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1

Aspects of the biology of Galaxias maculatus.  

PubMed

The biology of three landlocked and a riverine population of Galaxias maculatus were examined in western Victoria, Australia. All systems supported reproducing populations of these fish, including Lake Corangamite which had salinities that on occasion reached 82. Spawning sites in Lake Corangamite were located in adjacent tributaries and not in the main lake as was the case for other populations. The smallest fish were found in the fresh water Lake Purrumbete and the largest in the hypersaline Lake Corangamite. The size at which 50% of the population attained sexual maturity varied across sites, with fish maturing at a smaller size in Lake Purrumbete, followed by the Merri River, Lake Bullen Merri and Lake Corangamite. Condition was higher in the freshwater Lake Purrumbete and there was no relationship between condition and temperature, conductivity, turbidity and pH; but there was a positive relationship between condition and dissolved oxygen. Length frequency analysis suggested that the majority of fishes live for a year. PMID:22880739

Laurenson, L J B; French, R P; Jones, P; Ierodiaconou, D; Gray, S; Versace, V L; Rattray, A; Brown, S; Monk, J

2012-08-01

2

A novel oxyconforming response in the freshwater fish Galaxias maculatus.  

PubMed

How fish oxygen consumption is modulated by external PO(2) has long been a matter of interest, yet is an experimentally complicated question to answer. In this study closed and semi-closed respirometry were used to evaluate the oxygen consumption rate of the scaleless galaxiid fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus) as a function of decreasing external PO(2). Both respirometry techniques showed that as environmental oxygen levels declined, oxygen consumption rates also decreased. At no point did inanga regulate oxygen consumption. This is strong evidence that inanga is an oxyconformer. Partitioned respirometry experiments showed that skin plays an important role in oxygen uptake in this fish species, and cutaneous oxygen uptake may have an important role in shaping the oxygen consumption response to hypoxia. PMID:22138470

Urbina, Mauricio A; Glover, Chris N; Forster, Malcolm E

2012-03-01

3

Predation, vegetation and habitat-specific survival of terrestrial eggs of a diadromous fish, Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality from predation during the early life-stages of most teleost fishes can be extreme, and many species have developed specialized spawning strategies to reduce predation. In the diadromous fish Galaxias maculatus there is terrestrial development of eggs which restricts aquatic predation, but exposes them to terrestrial predators and a more extreme physical environment. We hypothesised that exotic slugs (Milax gagates,

Michael J. H. Hickford; Mathilde Cagnon; David R. Schiel

2010-01-01

4

Surviving historical Patagonian landscapes and climate: molecular insights from Galaxias maculatus  

PubMed Central

Background The dynamic geological and climatic histories of temperate South America have played important roles in shaping the contemporary distributions and genetic diversity of endemic freshwater species. We use mitochondria and nuclear sequence variation to investigate the consequences of mountain barriers and Quaternary glacial cycles for patterns of genetic diversity in the diadromous fish Galaxias maculatus in Patagonia (~300 individuals from 36 locations). Results Contemporary populations of G. maculatus, east and west of the Andes in Patagonia, represent a single monophyletic lineage comprising several well supported groups. Mantel tests using control region data revealed a strong positive relationship when geographic distance was modeled according to a scenario of marine dispersal. (r = 0.69, P = 0.055). By contrast, direct distance between regions was poorly correlated with genetic distance (r = -0.05, P = 0.463). Hierarchical AMOVAs using mtDNA revealed that pooling samples according to historical (pre-LGM) oceanic drainage (Pacific vs. Atlantic) explained approximately four times more variance than pooling them into present-day drainage (15.6% vs. 3.7%). Further post-hoc AMOVA tests revealed additional genetic structure between populations east and west of the Chilean Coastal Cordillera (coastal vs. interior). Overall female effective population size appears to have remained relatively constant until roughly 0.5 Ma when population size rapidly increased several orders of magnitude [100× (60×-190×)] to reach contemporary levels. Maximum likelihood analysis of nuclear alleles revealed a poorly supported gene tree which was paraphyletic with respect to mitochondrial-defined haplogroups. Conclusions First diversifying in the central/north-west region of Patagonia, G. maculatus extended its range into Argentina via the southern coastal regions that join the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. More recent gene flow between northern populations involved the most ancient and most derived lineages, and was likely facilitated by drainage reversal(s) during one or more cooling events of the late Pleistocene. Overall female effective population size represents the end result of a widespread and several hundred-fold increase over approximately 0.5 Ma, spanning several climatic fluctuations of the Pleistocene. The minor influence of glacial cycles on the genetic structure and diversity of G. maculatus likely reflects the access to marine refugia during repeated bouts of global cooling. Evidence of genetic structure that was detected on a finer scale between lakes/rivers is most likely the result of both biological attributes (i.e., resident non-migratory behavior and/or landlocking and natal homing in diadromous populations), and the Coastal Cordillera as a dispersal barrier.

2010-01-01

5

A new genus of dactylogyrid from the gills of Galaxias maculatus (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in Maullín Basin, Patagonia, Chile.  

PubMed

During a parasitological survey of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842) in the Maullín Basin (Chilean Patagonia), specimens of a new species of Monogenea were collected from the gills. This species is described as the only member of a proposed new genus, Inserotrema n. gen. (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae), characterized by similar hooks with 2 subunits, overlapping gonads, coiled cirrus with counterclockwise rings, articulated accessory piece formed by 2 parts, a needlelike sclerite threading the distal part of the MCO, and a sclerotized midventral vagina. This new genus is proposed for dactylogyrids from gills of galaxiids (Galaxiidae). Inserotrema puyei n. sp. infects gills of G. maculatus from Llanquihue Lake, Maullín River, and Maullín Estuary. This is the first species of Ancyrocephalinae described from gills of a galaxiid. PMID:17626345

Viozzi, Gustavo P; Marin, Sandra L; Carvajal, Juan; Brugni, Norma; Mancilla, Melinka

2007-06-01

6

Differential expression of Na+, K(+)-ATPase ?-1 isoforms during seawater acclimation in the amphidromous galaxiid fish Galaxias maculatus.  

PubMed

Inanga (Galaxias maculatus) is an amphidromous fish with a well-known capacity to withstand a wide range of environmental salinities. To investigate the molecular mechanisms facilitating acclimation of inanga to seawater, several isoforms of the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase ion transporter were identified. This included three ?-1 (a, b and c), an ?-2 and two ?-3 (a and b) isoforms. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the inanga ?-1a and ?-1b formed a clade with the ?-1a and ?-1b isoforms of rainbow trout, while another clade contained the ?-1c isoforms of these species. The expression of all the ?-1 isoforms was modulated after seawater exposure (28‰). In gills, the expression of the ?-1a isoform was progressively down-regulated after seawater exposure, while the expression of the ?-1b isoform was up-regulated. The ?-1c isoform behaved similarly to the ?-1a, although changes were less dramatic. Physiological indicators of salinity acclimation matched the time frame of the changes observed at the molecular level. A 24-h osmotic shock period was highlighted by small increases in plasma osmolality, plasma Na(+) and a decrease in muscle tissue water content. Thereafter, these values returned close to their pre-exposure (freshwater) values. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity showed a decreasing trend over the first 72 h following seawater exposure, but activity increased after 240 h. Our results indicate that inanga is an excellent osmoregulator, an ability that is conferred by the rapid activation of physiological and molecular responses to salinity change. PMID:23142926

Urbina, Mauricio A; Schulte, Patricia M; Bystriansky, Jason S; Glover, Chris N

2013-04-01

7

Should I stay or should I go?: Physiological, metabolic and biochemical consequences of voluntary emersion upon aquatic hypoxia in the scaleless fish Galaxias maculatus.  

PubMed

Hypoxia represents a significant challenge to most fish, forcing the development of behavioural, physiological and biochemical adaptations to survive. It has been previously shown that inanga (Galaxias maculatus) display a complex behavioural repertoire to escape aquatic hypoxia, finishing with the fish voluntarily emerging from the water and aerially respiring. In the present study we evaluated the physiological, metabolic and biochemical consequences of both aquatic hypoxia and emersion in inanga. Inanga successfully tolerated up to 6 h of aquatic hypoxia or emersion. Initially, this involved enhancing blood oxygen-carrying capacity, followed by the induction of anaerobic metabolism. Only minor changes were noted between emersed fish and those maintained in aquatic hypoxia, with the latter group displaying a higher mean cell haemoglobin content and a reduced haematocrit after 6 h. Calculations suggest that inanga exposed to both aquatic hypoxia and air reduced oxygen uptake and also increased anaerobic contribution to meet energy demands, but the extent of these changes was small compared with hypoxia-tolerant fish species. Overall, these findings add to previous studies suggesting that inanga are relatively poorly adapted to survive aquatic hypoxia. PMID:22645056

Urbina, Mauricio A; Glover, Chris N

2012-12-01

8

Reproductive activity and recruitment of the yellow-mandi Pimelodus maculatus (Teleostei: Pimelodidae) in the Igarapava Reservoir, Grande River, Southeast Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catfish yellow-mandi, Pimelodus maculatus, is a valuable sporting and commercial fish of inland waters of Southeast Brazil including Igarapava Reservoir. It is a short-distance migrant that needs shorter stretches of free-flowing river to spawn compared to other Neotropical migrants. Igarapava Reservoir is one the 13 hydroelectric reservoirs, arranged in a cascade fashion, impounding the 1,300 km-long Grande River, SE

Bruno Pereira Maia; Sandra Maria Franco Ribeiro; Paula Maciel Bizzotto; Volney Vono; Hugo Pereira Godinho

2007-01-01

9

Nuevas Galaxias Seyfert 1 Australes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En 1984 se inició una extensión del "survey" de Tololo que de- sarrollara en 1975 Smith, con la cámara Curtis-Schmidt y el prisma UV delgado. Utilizando placas IIIaJ horneadas, sin filtro, expues tas 90 minutos sin ensanchamiento se han obtenido a la fecha más de 150 placas que cubren la zona entre -20° y -45° a latitudes galácticas mayores de 20°; se presenta un detalle de las franjas que comprende el survey Calan-Tololo, indicando el grado de completitud de las mismas. Se ha encontrado un gran número de galaxias con líneas de emisión entre las cuales las más frecuentes, más de 300, son galaxias irregulares con formación estelar violenta ("starburst galaxies"). Se ha encontrado un número de cuasares cercano a 100; casi todos ellos tienen la linea Lyman alfa en la zona entre 3300 y 5300 A, que corresponde a un rango de corrimientosal rojo 1.7< z <3.3 el cuasar con mayor corri- miento al rojo encontrado a la fecha en el survey tiene z = 3.1. La información detallada sobre cuasares y galaxias tipo "starburst" será presentada en otro lugar. Entre los objetos más interesantes encontrados en el survey Calán- Tololo destacan unas 50 nuevas galaxias Seyfert 1. Estas galaxias han sido encontradas por su fuerte exceso UV y su brillante núcleo, más que por sus intensas lineas de emisión. Hemos observado espectroscópicamente, en el Observatorio Interamericano de Cerro Tololo, 37 de ellas para las cuales se presentan cartas de identificación, coordenadas y los datos espectroscópicos obtenidos.

Maza, J.; Ruiz, M. T.

1987-05-01

10

Fotometría superficial de la galaxia irregular NGC 1427A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se presenta fotometría superficial multicolor de la galaxia irregular NGC 1427A. Esta galaxia, un miembro del Cúmulo de Fornax que no ha sido estudiado previamente, muestra una morfología muy particular: una distribución estelar subyacente de bajo brillo superficial (LSB) con varias manchas brillantes dispuestas en una estructura anular deformada. Por sus colores muy azules se infiere que estas son zonas de formación estelar reciente. Al norte del cuerpo principal de la galaxia, y conectado con éste mediante filamentos LSB, hay un objeto de isofotas aproximadamente circulares. Este objeto tiene en sí mismo algunas zonas brillantes, pero su población estelar subyacente es significativamente más azul que la del cuerpo principal de la galaxia. Esto indica que ambos objetos han tenido distintas historias evolutivas. Estructuralmente, el objeto del norte es muy similar a algunas de las galaxias elípticas enanas más débiles que pueblan el Cúmulo de Fornax. Se discute la posible relación entre este objeto y la galaxia en si.

Cellone, S. A.; Forte, J. C.

11

Curva de rotación de la Galaxia Eso 321-25  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se presenta la curva de rotación de esta galaxia, generada a partir de espectros obtenidos con el Espectrógrafo Multifunción del telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre. El análisis de las curvas de velocidad radial obtenidas muestra que el núcleo no coincide con el centro de simetría de las mismas, lo que es consistente con el aspecto morfológico exhibido por la galaxia en imágenes de banda ancha. En estas últimas, el núcleo muestra una estructura peculiar y no coincidiría con el centro geométrico del disco aparente. Los flujos relativos de líneas (H? /[NII]? 6583 y [SII]? 6731/? 6716) indicarían niveles de excitación y densidad electrónica normales en regiones HII, aún en la zona nuclear. Este trabajo forma parte de un programa de estudio de cinemática, excitación y densidad electrónica del gas ionizado en galaxias peculiares del Atlas de Galaxias Australes de Sérsic.

Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.; Ahumada, J.; Arreguine, V.

12

Movimientos peculiares de galaxias en el Universo cercano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se presenta un resumen de los resultados más importantes obtenidos en los últimos años sobre movimientos peculiares en el Universo Cercano. En el escenario de inestabilidad gravitacional, el campo de velocidades peculiares es una herramienta muy útil para estimar las fluctuaciones en la distribución de masa que generan los movimientos observados. Esta aproximación puede, además, ser utilizada para poner restricciones al espectro de potencia de la masa, a la relación entre las distribuciones de galaxias y de materia y al valor del parámetro de densidad cosmológico, ?, a grandes escalas. Son además presentados una reconstrucción preliminar de los campos de densidad de masa y velocidades peculiares en el universo cercano usando nuevas medidas de distancias obtenidas con la relación Dn - ?, para una muestra de galaxias elípticas y lenticulares. Dos subestructuras prominentes son encontradas en la región del Gran Atractor, que corresponden a los complejos de Centaurus y Pavo--Indus. Estos últimos, junto a los complejos de Perseus--Piscis y Cetus parecen ser importantes estructuras que determinan el flujo global. El patrón obtenido a través de una muestra de galaxias elípticas muestra variaciones con respecto al obtenido por galaxias espirales. Estos nuevos resultados muestran una coherencia menor en el flujo global, cuando son comparados con resultados obtenidos anteriormente.

Alonso, M. V.

13

Comparison of Day and Night Fyke Netting, Electrofishing and Snorkelling for Monitoring a Population of the Threatened Golden Galaxias ( Galaxias auratus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The littoral zone of small off-stream water storage containing a translocated population of Galaxias auratus was sampled fortnightly at day and night with fyke nets, electrofishing and snorkelling over 3 months. Variation in population\\u000a data provided by each method, including relative abundance indices, size structure, and habitat preferences, were examined.\\u000a Aspects of behaviour and activity patterns were also investigated. Night sampling

Scott A. Hardie; Leon A. Barmuta; Robert W. G. White

2006-01-01

14

Organ Growth in the Puffer Fish, Sphaeroides Maculatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following organs from male and female specimens of Sphaeroides maculatus were weighed: heart, liver, spleen, gut, brain, eyes. Prediction equations for organ weight in terms of total body weight were derived. Best correlation was found when logarithms...

C. G. Wilber, R. Schneider

1967-01-01

15

Código árbol paralelizado para simulaciones astrofísicas. Experimentos de encuentros de galaxias compuestas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se describe la implementación de un código árbol octal paralelizado desarrollado por los autores. Este código permite la integración del problema de N--cuerpos simultáneamente en varias computadoras (``cluster''), lo que permite desarrollar altas velocidades de cálculo. Se muestran los resultados de algunas integraciones de encuentros entre galaxias de disco con bulbo y halo, generadas mediante algoritmos no utilizados hasta el momento en este campo.

Viturro, H. R.; Carpintero, D. D.

16

Chaos formation by sublimation of volatile-rich substrate: Evidence from Galaxias Chaos, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxias Chaos deviates significantly from other chaotic regions due to the lack of associated outflow channels, lack of big elevation differences between the chaos and the surrounding terrain and due to gradual trough formation. A sequence of troughs in different stages is observed, and examples of closed troughs within blocks suggest that the trough formation is governed by a local stress field rather than a regional stress field. Moreover, geomorphic evidence suggests that Galaxias Chaos is capped by Elysium lavas, which superpose an unstable subsurface layer that causes chaotic tilting of blocks and trough formation. Based on regional mapping we suggest a formation model, where Vastitas Borealis Formation embedded between Elysium lavas is the unstable subsurface material, because gradual volatile loss causes shrinkage and differential substrate movement. This process undermines the lava cap, depressions form and gradually troughs develop producing a jigsaw puzzle of blocks due to trough coalescence. Observations of chaos west of Elysium Rise indicate that this process might have been widespread along the contact between Vastitas Borealis Formation and Elysium lavas. However, the chaotic regions have probably been superposed by Elysium/Utopia flows to the NW of Elysium Rise, and partly submerged with younger lavas to the west.

Pedersen, G. B. M.; Head, J. W.

2011-01-01

17

Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle. Application of volatile oils led in most cases to a reduced number of eggs on treated

Sara J Boeke; Cécile Barnaud; Joop JA van Loon; Dansou K Kossou; Arnold van Huis; Marcel Dicke

2004-01-01

18

Colonization of Anopheles maculatus from Central Java, Indonesia.  

PubMed

The routine colonization of Anopheles maculatus, a reputed malaria vector from Central Java, is described. The strain is free mating and long lived in the laboratory. This species will readily bloodfeed on small rodents and artificial membrane systems. Either natural or controlled temperatures, humidity, and lighting provide acceptable conditions for continuous rearing. A simple larval diet incorporating a 10:4 powdered mixture of dried beef and rice hulls proved acceptable. Using a variety of simple tools and procedures, this colony strain appears readily adaptable to rearing under most laboratory conditions. This appears to be the first report of continuous colonization using a free-mating strain of An. maculatus. Using this simple, relatively inexpensive method of mass colonization adds to the short list of acceptable laboratory populations used in the routine production of human-infecting plasmodia. PMID:12542195

Bangs, Michael J; Soelarto, Toto; Barodji; Wicaksana, Bimo P; Boewono, Damar Tri

2002-12-01

19

Influence of different temperature-salinity combinations on the oxygen consumption in the fresh water fish Etroplus maculatus (Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kurzfassung Der Einfluß verschiedener Temperatur-Salzgehaltskombinationen (25°, 30° und 35° C; Süßwasser, 9,7‰, 19,4‰ und 32,4‰ S) auf die Quantität des verbrauchten Sauerstoffs wurde für verschieden große Fische ermittelt, und zwar unmittelbar nach deren Überführung in das Versuchsmedium (Einzelheiten siehe unter „Material and Methods“). Temperaturerhöhung führt zu erhöhtem Sauerstoffverbrauch; das Ausmaß dieser Erhöhung ist eine Funktion des Salzgehaltes und außerdem der

Vipparti Parvatheswararao

1965-01-01

20

Age, Growth, and Maturity of the Hogchoker, Trinectes maculatus, in the Hudson River, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological studies of the hogchoker, Trinectes maculatus, were conducted in the lower Hudson River, New York. Scales were formed on individuals by the time they were 10 mm total length. Annulus formation occurred between April and June, and false annuli were noted occasionally. Growth of T. maculatus was rapid during the first 2 years of life. Females grew larger and

Robert T. Koski

1978-01-01

21

Mitochondrial and Allozyme Genetics of Incipient Speciation in a Landlocked Population of Galaxias Truttaceus (Pisces: Galaxiidae)  

PubMed Central

Galaxias truttaceus is found in coastal rivers and streams in south-eastern Australia. It spawns at the head of estuaries in autumn and the larvae spend 3 months of winter at sea before returning to fresh water. In Tasmania there are landlocked populations of G. truttaceus in a cluster of geologically young lakes on the recently glaciated Central Plateau. These populations have no marine larval stage and spawn in the lakes in spring. Speciation due to land locking is thought to be a frequent occurrence within Galaxias. To investigate the nature of the speciation event which may be occurring within lake populations of G. truttaceus we studied the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and allozyme diversity of both lake and stream populations. Using the presence or absence of restriction sites recognized by 13 six-base restriction endonucleases, we found 58 mtDNA haplotypes among 150 fish collected from 13 Tasmanian and one south-east Australian mainland stream populations. The most parsimonious network relating the haplotypes by site loss or gain was starlike in shape. We argue that this arrangement is best explained by selection upon slightly beneficial mutations within the mitochondrial genome. Gene diversity analysis under Wright's island model showed that the populations in each drainage were not genetically subdivided. Only two of these stream haplotypes were found among the 66 fish analyzed from four lake populations. Despite the extreme lack of mtDNA diversity in lake populations, the observed nuclear DNA heterozygosity of 40 lake fish (0.10355) was only slightly less than that of 82 stream fish (0.11635). In the short time (3000-7000 years) that the lake fish have been landlocked, random genetic drift in a finite, stable-sized population was probably not responsible for the lack of mtDNA diversity in the lake populations. We infer the lake populations have probably experienced at least one, severe, but transitory bottleneck possibly induced by natural selection for life-history characters essential for survival in the lacustrine habitat. If speciation is occurring in the landlocked populations of G. truttaceus, then it may be driven by genetic transilience.

Ovenden, J. R.; White, RWG.

1990-01-01

22

Effectiveness of spinosad (naturalytes) in controlling the cowpea storage pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The biopesticide Spinosad controls many insect pests of stored-food products. Laboratory and field trials were carried out to determine the efficacy of this pesticide against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the main storage pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, Walp, in West Africa. In the laboratory, Spinosad caused high mortality of adult C. maculatus and decreased the number of eggs laid by females. Spinosad, however, was less toxic in the 24 h treatment to C. maculatus than deltamethrin, an insecticide commonly used in Burkina Faso to control this insect. In "on-farm" experiments, Spinosad was effective in controlling C. maculatus. After 6 mo of storage, the number of insects emerging from cowpeas seeds was reduced by >80% by coating seeds with Spinosad but only by 43% by coating with deltamethrin. Less than 20% of the seeds were perforated in the Spinosad treatment compared with 29% for deltamethrin. Spinosad controlled C. maculatus throughout the 6 mo of cowpea storage whereas deltamethrin failed to control C. maculatus after 3 mo of storage. Spinosad has the potential to be more effective in controlling C. maculatus than deltamethrin. PMID:20214388

Sanon, Antoine; Ba, Niango M; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2010-02-01

23

Cytogenetic Evidence for a Complex of Species within the Taxon Anopheles maculatus (Diptera: Culicidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two largely independent studies of chromosomes from natural populations of anopheles maculatus provide evidence for several genetic species within the taxon. (1) Polytene chromosome variation shows four different rearrangements of arm 2 and three rearrang...

B. A. Harrison C. A. Green R. G. Andre V. Baimai

1985-01-01

24

Alguns efeitos da radiacao gama em Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1792) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae). (Some effects of gamma radiation in Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1792) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of gamma irradiation from a Cobalt-60 source on Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) was studied in this work. Experiments showed that at a dose-rate of 9820 (+-) 300 rad/hour the LD sub(100) of egg embryos was 2,2 krad, of larvae 3 krad and of pup...

J. M. M. Walder

1974-01-01

25

Talisia esculenta lectin and larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Bruchid larvae cause major losses in grain legume crops throughout the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil and the Mexican bean weevil, are pests that damage stored seeds. Plant lectins have been implicated as antibiosis factors against insects, particularly the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. Talisia esculenta lectin (TEL) was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus larvae. TEL produced ca. 90% mortality to these bruchids when incorporated in an artificial diet at a level of 2% (w/w). The LD(50) and ED(50) for TEL was ca. 1% (w/w) for both insects. TEL was not digested by midgut preparations of C. maculatus and Z. subfasciatus. The transformation of the genes coding for this lectin could be useful in the development of insect resistance in important agricultural crops. PMID:12049788

Macedo, Maria Ligia R; das Graças Machado Freire, Maria; Novello, José Camillo; Marangoni, Sérgio

2002-06-01

26

Why Do Female Callosobruchus maculatus Kick Their Mates?  

PubMed

Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other's matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs) was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings. PMID:24752530

van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B; Simmons, Leigh W

2014-01-01

27

The mimetic repertoire of the spotted bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus maculatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although vocal mimicry in songbirds is well documented, little is known about the function of such mimicry. One possibility is that the mimic produces the vocalisations of predatory or aggressive species to deter potential predators or competitors. Alternatively, these sounds may be learned in error as a result of their acoustic properties such as structural simplicity. We determined the mimetic repertoires of a population of male spotted bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus maculatus, a species that mimics predatory and aggressive species. Although male mimetic repertoires contained an overabundance of vocalisations produced by species that were generally aggressive, there was also a marked prevalence of mimicry of sounds that are associated with alarm such as predator calls, alarm calls and mobbing calls, irrespective of whether the species being mimicked was aggressive or not. We propose that it may be the alarming context in which these sounds are first heard that may lead both to their acquisition and to their later reproduction. We suggest that enhanced learning capability during acute stress may explain vocal mimicry in many species that mimic sounds associated with alarm.

Kelley, Laura A.; Healy, Susan D.

2011-06-01

28

The mimetic repertoire of the spotted bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Although vocal mimicry in songbirds is well documented, little is known about the function of such mimicry. One possibility is that the mimic produces the vocalisations of predatory or aggressive species to deter potential predators or competitors. Alternatively, these sounds may be learned in error as a result of their acoustic properties such as structural simplicity. We determined the mimetic repertoires of a population of male spotted bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus maculatus, a species that mimics predatory and aggressive species. Although male mimetic repertoires contained an overabundance of vocalisations produced by species that were generally aggressive, there was also a marked prevalence of mimicry of sounds that are associated with alarm such as predator calls, alarm calls and mobbing calls, irrespective of whether the species being mimicked was aggressive or not. We propose that it may be the alarming context in which these sounds are first heard that may lead both to their acquisition and to their later reproduction. We suggest that enhanced learning capability during acute stress may explain vocal mimicry in many species that mimic sounds associated with alarm. PMID:21494871

Kelley, Laura A; Healy, Susan D

2011-06-01

29

Copulation, genital damage and early death in Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Antagonistic sexual coevolution stems from the notion that male and female interests over reproduction are in conflict. Such conflicts appear to be particularly obvious when male genital armature inflicts damage to the female reproductive tract resulting in reduced female longevity. However, studies of mating frequency, genital damage and female longevity are difficult to interpret because females not only sustain more genital damage, but also receive more seminal fluid when they engage in multiple copulations. Here, we attempt to disentangle the effects of genital damage and seminal fluid transfer on female longevity in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Males copulating for the sixth time in succession inflicted greater levels of genital damage, but transferred smaller ejaculates in comparison with virgin males. The number of copulations performed by males was negatively related to female fecundity and positively related to female longevity, suggesting a trade-off between fecundity and longevity. However, inclusion of fecundity as a covariate revealed sperm and/or seminal fluid transfer to have a negative impact on female longevity above that caused by the fecundity-longevity trade-off. The consequences of multiple copulations on female longevity were examined. Females that mated twice laid more eggs and died sooner than those that mated once. However, incorporation of fecundity as a covariate into our statistical model removed the effect of female mating frequency on female longevity, indicating that double-mated females suffer greater mortality owing to the trade-off between fecundity and longevity. Males of this species are known to transfer very large ejaculates (up to 8% of their body weight), which may represent a significant nutritional benefit to females. However, the receipt of large ejaculates appears to carry costs. Thus, the interpretation of multiple mating experiments on female longevity and associated functional explanations of polyandry in this species are likely to be complex. PMID:17035168

Eady, Paul E; Hamilton, Leticia; Lyons, Ruth E

2007-01-22

30

Seed coat has no value in protecting cowpea seed against attack by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to compare the oviposition preference of the cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) on 22 cowpea varieties, with and without seed coat. The cowpeas included five resistant, four moderately resistant and 13 susceptible varieties. Ten of the varieties had smooth seed coats while 12 were wrinkled. Mean numbers of eggs laid on smooth and wrinkled varieties were

P. A Edde; C. I Amatobi

2003-01-01

31

Sex pheromone biology and behavior of the cowpea weevilCallosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Female cowpea weevils,Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), emitted a pheromone which excited males. Pheromone release began soon after emergence and continued for one week. Synchronization of pheromone release with calling behavior was demonstrated. Mating reduced pheromone release but not male response. Pheromone obtained by aeration collection was utilized for determining a quantitative dose-response relationship. PMID:24414963

Qi, Y T; Burkholder, W E

1982-02-01

32

Anomalous sex-related inheritance of oviposition rate in Callosobruchus maculatus fab. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

As a result of different feeding regimens, two laboratory populations of the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. developed different rates of oviposition. The behavior of the F1 hybrids cannot be explained with an additive model of inheritance. The unusual pattern of inheritance suggests a sex-related factor(s) and a two-factor interaction. PMID:7271680

Mark, G A

1981-03-01

33

Sex pheromone production in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): Electroantennographic and behavioral responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral and electroantennogram (EAG) assays were used to determine rhythmicity and dynamics of the sex pheromone biology of the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Beetles were sexually active throughout the photophase. Virgin females entrained to a 16:8 L:D light cycle emitted more sex pheromone during the first half of photophase than during the second half of photophase or during scotophase.

Shengqiang Shu; Wendy L. Koepnick; George N. Mbata; alan Cork; Sonny B. Ramaswamy

1996-01-01

34

Maternal age affects offspring lifespan of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Offspring from older parents often have shorter adult lifespans than offspring of younger mothers. We examine the effects of offspring genotype, maternal age and paternal age on offspring survival, development and adult lifespan in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus . 2. Females took about a quarter of a day longer to develop from an egg to an adult

C. W. Fox; M. L. Bush; W. G. Wallin

2003-01-01

35

Evolutionary genetics of lifespan and mortality rates in two populations of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age at which individuals die varies substantially within and between species, but we still have little understanding of why there is such variation in life expectancy. We examined sex-specific and genetic variation in adult lifespan and the shape of mortality curves both within and between two populations of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, that differ in a suite of

C W Fox; M L Bush; D A Roff; W G Wallin

2004-01-01

36

Adaptation to a novel host modifies host discrimination by the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus avoid adding eggs to seeds that already bear eggs. Geographical variation in this behaviour has been thought to depend on differences in host size. In populations that attack small-seeded legumes, only one or two larvae can develop within a seed, and females are especially adept at detecting and rejecting occupied (egg-laden) seeds. We

Frank J. Messina; Margaret E. Karren

2003-01-01

37

Female modulation of reproductive rate and its role in postmating prezygotic isolation in Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Mechanisms that come into play after mating but prior to fertilization can prevent hybrid formation and thus promote reproductive isolation. Recent research indicates that the evolution of such barriers to gene exchange between incipient forms appears to be common and is essential for speciation. 2. We aimed to test if female Bean Weevils ( Callosobruchus maculatus ) modulate

C. FRICKE; G. ARNQVIST; N. AMARO

2006-01-01

38

Bionomics of Anopheles maculatus complex and their role in malaria transmission in Thailand.  

PubMed

The bionomics of Anopheles maculatus complex and its role in malaria transmission were conducted in Pakchong and Sadao districts, Nakhon Ratchasima and Songkhla provinces, respectively, from January 1984 to July 1985. In Pakchong, An. maculatus species A was the most dominant species, followed by species B form F and species C which was rare. The densities of species A and species B form F were high between July and November, with their peaks in October. Biting activities of both species occurred through out the night, with a major peak during the first quarter of the night on all seasons. In Sadao, only An. maculatus species B form E was detected with peak densities between February and June. Biting activities of this species varied according to seasons. The prevalence of mosquitoes was influenced by monthly rainfall, relative humidity and air-temperature. All species of female An. maculatus complex studied prefered to feed on animal rather than on human, and tended to bit human more outdoors than indoors, and thus exhibiting a zoophilic and exophagic behaviour. Life expectancies of An. maculatus species A ranged from 1.6 to 6.6 days, species B form F from 1.1 to 8.1 days, and species B form E from 0.7 to 21.2 days. The natural malaria infection rate was very low. Out of 4,430 guts dissected, only 0.23% were found infected with oocysts. There were no sporozoites detected in the 4,472 dissected salivary glands. PMID:3227404

Upatham, E S; Prasittisuk, C; Ratanatham, S; Green, C A; Rojanasunan, W; Setakana, P; Theerasilp, N; Tremongkol, A; Viyanant, V; Pantuwatana, S

1988-06-01

39

New host record, Parablennius sanguinolentus (Teleostei, Perciformes, Blenniidae) for Nerocila bivittata (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae).  

PubMed

Nerocila bivittata (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) is reported for the first time on the caudal peduncle of the Rusty blenny, Parablennius sanguinolentus (Teleostei, Perciformes, Blenniidae), collected from Samsun Coast, Black Sea, Turkey. N. bivittata parasitized 7.4% (2 of 27) of the P. sanguinolentus collected. PMID:18060427

Alas, Ali; Oktener, Ahmet; Iscimen, Ali; Trilles, Jean Paul

2008-03-01

40

New host record, Parablennius sanguinolentus (Teleostei, Perciformes, Blenniidae) for Nerocila bivittata (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nerocila bivittata (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) is reported for the first time on the caudal peduncle of the Rusty blenny, Parablennius sanguinolentus (Teleostei, Perciformes, Blenniidae), collected from Samsun Coast, Black Sea, Turkey. N. bivittata parasitized 7.4% (2 of 27) of the P. sanguinolentus collected.

