their parasites, and feral cats may be linked with several native mammal declines and extinctions. In Tasmania there is emerging evidence that feral cat populations are increasing following wide-ranging and extensive declines in the apex predator, the Tasmanian devil, from a consistently fatal transmissible cancer. We assess whether feral cat density is associated with the seroprevalence of T. gondii in native wildlife to determine whether an increasing population of feral cats may correspond to an increased level of risk to naive native intermediate hosts. We found evidence that seroprevalence of T. gondii in Tasmanian pademelons was lower in the north-west of Tasmania than in the north-east and central regions where cat density was higher. Also, samples obtained from road-killed animals had significantly higher seroprevalence of T. gondii than those from culled individuals, suggesting there may be behavioural differences associated with infection. In addition, seroprevalence in different trophic levels was assessed to determine whether position in the food-web influences exposure risk. Higher order carnivores had significantly higher seroprevalence than medium-sized browser species. The highest seroprevalence observed in an intermediate host was 71% in spotted-tailed quolls (Dasyurus maculatus), the largest mammalian mesopredator, in areas of low cat density. Mesopredator release of cats may be a significant issue for native species conservation, potentially affecting the population viability of many endangered species. PMID:24533323

  6. Insight into Hypoxia Tolerance in Cowpea Bruchid: Metabolic Repression and Heat Shock Protein Regulation via Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ji-Eun; Zhou, Xin; Dowd, Scot E.; Chapkin, Robert S.; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen is of fundamental importance for most living organisms including insects. Hermetic storage uses airtight containment facilities to withhold oxygen required for development, thus preventing damage by insect pests in stored grain. Cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus) ceases feeding and growth when exposed to 2% oxygen. However, although population expansion is temporarily arrested, the bruchids (especially late stage larvae) can survive extended periods of hypoxia and recover development if normoxic conditions resume, an ability rarely found in mammals. To begin to understand fundamental mechanisms that enable insects to cope with oxygen deprivation, we constructed a 3?-anchored cDNA library from 4th instar larvae subjected to normoxic and hypoxic treatments (respectively), and performed 454-pyrosequencing. Quality filtering and contig assembly resulted in 20,846 unique sequences. Of these, 5,335 sequences had hits in BlastX searches (E ?=?10?6), constituting a 2,979 unigene set. Further analysis based on gene ontology terms indicated that 1,036 genes were involved in a diverse range of cellular functions. Genes encoding putative glycolytic and TCA cycle enzymes as well as components of respiratory chain complexes were selected and assessed for transcript responses to low oxygen. The majority of these genes were down-regulated, suggesting that hypoxia repressed metabolic activity. However, a group of genes encoding heat shock proteins (HSPs) was induced. Promoter analyses of representative HSP genes suggested the involvement of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1 (HIF1) in regulating these hypoxia-induced genes. Its activator function has been confirmed by transient co-transfection into S2 cells of constructs of HIF1 subunits and the HSP promoter-driven reporter. PMID:23593115

  7. Nekton use of intertidal creek edges in low salinity salt marshes of the Yangtze River estuary along a stream-order gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Binsong; Qin, Haiming; Xu, Wang; Wu, Jihua; Zhong, Junsheng; Lei, Guangchun; Chen, Jiakuan; Fu, Cuizhang