Ali Alas; Ahmet Öktener; Ali Iscimen; Jean Paul Trilles

2008-01-01

41

Mechanisms of the insecticidal action of TEL (Talisia esculenta lectin) against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Plant lectins have insecticidal activity that is probably mediated through their ability to bind carbohydrates. To examine the influence of sugars on the insecticidal activity of a lectin from Talisia esculenta seeds (TEL), the lectin was mixed with mannose, glucose, or mannose plus glucose. Mannose abolished the insecticidal activity. Affinity chromatography showed that TEL bound to midgut proteins of the insect Callosobruchus maculatus. Immunoblotting showed that TEL recognized some proteins, probably glycoproteins, present in the midgut membrane of this insect. The principal proteases responsible for digestive proteolysis in fourth instar larvae of C. maculatus were purified by chromatography on activated thiol-Sepharose. These purified proteases were unable to digest TEL after a 15-h incubation. These results suggest that the insecticidal activity of TEL involves a specific carbohydrate-lectin interaction with glycoconjugates on the surface of digestive tract epithelial cells, as well as binding to assimilatory glycoproteins present in midgut extracts and resistance to enzymatic digestion by cysteine proteinases. PMID:15146543

Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; de Castro, Márcia Mota; Freire, Maria das Graças Machado

2004-06-01

42

Bites by the night adder (Causus maculatus) and burrowing vipers (genus Atractaspis) in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nineteen patients proven to have been bitten by the small African adders Causus maculatus, Atractapis dahomeyensis and A. microlepidota were studied in the Nigerian savanna region. One of the patients bitten by C. maculatus was drowsy, hypotensive and flaccid on admission but recovered without treatment. Mild or moderate local swelling, local lymphadenitis and mild fever were the only other features in this group. None of the patients bitten by Atractaspis had signs of systemic envenoming apart from moderate fever. Local blistering appeared in two cases but did not progress to necrosis. No patient showed any disturbance of blood coagulation, or evidence of spontaneous hemorrhage or of cranial nerve lesions. The small literature on the effects of Causus and Atractaspis venoms in man and in laboratory animals is reviewed. It appears that bites by these species are very unlikely to cause serious ill effects. A few deaths from Atractaspis bites have been reported, but the danger from these species has been exaggerated. PMID:945703

Warrell, D A; Ormerod, L D; Davidson, N M

1976-05-01

43

[Helminths from the fish Dormitator maculatus (Osteichthyes: Eleotridae) from Alvarado, Veracruz, Mexico].  

PubMed

Dormirator maculatus (n=184) was collected in the Alvarado Lagoon, Mexico during a year period (Oct. 1993-1994). In the helminthologic review, the presence of Clinostomum complanatum (82.3%), Neoechinorhynchus golvani (76.1%), Spiroxys sp. (21.3 %), and Camallanus sp. (6.2%) was registered. Reduction of the hematocrit caused by such infection is significant (t, a= 0.05). PMID:17354390

Mendoza, Jesús Montoya; Sarabia, David Osorio; López, Rafael Chávez; López, Jonathan Franco

2004-06-01

44

Food of the Black Crappie Pomoxis Nigro-Maculatus (LeSueur), in Orange Lake, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orange Lake in north central Florida has an area of approximately 14,000 acres and is surrounded by extensive marshes. During a 12-month period, stomach contents of 902 black crappie (Pomoxis nigro-maculatus) ranging in size from 31 to 291 millimeters, standard length, were analyzed. The frequency of occurrence of various food organisms, seasonal trends in the consumption of food items, and

George K. Reid Jr

1950-01-01

45

Life history of flight morph females of Callosobruchus maculatus F.: evidence of a reproductive diapause.  

PubMed

Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera : Bruchidae) is a tropical beetle that develops in the seeds of Vigna unguiculata. C. maculatus adults show an imaginal polymorphism with differences in morphological, behavioral and reproductive characteristics. Adults of the flight morph that emerge in cowpea storage systems were studied under natural climatic conditions. A large number of the flight morph females were in reproductive diapause and had a long imaginal life. These females did not synthesize vitellogenin, produced a specific diapause protein and possessed significant protein reserves. This suggests that the beetles survived in the tropical ecosystem for a long time and colonized the crops during the cowpea growing and flowering phases. Analysis of reproductive activity in females captured in the V. unguiculata crops indicates that they terminated their reproductive diapause and began to lay eggs as soon as the pods were formed. Few females of the flight morph were sexually active at the beginning of imaginal life. In this paper we discuss the adaptive significance of these two reproductive strategies in females of C. maculatus. PMID:12804717

Zannou, E T; Glitho, I A; Huignard, J; Monge, J P

2003-06-01

46

Preliminary Results on Evaluation of Chickpea, Cicer arietinum, Genotypes for Resistance to the Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

The chickpea, Cicer arietinum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), seeds are vulnerable, both in the field and in storage, to attack by seed-beetles. Beetles of the genus Callosobruchus are major storage pests of chickpea crops and cause considerable economic losses. In the present study, a total of 11 chickpea genotypes including five ‘kabuli’ (Mexican white, Diyar, CA 2969, ILC 8617 and ACC 245) and six ‘desi’ chickpeas (ICC 1069, ICC 12422, ICC 14336, ICC 4957, ICC 4969 and ICC 7509) were evaluated for resistance to the pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Resistance was evaluated by measuring percent damage to seeds. Damage to seeds by C. maculatus was manifested by the round exit holes with the ‘flap’ of seed coat made by emerging adults. Of the 11 genotypes tested, only one (ICC 4969) exhibited a complete resistance to C. maculatus in both free-choice and no-choice tests; no seed damage was found over the test period. In general, the ‘desi’ chickpeas were more resistant to C. maculatus than the ‘kabuli’ chickpeas. Among the tested chickpea genotypes, only ICC 4969 can be used as a source of C. maculatus resistance in breeding programmes that could then be grown in organic cultivation free from pesticides.

Erle, F.; Ceylan, F.; Erdemir, T.; Toker, C.

2009-01-01

47

Preliminary results on evaluation of chickpea, Cicer arietinum, genotypes for resistance to the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Abstract The chickpea, Cicer arietinum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), seeds are vulnerable, both in the field and in storage, to attack by seed-beetles. Beetles of the genus Callosobruchus are major storage pests of chickpea crops and cause considerable economic losses. In the present study, a total of 11 chickpea genotypes including five 'kabuli' (Mexican white, Diyar, CA 2969, ILC 8617 and ACC 245) and six 'desi' chickpeas (ICC 1069, ICC 12422, ICC 14336, ICC 4957, ICC 4969 and ICC 7509) were evaluated for resistance to the pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Resistance was evaluated by measuring percent damage to seeds. Damage to seeds by C. maculatus was manifested by the round exit holes with the 'flap' of seed coat made by emerging adults. Of the 11 genotypes tested, only one (ICC 4969) exhibited a complete resistance to C. maculatus in both free-choice and no-choice tests; no seed damage was found over the test period. In general, the 'desi' chickpeas were more resistant to C. maculatus than the 'kabuli' chickpeas. Among the tested chickpea genotypes, only ICC 4969 can be used as a source of C. maculatus resistance in breeding programmes that could then be grown in organic cultivation free from pesticides. PMID:20050777

Erle, F; Ceylan, F; Erdemir, T; Toker, C

2009-01-01

48

Sex pheromones of Callosobruchus subinnotatus and C. maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): congeneric responses and role of air movement.  

PubMed

Females of Callosobruchus spp. are known to produce sex pheromones that attract males. These sex pheromones cannot be adopted for use in pest management without first investigating the responses of the males in the windless conditions of storage environments. Consequently, behavioural bioassays of Callosobruchus subinnotatus Pic males were conducted in an olfactometer in the absence of air-flow. Under these conditions males were found to be able to follow odour trails to the source. However, the latency period was longer in diffusional bioassays than for insects in a Y-tube olfactometer that provided directional wind cues. The highest percentage of males reached the pheromone source when components of the pheromones, (E)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid (E32A) and (Z)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid (Z32A), were formulated in a 50:50 or 25:75 ratio. Males of C. maculatus (Fabricius) responded to sex pheromone of C. subinnotatus, but males of C. subinnotatus did not respond to that of C. maculatus. The two sex pheromone components of C. subinnotatus are also constituents of C. maculatus sex pheromone. These two components may be potentially useful in monitoring the populations of both species in stored beans. It is postulated that (Z)-3-methyl-3-heptenoic acid (Z33A), the major component of the sex pheromone of C. maculatus, must have acted as an antagonist inhibiting response of C. subinnotatus to the sex pheromone of C. maculatus. PMID:10948374

Mbata, G N; Shu, S; Ramaswamy, S B

2000-04-01

49

Vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds bind to chitinous structures of the midgut of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) larvae.  

PubMed

The presence of chitin in midgut structures of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae was shown by chemical and immunocytochemical methods. Detection by Western blotting of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed vicilins (7S storage proteins) bound to these structures suggested that C. maculatus-susceptible vicilins presented less staining when compared to C. maculatus-resistant vicilins. Storage proteins present in the microvilli in the larval midgut of the bruchid were recognized by immunolabeling of vicilins in the appropriate sections with immunogold conjugates. These labeling sites coincided with the sites labeled by an anti-chitin antibody. These results, taken together with those previously published showing that the lower rates of hydrolysis of variant vicilins from C. maculatus-resistant seeds by the insect's midgut proteinases and those showing that vicilins bind to chitin matrices, may explain the detrimental effects of variant vicilins on the development of C. maculatus larvae. PMID:11151025

Sales, M P; Pimenta, P P; Paes, N S; Grossi-de-Sá, M F; Xavier-Filho, J

2001-01-01

50

Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of percocypris (cyprinidae, teleostei).  

PubMed

Fierce predatory freshwater fishes, the species of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inhabit large rivers or lakes, and have a specific distribution pattern. Only a single species or subspecies occurs in each large-scale drainage basin of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the molecular phylogenetic relationships for all but one of the described subspecies/species of Percocypris were investigated based on three mitochondrial genes (16S; COI; Cyt b) and one nuclear marker (Rag2). The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax. Combined with analyses of morphological characters, our results suggest that Percocypris needs to be reclassified, and we propose that six species be recognized, with corresponding distributions in five main drainages (including one lake). In addition, based on the results of the estimation of divergence times and ancestral drainages, we hypothesize that Percocypris likely originated in the early Miocene from a paleo-connected drainage system containing the contemporary main drainages of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus. Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake. PMID:23750199

Wang, Mo; Yang, Jun-Xing; Chen, Xiao-Yong

2013-01-01

51

Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei)  

PubMed Central

Fierce predatory freshwater fishes, the species of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inhabit large rivers or lakes, and have a specific distribution pattern. Only a single species or subspecies occurs in each large-scale drainage basin of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the molecular phylogenetic relationships for all but one of the described subspecies/species of Percocypris were investigated based on three mitochondrial genes (16S; COI; Cyt b) and one nuclear marker (Rag2). The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax. Combined with analyses of morphological characters, our results suggest that Percocypris needs to be reclassified, and we propose that six species be recognized, with corresponding distributions in five main drainages (including one lake). In addition, based on the results of the estimation of divergence times and ancestral drainages, we hypothesize that Percocypris likely originated in the early Miocene from a paleo-connected drainage system containing the contemporary main drainages of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus. Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake.

Wang, Mo; Yang, Jun-Xing; Chen, Xiao-Yong

2013-01-01

52

Prey capture and accommodation in the sandlance, Limnichthyes fasciatus (Creediidae; Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eyes of the sandlance, Limnichthyes fasciatus (Creediidae, Teleostei) move independently and possess a refractive cornea, a convexiclivate fovea and a non-spherical lens\\u000a giving rise to a wide separation of the nodal point from the axis of rotation of the eye much like that of a chameleon. To\\u000a investigate this apparent convergence of the visual optics in these phylogenetically disparate

J. D. Pettigrew; S. P. Collin; K. Fritsches

2000-01-01

53

Vergleichende histophysiologische Tracer-Untersuchungen an verschiedenen Organsystemen von Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Cephalochordata) und Brachydanio rerio (Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation of 3H-uridine, 3H-histidine and 3H-glucose into some organs (epidermis, CNS, muscles, spinal cord, notochord, liver, gills, intestine) of Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Acrania) and Brachydanio rerio (Teleostei) was investigated by means of comparative autoradiograms following incorporation periods of 11 min to 7 days. The metabolism of the labeled substances in the various homologous organs examined was quite similar, although it was

H. Rahmann; R. Voigtländer

1973-01-01

54

Biochemical characterization of the alpha-amylase inhibitor in mungbeans and its application in inhibiting the growth of Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The insect Callosobruchus maculatus causes considerable damage to harvested mungbean seeds every year, which leads to commercial losses. However, recent studies have revealed that mungbean seeds contain alpha-amylase inhibitors that can inhibit the protein C. maculatus, preventing growth and development of the insect larvae in the seed, thus preventing further damage. For this reason, the use of alpha-amylase inhibitors to interfere with the pest's digestion process has become an interesting alternative biocontrolling agent. In this study, we have isolated and purified the alpha-amylase inhibitor from mungbean seeds (KPS1) using ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase HPLC. We found that the alpha-amylase inhibitor, isolated as a monomer, had a molecular weight of 27 kDa. The alpha-amylase inhibitor was purified 750-fold with a final yield of 0.4 mg of protein per 30 g of mungbean seeds. Its specific activity was determined at 14.5 U (mg of protein)(-1). Interestingly, we found that the isolated alpha-amylase inhibitor inhibits C. maculatus alpha-amylase but not human salivary alpha-amylase. After preincubation of the enzyme with the inhibitor, the mungbean alpha-amylase inhibitor inhibited C. maculatus alpha-amylase activity by decreasing V(max) while increasing the K(m) constant, indicating that the mungbean alpha-amylase is a mix noncompetitive inhibitor. The in vivo effect of alpha-amylase inhibitor on the mortality of C. maculatus shows that the alpha-amylase inhibitor acts on C. maculatus during the development stage, by reducing carbohydrate digestion necessary for growth and development, rather than during the end laying/hatching stage. Our results suggest that mungbean alpha-amylase inhibitor could be a useful future biocontrolling agent. PMID:20099823

Wisessing, Anussorn; Engkagul, Arunee; Wongpiyasatid, Arunee; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee

2010-02-24

55

Age-dependent changes in esterases of Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Bruchidae: Coleoptera).  

PubMed

Age-dependent changes, quantitative as well as qualitative, in esterase activity were found by assaying crude extracts of Callosobruchus maculatus. There is increase in esterase activity in both the sexes with advancing age in bruchids. Esterase from old bruchids showed several additional electrophoretic bands which did not appear in assays of young bruchids; in addition there is an increase in staining intensity of the bands. A rapid increase in esterase activity during the last days of life may be responsible for producing energy used in various metabolic processes in an attempt to escape death. PMID:7274317

Sharma, G; Sharma, S P

1981-01-01

56

Effect of ascorbic acid on longevity and biochemical alterations in Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Optimal ascorbic acid concentration (1 mM) increased the median (LT(50)) and maximum (LT(100)) life spans, decreased age-independent susceptibility to death (a(0)), reproductive period, number of eggs laid/female but prolonged the post-reproductive period in Callosobruchus maculatus. The activities of respiratory enzymes and the levels of metabolic end-products declined while the activities of antioxygenic enzymes increased. The increased longevity of insects reared on ascorbic acid soaked seeds may be interpreted in terms of conservation of energy by way of decreased reproductive potentiality and the maintenance of a homeostatic balance between pro-oxidant generation and antioxidant defences. PMID:15374308

Garg, S K; Mahajan, S

1994-01-01

57

ASPECTOS MORFOLÓGICOS E HISTOLÓGICOS DO ESTÔMAGO DE Acestrorhynchus pantaneiro (MENEZES, 1992) (TELEOSTEI, ACESTRORHYNCHIDAE) NA BACIA DO RIO URUGUAI MÉDIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

MORPHOLOGICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE STOMACH OF Acestrorhynchus pantaneiro (MENEZES, 1992) (TELEOSTEI, CHARACIDAE) AT THE MEDIUM URUGUAY RIVER BASIN. Acestrorhynchus pantaneiro is a native species from the fauna of the Uruguay River. The stomach's morphology reflects the carnivorous habit. The orga n is the cecal type, Y- shaped and can be observed three regions after the esophagus: the cardiac,

Diogo F. BICCA; Enrique QUEROL; Maria C. BRACCINI

58

Intertidal habitat: does the shore level affect the nutritional condition of the shanny ( Lipophrys pholis, Teleostei, Blenniidae )?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional condition of the shanny (Lipophrys pholis, Teleostei, Blenniidae), an intertidal fish, is affected by the shore level on whihc it dwells. Depending on the altitude within the intertidal, zone access to food is restricted for a certain time. A progressive decrease in the feeding time for an individual remaining on an increasingly higher shore level leads to a

A. Wyttenbach; D. G. Senn

1993-01-01

59

Effect of solvent residues of Vitex negundo Linn. and Cassia fistula Linn. on pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. and its larval parasitoid, Dinarmus vagabundus (Timberlake).  

PubMed

Effect of solvent residues of Vitex negundo L. and Cassia fistula L. leaves (0.5 and 1%) was studied on egg laying and adult emergence of Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. and on percentage of larval parasitism by Dinarmus vagabundus (Timberlake). Cowpea seeds treated with methanol and aqueous extract of Vitex, at these concentrations (0.5 and 1%), significantly reduced the number of eggs and emergence of F1 adults of C. maculatus. Both Vitex and Cassia extracts did not affect the percentage of parasitism by D. vagabundus on C. maculatus grubs. PMID:10927878

Raja, N; Albert, S; Ignacimuthu, S

2000-03-01

60

Detection of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)) in soybean with hyperspectral spectrometry and a backpropagation neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve stored legumes protection, and to implement timely targeted insect pest control measures, it is essential to have better tools for accurate early detection and quantification of damage caused by the cowpea weevils. The hyperspectral spectrometry and a backpropagation neural network (BPNN) model were used to detect the cowpea weevils (Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)) in soybean. Spectrum of each sample

Zhiyan Zhou; Ying Zang; Binbin Shen; Xuecheng Zhou; Xiwen Luo

2010-01-01

61

Effects of Some Antioxidants and EDTA on the Development of Rancidity in Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus) During Frozen Storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus) were treated with antioxidant solutions containing BHA and BHT (Tenox 4); BHA, BHT, PG, citric acid, and propylene glycol (Tenox 6); Tenox 4 plus EDTA; Tenox 6 plus EDTA; Ca(Na)2EDTA; (Na)2EDTA; (CA)2EDTA; and (N...

R. N. Farragut

1972-01-01

62

Nodavirus associated with pathological changes in adult spotted coralgroupers ( Plectropomus maculatus) in Thailand with viral nervous necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study characterized viral nervous necrosis in sea cage-reared adult spotted coralgroupers (Plectropomus maculatus). Histopathological study showed extensive vacuolation and neuronal necrosis of the olfactory bulb and the optic lobe of the forebrain and the inner and outer nuclear layer of retina. Mild necrosis was observed in the spinal cord. Homogeneous intranuclear inclusion bodies were noted in the hyperplastic

Pirarat Nopadon; Ponpornpisit Aranya; Traithong Tipaporn; Nakai Toshihiro; Katagiri Takayuki; Maita Masashi; Endo Makoto

2009-01-01

63

Effect of different gamma sterilizing doses on the fertility and progeny production of pulse beetle (callosobruchus maculatus).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of gamma radiation doses on fertility and progeny production of c. maculatus was studied and sexed adults were ex-posed to various radiation doses. After irradiation, six pairs replicates were selected from each radiation dose and released into...

S. U. Khattak

1989-01-01

64

Lethal and sublethal effects of essential oils from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Heracleum persicum against the adults of Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), is an important pest of stored cowpea, Vigna ungiculata (L.) Walpers (Fabales: Fabaceae), with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. Many plant essential oils have a broad-spectrum activity against pest insects, and these oils traditionally have been used in the protection of stored products. In this study, the lethal and sublethal effects of essential oils from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) and Heracleum persicum Desf. (Apiales: Apiaceae) were evaluated on the adults of C. maculatus at 26 ± 1° C, 70 ± 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 L:D. The LC50 values of E. camaldulensis and H. persicum were 56.7 and 219.4 µL/L air after 12 hr and 26.1 and 136.4 µL/L air after 24 hr of exposure, respectively. The LT50 values of E. camaldulensis and H.persicum were 6.3 and 10.9 hr, respectively. The results showed that low lethal concentration (LC20) of essential oils negatively affected the longevity, fecundity, and fertility of female adults. The sex ratio of C. maculatus offspring was not significantly affected by essential oils. Therefore, these essential oils can be suggested for controlling C. maculatus in storage systems. The introduction of essential oils into storage systems could potentially decrease seed losses. PMID:24773362

Izakmehri, Khadijeh; Saber, Moosa; Mehrvar, Ali; Hassanpouraghdam, Mohammad Bagher; Vojoudi, Samad

2013-01-01

65

Environment-dependent reversal of a life history trade-off in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental manipulations have consistently demonstrated a cost of reproduction in the capital-breeding seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus ,a s females deprived of seeds or mates lay fewer eggs and thereby increase their longevity. Yet fecundity and longevity tend to be positively correlated within populations, perhaps as a consequence of individual differences in resource acquisition. We conducted a split-brood experiment that combined

F. J. M ESSINA; J. D. F RY

2003-01-01

66

Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Heracleum persicum Against the Adults of Callosobruchus Maculatus  

PubMed Central

The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), is an important pest of stored cowpea, Vigna ungiculata (L.) Walpers (Fabales: Fabaceae), with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. Many plant essential oils have a broad-spectrum activity against pest insects, and these oils traditionally have been used in the protection of stored products. In this study, the lethal and sublethal effects of essential oils from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) and Heracleum persicum Desf. (Apiales: Apiaceae) were evaluated on the adults of C. maculatus at 26 ± 1° C, 70 ± 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 L:D. The LC50 values of E. camaldulensis and H. persicum were 56.7 and 219.4 µL/L air after 12 hr and 26.1 and 136.4 µL/L air after 24 hr of exposure, respectively. The LT50 values of E. camaldulensis and H.persicum were 6.3 and 10.9 hr, respectively. The results showed that low lethal concentration (LC20) of essential oils negatively affected the longevity, fecundity, and fertility of female adults. The sex ratio of C. maculatus offspring was not significantly affected by essential oils. Therefore, these essential oils can be suggested for controlling C. maculatus in storage systems. The introduction of essential oils into storage systems could potentially decrease seed losses.

Izakmehri, Khadijeh; Saber, Moosa; Mehrvar, Ali; Hassanpouraghdam, Mohammad Bagher; Vojoudi, Samad

2013-01-01

67

Female mating receptivity after injection of male-derived extracts in Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The effects of male-derived extracts on female receptivity were investigated in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Injection of aqueous extracts of the male reproductive tract into the abdomen of females reduced receptivity. Aqueous extracts of male reproductive tracts were divided to three molecular weight (MW) fractions by ultrafiltration: Fractions: (I) MW<3 kDa, (II) 3-14 kDa, and (III)>14 kDa. Fraction II reduced female receptivity from 3h after injection, and Fraction III reduced female receptivity from 2 days after injection. On the other hand, no effect on receptivity was found for Fraction I. Furthermore, male reproductive tract organs were divided into accessory gland, testis, and seminal vesicle including the ejaculatory duct. Aqueous extracts of the seminal vesicle reduced receptivity of females immediately following injection, while aqueous extracts of the accessory gland reduced receptivity at the second day. The results suggest that the components of Fraction II existed in the seminal vesicle, and those of Fraction III in the accessory gland. The results of the present and the previous studies in Callosobruchus chinensis, a species closely related to C. maculatus, were compared and are discussed from the viewpoint of the significance of ejaculation in the two species. PMID:18831977

Yamane, Takashi; Miyatake, Takahisa; Kimura, Yoshinobu

2008-12-01

68

Bio-efficacy evaluation of nanoformulations of ?-cyfluthrin against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

In the present investigation, bioefficacy of developed ?-cyfluthrin formulations, utilizing laboratory synthesized poly(ethylene glycols) based amphiphilic copolymers, were evaluated against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The bioefficacy data indicated that the formulations developed by utilizing polymers having PEG - 1500 (3c) and PEG - 2000 (3d) as the hydrophilic segment showed greater efficacy after 14 days as evident from EC(50) values (2.2 and 1.58 mg L(-1) respectively). Also, release from the commercial SC formulation was faster than developed formulations as the commercial formulation had the lowest EC(50) value on the first day (0.51 mg L(-1)). The mean EC(50) of the commercial formulation against C. maculatus was quite high as compared to those of developed formulations. The results suggest that depending upon the polymer matrix used, the application rate of ?-cyfluthrin can be optimized to achieve insect control at the desired level and period. The results described in this paper are promising and provide a comparison of developed formulations with the commercial one showing an earlier degradation of ?-cyfluthrin in the latter and relatively prolonged activity in the former. PMID:22560031

Loha, Kumelachew Mulu; Shakil, Najam A; Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Manish K; Srivastava, Chitra

2012-01-01

69

Presence of the storage seed protein vicilin in internal organs of larval Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Variant vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) are considered as the main resistance factor present in some African genotypes against the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. It has been suggested that the toxic properties of vicilins may be related to their recognition and interaction with glycoproteins and other membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the insect. However, the possibility of a systemic effect has not yet been investigated. The objective of this work was to study the fate of 7S storage globulins of V. unguiculata in several organs of larvae of the cowpea weevil C. maculatus. Results demonstrated binding of vicilins to brush border membrane vesicles, suggesting the existence of specific receptors. Vicilins were detected in the haemolymph, in the midgut, and in internal organs, such as fat body and malpighian tubules. There is evidence of accumulation of vicilins in the fat body of both larvae and adults. The absorption of vicilins and their presence in insect tissues parallels classical sequestration of secondary compounds. PMID:16288905

Uchôa, Adriana F; DaMatta, Renato A; Retamal, Claudio A; Albuquerque-Cunha, José M; Souza, Sheila M; Samuels, Richard I; Silva, Carlos P; Xavier-Filho, José

2006-02-01

70

Tibet Orbivirus, a Novel Orbivirus Species Isolated from Anopheles maculatus Mosquitoes in Tibet, China  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Orbivirus includes a number of important pathogenic viruses, including Bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus (AHSV), and Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV). In this study we describe the isolation and characterization of an Orbivirus strain isolated from Anopheles maculatus mosquitoes collected in Tibet, China. Methods and Results Initial viral screening identified a viral strain (XZ0906) that caused significant cytopathic effect (CPE) in BHK-21 cells, including rounding, cell rupture, and floating. Although CPE was not observed in insect cells (C6/36), these cells supported viral replication. Polyacrylamide gel analysis revealed a genome consisting of 10 segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), with a distribution pattern of 3-3-3-1. 454 high throughput sequencing of culture supernatant was used for viral identification. Complete genome sequencing was performed by Sanger sequencing in combination with 5?-RACE and 3?-RACE. Sequence analysis demonstrated that all 5?- and 3?- untranslated regions (UTRs) for each of the 10 genome segments contained a series of six highly conserved nucleotides. In addition, homology analysis and phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequence was completed, and all results show that virus XZ0906 was not a member of any known species or serotype of Orbivirus, indicating it to be a new species within the genus Orbivirus. Conclusions The isolated Orbivirus strain was designated Tibet Orbivirus, TIBOV to denote the location from which it was isolated. TIBOV is a novel orbivirus species which is isolated from Anopheles maculatus mosquitoes collected in Tibet, China.

Zhao, Guoyan; Fu, Shihong; Wang, David; Wang, Zhiyu; Liang, Guodong

2014-01-01

71

Characterization of eight microsatellite markers in the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae).  

PubMed

The white sea bream, Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae), is a species with a high commercial importance in Mediterranean aquaculture. There is currently little information available about the genetic characteristics of cultured populations. In this survey, we have developed eight polymorphic microsatellites for the white sea bream using an enriched genome library protocol. All of them were polymorphic in the 67 individuals tested, 32 of which were wild specimens, and 35 were individuals from a captive F(1) broodstock. These markers can potentially be useful tools for use in population genetic studies. PMID:21586024

Pérez, L; Infante, C; Ponce, M; Crespo, A; Zuasti, E; Funes, V; Catanese, G; Manchado, M

2008-11-01

72

Larval Competition Reduces Body Condition in the Female Seed Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Early body condition may be important for adult behavior and fitness, and is impacted by a number of environmental conditions and biotic interactions. Reduced fecundity of adult females exposed to larval competition may be caused by reduced body condition or shifts in relative body composition, yet these mechanisms have not been well researched. Here, body mass, body size, scaled body mass index, and two body components (water content and lean dry mass) of adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) females exposed to larval competition or reared alone were examined. Experimental females emerged at significantly smaller body mass and body size than control females. Additionally, scaled body mass index and water content, but not lean dry mass, were significantly reduced in experimental females. To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate a potential mechanism for previously documented direct effects of competition on fecundity in female bruchine beetles.

Schade, Daynika J.; Vamosi, Steven M.

2012-01-01

73

Fumigant toxicity of citrus oils against cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

In the present study, the effects of volatile components of Citrus paradisi, C. aurantium, C. limonium and C. sinensis peel essential oils were investigated on the cowpea adult bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). The oils were extracted from the fruit peels using hydrodistillation. The results indicated that the citrus oils had high fumigant activity against adult beetles. The mortality of 1-2 day-old adults increased with concentration and exposure time from 3 to 24 h. The oil of C. paradisi was more effective than those of C. aurantium and C. limonium (The LC50 values were 125, 145 and 235 microl L(-1) at 24 h exposure, respectively). The oil of C. sinensis proved to be least toxic (LC50 = 269 microl L(-1). The results suggested that citrus peel oils can be used as potential control measure against cowpea beetles. PMID:18819592

Moravvej, G; Abbar, S

2008-01-01

74

Genetic characterization of the Neotropical catfish Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) in the Upper Uruguay River.  

PubMed

Freshwater fish present unique challenges when one attempts to understand the factors that determine the structure of their populations. Habitat fragmentation is a leading cause of population decline that threatens ecosystems worldwide. In this study, we investigated the conservation status of genetic variability in the Neotropical catfish (Pimelodus maculatus). Specifically, we examined the structure and genetic diversity of this species in a region of the Upper Uruguay River fragmented by natural barriers and dams. There was no genetic structure among the four sites analyzed, indicating the existence of only one population group. A combination of environmental management and genetic monitoring should be used to minimize the impact of impoundment on panmitic populations of migratory fish species. PMID:23271936

Ribolli, Josiane; de Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues; Zaniboni-Filho, Evoy

2012-12-01

75

The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)].  

PubMed

We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat) of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin), detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus) we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants. PMID:15048195

Silva, Luciana B; Sales, Maurício P; Oliveira, Antônia E A; Machado, Olga L T; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Xavier-Filho, José

2004-03-01

76

Susceptibility of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to three essential oils.  

PubMed

The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of seeds of Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) in West Africa. An endemic parasitoid, the pteromalid Dinarmus basalis (Rond.) reduces the increase in bruchid populations in stores and could be used for biological control. African farmers often introduce essential oils into granaries at harvest time. In Togo, essential oils were extracted from two Gramineae, Cymbopogon nardus (L.) and Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) and from a Lamiaceae, Ocimum basilicum (L.). The major components of these essential oils were citronellal in C. nardus, carene-2 and piperitone in C. schoenanthus and estragol in O. basilicum. Cymbopogon schoenanthus was the most toxic oil for C. maculatus adults. D. basalis adults were more susceptible to the three essential oils than the adults of their hosts C. maculatus. In the presence of cowpea seeds, the LC50s of the three essential oils were lower than in their absence, suggesting that the seeds may absorb a part of the volatiles. High doses of three essential oils slightly affected the survival of the fourth instar or the pupae of C. maculatus. This high survival was due to protection of larvae from volatiles by the surrounding seeds. The D. basalis were more affected by the oil volatiles than their hosts. Sub-lethal doses of essential oils reduced the duration of the adult life of both insect species and fecundity of the females. The differences in sensitivity of the host and its parasitoid could influence their population dynamics. The introduction of the essential oils into storage systems potentially could reduce density of parasitoid populations and increase seed losses. PMID:11942754

Ketoh, Guillaume K; Glitho, Adole I; Huignard, Jacques

2002-02-01

77

Characterization and insecticidal properties of globulins and albumins from Luetzelburgia auriculata (Allemao) Ducke seeds towards Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the development of Callosobruchus maculatus growing in artificial seeds composed of Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) seed flour mixed with exogenous proteins from Luetzelburgia auriculata. Albumin and globulin fractions from Luetzelburgia auriculata were characterized in terms of protein content, amino acid composition and antimetabolic proteins (trypsin\\/chymotrypsin inhibitory, porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibitory, lectin activity and presence of chitin-binding proteins). Both fractions

Emanoella L. Soares; Cléverson D. T. Freitas; Jefferson S. Oliveira; Petrônio A. S. Sousa; Maurício P. Sales; José D. M. Barreto-Filho; Glaís P. Bandeira; Márcio V. Ramos

2007-01-01

78

Control of stored grain pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) using the essential oil isolated from Plectranthus zeylanicus.  