    2010-07-01

    Non-vegetated creek edges were investigated to explore spatial nekton use patterns in a low salinity intertidal salt marsh creek network of the Yangtze River estuary along a stream-order gradient with four creek orders. Non-vegetated creek edges were arbitrarily defined as the approximately 3 m extending from the creek bank (the marsh-creek interface) into open water. Nekton was sampled using seine nets during daytime high slack water during spring tides for two or three days each in May through July 2008. Twenty-three nekton species (16 fishes and 7 crustaceans) were caught during the study. Fishes were dominated by gobies ( Mugilogobius abei, Periophthalmus magnuspinnatus, Periophthalmus modestus, Synechogobius ommaturus), mullets ( Chelon haematocheilus, Liza affinis) and Chinese sea bass ( Lateolabrax maculatus). Crustaceans were dominated by mud crab ( Helice tientsinensis) and white prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda). Rank abundance curves revealed higher evenness of nekton assemblages in lower-order creeks compared to higher-order creeks. Fish abundance tended to increase with increasing creek order. Crustacean abundance was higher in the first-third order creeks than in the fourth-order creek. Dominant nekton species displayed various trends in abundance and length-frequency distributions along the stream-order gradient. The spatial separation of nekton assemblages between the first-third order creeks and the fourth-order creek could be attributed to geomorphological factors (distance to mouth and cross-sectional area). These findings indicate that both lower- and higher-order creek edges play important yet different roles for nekton species and life history stages in salt marshes.

  8. Evaluation of a barrier to inhibit lesser mealworm (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and dermestidae movement in high-rise, caged-layer poultry facilities.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Phillip E; Reasor, Colleen; Murray, Kathleen D; Waldron, J Keith; Rutz, Donald A

    2005-10-01

    An evaluation of a mechanical barrier to prevent movement of adult and larval lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer); larder beetle, Dermestes lardarius L.; and hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus De Geer was conducted in caged-layer poultry facilities in New York and Maine. The barrier, a plastic collar wrapped around building support posts, proved highly effective at preventing movement of adult lesser mealworms. Significantly more lesser mealworm larvae were recovered from cardboard collar beetle traps placed below both washed and unwashed barriers than from traps placed above washed and unwashed barriers. Similarly, significantly more adult Dermestes were recovered from traps placed below washed barriers than from above both washed and unwashed barriers. The level of fly specking on the barrier was found to have no significant impact on the numbers of adult lesser mealworms and adult and larval Dermestes recovered either above or below barriers. Fly specking level did significantly impact the numbers of lesser mealworm larvae recovered above the barrier. Although washed barriers provided the greatest deterrent to adult lesser mealworms, the presence of the barrier, regardless of the level of fly specking, provided a significant deterrent to beetle climbing success. Washed barriers further reduced climbing success by lesser mealworm larvae by 17%, Dermestes adults by 7-28%, and Dermestes larvae by 33-38%. The high level of climbing observed by adult lesser mealworms suggests that the impact of adult beetle movement toward birds should be considered in its importance in building damage, disease transmission, feed infestation, and bird productivity and health. Observations on cost and maintenance of the barrier are discussed. PMID:16334349

  9. An Index of Biotic Integrity for shallow streams of the Hondo River basin, Yucatan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Schmitter-Soto, Juan J; Ruiz-Cauich, Lissie E; Herrera, Roberto L; González-Solís, David

    2011-01-15

    An Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) is proposed, based on the fish communities and populations in streams of the Hondo River basin, Mexico-Belize. Freshwater environments in this area are threatened by exotic fishes, eutrophication, and pesticide pollution, among other problems. This IBI should allow to identify the most vulnerable sites and eventually guide rehabilitation efforts. Data on composition, structure, and function of fish communities were evaluated. Twenty-three sites in the Mexican part of the basin were explored; a stratified sample of 13 sites was used to design the IBI, and the rest were used to test and refine the index. Thirty-four candidate indicator metrics were scanned for their correlation with an index of water and habitat quality (IWHQ), as well as for the possible influence of stream width and altitude or distance to the Hondo River mainstem. Twelve variables were selected to constitute the IBI: relative abundances of Astyanax aeneus, 'Cichlasoma' urophthalmus, Poecilia mexicana, Poecilia sp. (a new species, probably endemic to the upper Hondo River basin), Xiphophorus hellerii, and X. maculatus; relative abundances of bentholimnetic, herbivore, and sensitive species; percentage of native and tolerant species; and Pielou's evenness index. Most of the sites have a low-medium quality and integrity, showing impact due to partial channelization or to suboptimal water quality, reflected in scarcity or absence of sensitive species, frequent excess of tolerant species, occasional presence of exotics, dominance of herbivores (perhaps due to proliferation of filamentous algae), or dominance of the opportunistic species P. mexicana. The streams with better water and habitat quality are those farthest away from the river mainstem, probably because of lower human population and economical production. PMID:21146199