PubMed

The bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of cowpea seeds [Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp.] in Sri Lanka. Essential oil isolated from Plectranthus zeylanicus plant was tested for potential insecticidal activity against C. maculatus. The gas chromatography studies of the essential oil of P. zeylanicus showed that ?-cymene (3.5%), ?-caryophyllene (0.2%), geranyl acetate (9.3%) and geraniol (7.2%) were the major constituents. The adults of C. maculatus were susceptible to both fumigant and contact toxicity of P. zeylanicus plant oil. LC(50) values of 0.927 and 0.010?g?L(-1) were obtained for fumigant toxicity and contact toxicity assays, respectively. Oviposition and F(1) adult emergence were significantly inhibited by P. zeylanicus plant oil at a concentration higher than 0.001?g?L(-1) in both fumigant and contact toxicities. The analysis of olfactometer and choice camber bioassays revealed the repellent effects of the oil of P. zeylanicus plant. PMID:22188569

Balachandra, B A H E; Pathirathna, P U; Paranagama, P A

2012-01-01

79

Scanning electron microscopy studies of antennal sensilla of bruchid beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and C. maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), are important stored-product insects of stored legume seeds. In this study, the external morphologies of the antennal sensilla on the antennae of both female and male adults of these two species were described using scanning electron microscopy. Antennae of both species are made up of the scape, pedicel, and nine segments of flagellomeres. Antennae of female and male C. maculatus and female of C. chinensis are serrate in shape, while those of male C. chinensis are pectinate. Eight morphological sensilla types were recorded in both sexes, including Böhm bristles (BB), two types of sensilla trichoid (ST1, ST2), sensilla chaetica (SC), two types of sensilla basiconic (SB1, SB2), grooved pegs (GP), and sensilla cavity (SCa). The number of ST1 and SB1 of the male were significantly greater than those of the female of C. chinensis, and the number of ST2 and SB1 of the male were significantly more abundant than those of the female of C. maculatus. The possible functions of the above sensilla types are discussed in light of previously published literature. PMID:19101159

Hu, Fei; Zhang, Guo-Na; Wang, Jin-Jun

2009-04-01

80

Across the southern Andes on fin: glacial refugia, drainage reversals and a secondary contact zone revealed by the phylogeographical signal of Galaxias platei in Patagonia.  

PubMed

We employed DNA sequence variation at two mitochondrial (control region, COI) regions from 212 individuals of Galaxias platei (Pisces, Galaxiidae) collected throughout Patagonia (25 lakes/rivers) to examine how Andean orogeny and the climatic cycles throughout the Quaternary affected the genetic diversity and phylogeography of this species. Phylogenetic analyses revealed four deep genealogical lineages which likely represent the initial division of G. platei into eastern and western lineages by Andean uplift, followed by further subdivision of each lineage into separate glacial refugia by repeated Pleistocene glacial cycles. West of the Andes, refugia were likely restricted to the northern region of Patagonia with small relicts in the south, whereas eastern refugia appear to have been much larger and widespread, consisting of separate northern and southern regions that collectively spanned most of Argentinean Patagonia. The retreat of glacial ice following the last glacial maximum allowed re-colonization of central Chile from nonlocal refugia from the north and east, representing a region of secondary contact between all four glacial lineages. Northwestern glacial relicts likely followed pro-glacial lakes into central Chilean Patagonia, whereas catastrophic changes in drainage direction (Atlantic --> Pacific) for several eastern palaeolakes were the likely avenues for invasions from the east. These mechanisms, combined with evidence for recent, rapid and widespread population growth could explain the extensive contemporary distribution of G. platei throughout Patagonia. PMID:19017262

Zemlak, Tyler S; Habit, Evelyn M; Walde, Sandra J; Battini, Miguel A; Adams, Emily D M; Ruzzante, Daniel E

2008-12-01

81

Ecological comments on the intestinal helminths of the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei, Siganidae) from the northern Red Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between May and September 2006, 640 specimens of the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus Forsskål (Teleostei, Siganidae) were examined for infections with intestinal helminths. These fishes were caught in the Red\\u000a Sea off the coast of Sharm El-Sheikh, South Sinai, Egypt, examined in a field laboratory and separated into three size groups\\u000a of regular length intervals. Only three species of helminths were

Reda M. El-S. Hassanine; Mohammed O. Al-Jahdali

2007-01-01

82

Two metallothionein genes from mud loach Misgurnus mizolepis (Teleostei; Cypriniformes): Gene structure, genomic organization, and mRNA expression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two metallothionein genes, MLMT-IA and MLMT-IB, were isolated and characterized from the mud loach Misgurnus mizolepis (Teleostei; Cypriniformes). For these MTs, we determined a tandem “tail-to-head” genomic organizational pattern, identified conserved genomic features, showed high sequence identities in the coding regions, and examined the closest phylogenetic affiliation, suggesting their divergence by a recent gene duplication event. However, the 5?-flanking upstream

Young Sun Cho; Sang Yoon Lee; Keun-Yong Kim; Yoon Kwon Nam

2009-01-01

83

Evolutionary history of freshwater sculpins, genus Cottus (Teleostei; Cottidae) and related taxa, as inferred from mitochondrial DNA phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater sculpins, genus Cottus (Teleostei; Cottidae), comprise bottom-dwelling fishes that exhibit various life-history styles, having radiated throughout Northern Hemisphere freshwater habitats. The phylogenetic relationships among Cottus and related taxa were estimated from mitochondrial DNA 12S rRNA and control region (CR) sequences, the freshwater sculpins examined falling into five lineages (A–E). Lineage A consisted of Trachidermus fasciatus and C. kazika,

Ryota Yokoyama; Akira Goto

2005-01-01

84

Subzero water permeability parameters and optimal freezing rates for sperm cells of the southern platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus.  

PubMed

This study reports the subzero water transport characteristics (and empirically determined optimal rates for freezing) of sperm cells of live-bearing fishes of the genus Xiphophorus, specifically those of the southern platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus. These fishes are valuable models for biomedical research and are commercially raised as ornamental fish for use in aquariums. Water transport during freezing of X. maculatus sperm cell suspensions was obtained using a shape-independent differential scanning calorimeter technique in the presence of extracellular ice at a cooling rate of 20 degrees C/min in three different media: (1) Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) without cryoprotective agents (CPAs); (2) HBSS with 14% (v/v) glycerol, and (3) HBSS with 10% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The sperm cell was modeled as a cylinder with a length of 52.35 microm and a diameter of 0.66 microm with an osmotically inactive cell volume (Vb) of 0.6 V0, where V0 is the isotonic or initial cell volume. This translates to a surface area, SA to initial water volume, WV ratio of 15.15 microm(-1). By fitting a model of water transport to the experimentally determined volumetric shrinkage data, the best fit membrane permeability parameters (reference membrane permeability to water at 0 degrees C, Lpg or Lpg [cpa] and the activation energy, E(Lp) or E(Lp) [cpa]) were found to range from: Lpg or Lpg [cpa] = 0.0053-0.0093 microm/minatm; E(Lp) or E(Lp) [cpa] = 9.79-29.00 kcal/mol. By incorporating these membrane permeability parameters in a recently developed generic optimal cooling rate equation (optimal cooling rate, [Formula: see text] where the units of B(opt) are degrees C/min, E(Lp) or E(Lp) [cpa] are kcal/mol, L(pg) or L(pg) [cpa] are microm/minatm and SA/WV are microm(-1)), we determined the optimal rates of freezing X. maculatus sperm cells to be 28 degrees C/min (in HBSS), 47 degrees C/min (in HBSS+14% glycerol) and 36 degrees C/min (in HBSS+10% DMSO). Preliminary empirical experiments suggest that the optimal rate of freezing X. maculatus sperm in the presence of 14% glycerol to be approximately 25 degrees C/min. Possible reasons for the observed discrepancy between the theoretically predicted and experimentally determined optimal rates of freezing X. maculatus sperm cells are discussed. PMID:15925577

Pinisetty, D; Huang, C; Dong, Q; Tiersch, T R; Devireddy, R V

2005-06-01

85

Identification of sex pheromones from cowpea weevil,Callosobruchus maculatus, and related studies withC. analis (coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Female cowpea weevils,Callosobruchus maculatus, produce a sex pheromone that elicits orientation and sexual behavior in males. Bioassay-directed isolation of the sex pheromone was conducted and compounds in the active fraction were identified and synthesized. Volatiles were collected from individual virgin females by adsorption on filter paper dises and hexane extraction. A bioassay was used in which the locomotory response of single males in glass vials was recorded upon exposure to treatments or controls. Crude extracts were subjected to silica gel column chromatography with solvents of increasing polarity; all activity eluted with methanol. Activity in the highly polar methanol fraction suggested a carboxylic acid or a compound with multiple polar functionality. Acid-base partitioning of the crude extract isolated all activity in the acid fraction, confirming that the pheromone was a carboxylic acid. The acid fraction was further fractionated by preparative GC with a Carbowax column. The most active GC fraction contained the following five 8-carbon acids identified by GC-MS and comparison with synthetic candidates: 3-methyleneheptanoic acid, (Z)-3-methyl-3-heptenoic acid, (E)-3-methyl-3-heptenoic acid, (Z)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid, and (E)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid. Each of the synthetic acids was active individually for males, and combinations of two or more of the acid pheromones had an additive effect. Upwind flight responses to natural and synthetic pheromones were observed in a flight tunnel. (Z)-3-Methyl-2-heptenoic acid was previously identified as the sex pheromone for the relatedC. analis, but this and the other four acid pheromones fromC. maculatus were inactive for maleC. analis. There was no cross-attraction betweenC. maculatus andC. analis in reciprocal studies using extracted volatiles from females of both species, GC-MS analysis ofC. analis female volatiles failed to detect any of theC. maculatus compounds but did find an unidentified C-8 acid with a GC retention time different from any of theC. maculatus pheromones. PMID:24227300

Phillips, T W; Phillips, J K; Webster, F X; Tang, R; Burkholder, W E

1996-12-01

86

Can Preference for Oviposition Sites Initiate Reproductive Isolation in Callosobruchus maculatus?  

PubMed Central

Theory has identified a variety of evolutionary processes that may lead to speciation. Our study includes selection experiments using different host plants and test key predictions concerning models of speciation based on host plant choice, such as the evolution of host use (preference and performance) and assortative mating. This study shows that after only ten generations of selection on different resources/hosts in allopatry, strains of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus develop new resource preferences and show resource-dependent assortative mating when given the possibility to choose mates and resources during secondary contact. The resulting reduced gene flow between the different strains remained for two generations after contact before being overrun by disassortative mating. We show that reduced gene flow can evolve in a population due to a link between host preference and assortative mating, although this result was not found in all lines. However, consistent with models of speciation, assortative mating alone is not sufficient to maintain reproductive isolation when individuals disperse freely between hosts. We conclude that the evolution of reproductive isolation in this system cannot proceed without selection against hybrids. Other possible factors facilitating the evolution of isolation would be longer periods of allopatry, the build up of local adaptation or reduced migration upon secondary contact.

Rova, Emma; Bjorklund, Mats

2011-01-01

87

Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v). The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the number of eggs laid, in the percentage of eggs hatched and in the number of emerged adults in infested seeds. The fumigant insecticidal effect of 2-tridecanone was mainly due to its ovicidal activity. PMID:17401472

Braga, Yussef F B; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, Eder A; Lopes, Helano L; Bezerra, José N S; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Lima, Mary Anne S

2007-03-01

88

Use of commercial freezers to control cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), in organic garbanzo beans.  

PubMed

One California processor of organic garbanzo beans (Cicer arietinum L.), unable to use chemical fumigants, relies on 30-d storage at -18 degrees C to disinfest product of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F). To determine whether the storage period may be shortened, the most cold-tolerant life stage of the cowpea weevil was identified. Laboratory studies showed that the egg stage was most tolerant to -18 degrees C and that adults were most susceptible. To examine the efficacy of cold storage disinfestation, bags of black-eyed peas, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., infested with cowpea weevil eggs were buried within garbanzo bean bins placed in a commercial cold storage facility kept at approximately -18 degrees C and removed after 7, 14, and 21 d. Survival was highest in eggs located at the center of the bins and coincided with the slowest cooling rate. Although temperatures within the bins did not reach -18 degrees C until after 14-19 d, egg mortality was estimated to be >98% after just 7 d of exposure. Complete mortality of eggs occurred after 14 d of cold storage. A 2-wk treatment regimen may be sufficient for control of cowpea weevil in organic legumes. PMID:14977138

Johnson, J A; Valero, K A

2003-12-01

89

Heat stress but not inbreeding affects offensive sperm competitiveness in Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Environmental and genetic stress have well-known detrimental effects on ejaculate quality, but their concomitant effect on male fitness remains poorly understood. We used competitive fertilization assays to expose the effects of stress on offensive sperm competitive ability in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a species where ejaculates make up more than 5% of male body mass. To examine the effects of environmental and genetic stress, males derived from outcrosses or sib matings were heat shocked at 50°C for 50 min during the pupal stage, while their siblings were maintained at a standard rearing temperature of 28°C. Heat-shocked males achieved only half the offensive paternity success of their siblings. While this population exhibited inbreeding depression in body size, sperm competitiveness was unaffected by inbreeding, nor did the effect of heat shock stress on sperm competitiveness depend on inbreeding status. In contrast, pupal emergence success was increased by 34% among heat-stressed individuals, regardless of their inbreeding status. Heat-shocked males' ejaculate size was 19% reduced, but they exhibited 25% increased mating duration in single mating trials. Our results highlight both the importance of stress in postcopulatory sexual selection, and the variability among stressors in affecting male fitness.

Lieshout, Emile; Tomkins, Joseph L; Simmons, Leigh W

2013-01-01

90

Functional incompatibility between the fertilization systems of two allopatric populations of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that postcopulatory sexual selection may represent an important component of the speciation process by initiating reproductive isolation via the evolutionary divergence of fertilization systems. Using two geographically isolated populations of the polyandrous beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, we investigated divergence in fertilization systems by determining the extent of postcopulatory functional incompatibility. Through reciprocal, cross-population matings we were able to separately estimate the effects of male and female population origin and their interaction on the extent of last-male sperm precedence, female receptivity to further copulation and female oviposition. Our results indicate partial incompatibility between the fertilization systems of the two populations at all three functional levels. Males derived from the same population as females outcompete rival, allopatric males with respect to sperm preemption, sperm protection, and ability to stimulate female oviposition. This pattern is reciprocated in both populations indicating that postcopulatory, prezygotic events represent important mechanisms by which between-population gene flow is reduced. We suggest the partial gametic isolation observed is a by-product of the coevolution of male and female fertilization systems by a process of cryptic female choice. Our results are consistent with a mechanism akin to conventional mate choice models although they do not allow us to reject antagonistic sexual coevolution as the mechanism of cryptic female choice. PMID:11794785

Brown, D V; Eady, P E

2001-11-11

91

Pyramiding of insecticidal compounds for control of the cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus F.).  

PubMed

The cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus F.) (Chrysomelidae: Bruchini) is a major pest of stored cowpea grain. With limited available technologies for controlling the bruchid, transgenic cowpeas with bruchid resistance genes engineered into them could become the next management tools. An investigation was made of two different sets of potential transgenic insecticidal compounds using an artificial seed system: (i) CIP-PH-BT-J and recombinant egg white avidin, and (ii) avidin and wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor. CIP-PH-BT-J (0.1%; 1000 mg kg(-1)) and recombinant egg white avidin (0.006%; 60 mg kg(-1)) incorporated separately into artificial seeds caused 98.2 and 99% larval mortality rates respectively. Combining CIP-PH-BT-J and avidin in the same artificial seed provided additional mortality compared with each factor incorporated singly; no insects survived in seeds with the combined toxins. Similarly, when avidin and wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor (alphaAI) (1%; 10 g kg(-1)) were incorporated separately into artificial seeds, this caused 99.8 and 98% mortality respectively. However, in combination, avidin and alphaAI did not increase mortality, but they did cause a significant increase in developmental time of the cowpea bruchids. These results emphasize that the joint action of potential insecticidal compounds cannot be predicted from results obtained separately for each compound, and they suggest potential transgenes for further consideration. PMID:17340671

Tarver, Matthew R; Shade, Richard E; Shukle, Richard H; Moar, William J; Muir, William M; Murdock, Larry M; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2007-05-01

92

Lipid Status of the Two High Latitude Fish Species, Leptoclinus maculatus and Lumpenus fabricii.  

PubMed

A comparative study of the lipid status (i.e., the total lipid and phospholipid concentrations and the percentage of fatty acids of the total lipids) of adult specimens of daubed shanny (Leptoclinus maculatus) from Svalbard waters (Isfjord) and slender eel blenny (Lumpenus fabricii) from the White Sea (Onega Bay and Tersky shore) was performed to study the metabolism and functions of lipids of these fishes in ontogeny and under various ecological conditions. Slender eel blenny from both areas of the White Sea were distinguished by a high level of sphingomyelin compared with the daubed shanny from Svalbard, and the amount of total phospholipids was higher in slender eel blenny from Onega Bay than in slender eel blenny from the Tersky shore. The extent of saturation and the signature of polyenic fatty acids varied according to the specific species of the Stichaeidae family under study. These results demonstrate the differences in the trophoecological and hydrobiological conditions of habitations of these species and highlighted the importance of considering certain trends in the lipid profiles of these fishes as specific features of the organization of the ecological and biochemical mechanisms of adaptation. PMID:23535338

Murzina, Svetlana A; Nefedova, Zinaida A; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Ripatti, Pauli O; Ruokolainen, Tatiana R; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N; Nemova, Nina N

2013-01-01

93

Lipid Status of the Two High Latitude Fish Species, Leptoclinus maculatus and Lumpenus fabricii  

PubMed Central

A comparative study of the lipid status (i.e., the total lipid and phospholipid concentrations and the percentage of fatty acids of the total lipids) of adult specimens of daubed shanny (Leptoclinus maculatus) from Svalbard waters (Isfjord) and slender eel blenny (Lumpenus fabricii) from the White Sea (Onega Bay and Tersky shore) was performed to study the metabolism and functions of lipids of these fishes in ontogeny and under various ecological conditions. Slender eel blenny from both areas of the White Sea were distinguished by a high level of sphingomyelin compared with the daubed shanny from Svalbard, and the amount of total phospholipids was higher in slender eel blenny from Onega Bay than in slender eel blenny from the Tersky shore. The extent of saturation and the signature of polyenic fatty acids varied according to the specific species of the Stichaeidae family under study. These results demonstrate the differences in the trophoecological and hydrobiological conditions of habitations of these species and highlighted the importance of considering certain trends in the lipid profiles of these fishes as specific features of the organization of the ecological and biochemical mechanisms of adaptation.

Murzina, Svetlana A.; Nefedova, Zinaida A.; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Ripatti, Pauli O.; Ruokolainen, Tatiana R.; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N.; Nemova, Nina N.

2013-01-01

94

The first record of Gyrodactylus latus Bychowsky, 1933 (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) from Cobitis elongatoides bacescu et maier, 1969 (teleostei, cobitidae) in Poland.  

PubMed

Gyrodactylus latus Bychowsky, 1933 (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) was found on fins of Cobitis elongatoides Bacescu et Maier, 1969 (Teleostei, Cobitidae) from tributaries of the Stobrawa River (Odra Basin, Silesia, Poland). It is new to the Polish parasite fauna; its description, measurements, and figures are presented. PMID:20209823

Popio?ek, Marcin; ?uczy?ski, Tomasz; Jarnecki, Hubert; Kotusz, Jan

2009-01-01

95

Variation in responses to susceptible and resistant cowpeas among West African populations of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The cowpea seed beetle, sometimes also known as the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), is a major pest of stored cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata Walpers) in West Africa. Control methods have included development of 'resistant' varieties as an environmentally benign alternative to insecticides, but there is concern over their effectiveness because of population variation among the insects and the possibility of adaptation overcoming seed resistance. Populations of C. maculatus from Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, and Niger, were used to examine variation in response to resistant and susceptible cowpea varieties at two geographical scales. Among seven Nigerian populations, there were significant differences in development times, the pattern of adult emergence, adult weights, and female fecundity when reared under identical conditions. Development in the resistant variety was retarded, produced higher mortality and lower adult weights. Significant interactions between variety and population were evident in terms of their effects on adult weight and development time; development times in the resistant variety were longer and emergences occurred over a longer period in some populations than in others. Population responses to resistant seeds were therefore unpredictable, but there was no evidence to suggest adaptation to overcome seed resistance within three generations. On a larger geographical scale, variation in performance was much greater and therefore, even less predictable. Mortality in resistant seeds was also higher among populations collected from outside Nigeria and may be explained by significant adaptation among Nigerian populations to previous release of resistant varieties. The findings are discussed in relation to understanding the extent of intraspecific variation in C. maculatus and its implications for future pest management. PMID:14994820

Appleby, J H; Credland, P F

2003-04-01

96

Effect of trypsin inhibitor from Crotalaria pallida seeds on Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly).  

PubMed

A proteinaceous trypsin inhibitor was purified from Crotalaria pallida seeds by ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on immobilized trypsin-Sepharose and TCA precipitation. The trypsin inhibitor, named CpaTI, had M(r) of 32.5 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and was composed of two subunits with 27.7 and 5.6 kDa linked by disulfide bridges. CpaTI was stable at 50 degrees C and lost 40% of activity at 100 degrees C. CpaTI was also stable from pH 2 to 12 at 37 degrees C. CpaTI weakly inhibited chymotrypsin and elastase and its inhibition of papain, a cysteine proteinase, were indicative of its bi-functionality. CpaTI inhibited, in different degrees, digestive enzymes from Spodoptera frugiperda, Alabama argillacea, Plodiainterpunctella, Anthonomus grandis and Zabrotes subfasciatus guts. In vitro and in vivo susceptibility of Callosobruchus maculatus and Ceratitis capitata to CpaTI was evaluated. C. maculatus and C. capitata enzymes were strongly susceptible, 74.4+/-15.8% and 100.0+/-7.3%, respectively, to CpaTI. When CpaTI was added to artificial diets and offered to both insect larvae, the results showed that C. maculatus was more susceptible to CpaTI with an LD(50) of 3.0 and ED(50) of 2.17%. C. capitata larvae were more resistant to CpaTI, in disagreement with the in vitro effects. The larvae were more affected at lower concentrations, causing 27% mortality and 44.4% mass decrease. The action was constant at 2-4% (w/w) with 15% mortality and 38% mass decrease. PMID:16426854

Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Pitanga, Joelma C M; Moura, Fabiano T; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Raniere M; Queiroz, Alexandre F S; Macedo, Francisco P; Andrade, Lúcia B S; Vidal, Márcia S; Sales, Mauricio P

2005-12-01

97

Effect of plant volatile oils in protecting stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation.  

PubMed

Adult Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were introduced into cowpea seeds which were stored in containers with volatile oils derived from Mentha arvensis, M. piperata, M. spicata and Cymbopogon nardus. The numbers of eggs laid, adult mortality, adult emergence and subsequent seed damage were studied for four months. All oils significantly influenced all parameters (P<0.05) and results with different parameters were generally parallel. Significant differences for at least some time/parameters combinations indicated an order of potency of M. spicata>M. piperata>M. arvensis>C. nardus. PMID:11124376

Raja; Albert; Ignacimuthu; Dorn

2001-04-01

98

Genetic architecture of differences between populations of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) evolved in the same environment.  

PubMed

We investigated the genetic architecture underlying differentiation in fitness-related traits between two pairs of populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). These populations had geographically distant (> 2000 km) origins but evolved in a uniform laboratory environment for 120 generations. For each pair of populations (Nigeria x Yemen and Cameroon x Uganda) we estimated the means of five fitness-related characters and a measure of fitness (net reproductive rate R0) in each of the parental populations and 12 types of hybrids (two F1 and two F2 lines and eight backcrosses). Models containing up to nine composite genetic parameters were fitted to the means of the 14 lines. The patterns of line means for all traits in the Nigeria x Yemen cross and for four traits (larval survival, developmental rate, female body weight, and fecundity) in the Cameroon x Uganda cross were best explained by models including additive, dominance, and maternal effects, but excluding epistasis. We did not find any evidence for outbreeding depression for any trait. An epistatic component of divergence was detected for egg hatching success and R0 in the Cameroon x Uganda cross, but its sign was opposite to that expected under outbreeding depression, that is, additive x additive epistasis had a positive effect on the performance of F2 hybrids. All traits except fecundity showed a pattern of heterosis. A large difference of egg-hatching success between the two reciprocal F1 lines in that cross was best explained as fertilization incompatibility between Cameroon females and sperm carrying Uganda genes. The results suggest that these populations have not converged to the same life-history phenotype and genetic architecture, despite 120 generations of uniform natural selection. However, the absence of outbreeding depression implies that they did not evolve toward different adaptive peaks. PMID:12683524

Bieri, Jonas; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

2003-02-01

99

Effects of inhibitory neurotransmitters on the mudpuppy (Necturus maculatus) locomotor pattern in vitro.  

PubMed

Effects of inhibitory neurotransmitters on the locomotor rhythm and pattern generation were investigated using an in vitro preparation isolated from the mudpuppy (Necturus maculatus). The preparation consisted of the first five segments of the spinal cord and the right forelimb attached by the brachial nerves. During N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-induced locomotion, the rhythmic motor output (EMG) was recorded unilaterally from elbow flexor and extensor muscles. While neither glycine nor gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related substances induced locomotion in the absence of NMDA, they modulated NMDA-induced locomotion. Bath application of glycine and GABA suppressed the rhythmic motor pattern induced by NMDA. Addition of glycine receptor antagonist strychnine or GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline disrupted the phase relationship between antagonistic motor pools during ongoing locomotion, thereby changing the normal alternating pattern into synchronous EMG bursts. Both the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol and GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen mimicked the effects of GABA as they either slowed down or stopped locomotion. Nipecotic acid, a GABA uptake blocker, had a similar effect. This suggested that an endogenous release of GABA modulated the locomotor rhythm. The endogenous release was antagonized by the GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor antagonists bicuculline and CGP-35348, respectively. Immunocytochemistry revealed that glycine and GABA-positive neurons and fibers were present in mudpuppy spinal cord. Although the GABAergic neurons were more numerous than glycinergic neurons, both cell types contributed processes directed towards the white matter and occasionally towards the ependymal lining of the central canal. Our results suggest that inhibitory neurotransmitters exert powerful actions upon the neuronal network governing forelimb locomotion in the mudpuppy. The effects we observed may be mediated by a network of segmentally distributed glycinergic and GABAergic spinal neurons. PMID:10591891

Jovanovi?, K; Petrov, T; Stein, R B

1999-11-01

100

Ultrastructure and potential role of integumentary glandular cells in adult male and female Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic) and C. maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera : Bruchidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission and scanning electron microscopy methods were used to study the ultrastructure of integumentary glandular cells that may be involved in the production of sex pheromones and other semiochemicals in Callosobruchus subinnotatus and C. maculatus (Coleoptera : Bruchidae). Additionally, we measured electroantennogram (EAG) responses of male and female antennae to solvent extracts and glassadsorbed volatiles from both sexes of C.

Sonny B. Ramaswamy; Shengqiang Shu; William A. Monroe; George N. Mbata

1995-01-01

101

Metazoan parasites of Mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus and of Jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes) of Paraíba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro.  

PubMed

Forty-one specimens of mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) and 54 specimens of jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) were collected from the Paraíba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil between November 2007 and October 2008. These fish underwent necropsy so their infracommunities of metazoan parasites could be studied. The same three species of parasites were collected in the two fish species studied. These were one monogenean, one nematode, and one hirudinean. Cucullanus pinnai (Travassos, Artiga, and Pereira, 1928) (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) and Aphanoblastella sp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) were the dominant species with the highest prevalence in P. maculatus and R. quelen. The parasite species of P. maculatus and R. quelen showed an atypical over-dispersed pattern of distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the siluriform hosts and their prevalence and abundance. The parasite species richness showed a mean value of 0.87 ± 0.67 (0-2) and 0.57 ± 0.56 (0-2) in P. maculatus and R. quelen, respectively, and no correlation with the body total length. PMID:20943019

Venancio, Aline Cristine Pinto; de Aguiar, Gesilene Ribeiro; Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Alves, Dimitri Ramos

2010-01-01

102

Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Coriandrum sativum Seeds against Tribolium confusum and Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1–7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357??L/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24?h. In the probit analysis, LC50 values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC50 = 1.34??L/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC50 = 318.02??L/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides.

Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere

2012-01-01

103

Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Coriandrum sativum Seeds against Tribolium confusum and Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1-7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357??L/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24?h. In the probit analysis, LC(50) values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC(50) = 1.34??L/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC(50) = 318.02??L/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides. PMID:23227365

Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere

2012-01-01

104

Nodavirus associated with pathological changes in adult spotted coralgroupers (Plectropomus maculatus) in Thailand with viral nervous necrosis.  

PubMed

The present study characterized viral nervous necrosis in sea cage-reared adult spotted coralgroupers (Plectropomus maculatus). Histopathological study showed extensive vacuolation and neuronal necrosis of the olfactory bulb and the optic lobe of the forebrain and the inner and outer nuclear layer of retina. Mild necrosis was observed in the spinal cord. Homogeneous intranuclear inclusion bodies were noted in the hyperplastic and hypertrophic glandular epithelial cells of the swim bladder suggesting viral etiology. Etiological diagnosis of VNN was confirmed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization gave strongly positive staining in the same area of the infected cells of the brain, spinal cord and retina correlating with histopathological changes. No positive reaction was detectable in the affected gas glandular epithelium and other organs, confirming the consistent neurotropism of this nodavirus. Nodavirus was mainly detected in the olfactory bulb of the brain. The result suggests nasal transmission was the major route of infection. PMID:19232654

Nopadon, Pirarat; Aranya, Ponpornpisit; Tipaporn, Traithong; Toshihiro, Nakai; Takayuki, Katagiri; Masashi, Maita; Makoto, Endo

2009-08-01

105

Effect of host quality of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on performance of the egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).  

PubMed

Development and reproductive success of the solitary egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga Steffan were examined after development in eggs of the bruchid storage pest Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius reared at either low or high densities on cowpea seeds and laid at day 1 and 4 of maternal life. Both bruchid larval competition and maternal age negatively affected egg size, but the latter more than the former. Uscana lariophaga reared in small hosts developed slower, were smaller and produced fewer eggs compared to parasitoids reared in large hosts. Fecundity of the parasitoid was heavily influenced by host egg size. This was reflected in the values for the intrinsic rate of increase of U. lariophaga, which differed for wasps that developed in host eggs laid by bruchid females of different age. Wasps allocated marginally more female offspring to larger hosts. PMID:16048682

Spitzen, J; van Huis, A

2005-08-01

106

Variant vicilins from a resistant Vigna unguiculata lineage (IT81D-1053) accumulate inside Callosobruchus maculatus larval midgut epithelium.  

PubMed

It has been demonstrated that variant vicilins are the main resistance factor of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) against attack by the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. There is evidence that the toxic properties of these storage proteins may be related to their interaction with glycoproteins and other microvillar membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the larvae. New findings have shown that following interaction with the microvilli, the vicilins are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium and thus reach the internal environment of the larvae. In the present paper we studied the insecticidal activity of the variant vicilins purified from a resistant cowpea variety (IT81D-1053). Bioassays showed that the seeds of this genotype affected larval growth, causing developmental retardation and 100% mortality. By feeding C. maculatus larvae on susceptible and IT81D-1053 derived vicilins (FITC labelled or unlabelled), followed by fluorescence and immunogold cytolocalization, we were able to demonstrate that both susceptible and variant forms are internalized in the midgut cells and migrate inside vesicular structures from the apex to the basal portion of the enterocytes. However, when larvae were fed with the labelled vicilins for 24h and then returned to a control diet, the concentration of the variant form remained relatively high, suggesting that variant vicilins are not removed from the cells at the same rate as the non-variant vicilins. We suggest that the toxic effects of variant vicilins on midgut cells involve the binding of these proteins to the cell surface followed by internalization and interference with the normal physiology of the enterocytes, thereby affecting larval development in vivo. PMID:24220155

Oliveira, Gabriel B; Kunz, Daniele; Peres, Tanara V; Leal, Rodrigo B; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Carlini, Célia R; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Terra, Walter R; Xavier-Filho, José; Silva, Carlos P

2014-02-01

107

Molecular systematics of the enigmatic Middle American genus Vieja (Teleostei: Cichlidae).  

PubMed

The genus Vieja represents a group of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) distributed on the Atlantic and Pacific slopes of North and Central America from southern Mexico to Panama. Sixteen species of Vieja are presently recognized; however, based on long-standing taxonomic problems, the genus itself appears to be weakly defined. A number of different generic designations have been proposed for members of Vieja, and recent systematic studies of heroine cichlids have not specifically addressed the validity of the grouping and have not included all species in the genus. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the monophyly of the genus Vieja by including all nominal species in the genus using the mitochondrial encoded cytochrome b gene and nuclear S7-1 intron. Results of Maximum Parsimony, Bayesian inference, and topology tests (constraint tree searches and post-burn-in Bayesian filtering) indicate that the genus is not monophyletic as it is currently recognized. The genus Herichthys was recovered as sister to a clade consisting of a number of Vieja species (V. fenestrata, V. guttulata, V. zonata, V. hartwegi, V. bifasciata, V. breidohri, V. argentea, V. regani, V. melanura, V. synspila, and V. maculicauda, as well as Paraneetroplusbulleri). A clade consisting of V. intermedia, V. godmanni, and V. microphthalma was recovered sister to Theraps. Additionally, V. heterospila and V. tuyrensis were recovered outside of Vieja and Herichthys clades. Based on the results of this comprehensive study, we suggest a revised classification of Vieja species. PMID:20849962

McMahan, Caleb D; Geheber, Aaron D; Piller, Kyle R

2010-12-01

108

Galaxias con núcleo doble. III  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed new spectroscopic and photometric observations of late type galaxies with double nuclei and without previous studies. The subsample, constituted by double nuclei galaxies without tidal tails, was selected from the Double Nuclei Galaxies Preliminary Catalog (Gimeno, Díaz & Carranza 1999) and the observations were performed at Bosque Alegre Astrophysical Station. We report and discuss specially the results for ESO 416-G06, ESO 381-IG23 and Fairal 58. In all cases the secondary nucleus presents bluer color indexes than the main nucleus and also larger H? equivalent widths. These objects follow the trend of smaller radial velocity differences when smaller are the separations between both nuclei; this correlation was observed in previous works (e.g. Gimeno, Díaz & Carranza 1998). The general picture is consistent with the scenario of star formation enhanced by the capture of a minor or satellite galaxy.

Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R. J.; Carranza, G.

109

Bioefficacy of a long-lasting insecticide impregnated net on blood feeding inhibition of Anopheles maculatus Theobald and Culex quinquefasciatus Say.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the bioefficacy and blood feeding inhibition of mosquitoes under laboratory conditions using the WHO tunnel test method on unwashed and washed long-lasting insecticide impregnated net with extrinsic heat treatment of 30 degrees C followed by 80 degrees C on the same net during washing. PermaNet exhibited fairy high durability to washing (5 washes) and had fairy long-lasting bioefficacy against Anopheles maculatus for blood feeding inhibition on both unwashed (39 months) and washed (26 months) nets. However, Perma-Net exhibited lower bioefficacy against Culex quinquefasciatus. This study also suggested that the application of extrinsic heat treatment of 30 degrees C followed by an increased heat at 80 degrees C on the same net exerted significant differences (p < 0.05) in mortality of both An. maculatus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, extrinsic heat treatment did not enhance any significant increase in blood feeding inhibition of both An. maculatus and Cx. quinquefasciatus (p > 0.05). An. maculatus exhibited significant differences in resting preference after a successful blood meal, as more blood-fed and live females preferred to rest and stay near the bait in the mouse cage, and more dead and unfed females were found in the outer cage of both the unwashed and washed nets (p < 0.05). Conversely, fully blood-fed and live Cx. quinquefasciatus females did not show any resting preference between the mouse cage and outer cage, but there were more dead and unfed females in the mouse cage of both the unwashed and washed nets (p < 0.05). PMID:24974644

Beng, Tan Swee; Vythilingam, Indra; Lim, Lee Han

2014-05-01

110

Tithonia diversifolia , Cyperus rotundus and Hyptis suaveloensis ethanol extracts combinatorially and competitively inhibit affinity purified cowpea storage bruchid ( Callosobrochus maculatus ) glutathione S-transferase  

Microsoft Academic Search

s  Ethanol extracts of Tithonia diversifolia, Cyperus rotundus and Hyptis suaveloensis have earlier been reported to have insecticidal activity against storage bruchid (Callosbrochus maculatus) reared on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Here, antioxidant capacities of the ethanol extracts of these plants were evaluated by determining their effects on DPPH\\u000a radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and their total phenolic contents. These extracts were further investigated

Ayodele O. KolawoleRaphael; Raphael E. Okonji; Joshua O. Ajele

111

Chemical Modification of Genypterus maculatus Arginase by Woodward's Reagent K and Diethyl Pyrocarbonate: Evidence for an Essential Carboxylate and a Nonessential, Albeit Important Histidine Residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver arginase from Genypterus maculatus was completely inactivated by Woodward's reagent K (WRK) and partially inactivated by diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC). Borate protected against inactivation by DEPC and caused a nontotal inhibition of the enzyme. Inactivation by WRK (second order rate constant, 26.3 M?1 min?1) was associated to the chemical modification of a single residue with a pKa value of 6.5

Nelson Carvajal; Elena Uribe; Vasthi López; Mónica Salas; Dafne Müller; Roberto Celis; José Guzmán

1997-01-01

112

Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae) seed coat on the embryonic and larval development of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Bruchid beetles infest various seeds. The seed coat is the first protective barrier against bruchid infestation. Although non-host seed coats often impair the oviposition, eclosion and survival of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, morphological and biochemical aspects of this phenomenon remain unclear. Here we show that Phaseolus vulgaris (non-host) seed coat reduced C. maculatus female oviposition about 48%, increased 83% the seed penetration time, reduced larval mass and survival about 62 % and 40 % respectively. Interestingly, we found no visible effect on the major events of insect embryogenesis, namely the formation of the cellular blastoderm, germ band extension/retraction, embryo segmentation, appendage formation and dorsal closure. Larvae fed on P. vulgaris seed coat have greater FITC fluorescence signal in the midgut than in the feces, as opposed to what is observed in control larvae fed on Vigna unguiculata. Cysteine protease, ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities were reduced in larvae fed on P. vulgaris natural seed coat. Taken together, our results suggest that although P. vulgaris seed coat does not interfere with C. maculatus embryonic development, food digestion was clearly compromised, impacting larval fitness (e.g. body mass and survivability). PMID:24211390

de Sá, Leonardo Figueira Reis; Wermelinger, Tierry Torres; Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Gravina, Geraldo de Amaral; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Venancio, Thiago Motta; Rezende, Gustavo Lazzaro; Oliveira, Antonia Elenir Amancio

2014-01-01

113

Characterization of resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in mungbean variety VC6089A and its resistance-associated protein VrD1.  

PubMed

Characteristics of resistance of VC6089A, a mungbean, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek, bred by using a wild Vigna species, V. sublobata (Roxburgh) Verdcourt (accession no. TC1966), and containing a novel protein, VrD1, were investigated against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). The seeds of VC6089A showed high level of resistance; > 96% of the bruchid eggs failed to develop into adults, whereas 85% of eggs laid on susceptible cultivar VC1973A became adults. Mortality of surviving bruchids raised for five generations on VC6089A remained higher than 96%; however, female adults maintained high fecundity and thus showed a positive population growth through these generations. We therefore cannot exclude the possibility that the beetles could develop resistance to the resistant mungbean VC6089A. The protein VrD1 purified from seeds of VC6089A showed marked toxicity to C. maculatus when beetles were reared on artificial seeds containing varying levels of VrD1. Thorough inhibition of development was observed when artificial seeds containing 0.2% (wt:wt) VrD1 was provided for insect feeding. Our findings demonstrated the insecticidal activity of VC6089A mungbean seeds and VrD1 protein against C. maculatus. These results may facilitate safer control against bruchid infestation. PMID:16156592

Lin, Chan; Chen, Ching-San; Horng, Shwu-Bin

2005-08-01

114

Purification of legumin-like proteins from Coffea arabica and Coffea racemosa seeds and their insecticidal properties toward cowpea weevil ( Callosobruchus maculatus ) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Legumin-like proteins from seeds of Coffea arabica (CaL-1 and CaL-2) and Coffea racemosa (CrL-1 and CrL-2) were characterized and isolated by gel filtration and reverse-phase chromatography. The insecticidal properties of the purified proteins were tested against Callosobruchus maculatus using artificial diets. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analyses indicated that CaL-1 is composed of two subunits of 33 and 24 kDa, while CaL-2, CrL-1, and CrL-2 were monomeric with a single band of 14 kDa. The LD(50) values were 0.5% (w/w) for CaL-1 and 0.3% (w/w) for CaL-2, CrL-1, and CrL-2. ED(50) at 0.3% was assessed for all protein concentrations. The legumin-like proteins were not digested by midgut homogenates of C. maculatus until 8 h of incubation. CaL-1 and CaL-2 ( C. arabica ) and CrL-1 and CrL-2 ( C. racemosa ) are chitin-binding proteins, and their insecticidal properties toward C. maculatus larvae might be related to their capacity to bind chitin present in the larval gut and their associated low digestibility. PMID:20141142

Coelho, Mirela Batista; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; Marangoni, Sérgio; Silva, Desiree Soares da; Cesarino, Igor; Mazzafera, Paulo

2010-03-10

115

Susceptibility of unprotected seeds and seeds of local bambara groundnut cultivars protected with insecticidal essential oils to infestation by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Ten local cultivars of bambara groundnut, Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt obtained directly from farmers in Potiskum, Nigeria and from the Institute for Agricultural Research, Samaru, Nigeria were compared with three improved varieties developed at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria for their susceptibility to infestation by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Three cultivars (Maifarinhaneh, Angale and Bunmonu) with a susceptibility index (SI) of 3.06-3.71 were identified as slightly susceptible to C. maculatus; four cultivars (Bagantere, Bakingangala, Ole and Bakiyawa 1) and one improved variety (TVSU 1061) with an SI of 4.39-4.93 as moderately susceptible; and three cultivars (Bidi, Uzu and Dadinkowa 1) and two improved varieties (TVSU 702 and TVSU 751) with an SI of 5.00-5.34 as susceptible. Five of the cultivars were used to examine the ability of beetle populations to overcome varietal resistance over six successive generations. Development time was significantly longer but percentage of adults that emerged and susceptibility of bambara groundnuts were significantly lower in F(4), F(5) or F(6) generations than in the F(1) or F(2) generation. The efficacy of combining insecticidal essential oils obtained from clove, Syzgium aromaticum, West African black pepper (WABP), Piper guineense, and ginger, Zingiber officinale applied at the rate of 2 mg/20 g seed and six of the local bambara groundnut cultivars (Angale, Maifarinhaneh, Bakingangala, Bagantere, Bunmonu and Bidi) with differing susceptibilities to C. maculatus (F.) was also assessed during a 3-month storage period. The three essential oils significantly reduced the percentage of C. maculatus adults that emerged from the bambara groundnut cultivars in the F(1) generation and the number of adult offspring that developed in the cultivars during the 3-month storage period. The mean number of progeny that developed in untreated seeds and seeds treated with clove, WABP and ginger oils during the study period were 73.0, 0.0, 0.1 and 0.2, respectively. No adult C. maculatus, however, developed in slightly and moderately susceptible cultivars treated with essential oils. Treatment of seeds of Bidi (a susceptible cultivar) with the essential oils reduced the percentage of adults that emerged in the F(1) generation from 26.8% in untreated seeds to 0.0, 0.1 and 0.4% in seeds treated with clove, WABP and ginger oils, respectively; and reduced loss in seed weight after three months' storage from 34% to 0.0, 0.01 and 0.1%, respectively. PMID:11124369

Ajayi; Lale

2000-01-15

116

Phylogeny of the Elopomorpha (Teleostei): evidence from six nuclear and mitochondrial markers.  

PubMed

The Elopomorpha (eels and relatives) is a morphologically diverse group of predominantly marine teleost fishes comprising about 1000 species placed in 25 families. It is one of the three major living teleost lineages along with the Osteoglossomorpha and Clupeocephala. Among a few morphological synapomorphies that have been offered as evidence for the monophyly of the Elopomorpha, the remarkable leptocephalus larvae stand out. Several studies aiming at reconstructing the elopomorph phylogeny using morphological or molecular characters led to inconsistent results. In this study, we have tested previous hypotheses regarding inter- and intra-relationships of the Elopomorpha using a multi-locus dataset composed of three nuclear and three mitochondrial genes. Our analyses were based on likelihood phylogenetic reconstruction methods using different character-weighting data matrices and gene partition schemes to assess reliability of our findings. Our results confirm the respective monophyly of the Elopomorpha, Osteoglossomorpha and Clupeocephala. The majority of our analyses identify the Elopomorpha as the sister group of a clade containing the rest of the Teleostei. Within the Elopomorpha, the Elopiformes is the sister group of the remaining taxa. The Albuliformes sensuForey et al. (1996) and the Notacanthiformes are never sister-taxa in our phylogenetic trees, in contradiction with the recent mitogenomic hypothesis and current classification. Our results place the Notacanthiformes as the sister group of the Anguilliformes, including Saccopharyngiformes. Among anguilliforms, the families Congridae and Muraenesocidae are not monophyletic. The recently discovered anguilliform "living fossil" family Protanguillidae is not the sister group of the remaining Anguilliformes, instead, the sister group of the Synaphobranchidae. Based on the results presented here, we propose a revised classification for the Elopomorpha, comprised of four orders, including a resurrected Notacanthiformes but surrendering the Saccopharyngiformes. Within Anguilliformes, we recognized four monophyletic suborders named Protanguilloidei, Muraenoidei, Anguilloidei, and Congroidei. PMID:24041936

Chen, Jhen-Nien; López, J Andrés; Lavoué, Sébastien; Miya, Masaki; Chen, Wei-Jen

2014-01-01

117

Cytotype-specific ISSR profiles and karyotypes in the Neotropical genus Eigenmannia (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes).  

PubMed

The genus Eigenmannia (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes), a widely distributed fish genus from the Neotropical region, presents very complex morphological patterns and many taxonomic problems. It is suggested that this genus harbors a species complex that is hard to differentiate using only morphological characteristics. As a result, many species of Eigenmannia may be currently gathered under a common name. With the objective of providing new tools for species characterization in this group, an analysis of the polymorphism of DNA inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR), obtained by single primer amplification reaction (SPAR), combined with karyotype identification, was carried out in specimens sampled from populations of the Upper Paraná, São Francisco and Amazon river basins (Brazil). Specific ISSR patterns generated by primers (AAGC)(4) and (GGAC)(4) were found to characterize the ten cytotypes analyzed, even though the cytotypes 2n = 38 and 2n = 38 XX:XY, from the Upper Paraná basin, share some ISSR amplification patterns. The geographical distribution of all Eigenmannia specimens sampled was inferred, showing the cytotype 2n = 31/2n = 32 as the most frequent and largely distributed in the Upper Paraná basin. The cytotype 2n = 34 was reported for the first time in the genus Eigenmania, restricted to the São Francisco basin. Polymorphic ISSR patterns were also detected for each cytotype. Considering our results and the data reported previously in the literature, it is suggested that many of the forms of Eigenmannia herein analyzed might be regarded as different species. This work reinforces the importance of employing diverse approaches, such as molecular and cytogenetic characterization, to address taxonomic and evolutionary issues. PMID:19779835

Moysés, Cinthia Bachir; Daniel-Silva, Maria de Fatima Zambelli; Lopes, Carlos Eduardo; de Almeida-Toledo, Lurdes Foresti

2010-02-01

118

Phylogenetic relationships of bitterling fishes (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Acheilognathinae), inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome B sequences.  

PubMed

Bitterling (Teleostei: Acheilognathinae) are small cyprinid fishes with a discrete distribution in East Asia and Europe. We used a complete mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence (1141 bp) from 49 species or subspecies in three genera (Tanakia, Rhodeus, and Acheilognathus), sampled across the major part of their distribution, to elucidate their phylogeny and biogeography, focusing particularly on their origin and dispersal. Based on high support value, the monophyletic Acheilognathinae separated into two major clades, Acheilognathus and Tanakia-Rhodeus. In the latter clade, the monophyly of Rhodeus was poorly supported, though it was topologically nested in Tanakia. On the basis of molecular-clock calibration, both clades diverged in the middle Miocene, with Tanakia-Rhodeus diverging slightly earlier than Acheilognathus. The Tanakia-Rhodeus clade expanded its distribution westward from the Far East, eventually reaching Europe, while Acheilognathus dispersed in the temperate regions of East Asia. A feature common to both clades is that most extant species, including Japanese endemics, appeared by the end of the Pliocene, corresponding with the present delineation of the Japanese archipelago. Autumn-spawning species with an embryonic diapause, unique to bitterling among cyprinid fishes, formed two distinct lineages (barbatulusrhombeus and longipinnis-typus) within Acheilognathus. The estimated time of divergence of the two lineages was approximately from the late Pliocene, a period characterized by glaciations. The timing of divergence suggests that the shift of spawning from spring to autumn, coupled with embryonic diapause, convergently emerged twice in the evolution of bitterling, possibly as an adaptation to the climate of the late Pliocene. PMID:24832905

Kawamura, Kouichi; Ueda, Takayoshi; Arai, Ryoichi; Smith, Carl

2014-05-01

119

Sex-specific genetic variances in life-history and morphological traits of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of heritability and genetic correlations are of central importance in the study of adaptive trait evolution and genetic constraints. We use a paternal half-sib-full-sib breeding design to investigate the genetic architecture of three life-history and morphological traits in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Heritability was significant for all traits under observation and genetic correlations between traits (rA) were low. Interestingly, we found substantial sex-specific genetic effects and low genetic correlations between sexes (rMF) in traits that are only moderately (weight at emergence) to slightly (longevity) sexually dimorphic. Furthermore, we found an increased sire () compared to dam () variance component within trait and sex. Our results highlight that the genetic architecture even of the same trait should not be assumed to be the same for males and females. Furthermore, it raises the issue of the presence of unnoticed environmental effects that may inflate estimates of heritability. Overall, our study stresses the fact that estimates of quantitative genetic parameters are not only population, time, environment, but also sex specific. Thus, extrapolation between sexes and studies should be treated with caution.

Hallsson, Lara R; Bjorklund, Mats

2012-01-01

120

Effect of parental age and developmental rate on the production of active form of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Three similar experiments were conducted to see the effect of parental age and parental developmental speed on the production of "active-form" (i.e., capable of flight) offspring in Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). In experiment I, using the adults which emerged on three different days (as fast, intermediate, and slow in development), eggs were collected on three different days (at young, middle, and old age) during the adult life span. The results showed that the older parents produced more active-form offspring irrespective of the parents' own rate of development. In experiment II, the parental rate of development was investigated in more detail by using the adults that emerged over the entire span of their emergence period. In experiment III, the effect of parental age was investigated in more detail by collecting the eggs daily during the female adult's entire life span. Both experiments confirmed the trend observed in experiment I. From these results it can be concluded that the older the parents, the higher the percentage of the active form in their offspring. However, there was no significant systematic trend due to the length of the developmental period of the parents as seen in the parental age. This trend, that more active forms emerge from older parents, seems to be related to the decreased viability of older parents. It is thought that the less viable eggs produced by older parents are more susceptible to stimuli which induce the active form. PMID:572457

Sano-Fujii, I

1979-05-01

121

Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).  

PubMed

The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively. PMID:24737480

Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

2014-01-01

122

Effect of diatomaceous earths Fossil Shield and Silico-Sec on the egg laying behaviour of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) is a destructive pest of pulses in both storage and field. It is well known that diatomaceous earth (DE) kill the insects by locally absorbing the epicuticular lipid layers leading to high rate of water loss through the cuticle. However, the effectiveness of DE depends on its ability to kill the adults before copulation and egg-laying. Newly emerged virgin males and females of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were exposed to the DEs, Fossil-Shield and Silico-Sec on 30 treated mungbeans (Vigna radita (L)). Fecundity, number of beans used for egg-laying and beans without eggs were evaluated after four days; the number of unhatched eggs was evaluated after ten days. It was determined, that the fecundity of female insects decreased sigmoidely with increasing rate of DE content. Percentages of unhatched eggs and seeds without eggs increased with increasing DE dosages. However, the maximum egg densities (eggs per used secd) occurred at 1200 mg DE/kg for Fossil-Shield and Silico-Sec. The reason for such DE-stimulated behaviour of egg laying expressed as a number of seeds with eggs of C. maculatus is not known, but it may be related to the stress caused by the inert dusts or to the reduction of both chemical and physical (tactile) stimuli. Treatment with DEs altered the surface texture of the beans and caused less cohesion between eggs and the seed surface. Only few larvae managed to penetrate into the grains, possibly due to increased grain roughness and repellent effect of DE. A relatively high number of eggs were laid on the surface of those beans where the amount of dust had been locally reduced by adults' movement and their pick up of DE. Therefore, several larvae tried to penetrate into these treated beans, causing a high larval density per partially cleaned bean. All these reasons lead to a progeny decline. PMID:12703482

Prasantha, B D Rohitha; Reichmuth, Ch; Büttner, C

2002-01-01

123

The distribution of neuropeptide Y and dynorphin immunoreactivity in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, from birth to sexual maturity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y and dynorphin have been localized in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, at different ages and stages of development from birth to sexual maturity. Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y was found in perikarya and tracts of the nucleus olfactoretinalis, telencephalon, ventral tegmentum and in the neurohypophysis and in the three regions of the adenohypophysis. Immunoreactive dynorphin was found in nerve tracts in the olfactory bulb and in cells of the pars intermedia and the rostral pars distalis of the pituitary gland.

Cepriano, L. M.; Schreibman, M. P.

1993-01-01

124

CO2 enhances effects of hypoxia on mortality, development, and gene expression in cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Modified atmosphere based on lack of O2 offers a safe, residue-free alternative to chemical fumigants for pest control in stored grains. In this study, we intended to determine whether elevated CO2 (at a biologically achievable level) has an enhanced suppressive effect over low O2 atmosphere alone on the cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus), a storage pest of cowpea and other legumes. Experiments were performed under two modified atmospheric conditions, (1) 2% O2+18% CO2+80% N2 and (2) 2% O2+98% N2. Both hypoxic environments significantly affected the development and survival of all insect developmental stages. Eggs were most vulnerable to hypoxia, particularly at the early stage (4-6h old), surviving only up to a maximum of 2 days in both treatments. These were followed by adults, pupae and larvae, in order of decreasing susceptibility. The 3rd and 4th instar larvae were most resilient to hypoxia and could survive up to 20 days of low O2. The presence of 18% CO2 significantly increased the mortality of adults, the later stage of eggs, as well as 1st and 4th instar larvae caused by hypoxia. However, the surviving insects exhibited faster development, evidenced by their earlier emergence from cowpea seeds compared to those without CO2. One interesting observation was the frequent, premature opening of the emergence windows in the 4th instar larvae when CO2 was involved. This phenomenon was not observed at all in insects stressed by low O2 alone. Differential expression profiling of metabolic genes and proteolytic activity of midgut digestive enzymes suggested that the rate of metabolic activity could contribute in part to the difference in insect development and survival under hypoxia in the presence and absence of CO2. PMID:24001922

Cheng, Weining; Lei, Jiaxin; Ahn, Ji-Eun; Wang, Yu; Lei, Chaoliang; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

2013-11-01

125

Import of exotic and zoonotic trematodes (Heterophyidae: Centrocestus sp.) in Xiphophorus maculatus: Implications for ornamental fish import control in Europe.  

PubMed

Ornamental fish, Xiphophorus maculatus, were imported from Singapore to Denmark for distribution to local aquarists. Importers observed lethargic and erratic swimming patterns among fish and forwarded a total of 30 fish for pathological examination to a university diagnostic service. All fish were diagnosed infected with encysted Centrocestus sp. metacercariae in gills (prevalence of 100% and mean intensity of 454.5 ± 161.9 parasites per fish). Metacercariae were identified by morphological and molecular methods. Cysts (mean length 163.3 ± 13.7 ?m and mean width 113.3 ± 10.6 ?m) contained a bent metacercaria with an X-shaped excretory bladder. PCR amplification of a rDNA region (5.8S rRNA gene, ITS-2, 28S rRNA gene) and subsequent sequencing confirmed the diagnosis. Metacercariae were found in gill filaments adjacent to the cartilage associated with cartilage hypertrophy, epithelial and mucous cell hyperplasia, clubbing and lamellar fusion. Host cell encapsulation of cysts comprised several layers of leucocytes, chondroblast-like and fibroblast-like cells. The observations raise concerns with regard to veterinary inspection and quarantine procedures. The zoonotic potential of these trematodes and a possible spread of the parasites in natural habitats in Europe should be regarded as a public health issue. So far, several cases of human infections have been reported only in Asia, but the potential intermediate host snail, Melanoides tuberculata, has been recorded in Germany. Accordingly, establishment of the parasite in Europe with climate changes should be considered a risk. PMID:24827099

Mehrdana, Foojan; Jensen, Hannah M; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt

2014-06-01

126

Suppression of seed bruchid ( Callosobruchus maculatus F.) development and damage on cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) with Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Waterm. (Rutaceae) root bark powder when compared to neem seed powder and pirimiphos-methyl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproduction suppression properties in Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Waterm. (Rutaceae) root bark powder (ZRBP) against the cowpea seed bruchid (CSB), Callosobruchus maculatus F., were evaluated against neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) seed powder (NSP) and pirimiphos-methyl (PM) (Actellic 2% Dust, ICI). At application rates ranging from 0.125 to 3 g per 20 g seed, ZRBP was as effective an oviposition suppressant

E. O. Ogunwolu; A. T. Odunlami

1996-01-01

127

Vicilin-derived peptides are transferred from males to females as seminal nuptial gift in the seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The fate of vicilins ingested by Callosobruchus maculatus and the physiological importance of these proteins in larvae and adults have been recently investigated. Vicilins have been demonstrated to be absorbed through the midgut epithelium, circulate in their trimeric form in the haemolymph and are deposited in the fat body. In fat body cells of both sexes, vicilins are partially hydrolyzed and the fragments are eventually deposited in the eggs. Tracking the fate of FITC-labelled vicilins in adult males revealed that the labelled vicilin fragments were also detected in oöcytes and eggs, when the males copulated with non-labelled females. Based on the results presented here, we propose that following absorption, vicilins accumulate in the fat body, where they are partially degraded. These peptides are retained throughout the development of the males and are eventually sequestered by the gonads and passed to the female gonads during copulation. It is possible that accumulation in the eggs is a defensive strategy against pathogen attack, as these peptides are known to have antimicrobial activity. The contribution of vicilin-derived peptides from seminal fluids may be an investment that helps to increase the offspring survival. This study provides additional insights into the possible contributions of males to female fecundity following copulation in C. maculatus. PMID:21420973

Alexandre, Daniel; Linhares, Ricardo T; Queiroz, Bruna; Fontoura, Luisa; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Bezerra, Cezar S; Oliveira, Eliana M; Demartini, Diogo R; Carlini, Célia R; Silva, Carlos P

2011-06-01

128

Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins) with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitinbinding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5?mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation.

Souza, A.J.; Ferreira, A.T.S.; Perales, J.; Beghini, D.G.; Fernandes, K.V.S.; Xavier-Filho, J.; Venancio, T.M.; Oliveira, A.E.A.

2011-01-01

129

Mucus cells in the digestive tract in prenatal platyfish larvae (Poeciliidae, Teleostei).  

PubMed

The appearance and histochemical properties of mucus cells in various parts of digestive tract in prenatal larvae of platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus), a stomachless teleost, are described and compared. Such cells occurred regularly throughout the entire epithelial cell layer in mouth, pharynx, oesophagus and intestine in 6 mm long larvae i.e. approximately 1 week before delivery, but were very scarce in 4 mm long larvae. The mucin in these cells was strongly stained by alcian blue at pH 2.5 and weakly coloured by this dye at pH 1.0. It displayed a clean blue colour after high iron diamine followed by alcian blue (pH 2.5), except in some very few cells which displayed a purple-brown colour after this treatment. The mucus cells displayed various colours between purple-blue and magenta when the alcian blue (pH 2.5) was followed by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) solution; the magenta-coloured cells were mainly confined to oesophagus. Together these findings suggest that the mucin in the digestive tract of prenatal platyfish consists mainly of non-sulphated, carboxylated glycoconjugates. The observations from the present lectin histochemistry suggest that the amount of galactosamine and glucosamine in this mucin varies much from cell to cell. Also, the various colours after PAS suggest a significant cellular heterogeneity in the mucus cell population. This may reflect different stages in development and maturation or a true and permanent cellular heterogeneity, suggesting that this mucus is able to play a number of important roles even a week before the larvae start to feed and digest. PMID:21443759

Leknes, I L

2011-10-01

130

Molecular taxonomy and identification within the Antarctic genus Trematomus (Notothenioidei, Teleostei): How valuable is barcoding with COI?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Trematominae are a particularly interesting subfamily within the antarctic suborder Notothenioidei (Teleostei). The 14 closely related species occupy a large range of ecological of niches, extremely useful for evolutionary and biogeography studies in the Antarctic Ocean. But some Trematomus species can be difficult to identify by using morphological criteria, specially young stages and damaged specimens. Molecular identification would therefore be highly useful, however the suitability of the cytochrome oxidase I gene in a barcoding approach needs to be assessed. We evaluated species delineation within the genus Trematomus comparing morphological identification, nuclear markers (the rhodopsin retrogene and a new nuclear marker pkd1: polycystic kidney disease 1) and COI. We show that Trematomus vicarius is not distinguishable from Trematomus bernacchii with the molecular markers used, and neither is Trematomus loennbergii from Trematomus lepidorhinus. We suggest that until this is investigated further, studies including these species list them as T. loennbergii/ T. lepidorhinus group, and keep voucher samples and specimens. Generally, COI gives a congruent result with the rhodopsin retrogene, and except for the previously cited species pairs, COI barcoding is efficient for identification in this group. Moreover pkd1 might not be suitable for a phylogenetic study at this scale for this group.

Lautredou, A.-C.; Bonillo, C.; Denys, G.; Cruaud, C.; Ozouf-Costaz, C.; Lecointre, G.; Dettai, A.

2010-08-01

131

Two metallothionein genes from mud loach Misgurnus mizolepis (Teleostei; Cypriniformes): gene structure, genomic organization, and mRNA expression analysis.  

PubMed

Two metallothionein genes, MLMT-IA and MLMT-IB, were isolated and characterized from the mud loach Misgurnus mizolepis (Teleostei; Cypriniformes). For these MTs, we determined a tandem "tail-to-head" genomic organizational pattern, identified conserved genomic features, showed high sequence identities in the coding regions, and examined the closest phylogenetic affiliation, suggesting their divergence by a recent gene duplication event. However, the 5'-flanking upstream regions in MLMT-IA and MLMT-IB exposed large differences in the composition and distribution patterns of various transcription factor binding motifs, especially regarding the organization of the metal response element clusters. Real-time RT-PCR assays showed that mRNA levels of both MLMT-IA and MLMT-IB isoforms were variable among tissues and the ratios between them were also variable across tissues, although the MLMT-IA was always predominant in every adult tissue tested. We also found that the MLMT-IA and MLMT-IB mRNA expression levels were regulated dynamically during embryonic and larval development stages, in which the basal expression level of MLMT-IA was also consistently higher than that of MLMT-IB. Upon acute in vivo metal exposure to cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, or zinc at 5 microM for 48 h, the transcriptional modulations of MLMT-IA and MLMT-IB were quite different from each other and the type of response was affected significantly by the kind of metals and tissues. PMID:19383548

Cho, Young Sun; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Keun-Yong; Nam, Yoon Kwon

2009-08-01

132

Persistence and residual activity of an organophosphate, pirimiphos-methyl, and three IGRs, hexaflumuron, teflubenzuron and pyriproxyfen, against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Three insect growth regulators (IGR), the chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) teflubenzuron and hexaflumuron and the juvenile hormone mimic (JHM) pyriproxyfen, as well as the organophosphate (OP) pirimiphos-methyl, were evaluated for their activity against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F), in cowpea seeds stored for up to 8 months post-treatment. The initial activity data showed that, based on LC50 level, teflubenzuron had strong ovicidal activity (LC50 = 0.056 mg kg(-1)) followed by pirimiphos-methyl (1.82 mg kg(-1)) and pyriproxyfen (91.9 mg kg(-1)). The residual activity data showed that none of the IGRs tested had strong activity when applied at 200 mg kg(-1) in reducing the oviposition rates of C maculatus at various storage intervals up to 8 months post-treatment. However, teflubenzuron reduced adult emergence (F1 progeny), achieving control ranging from 96.2% at 1 month to 94.3% at 8 months. Hexaflumuron showed a similar trend in its residual activity, ranging between 93.8% control at 1 month to 88.2% control at 8 months post-treatment. However, pyriproxyfen was more active than the CSIs tested and caused complete suppression (100% control) of adult emergence at all storage intervals. Unlike the IGRs tested, pirimiphos-methyl applied at 25 mg kg(-1) was more effective in reducing oviposition rates of C maculatus up to 8 months post-treatment. A strong reduction of adult emergence was also observed at various bimonthly intervals (98.6% control at 1 month to 91.6% control at 8 months post-treatment). The persistence of hexaflumuron and pirimiphos-methyl in cowpea seeds was also studied over a period of 8 months. The loss of hexaflumuron residue in treated cowpeas (200 mg kg(-1)) was very slow during the first month post-treatment (4.43%). At the end of 8 months, the residue level had declined significantly to 46.4% of the initial applied rate. The loss of pirimiphos-methyl residue in treated cowpeas (25 mg kg(-1)) was relatively high during the first month post-treatment (36.7%) and increased to 81.6% after 8 months. PMID:14727746

Abo-Elghar, Gamal E; El-Sheikh, Anwar E; El-Sayed, Ferial M; El-Maghraby, Hamdi M; El-Zun, Hesham M

2004-01-01

133

[Sinocyclocheilus xichouensis, a new species of golden-line fish from the Red River drainage in Yunnan, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes)].  