  10. The effect of direct interspecific competition on patch exploitation strategies in parasitoid wasps.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Rihab; Wajnberg, Eric; Monge, Jean-Paul; Goubault, Marlène

    2015-01-01

    The presence of competitors may affect the pay-off of individuals' foraging strategies. They should therefore modify their resource exploitation decisions accordingly. In such a direct competition situation, theory predicts that individuals should stay longer on a resource patch than when foraging alone. However, models predicting patch residence time focus on intraspecific competition without agonistic interactions. Here, we investigate the patch use strategies of females of two parasitoid species, Eupelmus vuilleti and Dinarmus basalis, attacking the same host, Callosobruchus maculatus, knowing that D. basalis is more aggressive and can exclude E. vuilleti during pairwise contests for single hosts. Our results showed that time allocation and oviposition strategies differed in relation to the species and type of competition (i.e., presence/absence of competitor, simultaneous/sequential female introduction or resident/intruder female). Eupelmus vuilleti females tended to wait in the patch surroundings for D. basalis females' departure to return and exploit hosts parasitized by the opponent (after destruction of her eggs). In contrast, D. basalis females tended to self-superparasitize and stay motionless near the hosts. After detecting an E. vuilleti female entering the patch, they attacked and chased her permanently from the patch. Females of both species spent less time in the patch when faced with a competitor than when alone. This study is the first to test the influence of direct interspecific competition and arrival order on patch exploitation strategies in parasitoid species, and highlights the necessity to include agonistic behaviors in theoretical models predicting optimal patch residence time in competitive situations. PMID:25367579

  11. Spread of plant pathogens and insect vectors at the northern range margin of cypress in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zocca, Alessia; Zanini, Corrado; Aimi, Andrea; Frigimelica, Gabriella; La Porta, Nicola; Battisti, Andrea

    2008-05-01

    The Mediterranean cypress ( Cupressus sempervirens) is a multi-purpose tree widely used in the Mediterranean region. An anthropogenic range expansion of cypress has taken place at the northern margin of the range in Italy in recent decades, driven by ornamental planting in spite of climatic constraints imposed by low winter temperature. The expansion has created new habitats for pathogens and pests, which strongly limit tree survival in the historical (core) part of the range. Based on the enemy release hypothesis, we predicted that damage should be lower in the expansion area. By comparing tree and seed cone damage by pathogens and pests in core and expansion areas of Trentino, a district in the southern Alps, we showed that tree damage was significantly higher in the core area. Seed cones of C. sempervirens are intensively colonized by an aggressive and specific pathogen (the canker fungus Seiridium cardinale, Coelomycetes), associated with seed insect vectors Megastigmus wachtli (Hymenoptera Torymidae) and Orsillus maculatus (Heteroptera Lygaeidae). In contrast, we observed lower tree damage in the expansion area, where a non-aggressive fungus ( Pestalotiopsis funerea, Coelomycetes) was more frequently associated with the same insect vectors. Our results indicate that both insect species have a great potential to reach the range margin, representing a continuous threat of the arrival of fungal pathogens to trees planted at extreme sites. Global warming may accelerate this process since both insects and fungi profit from increased temperature. In the future, cypress planted at the range margin may then face similar pest and pathogen threats as in the historical range.

  12. Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite images and overlaid with entomological data. Map of larval breeding habitats distribution and map of malaria transmission risk area were developed using a combination of field data, satellite image analysis and GIS technique. All digital data in the GIS were displayed in the WGS 1984 coordinate system. Six occasions of larval surveillance were also conducted to determine the species of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats. Results Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected and mapped from 79 and 67 breeding sites respectively. Breeding habitats were located at 100-400 m from human settlement. Map of villages with 400 m buffer zone visualizes that more than 80% of Anopheles maculatus s.s. immature habitats were found within the buffer zone. Conclusions This study amplifies the need for a broadening of the GIS approach which is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of entomological studies in Malaysia. In fact, the use of such basic GIS platforms promote a more rational basis for strategic planning and management in the control of endemic diseases at the national level. PMID:22166101

  13. The genetic architecture of fitness in a seed beetle: assessing the potential for indirect genetic benefits of female choice

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Quantifying the amount of standing genetic variation in fitness represents an empirical challenge. Unfortunately, the shortage of detailed studies of the genetic architecture of fitness has hampered progress in several domains of evolutionary biology. One such area is the study of sexual selection. In particular, the evolution of adaptive female choice by indirect genetic benefits relies on the presence of genetic variation for fitness. Female choice by genetic benefits fall broadly into good genes (additive) models and compatibility (non-additive) models where the strength of selection is dictated by the genetic architecture of fitness. To characterize the genetic architecture of fitness, we employed a quantitative genetic design (the diallel cross) in a population of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is known to exhibit post-copulatory female choice. From reciprocal crosses of inbred lines, we assayed egg production, egg-to-adult survival, and lifetime offspring production of the outbred F1 daughters (F1 productivity). Results We used the bio model to estimate six components of genetic and environmental variance in fitness. We found sizeable additive and non-additive genetic variance in F1 productivity, but lower genetic variance in egg-to-adult survival, which was strongly influenced by maternal and paternal effects. Conclusion Our results show that, in order to gain a relevant understanding of the genetic architecture of fitness, measures of offspring fitness should be inclusive and should include quantifications of offspring reproductive success. We note that our estimate of additive genetic variance in F1 productivity (CVA = 14%) is sufficient to generate indirect selection on female choice. However, our results also show that the major determinant of offspring fitness is the genetic interaction between parental genomes, as indicated by large amounts of non-additive genetic variance (dominance and/or epistasis) for F1 productivity. We discuss the processes that may maintain additive and non-additive genetic variance for fitness and how these relate to indirect selection for female choice. PMID:18950531

  14. Involvement of larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) on human cadavers: a review of 81 forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Charabidze, Damien; Colard, Thomas; Vincent, Benoit; Pasquerault, Thierry; Hedouin, Valery

    2014-11-01

    From 1994 to 2013, French forensic entomology laboratories investigated 1,093 cases. Larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were observed in 81 (7.5%) of these cases. To describe and analyze these 81 cases, eight parameters were used: city, location (indoor or outdoor), decay stage (fresh, decay, or dry), dermestid species and instar (adults and/or larvae), presence of living calliphorid larvae, presence of calliphorid pupae or adults, and presence of other necrophagous species. Eight Dermestidae species were observed: Dermestes frischii (42% of cases), Dermestes undulatus (35.8%), Dermestes peruvianus (12.3%), Dermestes lardarius (9.9%), Dermestes haemorrhoidalis (8.6%), Dermestes maculatus (7.4%), Dermestes bicolor (3.7%), and Dermestes ater (1.2%). Larder beetles primarily developed on human cadavers in outdoor locations in areas with a dry climate and were never reported in oceanic areas (which are characterized by frequent rainfall and high ambient humidity). The number of dermestid species on a single corpse never exceeded three. Typically, one species was found per corpse. Species differed between indoor and outdoor cases, with D. frischii and D. undulatus dominant in outdoor cases, while D. peruvianus dominant in indoor cases. Calliphoridae was found in 88% of the cases, while Hydrotaea and Piophilidae were observed 40% of the time. Regarding Coleoptera, Necrobia spp. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was observed in 46% of the cases. Lastly, we observed a typical decomposition pattern, with preferential feeding areas on the face, hands, and feet (i.e., the extremities). Pupation chambers on or inside the bones were not observed. PMID:24292547

  15. New Zealand geckos (Diplodactylidae): Cryptic diversity in a post-Gondwanan lineage with trans-Tasman affinities.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Stuart V; Bauer, Aaron M; Jackman, Todd R; Hitchmough, Rod A; Daugherty, Charles H