PubMed

In the present study, a new species of the genus Sinocyclocheilus Fang 1936, Sinocyclocheilus xichouensis, was described from the Ganhaizi tributary of Chouyang River, Red River drainage, located in southeast Yunnan, China. This species has normal eyes and a strong dorsal spine with serrations on the lower 3/5 part. In general, this species is similar in morphology to S. macrophthalmus, S. guishanensis, S. angustiporus, S. lateristritus, S. qiubeiensis, S. grahami, S. qujingensis, S. maculatus and S. purpureus distributed in the Nanpanjiang River, and S. qiubeiensis distributed in the Red River. It is distinguished from S. macrophthalmus by possessing fewer than 9 gill rakers. However, S. xichouensis can be distinguished from S. guishanensis by its interorbital width/SL of 8.1~9.9%, rostral barbels extended to posterior margin of eye and maxillary barbels extended to posterior preopercular. It is distinct from S. lateristritus by dorsal-fin origin opposite of pelvic fin origin, with no a black stripe along the lateral line. It is distinguished from S. grahami by 74~88 lateral-line scales, 20 scale rows above the lateral line, and 16 scale rows below the lateral line. It is distinguished from S. qujingensis by a curved lateral line, 74-88 lateral-line scales, 48 circumpeduncular scales. It can be distinguished from S. yimenensis by the ratio of predorsal length, dorsal-fin base length, preanal length, anal fin length, prepectoral length, caudal-peduncle length and lower jaw length to SL, 47.1%-53.7%, 12.8%-15.8%, 66.0%-71.0%, 13.7%-17.1%, 26.0%-29.5%, 19.3%-24.7%, 4.7%-7.0%, respectively. It is distinguished from S. maculatus and S. purpureus by possession of lateral line and scaled body and distinguished from S. angustiporus and S. qiubeiensis by 35~39 predorsal scales, 6 gill rakers, and interorbital width/SL of 8.1%-9.9%. PMID:23913886

Pan, Xiao-Fu; Li, Lie; Yang, Jun-Xing; Chen, Xiao-Yong

2013-08-01

134

Purification and characterization of a highly thermostable chitinase from the stomach of the red scorpionfish Scorpaena scrofa with bioinsecticidal activity toward cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

This present study is the first attempt to report on the purification and characterization of a chitinase from the stomach of the red scorpionfish Scorpaena scrofa. A 50-kDa chitinase (SsChi50) was purified to homogeneity, and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis showed that SsChi50 was a monomer with a molecular mass of 50,103 Da. The 25 N-terminal residues of SsChi50 displayed high homology with family-18 chitinases. Optimal activity was obtained at pH 5.0 at 80 °C. SsChi50 was stable at pH and temperature ranges of 3.0 to 7.0 and 70 to 90 °C for 48 and 4 h respectively. Among the inhibitors and metals tested, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, N-ethylmaleimide, Hg(2+), and Hg(+) completely inhibited enzyme activity. Chitinase activity was high on colloidal chitin, glycol chitin, glycol chitosane, chitotriose, and chitooligosaccharide. Chitinase activity towards synthetic substrates in the order of p-NP-(GlcNAc)(n) (n = 2-4) was p-NP-(GlcNAc)(2) > p-NP-(GlcNAc)(4) > p-NP-(GlcNAc)(3). Our results suggest that the SsChi50 enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed the second glycosidic link from the non-reducing end of (GlcNAc)(n). This enzyme obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, the K(m) and k(cat) values being 0.412 mg, colloidal chitin mL(-1) and 5.33 s(-1) respectively. An in vivo bioinsecticidal assay was developed for SsChi50 against Callosobruchus maculatus adults. The enzyme showed bioinsecticidal activity toward Callosobruchus maculatus, indicating the possibility of using it in biotechnological strategies for insect management for stored cowpea seeds. PMID:22972353

Laribi-Habchi, Hassiba; Dziril, Maya; Badis, Abdelmalek; Mouhoub, Samia; Mameri, Nabil

2012-01-01

135

Purification and characterization of an N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectin from Koelreuteria paniculata seeds and its effect on the larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

This study describes the purification of an N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectin from Koelreuteria paniculata seeds and its effects on the larval development of Callobruchus maculatus and Anagasta kuehniella. The lectin (KpLec) was characterized and isolated by gel filtration, affinity column, and reverse phase chromatography. SDS-PAGE indicated that this lectin is a dimer composed of subunits of 22 and 44 kDa. The N terminus exhibited 40% similarity with Urtiga dioica agglutinin. KpLec was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus and A. kuehniella. With regard to C. maculatus, an artificial diet containing 0.7 and 1% KpLec produced LD(50) and ED(50) value, respectively. However, for A. kuenhiella, an artificial diet containing 0.65% KpLec produced an LD(50), whereas 0.2% KpLec produced an ED(50). The transformation of genes coding for this lectin could be useful in the development of insect resistance in important agricultural crops. PMID:12720380

Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; Damico, Daniela Carla S; Freire, Maria das Graças Machado; Toyama, Marcos H; Marangoni, Sérgio; Novello, José C

2003-05-01

136

Regeneration in Salaria pavo (Blenniidae, Teleostei). Histogenesis of the regenerating pectoral fin suggests different mechanisms for morphogenesis and structural maintenance.  

PubMed

The pectoral fin of blennies is differentiated into a dorsal field and a ventral hook field. A histogenetic analysis of the regenerating pectoral fin was related to two questions. First, are histological specializations of the hook field responsible for the impairment of the regenerative capacity of pectoral fins of blennies? Second, can analysis of the temporal sequence of histogenetic events be used to make testable predictions about the tissue interactions required to re-establish the adult pattern? Regeneration of pectoral fins was examined in Salaria pavo (Blenniidae, Teleostei). Approximately 80% of the length of the fin rays was amputated. Fin ray stumps were evaluated 7, 14, 24, 48 and 72 h after amputation, regenerates 4, 5, and 6 days after amputation and at length of about 30%, 50% and 60% regeneration of the original fin length. The regeneration process is subdivided into four stages: wound healing, blastema formation, fin ray formation and distal outgrowth and differentiation of hook characters. Analysis of the early events of regeneration, wound healing, blastema formation and distal outgrowth, yielded no profound differences from those of conventional fins in general. Impairment of regenerative capacity becomes manifested before histological differentiation of hook characters, and it is thus unlikely that their presence is the proximate cause of heteromorphic regeneration. The sequence in which the anatomical specializations characteristic of fin hooks (lepidotrichal cord, cuticle, fin web regression) appear was variable. Detailed analysis of older regenerates revealed a more regular pattern. In the first phase the characters appear to be largely independently organized, while they become locally correlated later. It is concluded that the anatomical differentiation passes through two stages, initiation of anatomical differentiation, and then mutual adjustment of character expression leading to spatially correlated expression of the lepidotrichal cord, the cuticle and the fin web regression. PMID:1510245

Misof, B Y; Wagner, G P

1992-07-01

137

Catálogo de galaxias con núcleo doble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through systematic inspection of the publications in extragalactic astronomy and galaxy catalogs, we compiled a first list of spiral galaxies with double or multiple nucleus, confirmed and candidates (about 150 objects). This list includes, in its preliminar form, basic data on each object (Names, Coordinates, Redshift, Abs.Mag.B, Major and Minor Axes, Nuclei Separation, IR Properties, Comments, etc.) and for nuclei with apparent separations larger than 1'', it seems complete up to z = 0.0015. This allows us to analize the possible correlations between the geometric and photometric parameters of the double nuclei and the host galaxies, some of which are important, e.g.: nuclei separation vs. absolute magnitude and vs. host galaxy diameter; star formation rate vs. nuclei separation. We also find common global infrared an optical photometric properties that are beeing analized in order to check the validity of some models of galaxies captures and mergers. A subsample of southern objects included in this catalog is beeing observed at Bosque Alegre Astrophysical Station and, up to date, we have performed BVRI photometry and spectroscopy of twelve double or multiple nuclei galaxies.

Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R. J.; Carranza, G.

138

El trío de galaxias en Pavo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the preliminary results of the spectroscopic and morphological study of one spectacular triple system in the Pavo-Indus southern constellation. The triplet, conformed by NGC 6769, NGC 6770 and NGC 6771, has morphological evidences of interaction and would be situated in the center of a major group of galaxies distant 50 Mpc (H0 = 75 km/s/Mpc). The observations were carried out at the 1.54 m reflector telescope of Bosque Alegre Astrophysical Station with the Multifunction Spectrograph in the long-slit mode and a 1200 l/mm grating in first order, with a dispersion of 0.79 Å/pixel in the detector plane and a spectral resolution of about ~1.6 Å. The emission and absorption lines (NaI ? ? 5889 Å, 5895 Å, H? ? 6563 Å, [NII] ? ? 6548 Å, 6584 Å) were adjusted by gaussians to determine the parameters which describe them. The systemic velocity values obtained were 3865 ± 30 km/s for NGC 6769, 3805 ± 30 km/s for NGC 6770 and 4410 ± 30 km/s for NGC 6771. The analysis of ionized gas and stars kinematic properties in each component has allowed us to estimate the masses and the mass/luminosity ratio of each of these spiral galaxies, within their optical radii. The estimated values are: NGC 6769, M ~2 E11 Msolar, (M/LB) ~6 NGC 6770, M ~3 E11 Msolar, (M/LB) ~5 and NGC 6771, M ~5 E11 Msolar, (M/LB) ~17. Recently, we have obtained spectra of lower resolution, which preliminary show that NGC 6770 has an active nucleus with emission line ratios of LINER kind and FWHM of about 400 km/s.

Oddone, M.; Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.; Goldes, G.

139

Galaxias enanas: las voces de la mayoría  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than twenty years after photographic surveys of nearby clusters of galaxies revealed that low-luminosity, or ``dwarf'', galaxies (M_B ? -18 mag) are the numerically dominant population, research on these objects has been boosted by new instrumental and theoretical developments. Among several breakthroughs that have re-shaped our knowledge abut dwarf galaxies, we should point out: the detection of underlying spiral structure, disks/bars in dwarf ``elliptical'' galaxies; the possible evolutionary relation between (some?) dwarf ellipticals and spiral galaxies; the discoveries of ultra-compact and ultra-faint dwarfs; the universality of the color-luminosity relation extending along ˜ 10 mag. A brief review on these subjects is presented, with emphasis on early-type dwarfs and their possible evolutionary relations with other galaxy types. I will particularly address the controversy about which are the objects that extend the E sequence down to the lowest luminosities (if such objects really exist). FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Cellone, S. A.

140

Las Galaxias Enanas y la Red Cósmica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a cosmological numerical simulation of the Local Group formation, we identify a mechanism able to remove gas from low-mass halos, affecting dramatically their star formation histories. As the Local Group forms, matter bound to it develops an intrincate network of filaments and pancakes, which sweeps a large volume, overtaking and removing the gas of several halos, leaving their dark matter component unaffected. The gas loss is particulary pronunced for low-mass halos, which may help to explain the scarcity of dwarf galaxies observed when compared to the large number of low-mass halos expected in the ?CDM cosmological model. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Benítez Llambay, A.; Abadi, M. G.

141

Distribución de Masa en Galaxias Espirales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the relationship between Kinematics and Surface Brightness in a sample of 22 spiral galaxies. We pay attention on the uncertainties that are involved in the velocity and brightness interpretation in terms of mass and luminosities. Finally, we analyze how the observational bias could affect the determination of the dark halo potential. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Agüero, M. P.; Díaz, R. J.

142

Comparative morphology of the gonadal structure related to reproductive strategies in six species of neotropical catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes).  

PubMed

We studied the relationship between the morphology of the reproductive system and the reproductive strategies of six neotropical catfishes using macroscopic and microscopic analyses. The reproductive system of the examined Siluriformes showed diversified characteristics, but permitted their being grouped according to three reproductive strategies: pelagic spawning, demersal spawning, and internally fertilizing. The pelagic spawners Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Conorhynchos conirostris have testes that are characterized by filiform lobes, absence of testicular secretion, full-grown oocytes of small diameter, thin zona radiata, and cuboidal follicular cells. Pimelodus maculatus is morphologically distinct from the other two pelagic spawners catfishes due to the presence of testicular secretion. The demersal spawners Lophiosilurus alexandri and Rhinelepis aspera possess homogeneous testicular secretion, large mature oocytes, and columnar follicular cells. The most specialized reproductive system was observed in the internally fertilizing Trachelyopterus galeatus, which possesses a seminal vesicle accessory to the testes, spermatozoa with elongated nuclei that form spermatozeugmata, and a secretory ovarian lamellar epithelium that is associated with sperm storage. The reproductive system observed in Neotropical catfishes showed a relationship associated with the type of fertilization and the reproductive strategies of the six species studied. PMID:21246599

Melo, Rafael Magno Costa; Arantes, Fábio Pereira; Sato, Yoshimi; dos Santos, José Enemir; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo

2011-05-01

143

Purification of a lectin from the marine red alga Gracilaria ornata and its effect on the development of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

A lectin from the marine red alga Gracilaria ornata (Gracilariaceae, Rodophyta) was purified and characterized. The purification procedure consisted of extracting soluble proteins in 0.025 M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5, followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation (70% saturation), ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and affinity chromatography on mucin-Sepharose 4B. The purified G. ornata lectin (GOL) showed a single protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 17 kDa when submitted to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. The native molecular mass of GOL determined by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column was 17.4 kDa and its carbohydrate content was estimated to be 2.9%. Therefore, GOL is a monomeric glycoprotein. The purified lectin agglutinated trypsin-treated erythrocytes from rabbit and chicken but not from human. Its activity was not inhibited by any of the mono- and disaccharides tested but by the complex glycoproteins porcine stomach mucin, lactotransferrin, asialofetuin and bovine and porcine thyroglobulins. Isoelectric focusing showed that GOL is an acidic protein with a pI of 5.4 with analysis of its amino acid composition revealing high contents of Asx, Glx, Ser, Glu, Ala and Cys. When incorporated in artificial seeds, GOL significantly affected the development of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, indicating the possibility of using this lectin in a biotechnological strategy for insect management of stored cowpea seeds. PMID:15869843

Leite, Yáskara Fabíola Monteiro Marques; Silva, Luana Maria Castelo Melo; Amorim, Rodrigo César das Neves; Freire, Eder Almeida; de Melo Jorge, Daniel Macedo; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Benevides, Norma Maria Barros

2005-06-20

144

Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), ?-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects.

Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

2012-01-01

145

Insecticide activity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii against two stored product pests, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), ?-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC(50) values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC(50) = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC(50) = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

2012-01-01

146

Protecting embryos from stress: Corticosterone effects and the corticosterone response to capture and confinement during pregnancy in a live-bearing lizard (Hoplodactylus maculatus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hormones in the embryonic environment, including those of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, have profound effects on development in eutherian mammals. However, little is known about their effects in reptiles that have independently evolved viviparity. We investigated whether exogenous corticosterone affected embryonic development in the viviparous gecko Hoplodactylus maculatus, and whether pregnant geckos have a corticosterone response to capture and confinement that is suppressed relative to that in non-pregnant (vitellogenic) females and males. Corticosterone implants (5 mg, slow-release) administered to females in mid-pregnancy caused a large elevation of corticosterone in maternal plasma (P<0.001), probable reductions in embryonic growth and development (P=0.069-0.073), developmental abnormalities and eventual abortions. Cool temperature produced similar reductions in embryonic growth and development (P???0.036 cf. warm controls), but pregnancies were eventually successful. Despite the potentially harmful effects of elevated plasma corticosterone, pregnant females did not suppress their corticosterone response to capture and confinement relative to vitellogenic females, and both groups of females had higher responses than males. Future research should address whether lower maternal doses of corticosterone produce non-lethal effects on development that could contribute to phenotypic plasticity. Corticosterone implants also led to increased basking in pregnant females (P<0.001), and basal corticosterone in wild geckos (independent of reproductive condition) was positively correlated with body temperature (P<0.001). Interactions between temperature and corticosterone may have broad significance to other terrestrial ectotherms, and body temperature should be considered as a variable influencing plasma corticosterone concentrations in all future studies on reptiles. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Cree, A.; Tyrrell, C. L.; Preest, M. R.; Thorburn, D.; Guillette, Jr. , L. J.

2003-01-01

147

Performance of bean bruchids Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) reared on resistant (IT81D-1045) and susceptible (Epace 10) Vigna unguiculata seeds: relationship with trypsin inhibitor and vicilin excretion.  

PubMed

Callosobruchus maculatus (Cm) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Zs) were reared on resistant (IT81D-1045) and on susceptible (Epace 10) cowpea seeds. The emergence of adult insects, total developmental period (TDP) and excretion of trypsin inhibitor and vicilin were determined for both bruchid populations. Parameter evaluation showed that the Zs populations emerged from both seeds had no significant differences in emergence and TDP. The Cm population raised from resistant seeds had lower emergence (5.6+/-1.3%) and delayed TDP (46+/-1.25 days) than those emerged from susceptible seeds. The excretion of defense proteins showed that Zs reared in resistant seeds excreted 1.7 times more trypsin inhibitor, but this did not affect emergence or TDP. Furthermore, Cm population emerged from resistant seeds excreted 7 times higher vicilin and 0.4 times less trypsin inhibitor than that emerged from susceptible seeds. These results indicate that vicilins from resistant seeds are involved to significantly longer TDP (46 days) and also drastic reduction of insect emergence ( approximately 5%) of C. maculatus. PMID:16246611

Sales, M P; Andrade, L B S; Ary, M B; Miranda, M R A; Teixeira, F M; Oliveira, A S; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J

2005-12-01

148

In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.  

PubMed

A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets. PMID:15913299

Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

2005-06-01

149

Seven-locus molecular phylogeny of Myctophiformes (Teleostei; Scopelomorpha) highlights the utility of the order for studies of deep-sea evolution.  

PubMed

Fishes of the order Myctophiformes (Teleostei; Scopelomorpha) comprise over half of all deep-sea biomass, and are a critical component of marine ecosystems worldwide. Members of the family Myctophidae, within Myctophiformes, form the majority of species diversity within the order (?250 species, 33 genera, 2 subfamilies), and are further known for their diverse bioluminescent traits, comprised of distinct cranial, postcranial, and caudal luminous systems that is perhaps the most elaborate among all vertebrates. These features make myctophids particularly compelling from both economic and scientific perspectives, yet no studies have sampled these fishes at a density appropriate for addressing any questions requiring a phylogenetic hypothesis as input. This study therefore presents a seven-locus molecular phylogeny of the order, sampling over 50% of all nominal myctophid species. This taxon sampling triples the representation of the next most comprehensive analysis, and reveals several new and well-supported hypotheses of relationships, in addition to supporting traditional hypotheses based on combined morphological data. This analysis shows that the slendertailed myctophids Gonichthys, Centrobranchus, Loweina, and Tarletonbeania are rendered non-monophyletic by a polyphyletic Myctophum; the enigmatic, monotypic genus Notolychnus valdiviae is nested within tribe Lampanyctini; the genus Diaphus is divided into at least two clades, with the suborbital (So) group recovered as monophyletic with strong support; and the genera Lampanyctus and Nannobrachium are recovered as non-monophyletic. These molecular results highlight the potential of myctophids as a premier model system for the application of modern comparative methods to studies of deep-sea evolution. PMID:24583290

Denton, John S S

2014-07-01

150

Evolución en Núcleos Activos de Galaxias y QSOs I. Relación Starbursts y AGNs en Galaxias Próximas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have started a new part of our program: ``Study of Evolution of AGNs & QSOs''. This new part is mainly a study of the relation between Starbursts and AGNs-QSOs in nearby galaxies (using our model of Evolutive, Composite & Explosive AGNs-QSOs). In particular, we have started spectrophotometric and imaging observations at CASLEO, Bosque Alegre, Gemini, Calar Alto, etc. This study also includes the analysis of Archive Data. Here we show our first results for NGC 1097. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Lípari, S.; Merlo, D.; Moyano, M.

151

Climate-induced changes to the ancestral population size of two Patagonian galaxiids: the influence of glacial cycling.  

PubMed

Patagonia is one of the few areas in the Southern Hemisphere to have been directly influenced by Quaternary glaciers. In this study, we evaluate the influence that Quaternary glacial ice had on the genetic diversity of two congeneric fish species, the diadromous Galaxias maculatus and the nondiadromous Galaxias platei, using multilocus estimates of effective population size through time. Mid-Quaternary glaciations had far-reaching consequences for both species. Galaxias maculatus and G. platei each experienced severe genetic bottlenecks during the period when Patagonia ice sheet advance reached its maximum positions c. 1.1-0.6 Ma. Concordant drops in effective size during this time suggest that range sizes were under similar constraints. It is therefore unlikely that coastal (brackish/marine) environments served as a significant refuge for G. maculatus during glacial periods. An earlier onset of population declines for G. platei suggests that this species was vulnerable to modest glacial advances. Declines in effective sizes were continuous for both species and lasted into the late-Pleistocene. However, G. maculatus exhibited a strong population recovery during the late-Quaternary (c. 400,000 bp). Unusually long and warm interglacials associated with the late-Quaternary may have helped to facilitate a strong population rebound in this primarily coastal species. PMID:22077139

Zemlak, Tyler S; Walde, Sandra J; Habit, Evelyn M; Ruzzante, Daniel E

2011-12-01

152

Unique features of pedicellate attachment of the upper jaw teeth in the adult gobiid fish Sicyopterus japonicus (Teleostei, Gobiidiae): morphological and structural characteristics and development.  

PubMed

Sicyopterus japonicus (Teleostei, Gobiidae), a hill-stream herbivorous gobiid fish, possesses an unusual oral dentition among teleost fishes on account of its feeding habitat. By using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, including vital staining with tetracycline, we examined the development of the attachment tissues of the upper jaw teeth in this fish. The functional teeth of S. japonicus had an asymmetrical dentine shaft. The dentine shaft attached to the underlying uniquely shaped pedicel by means of two different attachment mechanisms. At the lingual base, collagen fiber bundles connected the dentine shaft with the pedicel (hinged attachment), whereas the labial base articulated with an oval-shaped projection of the pedicel (articulate attachment). The pedicel bases were firmly ankylosed to the crest of the thin flange of porous spongy bone on the premaxillary bone, which afforded a flange-groove system on the labial surface of the premaxillary bone. Developmentally, the pedicel and thin flange of spongy bone were completely different mineralized attachment tissues. The pedicel had a dual origin, i.e., the dental papilla cells, which differentiated into odontoblasts that constructed the internal surface of the pedicel, and the mesenchymal cells, which differentiated into osteoblasts that formed the outer face of the pedicel. A thin flange of spongy bone was deposited on the superficial resorbed labial side of the premaxillary bone proper, and later rapid bone remodeling proceeded toward the pedicel base. These unique features of pedicellate tooth attachment for the upper jaw teeth in the adult S. japonicus are highly modified teeth for enhancing the ability of individual functional teeth to move closely over irregularities in the rock surfaces during the scraping of algae. PMID:23280699

Sahara, Noriyuki; Moriyama, Keita; Iida, Midori; Watanabe, Shun

2013-05-01

153

Análisis de la formación de galaxias en grupos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The actual cosmological paradigm postulates that structure formation occurs in a hierarchical way. In such scenarios, interactions among galaxies are frequent and play an important role in determining their properties, and particularly, in the regulation of star formation. Observations show that interactions and collisions can increase the star formation rate (Larson & Tinsley 1978; Donzelli & Pastoriza 1997; Barton et al 1998). In particular, recent observational results (García Lambas, Tissera, Alonso & Coldwell, 2003) show that star formation in galaxy pairs is significantly enhanced over that of isolated galaxies with the same redshift distribution. Theoretical interpretation of these observational results could be associated to the dynamical stability of galactic systems. Numerical simulations show that disc galaxies without bulges or with small ones, tend to develop instabilities induced by tidal interactions which produce gas inflows and trigger star formation (Mihos & Hernquist 1996; Domínguez-Tenreiro, Tissera & Sáiz 1998). Although simulations and observations show the effects of galaxy interactions on the star formation, intrinsic properties of galaxies in pairs must play a crucial role due to high observed fraction of galaxies pairs with low star formation rate (García Lambas et al 2003). In order to see if these observational results are reproduced in hierarhical clustering scenarios, we study the star formation of galaxy pairs, as well as any possible effects provoked by interactions on other astrophysical properties, such the chemical ones. For this purpose, we use hydrodynamical simulations consistent with a CDM model: ?=1, ?=0 and H0=50 km s-1 Mpc-1, which include star formation and chemical evolution (Mosconi et al 2001). We analyzed three different realizations of the power spectrum in the redshift range of the 2dFGRS catalog (García Lambas et al. 2003). Identified structures were classified as isolated galaxies and galaxies in closed pairs, and then grouped according to the environment. Firstly, the classification was carried out by using the 3D velocity and spatial separations. In agreement with the observational results, we found that closed encounters with a relative 3D distances r<30 kpc, show an enhancement of star formation rate with respect to the mean field value (bar{b}=3.04) calculated considering galaxies with r > 100 kpc. Preliminary results show the media abundance of (O/H) of the stellar populations in closed pairs is systematically higher than that value for field galaxies, suggesting a tendency with the relative 3D distances, which can be associated to a major production of SNII originated by the enhancement of star formation in closed pair galaxies. The interstellar medium shows the same trend but with lower mean abundance values suggesting an accretion of low metallicity gas. Fe is produced mainly by SNI, with a delay of 0.1 Gyr; therefore, it is not coupled to present star formation activity but to the history of star formation. Our results suggest a certain trend for Fe to be higher at smaller relative 3D distances. The higher Fe abundances indicate that closer pairs might have a major old stellar population. Future works involved the performance of a mock pair catalog by projecting the 3D-simulated pair galaxies and the study of the properties of projected pairs and the effects of interlopers on the conclusions drawn from them (Pérez et al., in preparation).

Pérez, M. J.; Tissera, P.; García Lambas, D.

154

Observaciones CCD de grupos compactos de galaxias. III Hickson 87  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the preliminary results of the morphological and kinematical study of the galaxies that compose the Hickson 87 compact group, using HST-WFPC2 images and spectra obtained at Bosque Alegre Astrophysical Station. Our spectra yield a better radial velocity determination of the five galaxies that are nominally included in this group, and allowed the determination of the internal radial velocity amplitudes of the galaxies A, B, C and E. We made the surface photometry of the objects and estimated the mass/luminosity ratio of each object. The morphology of galaxy B presents perturbations at low luminosity levels, possibly due to the interaction with the spiral galaxy A, and shows a blue circumnuclear ring in the color map. The spectra of all the galaxies have emission lines, A and B would not harbour an AGN, in contradiction with previous, less detailed works. The most important result is that this would not be a completely physical group, because the galaxies HCG 87 D and E would be respectively nearer and farther than the trio of galaxies HCG 87 A, B and C.

Campos, M.; Mast, D.; Agüero, M. P.; Weidmann, W.; Díaz, R. J.; Calderón, J. H.

155

Evolución de la tasa de formación estelar en galaxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large surveys of galaxies at intermediate and high redshift available in the last few years make feasible to study in more detail galaxy evolution. The aim of this work is to provide clues for the understanding of the star formation history of the Universe through a statistical study of star formation in individual galaxies. We use hydrodynamical cosmological simulations, based on the SPH technique, of a standard Cold Dark Matter Universe. We define the specific star formation rate (sSFR) of the galactic objects as the SFR per unit luminosity. The luminosities of the galactic halos are obtained from the evolutionary synthesis population models of Charlott & Bruzual (1991). The sSFR of galactic objects and their progenitors identified in the simulations can be followed up with redshift and compared to observations. Two samples of field galaxies up to z = 1.4 were considered to confront the model results: the Canada-France Redshift Survey (CFRS, Hammer et al. (1997)), and the group of compact galaxies analized by Phillips et al. (1997) and Guzmán et al. (1997). The sSFR for these galaxies were estimated from their spectral properties. >From the confrontation of models and observations, we see that galactic objects formed in hierarchical clustering scenarios seem to reproduce fairly well the observed specific SFRs at intermediate (0.35 < z < 0.7) and high (0.7 < z <1.4) redshifts and also, their dependence on mass and redshift. Our results suggest that in both, simulations and observations, the mechanisms controlling the transformation of gas into stars is more effective at high redshift and in smaller objects producing larger sSFR in low-mass galaxies. We find that the sSFR depends on the redshift. Results from simulations (e.g., Mihos & Hernquist 1996; Tissera 2000) and observations (e.g., Barton et al. 1996; Gallagher et al. 2000) suggest that starbursts induced during mergers and interactions could be responsable for this behavior, as they are likely to be more frequent at high z and in objects with shallower potential wells.

Cora, S. A.; Muriel, H.; Tissera, P. B.; García Lambas, D.; Mosconi, M. B.

156

Estructuras circumnucleares en la galaxia Seyfert interactuante NGC 1241  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the rotation curve and morphology of the central 10 kiloparsecs (~40'') of NGC 1241 obtaining 50 radial velocity measurements in three different position angles. These observations indicate a large velocity gradient of 70 km/sec/('') in the central 5''. The fitting of different density distribution laws to the derived rotation curve indicates a mass of ~ 9 E9 Msolar in the inner kpc. HST-NICMOS images show the presence of a circumnuclear star formation ring at radius ~ 2.8'' (720 pc). This ring is more defined than most of the known cases and harbours a mini-bar and nuclear spiral arms with a sense of rotation opposite than the main spiral arms. This morphological evidence suggest the presence of a dynamically decoupled system inside the circumnuclear ring. As in other cases studied by us, the ring seems to be inside an Inner Lindblad Resonance and the Lindblad curve ?-?/2 for this object begins to drop for Rmax = 400 pc (~1.5''), but the limited spatial resolution does not allow us to find out a definitive evidence for the existence of a second ILR inside at inner radii. Up to date there is no published morphological or kinematical evidence for the presence of a second ILR at such small radii, a necessary ingredient for the presence of circumnuclear ring of star formation, considering the results of recent hydrodynamic simulations. We have proposed the observation of NGC 1241 with better instruments in order to extend the rotation curve to the central 2'', unveil the presence of a second inner resonance, study in detail the structural properties of the nuclear counterrotating arms and establish accurate models of mass distribution in galaxies with circumnuclear rings. This program has been awarded with Band 1 observing time at the Gemini North Telescope Quick Start Stage (Brasil and Argentina).

Díaz, R. J.; Carranza, G.; Dottori, H.

157

Estructuras circumnucleares en la galaxia Seyfert interactuante NGC 1241  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the rotation curve and morphology of the central 10 kiloparsecs (~40'') of NGC 1241 obtaining 50 radial velocity measurements in three different position angles. These observations indicate a large velocity gradient of 70 km\\/sec\\/('') in the central 5''. The fitting of different density distribution laws to the derived rotation curve indicates a mass of ~ 9 E9

R. J. Díaz; G. Carranza; H. Dottori

2000-01-01

158

Superestructuras y las propiedades del clustering de galaxias brillantes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is based on the results presented in Yaryura et al. (2012, MNRAS, 426, 708), where the clustering properties of galaxies is analyzed as a function of their large-scale environment. In order to characterize the environment on large scales, we use the catalogue of future virialized superstructures (FVS) by Luparello et al. (2011, MNRAS, 415, 964) and separate samples of luminous galaxies according to whether or not they belong to FVS. The correlations have similar amplitudes at scales r ? 1 h^{-1} Mpc. We have performed a similar analysis using a semi-analytic implementation in a ?CDM cosmological model, where we found that the cross-correlation functions depend on the large-scale structures in a similar way to the observations. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Yaryura, C. Y.; Lares, M.; Luparello, H. E.; Paz, D. J.; Lambas, D. G.; Padilla, N.; Sgró, M. A.

159

Cúmulos globulares y galaxias enanas en Pegasus I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first results of a photometric and spectroscopic study of the central region of the Pegasus I group. We have identified 1800 globular cluster candidates with g'_0<26 mag, and ˜ 60 possibles UCDs or young clusters, as well as the presence of at least two subpopulations of clusters in both dominant galaxies. We also present the brightness profiles and their Sérsic fits for two dwarf galaxies previously reported in the literature, as well as for a new dE,N candidate. We confirm that the two former galaxies are group members. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Faifer, F. R.; Escudero, C.; Smith Castelli, A. V.; González, N. M.; Forte, J. C.; Bassino, L. P.; Cellone, S. A.

160

Sistemas de galaxias luminosas rojas: Supercúmulos a partir de sobredensidades de galaxias en el catálogo fotométrico del SDSS.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identify luminous red galaxy (LRG) systems in the Sloan Survey, using a percolation algorithm. We find 737 systems with at least 4 members, on a total of 17977 LRGs in the range 0.30

Luparello, H.; Lares, M.; García Lambas, D.

161

Ligophorus spp. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) occurring in the fresh and brackish waters of the Shatt Al-Arab River and Estuary in southern Iraq, with the description of Ligophorus sagmarius sp. n. from the greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes).  

PubMed

The gills of three of five species of mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) collected from the brackish and fresh waters of southern Iraq were infected with species of Ligophorus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) as follows: greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes) infected with Ligophorus lebedevi Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina and Galli, 2012, Ligophorus bantingensis Soo and Lim, 2012, Ligophorus sagmarius n. sp., and Ligophorus fluviatilis (Bychowsky, 1949) Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina, and Galli, 2012; Klunzinger’s mullet Liza klunzingeri (Day) with L. bantingensis, L. fluviatilis, and an apparently undescribed species of Ligophorus; and abu mullet Liza abu (Heckel) with L. bantingensis and L. fluviatilis. The keeled mullet Liza carinata (Valenciennes) and Speigler’s mullet Valamugil speigleri (Bleeker) were uninfected. L. sagmarius n. sp. is described, and L. lebedevi and L. bantingensis are redescribed. Available specimens of L. fluviatilis and the undescribed species of Ligophorus from Klunzinger’s mullet were insufficient for description. PMID:24022128

Kritsky, Delane C; Khamees, Najim R; Ali, Atheer H

2013-12-01

162

Effect of ramp length and slope on the efficacy of a baffled fish pass.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of ramp length and slope on fish passage over baffled ramps with 15° and 30° gradients. Three fish species indigenous to New Zealand were tested: the redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni, the common bully Gobiomorphus cotidianus and the inanga Galaxias maculatus with ramp lengths of 3, 4·5 and 6?m. As slope and ramp length increased, passage success rate decreased for G. maculatus and G. cotidianus. At a slope of 15°, both G. maculatus and G. cotidianus could pass all ramp lengths tested with the highest success rate on the 3?m ramp. As the gradient increased to 30°, G. maculatus could only pass the 3?m ramp, and G. cotidianus were incapable of passing any ramp. Gobiomorphus huttoni were the only test species capable of climbing the wetted margin of the ramps. Increasing ramp slope significantly reduced passage success for G. huttoni, but ramp length, up to the maximum used in this study, had no significant influence on successful passage. PMID:24417428

Baker, C F

2014-02-01

163

Ecology of the tiger quoll dasyurus maculatus maculatus in coastal New South Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammal fauna of Australia has undergone a dramatic and significant decline since the arrival and settlement of Europeans on the east coast of Australia. Eighteen native Australian mammals are considered extinct, 35 are endangered and 51 vulnerable, out of a total of 357 species. The Tiger Quoll is considered threatened in all mainland states, it is considered rare in

Deborah L Andrew

2005-01-01

164

Estudio de Evolución de los Núcleos Activos de Galaxias y QSOs: II. Búsqueda de Supernovas en Galaxias Pr'oximas con AGNs y Starburst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several lines of observational evidences suggesting that supernovae and hypernovae events play a main role in evolution of galaxies, AGNs and QSOs. In order to search more detailed information, we have started a study and detection of supernovae and hypernovae in the nuclei of nearby active galaxies obtaining high-resolution spectra and images in the standard UBVRI filters mainly from CASLEO, Bosque Alegre and data from archive of HST, ESO and La Palma observatories. In this paper we present the first preliminary results obtained in this program. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Merlo, D.; Lípari, S.; Moyano, M.