    2011-04-01

    We used a multi-gene approach to assess the phylogenetic relationships of New Zealand diplodactylid geckos to their Australian and New Caledonian relatives and to one another. Data from nuclear (RAG-1, PDC) and mitochondrial (ND2, 16S) genes from >180 specimens representing all 19 recognized New Zealand taxa and all but two of 20 putatively new species suggested by previous studies were analyzed using Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. All analyses retrieved a monophyletic New Zealand clade, most closely related to the Australian Diplodactylidae exclusive of Pseudothecadactylus. Hoplodactylus is paraphyletic and composed of two morphological groups: a broad-toed clade, consisting of the island-restricted, largest extant species, Hoplodactylus duvaucelii, and the species-rich, wide-ranging Hoplodactylus maculatus clade; and a narrow-toed clade, comprising five monophyletic subgroups: Naultinus, the Hoplodactylus pacificus and Hoplodactylus granulatus clades, and the distinctive species Hoplodactylus rakiurae and Hoplodactylus stephensi. Each of these lineages is here recognized at the generic level. Our data support recognition of 16 new species (36 total), and five new or resurrected genera (seven total). The New Zealand diplodactylid radiation split from its Australian relatives 40.2mya (95% highest posterior density estimate 28.9-53.5), after the opening of the Tasman Sea. Their distribution cannot, therefore, be regarded as derived as a result of Gondwanana vicariance. The age of the New Zealand crown group, 24.4mya (95% highest posterior density estimate 15.5-33.8), encompasses the period of the 'Oligocene drowning' of New Zealand and is consistent with the hypothesis that New Zealand was not completely inundated during this period. Major lineages within New Zealand geckos diverged chiefly during the mid- to late Miocene, probably in association with a suite of geological and climatological factors that have characterized the region's complex history. PMID:21184833

  16. Chromosome differentiation patterns during cichlid fish evolution

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cichlid fishes have been the subject of increasing scientific interest because of their rapid adaptive radiation which has led to an extensive ecological diversity and their enormous importance to tropical and subtropical aquaculture. To increase our understanding of chromosome evolution among cichlid species, karyotypes of one Asian, 22 African, and 30 South American cichlid species were investigated, and chromosomal data of the family was reviewed. Results Although there is extensive variation in the karyotypes of cichlid fishes (from 2n = 32 to 2n = 60 chromosomes), the modal chromosome number for South American species was 2n = 48 and the modal number for the African ones was 2n = 44. The only Asian species analyzed, Etroplus maculatus, was observed to have 46 chromosomes. The presence of one or two macro B chromosomes was detected in two African species. The cytogenetic mapping of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene revealed a variable number of clusters among species varying from two to six. Conclusions The karyotype diversification of cichlids seems to have occurred through several chromosomal rearrangements involving fissions, fusions and inversions. It was possible to identify karyotype markers for the subfamilies Pseudocrenilabrinae (African) and Cichlinae (American). The karyotype analyses did not clarify the phylogenetic relationship among the Cichlinae tribes. On the other hand, the two major groups of Pseudocrenilabrinae (tilapiine and haplochromine) were clearly discriminated based on the characteristics of their karyotypes. The cytogenetic mapping of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene did not follow the chromosome diversification in the family. The dynamic evolution of the repeated units of rRNA genes generates patterns of chromosomal distribution that do not help follows the phylogenetic relationships among taxa. The presence of B chromosomes in cichlids is of particular interest because they may not be represented in the reference genome sequences currently being obtained. PMID:20550671

  17. Molecular phylogenetics of the avian genus Pipilo and a biogeographic argument for taxonomic uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Zink, R M; Weller, S J; Blackwell, R C