165

The importance of cutaneous gas exchange during aerial and aquatic respiration in galaxiids.  

PubMed

The Canterbury mudfish Neochanna burrowsius was found to be a pseudo-aestivating galaxiid with a low metabolic rate and significant cutaneous oxygen uptake (c. 43%) in both air and water. Another galaxiid, inanga Galaxias maculatus, had a higher metabolic rate in both media but the proportion of oxygen uptake met by cutaneous respiration rose significantly from 38 to 63% when the fish were exposed to air. Besides its important role in oxygen uptake, the skin of both species also contributed significantly to excretion of carbon dioxide in air, indicating the critical role of the integument as a respiratory tissue. In air, G. maculatus may increase cutaneous gas exchange to meet metabolic demands owing to the reduced utility of the gills, but as emersed G. maculatus were only able to maintain metabolic rates at c. 67% of that measured in water, this strategy probably only permits short-term survival. By contrast, the low and unchanging metabolic rate in water and air in N. burrowsius is a feature that may facilitate tolerance of long periods of emersion in the desiccating environments they inhabit. PMID:24417441

Urbina, M A; Meredith, A S; Glover, C N; Forster, M E

2014-03-01

166

Efecto de las colisiones sobre el Plano Fundamental de bulbos de galaxia espirales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aspects of the Fundamental Plane (FP) relation for ellipticals and early type bulges can be explained assuming the virialization of the systems, however, the observed dispersions are larger than instrumentation errors and have been thought to have physical basis. Even more, it is expected that the scatter and the position that different objects ocupy on it, could give clues on the mechanisms of galaxy formation and on the evolutionary path of galaxies. The FP relation has been observed and confirmed in the local Universe and it has been recently estimated for galaxies at intermediate redshifts. However, these estimations are based on a low statitical number and effects such as the evolution of the stellar populations and the presence of dust may introduce additional dispersion. Scannapieco & Tissera (2003) studied the mass distribution of disk systems and the way in which this distribution is modified by mergers. These authors have used numerical simulations which included gravitation, hydrodynamics, cooling and stellar formation in a cosmological frame work. As a consecuence, the collision parameters and the physical features of the simulated objects are the result of the consistent formation of the structure in a hierarchical scenario. The results show that depending on the caracteristics of the potential well, some systems may suffer gas inflows as a result of tidal fields during the orbital decay of the satellite system. This gas inflow originates a star burst previous to the fusion (i.e. secular evolution) which tends to form bulges with exponential profiles. In this work we present preliminary results on the effects of mergers on the FP defined by bulges. We found that the simulated bulges determines a FP in agreement with observations. We have detected that the mergers could significantly affect the FP depending on the internal properties of the galactic systems. And, particularly, secular evolution is found to play a critical role in the determination of a FP with the observed slope (Smith Castelli et al., 2004, in preparation).

Smith Castelli, A.; Scannapieco, C.; Tissera, P.

167

Musings on "Densidades, Potenciales y Funciones Asociadas a una Galaxia Reducida" by Poveda et al. (1960)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a critical review on the paper "Densities, Potentials and related functions for a spherical reduced galaxy" by A. Poveda, R. Iturriaga, and I. Orozco published in 1960 in the Boletín de los Observatorios de Tonantzintla y Tacubaya (BOTT), 2, 20, 3.

López-Cruz, O.; Aguilar, L. A.; Añorve, C.

2011-04-01

168

Estudio de la región central de la galaxia Liner NGC 5248  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the preliminary results of the spectroscopic mapping and surface photometry in broad and narrow band of the central region of NGC 5248, a Liner active galaxy. We describe the whole set of observations performed at Bosque Alegre Astrophysical Station, Casleo and CTIO, and we discuss some of the results obtained. The ionized gas velocity field has mainly circular motions in the central 6'' and suggests a total mass (inner to 400 pc) of 2.1 ± 0.5x109 Msolar. The line flux ratio map, [NII]?6583 Å / H? reach the highest values in the circumnuclear ring of HII regions. We are running numerical models of the nebular emission in order to know if this property is due to a higher level of exitation in the ring gas or it is caused by N overabundance.

Vega, L.; Díaz, R. J.; Lípari, S.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Dottori, H.; Carranza, G.

169

Diferenciación de Galaxias Activas de Líneas Delgadas a Partir de Diagramas BPT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classification of active galaxies is made through careful analysis of their spectra, either by measuring the width of the emission lines or comparing the flux ratios between these lines. One of the best known methods for this process is the use of BPT (Baldwin, Phillips, & Terlevich) diagrams which allow the distinction of different types of active galaxies. In this article we present the study of a sample of active galaxies with thin lines taken from the SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) whose flux ratios were measured and diagnostic diagrams were constructed, thus allowing the differentiation between starburst (or H II) galaxies and authentic type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We show that there are some objects with similar spectra that have been misclassified. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Torres, J.; Portilla, J. G.

170

Interacciones de galaxias: sistemas co-rotantes y contra-rotantes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a sample of interacting galaxy pairs with tidal tails. We perform a visual cassification according to the sense of rotation of the spiral arms of each member of the tidal system. We study general features of interacting galaxies such as mass content in stars (M^*), luminosity ratios and local environment through an analysis of the ?_5 parameter. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Mesa, V.; Duplancic, F.; Alonso, S.; García Lambas, D.

171

Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) en modelos semi-analíticos de formación de galaxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results of calibrations of a semi-analytic galaxy formation model performed using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique. This method involves the exploration of the parameter space by random walks of a set of ``particles'' that share information between them. Thus, comparing the model results against a set of observables (e.g. luminosity functions, the relation between black hole mass and bulge mass, morphological fractions), the PSO method yields a set of best-fitting values for the free parameters of the model. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Ruiz, A. N.; Domínguez, M. J.; Padilla, N. D.; Cora, S. A.; García Lambas, D.; Tecce, T. E.; Gargiulo, I. D.; Muñoz Arancibia, A. M.

172

Relaciones fundamentales de la población de galaxias de tipo temprano del cúmulo de Antlia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a study of more than 100 early-type galaxies in Antlia Cluster, that span from giant ellipticals to dwarf ellipticals, covering a magnitude range of 11 magnitudes (M_{V_T} = -22 to -11). We perform surface photometry of these galaxies, and their total magnitudes, surface brightnesses and radii are determined on the basis of the Sérsic law fits. Finally, the fundamental relations between them are analyzed. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Calderón, J. P.; Bassino, L. P.; Cellone, S. A.; Smith Castelli, A. V.; Caso, J. P.

173

Genomics and Mapping of Teleostei (Bony Fish)  

PubMed Central

Until recently, the Human Genome Project held centre stage in the press releases concerning sequencing programmes. However, in October 2001, it was announced that the Japanese puffer fish (Takifugu rubripes, Fugu) was the second vertebrate organism to be sequenced to draft quality. Briefly, the spotlight was on fish genomes. There are currently two other fish species undergoing intensive sequencing, the green spotted puffer fish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) and the zebrafish (Danio rerio). But this trio are, in many ways, atypical representations of the current state of fish genomic research. The aim of this brief review is to demonstrate the complexity of fish as a group of vertebrates and to publicize the ‘lesser-known’ species, all of which have something to offer.

2003-01-01

174

Regeneration in Salaria pavo (Blenniidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pectoral fin of blennies is differentiated into a dorsal field and a ventral hook field. A histogenetic analysis of the regenerating pectoral fin was related to two questions. First, are histological specializations of the hook field responsible for the impairment of the regenerative capacity of pectoral fins of blennies? Second, can analysis of the temporal sequence of histogenetic events

Bernhard Y. Misof; Günter P. Wagner

1992-01-01

175

Annualcycleofstoredspermatozoawithintheovariesof Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus (Teleostei, Scorpaenidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to analyse the ultrastructure of storage crypts and stored spermatozoa, and to describe changes during the annual reproductive cycle of the bluemouth Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus, which has internal fertilization and a zygoparous mode of reproduc- tion. Spermatozoa had elongated heads and long midpieces, two characteristics which are thought to be fairly advanced and correlated

S. VILA; M. MUNOZ; M. S ABAT; M. CASADEVALL

176

Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of the Australian freshwater fish genus Galaxiella, with an emphasis on dwarf galaxias (G. pusilla).  

PubMed

The freshwater fauna of Southern Australia is primarily restricted to the southwestern and southeastern corners of the continent, and is separated by a large, arid region that is inhospitable to this biota. This geographic phenomenon has attracted considerable interest from biogeographers looking to explain evolutionary diversification in this region. Here, we employed phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches to evaluate the effect of this barrier on a group of four galaxiid fish species (Galaxiella) endemic to temperate Southern Australia. We also tested if continental shelf width has influenced connectivity among populations during low sea levels when rivers, now isolated, could have been connected. We addressed these questions by sampling each species across its range using multiple molecular markers (mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences, nuclear S7 intron sequences, and 49 allozyme loci). These data also allowed us to assess species boundaries, to refine phylogenetic affinities, and to estimate species ages. Interestingly, we found compelling evidence for cryptic species in G. pusilla, manifesting as allopatric eastern and western taxa. Our combined phylogeny and dating analysis point to an origin for the genus dating to the early Cenozoic, with three of the four species originating during the Oligocene-Miocene. Each Galaxiella species showed high levels of genetic divergences between all but the most proximate populations. Despite extensive drainage connections during recent low sea levels in southeastern Australia, populations of both species within G. pusilla maintained high levels of genetic structure. All populations experienced Late Pleistocene-Holocene population growth, possibly in response to the relaxation of arid conditions after the last glacial maximum. High levels of genetic divergence and the discovery of new cryptic species have important implications for the conservation of this already threatened group of freshwater species. PMID:22693638

Unmack, Peter J; Bagley, Justin C; Adams, Mark; Hammer, Michael P; Johnson, Jerald B

2012-01-01

177

Molecular Phylogeny and Phylogeography of the Australian Freshwater Fish Genus Galaxiella, with an Emphasis on Dwarf Galaxias (G. pusilla)  

PubMed Central

The freshwater fauna of Southern Australia is primarily restricted to the southwestern and southeastern corners of the continent, and is separated by a large, arid region that is inhospitable to this biota. This geographic phenomenon has attracted considerable interest from biogeographers looking to explain evolutionary diversification in this region. Here, we employed phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches to evaluate the effect of this barrier on a group of four galaxiid fish species (Galaxiella) endemic to temperate Southern Australia. We also tested if continental shelf width has influenced connectivity among populations during low sea levels when rivers, now isolated, could have been connected. We addressed these questions by sampling each species across its range using multiple molecular markers (mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences, nuclear S7 intron sequences, and 49 allozyme loci). These data also allowed us to assess species boundaries, to refine phylogenetic affinities, and to estimate species ages. Interestingly, we found compelling evidence for cryptic species in G. pusilla, manifesting as allopatric eastern and western taxa. Our combined phylogeny and dating analysis point to an origin for the genus dating to the early Cenozoic, with three of the four species originating during the Oligocene-Miocene. Each Galaxiella species showed high levels of genetic divergences between all but the most proximate populations. Despite extensive drainage connections during recent low sea levels in southeastern Australia, populations of both species within G. pusilla maintained high levels of genetic structure. All populations experienced Late Pleistocene-Holocene population growth, possibly in response to the relaxation of arid conditions after the last glacial maximum. High levels of genetic divergence and the discovery of new cryptic species have important implications for the conservation of this already threatened group of freshwater species.

Unmack, Peter J.; Bagley, Justin C.; Adams, Mark; Hammer, Michael P.; Johnson, Jerald B.

2012-01-01

178

Evidencia de fusión múltiple de galaxias, formación estelar masiva extendida, vientos galácticos y flujo de acreción nuclear en NGC 3256  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report detailed studies of NGC 3256 based on observation of high resolution imaging (obtained at HST and ESO--NTT), and extensive kinematical/spectroscopic data (more than 1000 spectra, collected at Bosque Alegre, CASLEO, CTIO and IUE Observatories). We find in a detailed morphological study (at ~15 pc resolution) that the extended massive star formation process, detected previously in NGC 3256 shows: (i) extended triple asymmetrical spiral arms structure (r ~ 5 kpc); and (ii) the spiral arms emanate from three different nuclei. The main optical nucleus shows a small spiral--disk (r ~ 500 pc) which is a continuation of the external one and reach the very nucleus. And this very nucleus shows blue elongate structure (63 pc × 30 pc), and luminous blue star cluster properties. We study the kinematics of this system and present a detailed H? velocity field for the central region (40''×40'' rmax ~30'' ~5 kpc); with a spatial resolution of 1'', and errors of ±15 km s-1. The color and isovelocity maps show mainly: (i) a clear kinematical center of circular motion with ``spider" shape and located between the main optical nucleus and the close (5'') mid-IR knot/nucleus; (ii) non--circular motions in the external parts. In the main optical nucleus we found a clear ``outflow component" associated to galactic--winds and a ``inflow radial motion" (in the spiral-disk nuclear structure, r ~700 pc). In addition, we detected the outflow component in the central and external regions (r <= 5-6 kpc), with a very wide opening angle ? ~ 140o. We found that the mean value of the inflow region (at PA ~80o) is practically perpendicular to the axis of the bipolar outflow (at PA ~160o). We analyze in detail the physical conditions in the giant H II regions located in the asymmetric spiral arms, the two main optical knots/nuclei, and the outflow component (using long slit spectroscopy, plus standard models of fotoionization, shocks and starburst). We present four detailed emission line ratios (N II/H?, S II/H?, S II/S II) and FWHM(H?) maps for the central region (30''×30'' rmax ~22'' ~4 kpc), with a spatial resolution of 1''. In the central region (r ~ 5--6 kpc) we detected that the nuclear starburst and the extended giant HII regions (in the spiral arms) have very similar properties, i.e., high metallicity and low ionization spectra, with: Teff = 35000oK, solar abundance, a range of Te ~6000--7000oK and Ne ~100--1000 cm-3. In addition, the nuclear and extended outflow shows properties typical of galactic--wind/shocks, associated to the nuclear starburst. And, we suggest that the interaction between dynamical effects, the galactic--wind (outflow), low-energy cosmic rays, and the molecular+ionized gas (probably in the inflow phase) could be the possible mechanism that generate the ``similar extended properties in the massive star formation, at scale of 5-6 kpc!". Finally, we have also studied the presence of the close merger/interacting systems NGC 3256C (at ~150 kpc, and ?V ~ 200 km s-1), and NGC 3256A, plus the possible association between the NGC 3256 and 3263 groups of galaxies. Furthermore, we analyze for NGC 3256 the possible evolution from luminous IR galaxy to QSOs, elliptical, cD, or radio galaxy (Toomre, Schweizer, Joseph et al., Sanders et al., Terlevich et al.'s models), where the powerful galactic--wind and the relation between mergers and extreme dusty-starburst play a main role in this evolutive process (Rieke et al., Joseph et al., Heckman et al., Lipari et al.'s hypothesis), and probably in the formation and evolution of galaxies.

Lípari, S.; Díaz, R.; Taniguchi, Y.; Terlevich, R.; Dottori, H.; Carranza, G.

179

La conexión rayos-X -- óptico en la NLR de la galaxia Mrk 573. Mecanismos de ionización.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the ionizing mechanisms for the narrow-line region (NLR) of Mrk 573. The alignment of radio, optical and X-ray features suggest that some interaction may be taking place in this region. We investigate if the optical and X-ray emission are being generated in shock waves triggered by the interaction between the radio jet and the intergalactic medium. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Reynaldi, V.; Guainazzi, M.; Feinstein, C.; Combi, J. A.

180

The Antarctic fish genus Artedidraco is paraphyletic (Teleostei, Notothenioidei, Artedidraconidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artedidraconids (Plunderfishes) are small benthic notothenioid fishes of the Antarctic and South Georgia shelf and slope.\\u000a The family Artedidraconidae is monophyletic; however, the relationships within the family have remained poorly explored until\\u000a now, and based on a small sample of the genus Artedidraco. The present study focuses on the interrelationships among the artedidraconid genera and the phylogeny of the genus

Guillaume Lecointre; Cyril Gallut; Céline Bonillo; Arnaud Couloux; Catherine Ozouf-Costaz; Agnès Dettaï

2011-01-01

181

Distribution of visual pigments in the Teleostei — A comment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of visual pigments have been identified in the retinal rods of vertebrates — rhodopsin (A1) and porphyropsin (A2). Wald (1960) suggested a specific pattern of distribution for these pigments in vertebrates on the basis of their habitat salinity. However, data published in recent years on visual pigments have raised doubts as to the validity of Wald's hypothesis, especially

V. Parvatheswararao

1975-01-01

182

Rhodeus albomarginatus, a new bitterling (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Acheilognathinae) from China.  

PubMed

Rhodeus albomarginatus, new species, is described from the Lvjiang River, a tributary flowing into Poyang Lake of Yangtze River basin, in Anhui Province, China. It is distinguished from all congeneric species by unique combination of characters: branched dorsal-fin rays 10; branched anal-fin rays 10-11; longest simple rays of dorsal and anal fins strong and stiff, distally segmented; pelvic fin rays i 6; longitudinal scale series 34-36; transverse scale series 11; pored scales 4-7; vertebrae 33-34; colour pattern of adult males (iris black, belly reddish-orange, central part of caudal fin red, dorsal and anal fins of males edged with white margin). PMID:24869865

Li, Fan; Arai, Ryoichi

2014-01-01

183

Evolutionary origin and early biogeography of otophysan fishes (Ostariophysi: Teleostei).  

PubMed

The biogeography of the mega-diverse, freshwater, and globally distributed Otophysi has received considerable attention. This attraction largely stems from assumptions as to their ancient origin, the clade being almost exclusively freshwater, and their suitability as to explanations of trans-oceanic distributions. Despite multiple hypotheses explaining present-day distributions, problems remain, precluding more parsimonious explanations. Underlying previous hypotheses are alternative phylogenies for Otophysi, uncertainties as to temporal diversification and assumptions integral to various explanations. We reexamine the origin and early diversification of this clade based on a comprehensive time-calibrated, molecular-based phylogenetic analysis and event-based approaches for ancestral range inference of lineages. Our results do not corroborate current phylogenetic classifications of otophysans. We demonstrate Siluriformes are never sister to Gymnotiformes and Characiformes are most likely nonmonophyletic. Divergence time estimates specify a split between Cypriniformes and Characiphysi with the fragmentation of Pangea. The early diversification of characiphysans either predated, or was contemporary with, the separation of Africa and South America, and involved a combination of within- and between-continental divergence events for these lineages. The intercontinental diversification of siluroids and characoids postdated major intercontinental tectonic fragmentations (<90 Mya). Post-tectonic drift dispersal events are hypothesized to account for their current distribution patterns. PMID:23888847

Chen, Wei-Jen; Lavoué, Sébastien; Mayden, Richard L

2013-08-01

184

Molecular phylogeny of the cyprinid tribe Labeonini (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).  

PubMed

The cyprinid tribe Labeonini (sensuRainboth, 1991) is a large group of freshwater fishes containing around 40 genera and 400 species. They are characterized by an amazing diversity of modifications to their lips and associated structures. In this study, a total of 34 genera and 142 species of putative members of this tribe, which represent most of the generic diversity and more than one third of the species diversity of the group, were sampled and sequenced for four nuclear genes and five mitochondrial genes (totaling 9465bp). Phylogenetic relationships and subdivision of this tribe were investigated and the placement and status of most genera are discussed. Partitioned maximum likelihood analyses were performed based on the nuclear dataset, mitochondrial dataset, combined dataset, and the dataset for each nuclear gene. Inclusion of the genera Paracrossochilus, Barbichthys, Thynnichthys, and Linichthys in the Labeonini was either confirmed or proposed for the first time. None of the genera Labeo, Garra, Bangana, Cirrhinus, and Crossocheilus are monophyletic. Taxonomic revisions of some genera were made: the generic names Gymnostomus Heckel, 1843, Ageneiogarra Garman, 1912 and Gonorhynchus McClelland, 1839 were revalidated; Akrokolioplax Zhang and Kottelat, 2006 becomes a junior synonym of Gonorhynchus; the species Osteochilus nashii was found to be a member of the barbin genus Osteochilichthys. Five historical hypotheses on the classification of the Labeonini were tested and rejected. We proposed to subdivide the tribe, which is strongly supported as monophyletic, into four subtribes: Labeoina, Garraina, Osteochilina, and Semilabeoina. The taxa included in each subtribe were listed and those taxa that need taxonomic revision were discussed. PMID:22728909

Yang, Lei; Arunachalam, M; Sado, Tetsuya; Levin, Boris A; Golubtsov, Alexander S; Freyhof, Jörg; Friel, John P; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hirt, M Vincent; Manickam, Raja; Agnew, Mary K; Simons, Andrew M; Saitoh, Kenji; Miya, Masaki; Mayden, Richard L; He, Shunping

2012-11-01

185

Two new glyptosternine catfishes (Teleostei: Sisoridae) from Vietnam and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pareuchiloglanis macropterus new species, is described from the Salween River (Nujiang) and Irrawaddy River drainages in southern China, and P. rhabdurus new species, is described from the Red River (Song Hong) drainage in northern Vietnam. Pareuchiloglanis macropterus can be distin- guished from congeners by the following unique combination of characters: prepelvic length 37.0- 42.2% SL; length of adipose-fin base 31.8-37.0%

HEOK HEE NG

186

The complete mitochondrial genome of Leiocassis crassilabris (Teleostei, Siluriformes: Bagridae).  

PubMed

Abstract The Leiocassis crassilabris is an important economic fish in China, and is widely distributed in south China, e.g. Yangtze River, Pearl River, and Min River, so it is a good model to study population genetics and geological changes of these regions. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of L. crassilabris has been obtained with PCR. The gene arrangement and composition L. crassilabris of mitochondrial genome sequence are similar to most of the other vertebrates', which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,530?bp. Except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes, other genes are encoded on heavy-strand (H-strand). Similar to most other vertebrates, the bias of G and C have universality in different region (genes). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of L. crassilabris would contribute to better understand population genetics, conservation, biogeography, evolution of this lineage. PMID:24512421

Zhou, Chuanjiang; Wang, Xuzhen; Wang, Dengqiang; He, Shunping

2014-06-01

187

Evolutionary history of frogfishes (Teleostei: Lophiiformes: Antennariidae): a molecular approach.  

PubMed

Fishes of the family Antennariidae (order Lophiiformes) are primarily shallow-water benthic forms found in nearly all tropical and subtropical oceans and seas of the world, with some taxa extending into temperate waters. Despite an earlier attempt based on morphology, no previous hypothesis of intergeneric relationships of the Antennariidae exists. To resolve phylogenetic relationships within the Antennariidae, and to test the validity of species groups within Antennarius, DNA sequences from the mitochondrial 16S and cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI) genes, and nuclear recombination activating gene 2 (RAG2), for 25 described and four undescribed antennariid species, representing 10 of 12 known genera and one undescribed genus, were unambiguously aligned and analyzed using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods. The markers were partitioned and analyzed for substitution saturation and only the third codon position of COI (COI-3) was found to have reached saturation. However, analysis of both datasets, one with the saturated data and one without, differed only slightly. All molecular analyses recovered two major clades, one comprised of Fowlerichthys, Antennarius, Histrio, and Antennatus; and another containing Rhycherus, Antennariidae gen. et sp. nov., Kuiterichthys, Phyllophryne, Echinophryne, Tathicarpus, Lophiocharon, and Histiophryne. Evidence is presented to illustrate a correlation between phylogeny, geographic distribution, and reproductive life history. The results of these analyses provide the first hypothesis of evolutionary relationships within the Antennariidae. PMID:21985964

Arnold, Rachel J; Pietsch, Theodore W

2012-01-01

188

The Dorsal Pallium in Zebrafish, Danio rerio (Cyprinidae, Teleostei)  

PubMed Central

Zebrafish as a neurogenetic model system depends on the correct neuroanatomical understanding of its brain organization. Here, we address the unresolved question regarding a possible zebrafish homologue of the dorsal pallial division, the region that in mammals gives rise to the isocortex. Analyzing the distributions of nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate diphorase (NADPHd) activity and parvalbumin in the anterior zebrafish telencephalon, we show that against previous assumptions the central (Dc) zone possesses its own germinative region in the dorsal proliferative zone. We define the central (Dc) zone as topologically corresponding to the dorsal pallial division of other vertebrates (mammalian isocortex). In addition, we confirm through BrdU-labeling experiments that the posterior (Dp) zone is formed by radial migration and homologous to the mammalian piriform cortex. Based on our results, we propose a new developmental and organizational model of the zebrafish pallium—one which is the result of a complex outward-inward folding.

Mueller, Thomas; Dong, Zhiqiang; Berberoglu, Michael A.; Guo, Su

2011-01-01

189

New gadiform fishes (Teleostei, Gadiformes) from the Miocene of Algeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the completion of studies on the Miocene fishes of the Chelif Basin (north-western Algeria), this paper represents a contribution to the knowledge of the Messinian gadiform diversity of this western Mediterranean, semi-enclosed, Neogene basin. A new genus and species of the family Macrouridae is erected ( Razelainia paradoxa n. gen. et sp.), two specimens are tentatively referred to already existing taxa ( Gadiculus cf. jonas; Merluccius cf. merluccius), and a species formerly assigned to the gadid genus Brosme is transferred to the genus Gaidropsarus ( Gaidropsarus murdjadjensis). The macrourid Razelainia paradoxa n. gen. et sp. is characterized by an unusual combination of: plesiomorphic gadiform features, such as low vertebral number (presumed), well-developed caudal-fin rays, presence of a single continuous dorsal fin originating just posterior to the neurocranium, anal-fin rays slightly longer than dorsal-fin rays; and derived, typically macrourid features, such as the presence of spinoid scales and the anterior anal-fin pterygiophores extending forward over the abdominal wall. A paleoecological analysis reveals that the Messinian gadiform assemblage of the Chelif Basin had a subtropical/warm temperate affinity, with a marked north-eastern Atlantic-Mediterranean biogeographic character.

Carnevale, Giorgio

2007-02-01

190

Evolution of the light organ system in ponyfishes (Teleostei: Leiognathidae).  

PubMed

Members of the leiognathid subfamily Gazzinae, comprising approximately two-thirds of ponyfish species, are sexually dimorphic with regard to features of the light organ system (LOS). In Gazzinae, the circumesophageal light organ (LO) of males is enlarged and varies in shape compared with similarly sized conspecific females. In association with male species-specific translucent external patches on the head and flank, these sexually dimorphic LO features are hypothesized to be correlated with species-specific luminescence displays. Anatomical differences in LO shape, volume, and orientation, and its association with the gas bladder and other internal structures that function in light emission, are compared to observations of luminescence displays for every major lineage within Leiognathidae. We reconstruct the character evolution of both internal and external morphological features of the LOS to investigate the evolution of LO sexual dimorphism and morphology. Both internal and external sexual dimorphism in the ponyfish LOs were recovered as most likely to have evolved in the common ancestor of Leiognathidae, and likelihood-based correlation analyses indicate that the evolution of internal and external dimorphism in males is statistically correlated. Magnetic resonance imaging technology was applied to examine the unique internal LOs of ponyfishes in situ, which provides a new metric (LO index) for comparison of LO structure across lineages. PMID:21433053

Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Davis, Matthew P; Smith, Wm Leo; Berquist, Rachel; Gledhill, Kristen M; Frank, Larry R; Sparks, John S

2011-06-01

191

Eviota piperata, a new gobiid species from Palau (Teleostei: Gobiidae).  

PubMed

A new species of dwarfgoby, Eviota piperata is described from Palau. It belongs to the cephalic sensory-pore system Group II (lacking only the IT pore); has a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 8/8; has some pectoral-fin rays branched; no dark spot over the ural centrum; the male genital papilla is not fimbriate; and the cheek and body are heavily peppered with chromatophores. PMID:24869823

Greenfield, David W; Winterbottom, Richard

2014-01-01

192

Parallel speciation in Astyanax cave fish (Teleostei) in Northern Mexico.  

PubMed

We investigated differentiation processes in the Neotropical fish Astyanax that represents a model system for examining adaptation to caves, including regressive evolution. In particular, we analyzed microsatellite and mitochondrial data of seven cave and seven surface populations from Mexico to test whether the evolution of the cave fish represents a case of parallel evolution. Our data revealed that Astyanax invaded northern Mexico across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt at least three times and that populations of all three invasions adapted to subterranean habitats. Significant differentiation was found between the cave and surface populations. We did not observe gene flow between the strongly eye and pigment reduced old cave populations (Sabinos, Tinaja, Pachon) and the surface fish, even when syntopically occurring like in Yerbaniz cave. Little gene flow, if any, was found between cave populations, which are variable in eye and pigmentation (Micos, Chica, Caballo Moro caves), and surface fish. This suggests that the variability is due to their more recent origin rather than to hybridization. Finally, admixture of the young Chica cave fish population with nuclear markers from older cave fish demonstrates that gene flow between populations that independently colonized caves occurs. Thus, all criteria of parallel speciation are fulfilled. Moreover, the microsatellite data provide evidence that two co-occurring groups with small sunken eyes and externally visible eyes, respectively, differentiated within the partly lightened Caballo Moro karst window cave and might represent an example for incipient sympatric speciation. PMID:21963344

Strecker, Ulrike; Hausdorf, Bernhard; Wilkens, Horst

2012-01-01

193

The complete mitochondrial genome of Percocypris pingi (Teleostei, Cypriniformes).  

PubMed

Percocypris pingi is an endemic and economic fish species only found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. It has become endangered in recent years due to overfishing and/or dam construction. However, the available genetic data are still scarce for this species. Here, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. pingi using long polymerase chain reactions. The complete mitogenome sequence has 16,586 bp and contains the usual 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 1 control region, the gene composition and order of which are similar to most of other vertebrates. Most mitochondrial genes except ND6 and eight tRNAs are encoded on the heavy strand. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is 30.9% A, 25.7% T, 26.6% C, and 16.8% G with a slight AT bias of 56.6%. There are seven regions of gene overlaps totaling 23 bp and 11 intergenic spacer regions totaling 35 bp. Combined with the COI barcoding region sequences of other 25 cyprinids, the phylogenetic position of P. pingi was estimated using neighbor-joining method. The results showed that P. pingi had a close phylogenetic relationship with the species from genus Schizothorax. This mitogenome sequence data of P. pingi would provide the fundamental genetic data for further conservation genetic studies for this endangered fish species. PMID:22954235

Li, Yanping; Wang, Jinjin; Peng, Zuogang

2013-02-01

194

Constraints upon the Response of Fish and Crayfish to Environmental Flow Releases in a Regulated Headwater Stream Network  

PubMed Central

In dry climate zones, headwater streams are often regulated for water extraction causing intermittency in perennial streams and prolonged drying in intermittent streams. Regulation thereby reduces aquatic habitat downstream of weirs that also form barriers to migration by stream fauna. Environmental flow releases may restore streamflow in rivers, but are rarely applied to headwaters. We sampled fish and crayfish in four regulated headwater streams before and after the release of summer-autumn environmental flows, and in four nearby unregulated streams, to determine whether their abundances increased in response to flow releases. Historical data of fish and crayfish occurrence spanning a 30 year period was compared with contemporary data (electrofishing surveys, Victoria Range, Australia; summer 2008 to summer 2010) to assess the longer–term effects of regulation and drought. Although fish were recorded in regulated streams before 1996, they were not recorded in the present study upstream or downstream of weirs despite recent flow releases. Crayfish (Geocharax sp. nov. 1) remained in the regulated streams throughout the study, but did not become more abundant in response to flow releases. In contrast, native fish (Gadopsis marmoratus, Galaxias oliros, Galaxias maculatus) and crayfish remained present in unregulated streams, despite prolonged drought conditions during 2006–2010, and the assemblages of each of these streams remained essentially unchanged over the 30 year period. Flow release volumes may have been too small or have operated for an insufficient time to allow fish to recolonise regulated streams. Barriers to dispersal may also be preventing recolonisation. Indefinite continuation of annual flow releases, that prevent the unnatural cessation of flow caused by weirs, may eventually facilitate upstream movement of fish and crayfish in regulated channels; but other human–made dispersal barriers downstream need to be identified and ameliorated, to allow native fish to fulfil their life cycles in these headwater streams.

Chester, Edwin T.; Matthews, Ty G.; Howson, Travis J.; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Mackie, Jonathon K.; Strachan, Scott R.; Robson, Belinda J.