    1998-10-01

    We sequenced 1709 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA including parts of cytochrome b, ND 2, and the control region (CR I, II) for seven members of the avian genus Pipilo (towhees), Melozone kieneri (rusty-crowned ground-sparrow), and Arremonops rufivirgatus (olive sparrow). A total of 457 bp was variable and 257 bp were potentially phylogenetically informative. All gene regions were similarly variable (20.2 to 28.4%) except for CR II (38.4%); third position transitions were as common as substitutions in the CR. Tree topology was sensitive to choice of outgroup(s) and individual sequences used as exemplars. Six trees were considered viable phylogenetic hypotheses based on maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses. These trees generally supported two groups of towhees (rufous-sided group, brown towhee group), a sister taxon relationship for P. aberti and P. crissalis, and a sister taxon relationship for P. ocai and P. maculatus. The occurrence of M. kiernei within Pipilo in three trees challenges the monophyly of the latter; the other species of Melozone and other outgroups require study to resolve Pipilo monophyly. The relationships of P. albicollis and P. fuscus were ambiguous, as they were with previous data sets (allozymes, mtDNA restriction sites); they could be sister species or either one could be the basal species in the brown towhee group. We suggest that this taxonomic uncertainty obtains from the contemporaneous origin of P. fuscus, P. albicollis, and the ancestor of P. aberti/P. crissalis. We favor a "star" phylogeny because species in unrelated lineages found in the same region as P. albicollis are similarly difficult to resolve phylogenetically. Synapomorphies from coding genes and the CR did not preferentially support basal and terminal nodes, and hence did not provide different windows of taxonomic resolution, which might be expected from the apparent rapid rate of CR evolution. Phylogenetic trees inferred from allozymes, restriction sites, and mtDNA sequences were congruent, suggesting that each is a useful source of phylogenetic information. PMID:9878230

  18. Responses in bird communities to wildland fires in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendelsohn, Mark B.; Brehme, Cheryl S.; Rochester, Carlton J.; Stokes, Drew C.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature covering the responses of bird species to wildland fire events. Our study was unique among these because we investigated the effects of large-scale wildland fires on entire bird communities across multiple vegetation types. We conducted avian point counts during the breeding seasons for two years before and two years after the Cedar and Otay Fires in 2003 in southern California. Our balanced sampling effort took place at two sites, one low-elevation and one high-elevation, each containing replicate stations (burned and unburned) within five vegetation types: chaparral, coastal sage scrub, grassland, oak woodland, and riparian. Although fire caused some degree of change in the vegetation structure at all of our impacted survey points, we found that the post-fire shrub and tree cover was significantly lower in only two of the vegetation types within the low-elevation site, coastal sage scrub and chaparral. We found no significant changes in cover at the high-elevation site. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we tested whether the fires were associated with a change in bird species diversity, community structure, and the relative abundance of individuals within a species. We found that species diversity changed in only one circumstance: it increased in coastal sage scrub at the low-elevation site. Multivariate analyses revealed significant differences in the post-fire bird community structure in the low-elevation chaparral, low-elevation coastal sage scrub, and the high-elevation grassland communities. Vegetation characteristics altered by fire, such as decreases in shrub and tree cover, influenced the changes we observed in the bird communities. The relative abundance of some species (lazuli bunting [Passerina amoena] and horned lark [Eremophila alpestris]) significantly increased after the fires, while other species declined significantly (Anna's hummingbird [Calypte anna], wrentit [Chamaea fasciata], and bushtit [Psaltriparus minimus]). We detected mixed results for the spotted towhee (Pipilo maculatus), which increased in burned chaparral and declined in burned coastal sage scrub within the low-elevation site. We suggest that the observed responses of birds to these fires may be attributed to: (1) the availability of nearby unburned refugia, (2) the continued suitability of post-fire vegetation at the study sites, and (3) the generally high mobility of this taxon.