2014-01-01

195

Integrating multiple bioassays to detect and assess impacts of sublethal exposure to metal mixtures in an estuarine fish.  

PubMed

Estuaries are natural sinks for a wide range of urban, industrial and agricultural contaminants that accumulate at potentially toxic but non-lethal concentrations, yet we know relatively little about the long-term impacts of toxicants at these levels on aquatic organisms. In this study, we present an integrated, multi-pronged approach to detect and assess the impacts to estuarine fish of exposure to sublethal concentrations of metal mixtures. Our aims were to (1) examine the effects of sublethal metal exposure on the embryonic development of Galaxias maculatus, an estuarine spawning fish native to southeastern Australia, (2) determine whether sublethal exposure during development has knock-on effects on larval behaviour, and (3) establish whether a signature of metal exposure during embryogenesis can be detected in larval otoliths ("ear bones"). G. maculatus eggs are fertilised in water but develop aerially, in direct contact with estuarine sediments. We were thus also able to explore the relative importance of two exposure pathways, water and sediment. Embryos were exposed to two concentrations of a metal mixture containing Cu, Zn and Pb in water (during fertilisation) and on spiked sediments (during development), using a fully crossed experimental design. Overall, we found that exposure to the metal mixture reduced embryo survival and slowed embryonic development, resulting in poorer quality larvae that exhibited a reduced phototactic response. Differences in exposure to metals between treatment and control embryos were also permanently recorded in the developing otoliths. Combined these three approaches have the potential to be a powerful novel bioassessment tool as they provide a means of identifying a history of metal exposure during the embryonic period and linking it to suboptimal early growth and performance traits which could have long term fitness consequences. PMID:24794343

Barbee, Nicole C; Ganio, Katherine; Swearer, Stephen E

2014-07-01

196

Preparation of silage from Spanish mackerel ( Scomberomorus maculatus) and its evaluation in broiler diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to prepare silage from whole Spanish mackerel, which is one of the cheapest commercial fish, and an under-utilized species found on both the Pacific and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Chemical and biochemical changes during the silage process: pH, total nitrogen (TN), non-protein nitrogen (NPN), lipid oxidation, and trimethylamine (TMA) generated were monitored. The

Héctor Santana-Delgado; Ernesto Avila; Angela Sotelo

2008-01-01

197

Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F(1) adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F(1) adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment. PMID:19537990

Rahman, A; Talukder, F A

2006-01-01

198

Life prolonging effect of butylated hydroxy anisole in Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The present study deals with the effect of butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA), an antioxidant, on longevity and fecundity of insects infesting BHA soaked seeds of Vigna radiata. Median (LT(50)) and maximum (LT(100)) life spans as well as post-reproductive period of the insect reared on optimal concentration (1 mM) of antioxidant soaked seeds were higher than the control. However, the reproductive period of the females and the number of eggs laid/female declined. The results are indicative of the increased life span of the insects on BHA feeding at the cost of the reproductive period. PMID:15374382

Mahajan, S; Garg, S K

1992-01-01

199

Effect of various essential oils on Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Essential oils were extracted from four West African plant species [Tagetes minuta (Family Compositae), Hyptis suaveolens (Family Labiatae), white basil Ocimum canum (Family Labiatae), and sweet basil O. basilicum (Family Labiatae)] by steam distillation. The oil of the pepper Piper guineense (Family Piperaceae), was extracted from the fruits by hydro distillation and ethanol extraction. Mixed essential oil and total ethanol extract was used. Kaolin powder (clay) was mixed (aromatized) with these different oils. Cowpea weevils were reared on chickpeas and newly emerged males and females were deposited on uninfested seeds. Bioassays, i.e. fumigation with pure essential oils and aromatized kaolin powders, were carried out on adults and eggs. Twenty four hours after fumigation, 99 and 0% adult mortality were observed, respectively, as the result of treatments with Ocimum basilicum and the control. The application of powders aromatized with the same oils to weevil pairs resulted in a complete lack of oviposition, whereas 31, 56 and 76 eggs were laid in the controls after 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Application of aromatized powders did not have a significant effect on egg hatching (50 out of 110 with O. canum, 100 out of 115 with O. basilicum and 100 out of 130 in the control sample) but did have a significant impact on adult emergence: 0% for the two treatments compared with 100% in the controls. Our results suggest that plants of the genus Ocimum can be used as an alternative to synthetic insecticides. PMID:10880813

Kéïta; Vincent; Schmit; Ramaswamy; Bélanger

2000-10-15

200

Proteomic analysis of Metarhizium anisopliae secretion in the presence of the insect pest Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop improvement in agriculture generally focuses on yield, seed quality and nutritional characteristics, as opposed to resistance to biotic stresses. Consequently, natural antifeedant toxins are often rare in seed material, with commercial crops being prone to insect pest predation. In the specific case of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), smallholder cropping is affected by insect pests that reproduce inside the stored seeds.

A. M. Murad; E. F. Noronha; R. N. G. Miller; F. T. Costa; C. D. Pereira; A. Mehta; R. A. Caldas; O. L. Franco

2008-01-01

201

Leap of faith: voluntary emersion behaviour and physiological adaptations to aerial exposure in a non-aestivating freshwater fish in response to aquatic hypoxia.  

PubMed

Lowland stream fauna in areas of intensive agriculture are increasingly under threat from anthropogenic activities leading to eutrophication and subsequent hypoxia. Survival of hypoxic episodes depends upon a combination of behavioural and physiological adaptations. Responses of inanga (Galaxias maculatus: Galaxiidae) to aquatic hypoxia were investigated in the laboratory. Contrary to expectation inanga did not display behaviour that might reduce energy expenditure during oxygen limitation, with swimming activity slightly, but significantly elevated relative to normoxia. Instead, as dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased, the fish moved higher in the water column, increased their swimming speed and exhibited aquatic surface respiration. Physiological changes such as enhanced opercular frequency were also noted. As hypoxia deepened inanga started to leap out of the water, emersing themselves on a floating platform. Once emersed, fish exhibited an enhanced oxygen consumption rate compared to hypoxic fish. Thus inanga appear better adapted to escape hypoxia (a behavioural adaptation) rather than tolerate it (physiological adaptation). The emersion strategy used for inanga in response to severe hypoxia is in agreement with their ability to take up more oxygen from the air than from hypoxic water and therefore may justify the potentially increased risks of desiccation and predation associated with leaving the water. PMID:21316378

Urbina, Mauricio A; Forster, Malcolm E; Glover, Chris N

2011-05-01

202

Analysis of structural parameters of dwarf galaxies in the Antlia cluster. (Spanish Title: Análisis de parámetros estructurales de galaxias enanas en el cúmulo de Antlia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of the structural parameters of the population of dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies in the Antlia cluster (approx. distance 35 Mpc). The observational data include images of four fields obtained with the CTIO-MOSAIC camera (36'x 36'), as well as GEMINI-GMOS spectra, useful to confirm membership of a fraction of the galaxy sample. In this paper we add 30 dE galaxies located in three fields adjacent to the cluster's central one. The photometric relationships that they follow are in good agreement with those obtained by Smith Castelli et al. (2008), who performed the first systematic study of the color-magnitude and luminosity-effective surface brightness relations followed by early-type galaxies in the central region of Antlia. We study the surface brightness profiles of all dEs present in the four fields (a total of 60 galaxies), by means of fitting Sersic models. The parameters obtained from such fits are similar to those found for other clusters of galaxies (Fornax, Coma, Virgo, Centaurus, etc.). The analysis of the structural parameters of the surface brightness profiles is a tool that allows us to relate observational results with theoretical models that attempt to explain the formation and evolution of galaxies.

Calderón, J. P.; Bassino, L. P.; Cellone, S. A.; Smith Castelli, A. V.; Faifer, F. R.; Caso, J. P.; Richtler, T.

203

Estimación de la incerteza cinemática de los espectros obtenidos con REOSC (CAsLeo), Flamingos-2 y PHOENIX (Gemini) para observaciones de gas ionizado en galaxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of the radial velocity curves of ionized gas in galaxies requires knowing the value of the internal kinematic uncertainly along the slit for the used spectrographs. We present preliminary results of the study of the variation of the measured radial velocity of both the telluric and comparison emission lines in the spatial direction. This was done for the spectrographs REOSC, Flamingos-2 (F2) and Phoenix. In particular we are interested in using this data to homogenize the rotation curves of nearby galaxies in large-scale ranges. These results will be also useful as references for those works that measure radial velocities of extended objects using only one emission line of ionized gas. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Gaspar, G.; Díaz, R. J.; Güunthardt, G.; Agüuero, M. P.; Camperi, J. A.; Gimeno, G.

204

Sistema de cúmulos globulares de la galaxia lenticular NGC 6861: en busca de indicios sobre la formación de las S0s.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a preliminar photometric study of the globular cluster system (GCS), associated to the lenticular galaxy (S0) NGC 6861, which is located in a low density environment (d˜31.8 Mpc). It is based on GEMINI/GMOS images (GS-2010B-Q-2: PI Lilia P. Bassino) in the filters g', r', i' of three fields, one of them centered in the galaxy. We find a large number of GCs candidates and detect the presence of at least two sub-populations of GCs (``blue''/metal-poor and ``red''/metal-rich). The spatial distribution of ``red'' candidates presents a higher concentration toward the galaxy (associated to the bulge?), while the distribution of ``blue'' candidates is more homogeneus over the three fields (associated to the halo?). In the color-magnitud diagram, the ``blue'' GC candidates show a possible mass-luminosity relation, known as ``blue-tilt'', probably detected for the first time in a lenticular galaxy. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Escudero, C. G.; Faifer, F. R.; Bassino, L. P.; Calderón, J. P.; Caso, J. P.

205

Observations on Purse-seined King Mackerel ('Scomberomorus cavalla') and Spanish Mackerel ('Scomberomorus maculatus'), March 1983-March 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concerns about over exploitation of fishery resources by purse seines were raised by Moe in 1967. Approximately 100,000 pounds of king mackerel were caught in the winter of 1965-66, and about 44,000 pounds were caught the following winter with purse seine...

W. A. Fable E. L. Nakamura

1986-01-01

206

Antagonistic Regulation, Yet Synergistic Defense: Effect of Bergapten and Protease Inhibitor on Development of Cowpea Bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

The furanocoumarin compound bergapten is a plant secondary metabolite that has anti-insect function. When incorporated into artificial diet, it retarded cowpea bruchid development, decreased fecundity, and caused mortality at a sufficient dose. cDNA microarray analysis indicated that cowpea bruchid altered expression of 543 midgut genes in response to dietary bergapten. Among these bergapten-regulated genes, 225 have known functions; for instance, those encoding proteins related to nutrient transport and metabolism, development, detoxification, defense and various cellular functions. Such differential gene regulation presumably facilitates the bruchids' countering the negative effect of dietary bergapten. Many genes did not have homology (E-value cutoff 10?6) with known genes in a BlastX search (206), or had homology only with genes of unknown function (112). Interestingly, when compared with the transcriptomic profile of cowpea bruchids treated with dietary soybean cysteine protease inhibitor N (scN), 195 out of 200 coregulated midgut genes are oppositely regulated by the two compounds. Simultaneous administration of bergapten and scN attenuated magnitude of change in selected oppositely-regulated genes, as well as led to synergistic delay in insect development. Therefore, targeting insect vulnerable sites that may compromise each other's counter-defensive response has the potential to increase the efficacy of the anti-insect molecules.

Sun, Yucheng; Chi, Yong Hun; Ge, Feng; Patil, Bhimanagouda S.; Koiwa, Hisashi; Zeng, Rensen; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

2012-01-01

207

Combined effect of three insect growth regulators on the digestive enzymatic profiles of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are insecticides that mimic insect produced hormones by regulatingdevelopmental process. Theyhave little or no mammalian toxicity, and are considered reduced-risk insecticides that are often exempt from tolerance requirements of regulatory agencies. IGRs, especially, chlorfluazuron, hydroprene and hexaflumuron (benzoylphenylurea) are currently studied because of possibility of using in stored products protection. Many of IGRs compounds usedin insect pests control are known to affect digestive enzymes. Chlorfluazuron, hydroprene and hexaflumuronwere tested topically at doses of 0.25%, 0.5%&1% for chlorfluazuron and hydroprene and 0.5, 1 & 2 microg/ml of hexaflumuron to investigate its effects on the activities of the digestive enzymes protease, amylase and lipase in Callosobruchusmaculatus larvae, which were affected by IGRs individually and in combination. When combined, the effect was more sever at low concentration. There were statistically significant differences (P < or = 0.05) in enzyme activities in combined and individual treatments. Combination three IGRs caused a two-fold decrease in enzyme activity even at reduced concentration. Clear dose-response relationships were established with respect to enzyme activity. A synergistic effect of IGRs was found by combination of low doses. These effects are most pronounced in early instars. PMID:22435168

Khatter, Najat Aly; Abuldahb, Faten Farid

2011-12-01

208

Insecticidal and repellent activities of the essential oil of Callistemon citrinus (Myrtaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The essential oil of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) leaves was extracted by hydro distillation and tested on female and male adults of Callosobruchus macullatus (F.) for insecticidal and repellent effects. GC-MS analysis was used to identify and quantify the volatile composition of the essential oil. Results showed that 1,8-cineole (34.2%) and ?-pinene (29.0%) were the major components of the oil. Callistemon citrinus oil was found to be toxic to adult insects when applied by fumigation. Responses varied according to the gender of the insect and exposure time. LC50 values were 12.88 and 84.4 ?L.?L(-1) for males and females, respectively. An increase in exposure time from 3 to 24 h caused an increase in mortality from 50% to 100% in males and from 15.5% to 85.2% in females, at the highest concentration (500 ?L.?L(-1)). The essential oil also had a repellent effect against C. macullatus in a filter paper arena test. After 2 and 4 h, 86% and 94%, respectively, repellent effects were demonstrated at the highest concentration of 0.4 ?L?.cm(-2). These observations suggest that C. citrinus essential oil may be usefully applied to control storage pests. PMID:23949717

Zandi-Sohani, N; Hojjati, M; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á A

2013-02-01

209

Tracking the elusive monophyly of nototheniid fishes (Teleostei) with multiple mitochondrial and nuclear markers.  

PubMed

Since the first molecular study of the suborder Notothenioidei in 1994, many phylogenetic studies have been published. Among these, those with a sufficient number of taxa have all suggested that the Nototheniidae, as currently defined, is monophyletic only with the inclusion of the Channichthyidae, Artedidraconidae, Bathydraconidae and Harpagiferidae. This is corroborated by more recent studies including more taxa, but in these studies either the number of nuclear markers or the number of taxa included remained low. We obtained sequences for a large sampling covering most nototheniid genera for five markers described previously for other samplings (COI, Rhodopsin retrogene, Pkd1, HECW2, and SSRP1) and one nuclear marker never used before in phylogenetic inference (PPM1d). The topology for the combined analysis of the nuclear coding genes, as well as the topology for SSRP1 (non-coding) and the combined analysis for all markers all support the paraphyly of Nototheniidae, the genus Notothenia (including Paranotothenia) is the sister group of the clade Channichthyidae, Artedidraconidae, Bathydraconidae and Harpagiferidae, and genus Gobionotothen is a sister group to both. As in previous studies, Trematomus, Lepidonotothen and Patagonotothen form a clade that also includes Indonotothenia cyanobrancha. The position of Pleuragramma antarctica, Dissostichus species and Aethotaxis mitopteryx remains unstable and dependant on markers and analyses. We therefore propose the inclusion of the four families of the High Antarctic clade in the Nototheniidae, and their transformation into subfamilies. We transfer Paranotothenia magellanica to the genus Notothenia, as Notothenia magellanica. PMID:23199880

Dettai, A; Berkani, M; Lautredou, A-C; Couloux, A; Lecointre, G; Ozouf-Costaz, C; Gallut, C

2012-12-01

210

Evidence for repeated loss of selective constraint in rhodopsin of amblyopsid cavefishes (Teleostei: Amblyopsidae).  

PubMed

The genetic mechanisms underlying regressive evolution-the degeneration or loss of a derived trait--are largely unknown, particularly for complex structures such as eyes in cave organisms. In several eyeless animals, the visual photoreceptor rhodopsin appears to have retained functional amino acid sequences. Hypotheses to explain apparent maintenance of function include weak selection for retention of light-sensing abilities and its pleiotropic roles in circadian rhythms and thermotaxis. In contrast, we show that there has been repeated loss of functional constraint of rhodopsin in amblyopsid cavefishes, as at least three cave lineages have independently accumulated unique loss-of-function mutations over the last 10.3 Mya. Although several cave lineages still possess functional rhodopsin, they exhibit increased rates of nonsynonymous mutations that have greater effect on the structure and function of rhodopsin compared to those in surface lineages. These results indicate that functionality of rhodopsin has been repeatedly lost in amblyopsid cavefishes. The presence of a functional copy of rhodopsin in some cave lineages is likely explained by stochastic accumulation of mutations following recent subterranean colonization. PMID:23461324

Niemiller, Matthew L; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M; Shah, Premal; Schmitz, Lars; Near, Thomas J

2013-03-01

211

Relationshipsamongfourgeneraofmojarras(Teleostei: Perciformes: Gerreidae) from the western Atlantic and their tentative placement among percomorph fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phylogenetic study of the percoid family Gerreidae at both lower and higher taxonomic levels is presented based on DNA sequence data of four genes: mitochondrial 12S and 16S, and nuclear genes rhodopsin and recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1). The taxonomic sampling includes four genera of Gerreidae from the western Atlantic, 39 additional percomorph representatives and two outgroups. Phylogenetic results

W.-J. CHEN; R. RUIZ-CARUS; G. ORTI ´

2007-01-01

212

Phylogeny and biogeography of Sicydiinae (Teleostei: Gobiidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Indo-Pacific area, the Caribbean region and West Africa, insular systems are colonised by particular Gobiids of the\\u000a Sicydiinae subfamily. These species spawn in freshwater, the free embryos drift downstream to the sea where they undergo a\\u000a planktonic phase, before returning to rivers to grow and reproduce; an amphidromous lifestyle. These gobies are the biggest\\u000a contributors to the diversity

P. Keith; C. Lord; J. Lorion; S. Watanabe; K. Tsukamoto; A. Couloux; A. Dettai

2011-01-01

213

Recovery of fat snook, Centropomus parallelus (Teleostei: Perciformes) after subchronic exposure to copper.  

PubMed

We studied the recovery of juvenile fat snook (Centropomus parallelus) after subchronic exposure to different concentrations of copper. Healthy juveniles (1.98 g) were exposed to 25 or 50 ?g Cu/L for 30 days (12 replicates with 5 fish in each one), and recovery was observed at 0, 4, 10, and 30 days after exposure (3 replicates with 5 fish in each one). Copper genotoxicity in exposed individuals was observed using a micronucleus assay, and recovery was not observed even 30 days post-exposure. Copper accumulation was observed in fish exposed to 25 or 50 ?g/L of copper in the gills (14.4 and 34.4 ?g/g, respectively) and muscle (5.7 and 5.5 ?g/g, respectively), and a return to normal copper levels (6.0 ?g/g for gills and 2.5 ?g/g for muscle) was observed 4 and 30 days post-exposure in the gills and muscle tissues, respectively. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) was 80% inhibited in individuals exposed to copper and returned to normal levels for fish exposed to basal concentrations within 10 days. Although copper accumulation in tissues dispersed 30 days post-exposure, no recovery from genotoxicity was observed during this time. Thirty days was not enough to recover juvenile fat snook following subchronic exposure to copper. PMID:23403295

Oss, Rodrigo Nunes; Baroni, Vinícius Dadalto; Duarte, Rafael Mendonça; Val, Adalberto Luis; Val, Vera Maria Fonseca Almeida; Gomes, Levy Carvalho

2013-04-01

214

[Description of a new species of Barbinae, Sinocyclocheilus huangtianensis from China (Teleostei: Cypinidae)].  

PubMed

A new species, Sinocyclocheilus huangtianensis, is found from a cave of Hejiang River, Hezhou, Guangxi, China. This river is a tributary of the Pearl River. It is similar to S. jii, distributed in Hejiang and S. guilinensis distributed in Lijiang by having a soft dorsal spine without serration and normal eyes. The combination of the following characteristics makes this new species different to S. jii and S. guilinensis: (1) the lateral line scales 52-59, up lateral line scales 17-23, the down lateral line cales 16-17, the circumpeduncular scales 40-46; (2) gill raker 9-10; (3) eye diameter/SL 4.3-5.4%; (4) interorbital width /SL 9.2-9.6%; and (5) mouth width/SL 6.0-7.3%. PMID:21509967

Zhu, Ding-Gui; Zhu, Yu; Lan, Jia-Hu

2011-04-01

215

Mitogenomic evidence for an Indo-West Pacific origin of the Clupeoidei (Teleostei: Clupeiformes).  

PubMed

The clupeoid fishes are distributed worldwide, with marine, freshwater and euryhaline species living in either tropical or temperate environments. Regional endemism is important at the species and genus levels, and the highest species diversity is found in the tropical marine Indo-West Pacific region. The clupeoid distribution follows two general pattern of species richness, the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients. To test historical hypotheses explaining the formation of these two gradients, we have examined the early biogeography of the Clupeoidei in reconstructing the evolution of their habitat preferences along with their ancestral range distributions on a time-calibrated mitogenomic phylogeny. The phylogenetic results support the distinction of nine main lineages within the Clupeoidei, five of them new. We infer several independent transitions from a marine to freshwater environment and from a tropical to temperate environment that occurred after the initial diversification period of the Clupeoidei. These results combined with our ancestral range reconstruction hypothesis suggest that the probable region of origin and diversification of the Clupeoidei during the Cretaceous period was the tropical marine precursor to the present Indo-West Pacific region. Thus, our study favors the hypotheses of "Region of origin" and "Tropical conservatism" to explain the origins of the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients of clupeoid species richness, respectively. Additional geological and paleontological evidence further define the tropical marine paleo-region of origin as the eastern Tethys Sea region. The Cretaceous fossil record of the Clupeoidei is partially incongruent with the results here as it contains taxa found outside this region. We discuss three possible causes of conflict between our biogeographical hypothesis and the distributions of the Cretaceous clupeoid fossils: regional extinction, incomplete taxonomic sampling and incorrect timescale estimation. PMID:23431379

Lavoué, Sébastien; Miya, Masaki; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Chen, Wei-Jen; Nishida, Mutsumi

2013-01-01

216

Nuclear gene-inferred phylogenies resolve the relationships of the enigmatic Pygmy Sunfishes, Elassoma (Teleostei: Percomorpha).  

PubMed

Elassoma, the Pygmy Sunfishes, has long proven difficult to classify among the more than 15,000 species of percomorph fishes. Hypotheses dating to the 19th Century include Elassoma in Centrarchidae or in the monogeneric Elassomatidae, and more recent phylogenetic hypotheses have classified Elassoma in Smegmamorpha that also contained Synbranchiformes, Mugiliformes, Gasterosteiformes, and Atherinomorpha. No published phylogenetic analysis of morphological or molecular data has supported the monophyly of Smegmamorpha, or a consistent resolution of Elassoma relationships. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of Elassoma and test the monophyly of Smegmamorpha with a nucleotide dataset comprising 10 protein-coding nuclear genes sampled from 65 percomorph species. Maximum likelihood analyses of each individual gene and the concatenated 10 genes all result in strong support for a clade composed of Elassoma and Centrarchidae, and no analysis supports monophyly of Smegmamorpha. Based on these results, a rank-free phylogenetic definition of Centrarchidae is presented that includes Elassoma, and the continued recognition of Smegmamorpha is discouraged. We discuss the implications of these phylogenetic analyses for relationships of several other percomorph lineages, including Kyphosidae, Terapontidae, Kuhliidae, Cheilodactylidae, Percichthyidae, Howellidae, Enoplosidae, Sinipercidae, and Cirrhitidae. PMID:22293156

Near, Thomas J; Sandel, Michael; Kuhn, Kristen L; Unmack, Peter J; Wainwright, Peter C; Smith, Wm Leo

2012-05-01

217

A review of the gobiid genus Akko (Teleostei: Gobiidae) with description of a new species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Akko was originally described for a highly autapomorphic species of goby, A. dionaea, taken off Brazil. The genus is here recorded for the first time from the eastern Pacific Ocean. The poorly known eastern Pacific goby Amblyopus brevis Günther is redescribed as Akko brevis based on the study of numerous specimens recently collected off Panama and El Salvador and Akko

JAMES L. VAN TASSELL; CAROLE C. BALDWIN

2004-01-01

218

New polymorphic microsatellite loci of threadsail filefish, Stephanolepis cirrhifer (Teleostei, Monacanthidae), from Korean waters.  

PubMed

The threadsail filefish, Stephanolepis cirrhifer (Monacanthidae), is found mainly in the western Pacific. It is intensively caught in Korea and is a highly appreciated seafood delicacy. Consequently, the natural population of this species has drastically decreased, despite introductions from hatcheries. To provide information necessary for its conservation and management, we developed 24 polymorphic microsatellite markers using a combination of a total enriched genomic library and a small-scale 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 90,847 raw reads were obtained, and 75,128 unique sequences were generated, with an average length of 477 bp; 5350 (7.12%) sequences contained a minimum of 5 di- to tetranucleotide repeat motifs. Seventy-four sequences were used for microsatellite primer design. They all amplified successfully; 24 were polymorphic, with 8 containing trinucleotide repeats and 3 containing tetranucleotide repeats. The genetic variations based on 15 primer sets were investigated using 45 wild individuals from the coastal waters of Geomun Island. The number of alleles per locus varied from 4 to 15, with an average of 7.47. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.333 to 0.956 and from 0.316 to 0.870, with averages of 0.692 and 0.701, respectively. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating their independence. One locus significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni's correction; this may be due to the existence of a null allele. Cross-amplification was also tested for all 24 polymorphic loci in another monacanthid species, Thamnaconus modestus; 7 loci were effectively amplified. The high degree of polymorphism that was exhibited by the 15 newly developed microsatellites will be useful for assessing genetic variation and for conservation genetic studies of these 2 monacanthid species. PMID:23765974

An, C-M; An, H S; Lee, J W; Hong, S W

2013-01-01

219

Insight Into the Origin of Endemic Mediterranean Ichthyofauna: Phylogeography of Chondrostoma Genus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chondrostoma genus is widespread in Europe, with numerous endemic species in northern Mediterranean rivers. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of this genus, using the whole cytochrome b sequence and compared the two freshwater fish dispersion hypotheses: (1) dispersion around the Mediterranean Sea during the Lago Mare phase of the Messinian salinity crisis (Bianco's hypothesis) and (2) an older and

J.-D. Durand; P. G. BIANCO; J. LAROCHE; A. GILLES

2003-01-01

220

Molecular cytogenetic study of the European bitterling Rhodeus amarus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Acheilognathinae).  

PubMed

The European bitterlings (Rhodeus amarus) from the Eastern locations were cytogenetically examined by conventional and molecular techniques. All analyzed individuals presented invariably the same chromosomal constitution of 2n = 48, with 8 metacentrics + 20 submetacentrics + 20 subtelo-acrocentrics and C-banding positive heterochromatin at the pericentromeric regions in most of the chromosomes. Moreover, some of the chromosomes had short arms entirely built with heterochromatin. GC-rich Ag-NORs (nucleolus organizer regions) were located at the short arms of two submetacentric chromosomes, and the length polymorphism of these regions was found. Multiple location of 28S rDNA sequences with fluorescence in situ hybridization signals was observed on the long and/or short arms of three submetacentric chromosomes including NOR regions and short arms of three to five acrocentric chromosomes in the studied fish. 5S rDNA sites were found on the short arms of two subtelocentric chromosomes, and telomeric repeats were localized at the ends of all chromosomes. Provided results have expanded our knowledge concerning genetic characteristics of the European bitterlings that may be profitable in the conservation programs of this endangered species. PMID:24677088

Kirtiklis, Lech; Ocalewicz, Konrad; Wiechowska, Marzena; Boro?, Alicja; Hliwa, Piotr

2014-04-01

221

The complete mitochondrial genome of the three-spot seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus (Teleostei, Syngnathidae).  

PubMed

The complete mitochondrial genome of the three-spot seahorse was sequenced using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. The total length of mitochondrial DNA is 16,535 bp and includes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a control region. The mitochondrial gene order of the three-spot seahorse also conforms to the distinctive vertebrate mitochondrial gene order. The base composition of the genome is A (32.7%), T (29.3%), C (23.4%), and G (14.6%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other vertebrate mitochondrial genomes. PMID:23544668

Chang, Chia-Hao; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Yeong-Shin; Liao, Yun-Chih

2013-12-01

222

Evolutionary history of asexual hybrid loaches (Cobitis: Teleostei) inferred from phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of the evolutionary history of asexual lineages undermines their suitability as models for the studies of evolutionary consequences of sexual reproduction. Using molecular tools we addressed the origin, age and maternal ancestry of diploid and triploid asexual lineages arisen through the hybridization between spiny loaches Cobitis elongatoides, C. taenia and C. tanaitica. Reconstructions of the phylogenetic relationships among mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes, revealed by sequence analyses, suggest that both hybrid complexes (C. elongatoides-taenia and C. elongatoides-tanaitica) contained several asexual lineages of independent origin. Cobitis elongatoides was the exclusive maternal ancestor of all the C. elongatoides-tanaitica hybrids, whereas within the C. elongatoides-taenia complex, hybridization was reciprocal. In both complexes the low haplotype divergences were consistent with a recent origin of asexual lineages. Combined mtDNA and allozyme data suggest that the triploids arose through the incorporation of a haploid sperm genome into unreduced ova produced by diploid hybrids. PMID:14640419

Janko, K; Kotlík, P; Ráb, P

2003-11-01

223

Molecular phylogeny and evolution of Scomber (Teleostei: Scombridae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus Scomber was conducted based on mitochondrial (COI, Cyt b and control region) and nuclear (5S rDNA) DNA sequence data in multigene perspective. A variety of phylogenetic analytic methods were used to clarify the current taxonomic Classification and to assess phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history of this genus. The present study produced a well-resolved phylogeny that strongly supported the monophyly of Scomber. We confirmed that S. japonicus and S. colias were genetically distinct. Although morphologically and ecologically similar to S. colias, the molecular data showed that S. japonicus has a greater molecular affinity with S. australasicus, which conflicts with the traditional taxonomy. This phylogenetic pattern was corroborated by the mtDNA data, but incompletely by the nuclear DNA data. Phylogenetic concordance between the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA regions for the basal nodes Supports an Atlantic origin for Scomber. The present-day geographic ranges of the species were compared with the resultant molecular phylogeny derived from partition Bayesian analyses of the combined data sets to evaluate possible dispersal routes of the genus. The present-day geographic distribution of Scomber species might be best ascribed to multiple dispersal events. In addition, our results suggest that phylogenies derived from multiple genes and long sequences exhibited improved phylogenetic resolution, from which we conclude that the phylogenetic reconstruction is a reliable representation of the evolutionary history of Scomber.

Cheng, Jiao; Gao, Tianxiang; Miao, Zhenqing; Yanagimoto, Takashi

2011-03-01

224

Morphology-diet relationships in four killifishes (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae, Orestias) from Lake Titicaca.  

PubMed

This study explores the relationship between morphology and diet in four Andean killifishes (Orestias) from Lake Titicaca that are known to differ in habitat use. Species that fed preferentially on amphipods (Orestias albus) or molluscs (Orestias luteus) separated in multivariate space from other species that feed on cladocera and algae (Orestias agassii and Orestias jussiei). Generally, specimens feeding on cladocera were characterized by a short, blunt nose with a small mouth; whereas, specimens feeding on amphipods exhibited a long snout with a large mouth. Specimens including molluscs in their diet tended to have a larger posterior part of the head and the larger opercles than others; while the occurrence of substratum in gut content was generally related to a short but deep head. The present analysis suggests that the littoral O. jussiei has an intermediate phenotype and diet between the pelagic (O. agassii) and benthic (O. albus and O. luteus) species. Results suggest that resource partitioning was occurring and that several morphological traits relate to characteristics of the diet, and it is inferred that the benthic, the pelagic and the littoral zones in the lake host different prey communities constituting distinct adaptive landscapes. PMID:20735575

Maldonado, E; Hubert, N; Sagnes, P; De Mérona, B

2009-02-01

225

Chalinochromis cyanophleps, a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika.  

PubMed

Chalinochromis cyanophleps is described from nine specimens, the largest 129 mm SL, from Namansi. It differs from other species of Chalinochromis in plain trunk colouration, absence of black stripes on the head, relatively narrow lips, presence of tricuspid jaw teeth, and presence of five rather than four dentary lateralis foramina. The blue iridescent stripe below the eye is shared with other lamprologin cichlids, but is broader and more conspicuous in C. cyanophleps. Chalinochromis cyanophleps occurs at depths between 6 and 45 m in rocky habitats along the Tanzanian coast of Lake Tanganyika, from Mvuna Island south to Kalala Island, a stretch of about 90 km. Field observations were made of specimens up to 18 cm total length. The COI DNA barcode sequence differs by 1.8% from that of C. popelini. PMID:24869876

Kullander, Sven O; Karlsson, Mikael; Karlsson, Magnus; Norén, Michael

2014-01-01

226

Mitogenomic Evidence for an Indo-West Pacific Origin of the Clupeoidei (Teleostei: Clupeiformes)  

PubMed Central

The clupeoid fishes are distributed worldwide, with marine, freshwater and euryhaline species living in either tropical or temperate environments. Regional endemism is important at the species and genus levels, and the highest species diversity is found in the tropical marine Indo-West Pacific region. The clupeoid distribution follows two general pattern of species richness, the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients. To test historical hypotheses explaining the formation of these two gradients, we have examined the early biogeography of the Clupeoidei in reconstructing the evolution of their habitat preferences along with their ancestral range distributions on a time-calibrated mitogenomic phylogeny. The phylogenetic results support the distinction of nine main lineages within the Clupeoidei, five of them new. We infer several independent transitions from a marine to freshwater environment and from a tropical to temperate environment that occurred after the initial diversification period of the Clupeoidei. These results combined with our ancestral range reconstruction hypothesis suggest that the probable region of origin and diversification of the Clupeoidei during the Cretaceous period was the tropical marine precursor to the present Indo-West Pacific region. Thus, our study favors the hypotheses of “Region of origin” and “Tropical conservatism” to explain the origins of the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients of clupeoid species richness, respectively. Additional geological and paleontological evidence further define the tropical marine paleo-region of origin as the eastern Tethys Sea region. The Cretaceous fossil record of the Clupeoidei is partially incongruent with the results here as it contains taxa found outside this region. We discuss three possible causes of conflict between our biogeographical hypothesis and the distributions of the Cretaceous clupeoid fossils: regional extinction, incomplete taxonomic sampling and incorrect timescale estimation.