  19. Gene Amplification and Functional Diversification of Melanocortin 4 Receptor at an Extremely Polymorphic Locus Controlling Sexual Maturation in the Platyfish

    PubMed Central

    Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Selz, Yvonne; Hoffmann, Carsten; Froschauer, Alexander; Schultheis, Christina; Schmidt, Cornelia; Zhou, Qingchun; Bernhardt, Wolfgang; Hanel, Reinhold; Böhne, Astrid; Brunet, Frédéric; Ségurens, Béatrice; Couloux, Arnaud; Bernard-Samain, Sylvie; Barbe, Valérie; Ozouf-Costaz, Catherine; Galiana, Delphine; Lohse, Martin J.; Schartl, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    In two swordtail species of the genus Xiphophorus, the onset of puberty has been shown to be modulated at the P locus by sequence polymorphism and gene copy-number variation affecting the type 4 melanocortin hormone receptor Mc4r. The system works through the interaction of two allelic types, one encoding wild type and the other dominant-negative receptors. We have analyzed the structure and evolution of the P locus in the platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus, where as many as nine alleles of P determining the onset of sexual maturity in males and females, fecundity in females, and adult size in males are located on both the X and Y chromosomes in a region linked to the master sex-determining locus. In this species, mc4r has been amplified to up to 10 copies on both the X and Y chromosomes through recent large serial duplications. Subsequently, mc4r paralogues have diverged considerably into many different subtypes. Certain copies have acquired new untranslated regions through genomic rearrangements, and transposable element insertions and other mutations have accumulated in promoter regions, possibly explaining observed deviations from the classical mc4r transcriptional pattern. In the mc4r-coding sequence, in-frame insertions and deletions as well as nonsense and missense mutations have generated a high diversity of Mc4r-predicted proteins. Most of these variants are expressed in embryos, adults, and/or tumors. Functional receptor characterization demonstrated major divergence in pharmacological behavior for Mc4r receptors encoded by different copies of platyfish mc4r, with differences in constitutive activity as well as binding and stimulation by hormones. The high degree of allelic and copy-number variation observed between individuals can explain the high level of polymorphism for sexual maturation, fecundity, and body size in the platyfish: multiple combinations of Mc4r variants with different biochemical properties might interact to modulate the melanocortin signaling that regulates the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis. PMID:24077304

  20. Metabarcoding dietary analysis of coral dwelling predatory fish demonstrates the minor contribution of coral mutualists to their highly partitioned, generalist diet

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christopher P.; Mills, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of predators in food webs can be challenging in highly diverse predator/prey systems composed of small cryptic species. DNA based dietary analysis can supplement predator removal experiments and provide high resolution for prey identification. Here we use a metabarcoding approach to provide initial insights into the diet and functional role of coral-dwelling predatory fish feeding on small invertebrates. Fish were collected in Moorea (French Polynesia) where the BIOCODE project has generated DNA barcodes for numerous coral associated invertebrate species. Pyrosequencing data revealed a total of 292 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) in the gut contents of the arc-eye hawkfish (Paracirrhites arcatus), the flame hawkfish (Neocirrhites armatus) and the coral croucher (Caracanthus maculatus). One hundred forty-nine (51%) of them had species-level matches in reference libraries (>98% similarity) while 76 additional OTUs (26%) could be identified to higher taxonomic levels. Decapods that have a mutualistic relationship with Pocillopora and are typically dominant among coral branches, represent a minor contribution of the predators’ diets. Instead, predators mainly consumed transient species including pelagic taxa such as copepods, chaetognaths and siphonophores suggesting non random feeding behavior. We also identified prey species known to have direct negative interactions with stony corals, such as Hapalocarcinus sp, a gall crab considered a coral parasite, as well as species of vermetid snails known for their deleterious effects on coral growth. Pocillopora DNA accounted for 20.8% and 20.1% of total number of sequences in the guts of the flame hawkfish and coral croucher but it was not detected in the guts of the arc-eye hawkfish. Comparison of diets among the three fishes demonstrates remarkable partitioning with nearly 80% of prey items consumed by only one predator. Overall, the taxonomic resolution provided by the metabarcoding approach highlights a highly complex interaction web and demonstrates that levels of trophic partitioning among coral reef fishes have likely been underestimated. Therefore, we strongly encourage further empirical approaches to dietary studies prior to making assumptions of trophic equivalency in food web reconstruction. PMID:26137428