Lavoue, Sebastien; Miya, Masaki; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Chen, Wei-Jen; Nishida, Mutsumi

2013-01-01

227

Differentiated ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in Apareiodon ibitiensis (Teleostei, Parodontidae): cytotaxonomy and biogeography.  

PubMed

Conventional and molecular chromosomal analyses were carried out on three populations of Apareiodon ibitiensis sampled from the hydrographic basins of the São Francisco River and Upper Paraná River (Brazil). The results reveal a conserved diploid number (2n = 54 chromosomes), a karyotype formula consisting of 50 m-sm + 4st and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system that has not been previously identified for the species. C-banding analysis with propidium iodide staining revealed centromeric and terminal bands located in the chromosomes of the specimens from the three populations and allowed the identification of heteromorphism of heterochromatin regions in the Z and W chromosomes. The number of 18S sites located through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) varied between the populations of the São Francisco and Upper Paraná Rivers. The location of 5S rDNA sites proved comparable in one pair of metacentric chromosomes. Thus, the present study proposes a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system for A. ibitiensis among the Parodontidae, and a hypothesis is presented regarding possible W chromosome differentiation stages in this species through DNA accumulation, showing geographical variations for this characteristic, possibly as a consequence of geographical reproductive isolation. PMID:20738689

Bellafronte, E; Vicari, M R; Artoni, R F; Margarido, V P; Moreira-Filho, O

2009-12-01

228

Cell types in the pituitary of the roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.), (Teleostei).  

PubMed Central

The pituitary of roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.), is pear-shaped and situated in the sella turcica. It is characterised by a large pars nervosa, which penetrates deep into the other regions, splitting the proximal pars distalis. Spatial localisation of nerve fibre types and glandular cell types occurs. Using a variety of staining techniques six glandular cell types have been localised and their distribution is disucssed in relation to those of the other teleost pituitaries.

Jafri, S I; Ensor, D M

1980-01-01

229

Fine structure of early previtallogenic oocytes in Mugil (Liza) auratus Risso, 1810 (Teleostei, Mugilidae).  

PubMed

Sequential cytological events at the onset of previtellogenesis were studied in oocytes from 12 micrometer to 70 micrometer in diameter of golden grey mullet. The main cytological changes observed (increase in size of cell, nucleus, nucleolus and increase in number of nucleoli, RNP particles, "nuage" and mitochondria) provide evidence for important synthetic processes in an early preparatory phase of oocyte development. Somatic cells (pre-follicel, follicle and thecal) are also described. PMID:7190068

Bruslé, S

1980-01-01

230

Distribution of extracutaneous melanin pigment in Sparus auratus, Mugil cephalus, and Dicertranchus labrax (Pisces, Teleostei).  

PubMed

The morphological and biochemical characteristics of pigment accumulations found in the kidney, liver, spleen, and mesentery of three different species of teleost fishes have been studied. There are significant differences in number, distribution, and morphology of pigment accumulations in different organs of the three species. Biochemical studies have shown the existence of tyrosinase activity in the mesentery of Mugil cephalus and in the kidney and mesentery of Sparus auratus. No tyrosinase activity was found in any internal organs of Dicertranchus labrax. That activity was assayed using three methods: tyrosine hidroxylation, dopa oxidation, and melanin formation. The morphological and biochemical observations are in agreement. In those organs in which we have demonstrated melanin synthetic activity, the pigment cells are morphologically and like melanophores, while in the organs that show no melanin synthetic activity, the pigment cells resemble macrophages. PMID:2127096

Zuasti, A; Ferrer, C; Aroca, P; Solano, F

1990-09-01

231

Powered control mechanisms contributing to dynamically stable swimming in porcupine puffers (Teleostei: Diodon holocanthus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Balances of multiple varying forces must be the basis for the unusually great dynamic stability of swimming pufferfishes. We used high-speed digital video recordings to study biomechanics and kinematics of rectilinear swimming at different speeds of five porcupine puffers in a water tunnel. We measured critical swimming speeds (Ucrit); fin biomechanics, kinematics, and coordination; recoil movements; and gait changes. Major propulsors were pectoral fins at lower speeds; dorsal, anal, and caudal fins at higher speeds. Precise coordination of fin movements produced small recoil movements at speeds below Ucrit. The unusual body shape probably contributes to unconscious stability control.

Wiktorowicz, Alexis M.; Lauritzen, Dean V.; Gordon, Malcolm S.

232

Historical biogeography and molecular systematics of the Indo-Pacific genus Dascyllus (Teleostei: Pomacentridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogeographical and systematic relationships among species in the tropical marine fish genus Dascyllus were inferred using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data. Although our results were generally consistent with previously published phylogenies based on both morphological and mitochondrial data, our broad taxonomic and geographical sampling design revealed novel insights into the phylogenetic history of Dascyllus that had escaped previous notice.

S. McCafferty; E. Bermingham; B. Quenouille; S. Planes; G. Hoelzer; K. Asoh

2002-01-01

233

A study on the somatic chromosomes of Therapon cuvier (Teleostei: Perciformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Karyotypes ofTherapon jarbua andT. puta have been studied from the gill epithelium after colchicine injections.\\u000a \\u000a 2. The diploid chromosome number in both the sexes of the two species is 48, all the elements being metacentrics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. The chromosomes measured from 1·76 to 4·0 µ inT. puta and from 1·76 to 3·4 µ inT. jarbua.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. The karyotypes of the

K. Subrahmanyam; R. Natarajan

1970-01-01

234

PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TIDEWATER GOBY, EUCYCLOGOBIUS NEWBERRYI (TELEOSTEI, GOBIIDAE), IN COASTAL CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tidewater goby, Eucyclogobius newberryi, inhabits discrete, seasonally closed estuaries and lagoons along approximately 1500 km of California coastline. This species is euryhaline but has no explicit marine stage, yet population extirpation and recolonization data suggest tidewater gobies disperse intermittently via the sea. Analyses of mitochondrial control region and cytochrome b sequences demonstrate a deep evolutionary bifurcation in the vicinity

Michael N Dawson; Joseph L. Staton; David K. Jacobs

2001-01-01

235

Spermatozoon ultrastructure of Gyliauchen sp. (Digenea: Gyliauchenidae), an intestinal parasite of Siganus fuscescens (Pisces: Teleostei).  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoon of Gyliauchen sp., a parasite of the dusky rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens, was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoon possesses two axonemes of the 9+"1" pattern of Trepaxonemata, four attachment zones, one mitochondrion, a nucleus, cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, and spine-like bodies. The main characteristics of this spermatozoon are the presence of one mitochondrion, spine-like bodies not associated with the external ornamentation, and a posterior extremity of type 3 that is characterized by the following sequence: posterior extremity of the nucleus then posterior extremity of the second axoneme. Numerous other ultrastructural features are also discussed and compared to the digenean spermatology literature. This is the first study of a member of the Gyliauchenidae and the fourth within the Lepocreadioidea. The results show that many ultrastructural characters are variable within this superfamily and could be useful for phylogeny. PMID:22042438

Quilichini, Y; Foata, J; Justine, J-L; Bray, R A; Marchand, B

2011-10-01

236

Phylogenetic relationships and natural hybridization in rabbitfishes (Teleostei: Siganidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic relationships of rabbitfishes (the family Siganidae), ecologically important components as primary consumers in coral reef communities, were studied using mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and nuclear ITS1 (internal transcribed spacer 1) sequence analyses. The analyses of 19 out of 22 species known in the Western Pacific region revealed that siganids are genetically clustered into three major clades, which are characterized

Kaoru Kuriiwa; Naoto Hanzawa; Tetsuo Yoshino; Seishi Kimura; Mutsumi Nishida

2007-01-01

237

Assessment of the acute toxicity of the organochlorine pesticide endosulfan in Cichlasoma dimerus (Teleostei, Perciformes).  

PubMed

The organochlorine insecticide endosulfan (ES) is widely used despite its high toxicity to fish (96-h LC(50) median value of 2.6 ?g L(-1)). This study aimed to assess the acute toxicity, histological and physiological parameters after exposure to 0; 0.25; 1; 2; 3; 4 and 16 ?g L(-1) ES for 96 h under semi-static conditions in a freshwater perciform fish, Cichlasoma dimerus. Prior to death, fish exhibited behavior indicative of neurotoxicity. No difference was found in brain AChE activity. A decrease in erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in exposed fish suggests a state of anemia. Histological alterations observed in exposed fish included hyperplasia of the interlamellar epithelium, blood congestion in secondary lamellae, and mucous cells hyperplasia and hypertrophy in gills; pycnotic nuclei and hydropic degeneration in liver; testicular damage. These moderate pathological responses in major organs could become crucial during reproduction and under prolonged exposure periods. PMID:21377734

Da Cuña, Rodrigo Hernán; Rey Vázquez, Graciela; Piol, María Natalia; Guerrero, Noemí Verrengia; Maggese, María Cristina; Lo Nostro, Fabiana Laura

2011-05-01

238

Nuclear DNA content in 20 species of Siluriformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi) from the Neotropical region  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, 20 species of Siluriformes fish were analyzed in order to determine their nuclear DNA content and compare these data with their diploid number. In addition, the extension and importance of the changes that oc- curred during the process of diversification in the group of Neotropical freshwater catfish were investigated. The only species studied of the family

Paulo César Fenerich; Fausto Foresti; Claudio Oliveira

2004-01-01

239

Surprising genomic diversity in the Neotropical fish Synbranchus marmoratus (Teleostei: Synbranchidae): how many species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomes and nuclear DNA content variation in the eel Synbranchus marmoratus were studied in seven samples taken from rio Paraguay and rio Paraná basins to examine whether karyotype and nuclear DNA content variations could offer useful information for the characterization of independent evolutionary lineages in the genus and construction of evolutionary and biogeographical hypotheses. The occurrence of different karyotypes was

Rodrigo Augusto Torres; James Joseph Roper; Fausto Foresti; Claudio Oliveira

2005-01-01

240

Gonadal morphogenesis and sex differentiation in the viviparous fish Chapalichthys encaustus (Teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes, Goodeidae).  

PubMed

This study describes the structural and ultrastructural characteristics of gonadal sex differentiation and expression of Vasa, a germline marker, in different developmental stages of embryos and newborn fry of the barred splitfin Chapalichthys encaustus, a viviparous freshwater teleost endemic to Mexico. In stage 2 embryos, the gonadal crest was established; gonadal primordia were located on the coelomic epithelium, formed by scarce germ and somatic cells. At stage 3, the undifferentiated gonad appeared suspended from the mesentery of the developing swimbladder and contained a larger number of germ and somatic cells. At stages 4 and 5, the gonads had groups of meiotic and non-meiotic germ cells surrounded by somatic cells; meiosis was evident from the presence of synaptonemal complexes. These stages constituted a transition towards differentiation. At stage 6 and at birth, the gonad was morphologically differentiated into an ovary or a testis. Ovarian differentiation was revealed by the presence of follicles containing meiotic oocytes, and testicular differentiation by the development of testicular lobules containing spermatogonia in mitotic arrest, surrounded by Sertoli cells. Nuage, electron-dense material associated with mitochondria, was observed in germ cells at all gonadal stages. The Vasa protein was detected in all of the previously described stages within the germ-cell cytoplasm. This is the first report on morphological characteristics and expression of the Vasa gene during sexual differentiation in viviparous species of the Goodeidae family. Chapalichthys encaustus may serve as a model to study processes of sexual differentiation in viviparous fishes and teleosts. PMID:22380554

Guerrero-Estévez, S; Moreno-Mendoza, N

2012-03-01

241

Comparative analysis of sex chromosomes in Leporinus species (Teleostei, Characiformes) using chromosome painting  

PubMed Central

Background The Leporinus genus, belonging to the Anostomidae family, is an interesting model for studies of sex chromosome evolution in fish, particularly because of the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes only in some species of the genus. In this study we used W chromosome-derived probes in a series of cross species chromosome painting experiments to try to understand events of sex chromosome evolution in this family. Results W chromosome painting probes from Leporinus elongatus, L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens were hybridized to each others chromosomes. The results showed signals along their W chromosomes and the use of L. elongatus W probe against L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens also showed signals over the Z chromosome. No signals were observed when the later aforementioned probe was used in hybridization procedures against other four Anostomidae species without sex chromosomes. Conclusions Our results demonstrate a common origin of sex chromosomes in L. elongatus, L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens but suggest that the L. elongatus chromosome system is at a different evolutionary stage. The absence of signals in the species without differentiated sex chromosomes does not exclude the possibility of cryptic sex chromosomes, but they must contain other Leporinus W sequences than those described here.

2013-01-01

242

Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia: status and threats.  

PubMed

The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning during the rainy season (July to October), whereas eight other species are absent from these rivers and probably developed a new strategy of lacustrine spawning (macro-spatial segregation). One species (L. intermedius) probably spawns in the lake as well as in the rivers. Between the early 1990s and 2000s, the riverine spawners showed a decline of 75% in both biomass and number in both fishery independent surveys and in commercial catches. Reproductive migration makes fishes vulnerable to fisheries and other threats like habitat modifications. Lacustrine spawners are probably more resilient as they are not known to form spawning aggregations that can easily be exploited by fishermen. In addition, upstream rivers and catchments around Lake Tana are highly degraded by erosion and recently subjected to intensive habitat modification for irrigation and hydroelectric power generation. This article reviews results of field studies on the Labeobarbus spawning migration from Lake Tana to spawning rivers, giving emphasis on segregation and homing. It also summarizes existing and emerging threats which form potential causes for the decline of the migratory Labeobarbus species. Knowledge gaps on the reproductive biology are identified for further investigation. PMID:22803734

Anteneh, W; Getahun, A; Dejen, E; Sibbing, F A; Nagelkerke, L A J; De Graaf, M; Wudneh, T; Vijverberg, J; Palstra, A P

2012-07-01

243

Phylogenetic relationships and natural hybridization in rabbitfishes (Teleostei: Siganidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relationships of rabbitfishes (the family Siganidae), ecologically important components as primary consumers in coral reef communities, were studied using mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and nuclear ITS1 (internal transcribed spacer 1) sequence analyses. The analyses of 19 out of 22 species known in the Western Pacific region revealed that siganids are genetically clustered into three major clades, which are characterized by some morphological and ecological traits. Between closely related species, such as Siganus guttatus-S. lineatus and S. virgatus-S. doliatus, and also between two morphs recognized in S. corallinus, small but discernible genetic differentiation was found, implying that the components of each pair are incipient species. On the other hand, between some species, such as S. fuscescens-S. canaliculatus and S. unimaculatus-S.vulpinus, individuals of the components of each pair were found to construct a genetic mosaic, suggesting that the components are genetic color morphs within a single biological species, respectively. Moreover, evidence from morphological characters, mtDNA, and nuclear DNA gave an inconsistent picture of identity and relationships for several individuals. They were regarded as hybrids or individuals with hybrid origin. Such instances were observed not only between closely related species, such as S. guttatus-S. lineatus, S. virgatus-S. doliatus, and two morphs (incipient species) in S. corallinus, respectively, but also between distantly related ones, such as S. corallinus-S. puellus. In fact, more than half of the species examined (11/20, when treating the two morphs in S. corallinus as independent species) were involved in hybridization. These suggest that hybridization is much more prevalent in marine fishes than previously assumed, and may have some relevance to their diversification. PMID:17590356

Kuriiwa, Kaoru; Hanzawa, Naoto; Yoshino, Tetsuo; Kimura, Seishi; Nishida, Mutsumi

2007-10-01

244

Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia: status and threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning during the rainy season (July to October), whereas eight other species are absent from

W. Anteneh; A. Getahun; E. Dejen; F. A. Sibbing; L. A. J. Nagelkerke; Graaf de M; T. Wudneh; J. Vijverberg; A. P. Palstra

2012-01-01

245

Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia, status and threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning during the rainy season (July to October), whereas eight other species are absent from

W. Anteneh; A. Getahun; E. Dejen; F. A. Sibbing; L. A. J. Nagelkerke; M. de Graaf; T. Wudneh; J. Vijverberg; A. P. Palstra

2012-01-01

246

Reproductive biology of Haemulon plumieri (Teleostei: Haemulidae) in Ceará state, Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The Haemulon plumieri is a typical reef-associated and tropical species found in warm and temperate waters of the Western Atlantic. Due to the large fishing effort directed to H. plumieri, the knowledge about its reproductive biology is essential for correct stock management and conservation. The aim of this study was to characterise reproductive biology with a focus on its seasonal variation of gonadal maturation stages, first maturation size and fecundity. Specimens were monthly collected and a total of 119 females and 136 males were analysed. The reproductive cycle of Haemulon plumieri is seasonal, with higher activity between March and May. Size at first maturity (L50) was estimated at 16.86 and 18.55 cm for females and males, respectively. The total fecundity ranged between 17,816 and 120,333 mature oocytes per female and relative fecundity was 235 ± 63 oocyte.g-1 whereas batch fecundity varied between 20 and 25% from total fecundity. Since the species is widely caught, we suggest a closed season from March to May and to establish a minimum catch size of 18.5 cm for both sexes, since there is no evident sexual dimorphism. PMID:23917567

Shinozaki-Mendes, R A; Santander-Neto, J; Silva, J R F; Hazin, F H V

2013-05-01

247

The structure and ultrastructure of the rostral cartilage in the spiny eel, Macrognathus siamensis (Teleostei: Mastacembeloidei).  

PubMed Central

An elastic, cell-rich cartilage provides flexible support to the highly mobile, rostral tentacle of the mastacembelid, Macrognathus siamensis. Active movement of the tentacle is effected by skeletal muscles, the muscular bellies of which are located outside the organ. The tentacle returns to its original shape by elastic recoil. The cartilage resembles plant supporting tissue and the cartilages of certain invertebrates. It is surrounded by a thick perichondrium and articulates at a synovial joint with the supraethmoid. The chondrocytes are large and shrunken within lacunae. They contain glycogen and cytoplasmic stores of RNA. The matrix is reduced to thin seams between adjacent cells, and stains strongly with alcian blue and a variety of elastic stains. Parts of the matrix are trilaminar, and such an appearance recalls the distinction between the primary cell walls of adjacent plant cells and the intervening middle lamella. The perichondrium consists of an alternating sequence of cells, circularly arranged collagen fibres and a foamy, amorphous material of unknown composition. Deep to the perichondrium, the chondrocytes are packed with intermediate filaments. Membrane-bound organelles are not prominent, though mitochondria are located at the periphery of the cell. The ultrastructural similarities between these chondrocytes and those of hyaline-cell cartilage (chondroid) support the contention that Schaffer's concept of a rigid distinction between 'true' cartilage and 'chondroid' is no longer tenable. The matrix is devoid of collagen and is most distinctive. In the immediate vicinity of the cells it consists of matrix granules and matrix fibers but, where a trilaminar appearance is easily discernible, there is a central zone that consists of large masses of amorphous material that is presumed to contain elastin. Such amorphous material has not previously been seen in any teleostean elastic tissue. By contrast, elastic system fibres, readily demonstrable elsewhere in teleosts, are conspicuously absent. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12

Benjamin, M; Sandhu, J S

1990-01-01

248

Two new species of Pseudecheneis, rheophilic catfishes (Teleostei: Sisoridae) from Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species of sisorid catfish of the genus Pseudecheneis are described from tributaries of the Ganges River in Nepal: Pseudecheneis crassicauda and P. serracula. Pseudecheneis crassicauda can be distinguished from congeners by a unique combination of 38 -39 vertebrae, caudal peduncle depth 6.0-6.6% SL, eye diameter 7.5-8.3% HL, length of adipose-fin base 20.3-24.3% SL, pelvic fins reaching the base

HEOK HEE NG; DAVID R. EDDS

2005-01-01

249

Ultrastructural characterization of gills in juveniles of the Argentinian Silverside, Odontesthes bonariensis (Valenciennes, 1835) (Teleostei: Atheriniformes).  

PubMed

An ultrastructural study was performed on the gills of juvenile Argentinian silverside, Odontesthes bonariensis. The gills are composed of two sets of four holobranchs and, in turn, each holobranch consists of a gill arch and two rows of caudolaterally projecting branchial filaments. From the dorsal and ventral surfaces of each filament, branchial lamellae radiate out as foldings of the epithelial layer. Gill rakers are present on each of the gill arches, on the anteromedial side of the arch opposite to the filaments. Gill rakers, gill arches and branchial filaments are covered by a stratified epithelium, whereas branchial lamellae essentially consist of a thin epithelial envelope containing capillaries. In the stratified epithelium, mucous cells, rodlet cells, granular cells, pavement epithelial cells and mitochondria-rich cells are identified. The thin epithelium that lines the lamellae comprises two cell types, outer and inner epithelial cells, and the capillary walls on the inside of the epithelial envelope are defined by pillar cells. The ultrastructure of all these cell types is described and our findings are discussed in light of the existing data on fish gill morphology. In the gills of juvenile Argentinian silverside is of particular interest the characteristics showed by mitochondria-rich cells, such as their arrangement in clusters of 2-3 cells and their small and depressed surface in contact with the aquatic milieu, features which strongly resemble those of euryhaline species. PMID:16542171

Vigliano, F A; Alemañ, N; Quiroga, M I; Nieto, J M

2006-04-01

250

Reduction of a visually mediated association preference in the Cave molly (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have reported on the persistence of visually mediated social preferences, such as preferences of females to as- sociate with certain types of males, in an eyed cave fish, the Cave molly ( Poecilia mexicana). However, so far most studies have examined preferences which are apparently currently under selection, i.e., the preferences are expressed also in darkness. In this

Michael TOBLER; Heike BURMEISTER; Ingo SCHLUPP; Martin PLATH

251

Three new species of cichlid fishes (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Apoyo, Nicaragua  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new species of the Amphilophus citrinellus (Gun ther) species complex that are endemic to Lake Apoyo, Nicaragua are described. The new species differ from previously described members of this complex in other lakes, are phenotypically distinct, and assortatively mate in Lake Apoyo. The presence of endemic cichlids in each of the crater lakes suggests that sympatric speciation occurred. A

Jay R. Stauffer; Jeffrey K. McCrary; Kristin E. Black

2008-01-01

252

Coordination of feeding, locomotor and visual systems in parrotfishes (Teleostei: Labridae).  

PubMed

Fishes require complex coordinated motions of the jaws, body and fins during feeding in order to successfully execute the strike or bite and then move away from the predation site. In conjunction with locomotor systems, sensory modalities guide coordinated feeding behavior, with vision playing an important role in many fishes. Although often studied separately, the locomotor, feeding and visual systems have not previously been examined together during fish feeding. To explore feeding coordination, we examined the kinematics of feeding behavior in two species of herbivorous parrotfish, Sparisoma radians and Scarus quoyi, which exhibit different single bite and repetitive bite strategies. Kinematic data on pectoral fin movements and body position show distinctive differences in strategies for the approach and post-strike motion between these species. Sparisoma and Scarus exhibited significant differences in the magnitude of jaw protrusion, time to maximum jaw protrusion, cranial elevation, and order of events in the feeding sequence. Oculomotor data show that both species orient the pupil forward and downward directed at the site of jaw contact until 100 ms before the bite, at which point the visual field is rotated laterally. Combinations of kinematic variables show repeated patterns of synchrony (onset and duration) for the approach to the food (distance, velocity, eye movement), prey capture (eye movement, jaw movement, fin movement) and post-capture maneuvering (fin movement, distance). Kinematic analyses of multiple functional systems reveal coordination mechanisms for detecting and approaching prey and executing the rapid opening and closing of the jaws during acquisition of food. Comparison of the coordination of feeding, swimming and sensory systems among fish species can elucidate alternative coordination strategies involved in herbivory in coral reef fishes. PMID:16155223

Rice, Aaron N; Westneat, Mark W

2005-09-01

253

The role of introgressive hybridization in the evolution of the Gila robusta complex (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

The extent and impact of introgressive hybridization was examined in the Gila robusta complex of cyprinid fishes using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation. Lower Colorado River basin populations of G. robusta, G. elegans, and G. cypha exhibited distinct mtDNAs, with only limited introgression of G. elegans into G. cypha. The impact of hybridization was significant in upper Colorado River basin populations; most upper basin fishes sampled exhibited only G. cypha mtDNA haplotypes, with some individuals exhibiting mtDNA from G. elegans. The complete absence of G. robusta mtDNA, even in populations of morphologically pure G. robusta, indicates extensive introgression that predates human influence. Analysis of the geographic distribution of variation identified two distinctive G. elegans lineages; however, the small number of individuals and localities sampled precluded a comprehensive analysis. Analysis of haplotype and population networks for G. cypha mtDNAs from 15 localities revealed low divergence among haplotypes; however, significant frequency differences among populations within and among drainages were found, largely attributable to samples in the Little Colorado River region. This structure was not associated with G. cypha and G. robusta, as morphotypes from the same location are more similar than conspecific forms in other locations. This indicates that morphological and mtDNA variation are affected by different evolutionary forces in Colorado River Gila and illustrates how both hybridization and local adaptation can play important roles in evolution. PMID:11761063

Gerber, A S; Tibbets, C A; Dowling, T E

2001-10-01

254

Tooth morphology, implantation and replacement system of Hoplias malabaricus (Teleostei, Characiformes, Erythrinidae).  

PubMed

The oropharyngeal cavity of Hoplias malabaricus, an ichthyophagous freshwater fish, is anatomically adapted to predation. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses were conducted in order to study the morphology and system of implantation and replacement of teeth. The results showed that this teleost has conical and caniniform teeth, with an orthodentin crown covered by an enameloid cap and a vascularised orthodentin in the root. With regard to the implantation system, there is a junction between the tooth and the bone tissue, as a typical physiological dental ankylosis. The teeth are replaced by a resorption process of multinucleated giant cells that actively eliminate the dentin and bone tissue. PMID:24789394

Hassunuma, Rm; Stipp, Acm; Heubel, Mtcd; Cestari, Tm; Ceolin, Ds; Nakamura, Rsb; Rosseti, Pho; Assis, Gf

2013-11-01

255

Microsatellite Development for an Endangered Bream Megalobrama pellegrini (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) Using 454 Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Megalobrama pellegrini is an endemic fish species found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. This species has become endangered due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and overfishing. However, the available genetic data for this species is limited. Here, we developed 26 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the M. pellegrini genome using next-generation sequencing techniques. A total of 257,497 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on 454 GS-FLX titanium platforms and 49,811 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 404 bp; 24,522 (49.2%) sequences contained microsatellite repeats. Of the 53 loci screened, 33 were amplified successfully and 26 were polymorphic. The genetic diversity in M. pellegrini was moderate, with an average of 3.08 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.47 and 0.51, respectively. In addition, we tested cross-species amplification for all 33 loci in four additional breams: M. amblycephala, M. skolkovii, M. terminalis, and Sinibrama wui. The cross-species amplification showed a significant high level of transferability (79%–97%), which might be due to their dramatically close genetic relationships. The polymorphic microsatellites developed in the current study will not only contribute to further conservation genetic studies and parentage analyses of this endangered species, but also facilitate future work on the other closely related species.

Wang, Jinjin; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhao, Kai; Zhang, Yaoguang; Tong, Jingou; Peng, Zuogang

2012-01-01

256

Etheostoma erythrozonum, a new species of darter (teleostei: Percidae) from the Meramec River drainage, missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new species of darter, Etheostoma erythrozonum, is described from the Meramec River drainage of Missouri, USA. Etheostoma erythrozonum is the first known fish species endemic to the Meramec River drainage. It differs morphologically and genetically from populations of its sister species, Etheostoma tetrazonum, from the Gasconade River, Osage River, and Moreau River drainages. Copyright ?? 2009 ?? Magnolia Press.

Switzer, J. F.; Wood, R. M.

2009-01-01

257

Systematics of the subgenus Oligocephalus (Teleostei: Percidae: Etheostoma) with complete subgeneric sampling of the genus Etheostoma.  

PubMed

The genus Etheostoma is the most diverse clade of freshwater fishes in North America. While studies have been performed with complete sampling of a single subgenus, none have included representatives of all remaining subgenera. The subgenus Oligocephalus is the largest, consisting of 25-27 species in four species groups, and its monophyly has never been clearly demonstrated. The monophyly of this subgenus and its constituent groups was tested using parsimony and Bayesian analyses of ND2 (mtDNA) and the first intron of S7 (nDNA) with complete species sampling from Oligocephalus and complete subgeneric sampling from Etheostoma. Although the subgenus Oligocephalus was not recovered as a monophyletic group in any analyses, monophyletic E. whipplei, Southwestern Darter, and E. spectabile (in part) species groups were recovered in all analyses. All analyses agree that E. okaloosae and both subspecies of E. hopkinsi are not closely related to other members of the subgenus Oligocephalus. E. exile is, however, presenting the strongest evidence yet that recognition of the subgenus Boleichthys is unwarranted. PMID:17158072

Lang, Nicholas J; Mayden, Richard L

2007-05-01

258

Assessing phylogenetic resolution among mitochondrial, nuclear, and morphological datasets in Nothonotus darters (Teleostei: Percidae).  

PubMed

External morphological characters are the basis of our understanding of diversity and species relationships in many darter clades. The past decade has seen the publication of many studies utilizing mtDNA sequence data to investigate darter phylogenetics, but only recently have nuclear genes been used to investigate darter relationships. Despite a long tradition of use in darter systematics few studies have examined the phylogenetic utility of external morphological characters in estimating relationships among species in darter clades. We present DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene, the nuclear encoded S7 intron 1, and discretely coded external morphological characters for all 20 species in the darter clade Nothonotus. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses result in phylogenies that are in broad agreement with previous studies. The cytb gene tree is well resolved, while the nuclear S7 gene tree lacks phylogenetic resolution, node support, and is characterized by a lack of reciprocal monophyly for many of the Nothonotus species. The phylogenies resulting from analysis of the morphological dataset lack resolution, but nodes present are found in the cytb and S7 gene trees. The highest resolution and node support is found in the Bayesian combined data phylogeny. Based on our results we propose continued exploration of the phylogenetic utility of external morphological characters in other darter clades. Given the extensive lack of reciprocal monophyly of species observed in the S7 gene tree we predict that nuclear gene sequences may have limited utility in intraspecific phylogeographic studies of Nothonotus darters. PMID:17920301

Keck, Benjamin P; Near, Thomas J

2008-02-01

259

Isolation and Characterization of the Etheostoma tallapoosae (Teleostei: Percidae) CENP-A Gene.  

PubMed

Both centromeric alpha-satellite sequences as well as centromeric protein A (CENP-A) are highly variable in eukaryotes. CENP-A, a histone H3 variant, is thought to act as the epigenetic "mark" for assembly of centromeric proteins. While most of the histone fold domain (HFD) of the CENP-A is fairly well conserved, a portion of this HFD as well as the N-terminal tail show adaptive variation in both plants and animals. Such variation may establish reproductive barriers that may lead to speciation. The family Percidae contains over 200 species most of which are within the subfamily Etheostomatinae. This subfamily represents a species rich radiation of freshwater fishes in North America and these species exhibit both allopatric and sympatric distributions. In order to study the evolution of CENP-A in percid fish species, we have isolated and characterized the CENP-A gene from Etheostoma tallapoosae by PCR based gene walking. As a result of this study we have demonstrated that the Tallapoosa darter CENP-A gene HFD sequences can be isolated from genomic DNA by nested PCR in a manner that does not lead to the amplification of the highly sequence related histone H3 gene. We also demonstrated that PCR based walking can be subsequently used to isolate the rest of the CENP-A gene and adjacent gene sequences. These adjacent gene sequences provide us with a primer binding sites for PCR isolation of the CENP-A gene from other percid species of fishes. An initial comparison of three percid species shows that the N-terminal tail of the percid CENP-A gene shows adaptive evolution. PMID:24710294

Fountain, Dyanna M; Kral, Leos G

2011-01-01

260

Geographic and temporal aspects of mitochondrial replacement in Nothonotus darters (Teleostei: Percidae: Etheostomatinae).  

PubMed

A growing number of molecular studies have identified mitochondrial replacement among closely related animal species, but there has been limited investigation into the phylogenetic, geographic, and temporal patterns, especially in more inclusive clades. We present a phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences collected from mitochondrial and nuclear genes sampled from all 20 species of the darter clade Nothonotus and reveal extensive mtDNA replacement in N. rufilineatus. Using phylogenetic trees, haplotype networks, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVAs), and distributions of minimum pairwise genetic distances, we discovered that the mtDNA of N. rufilineatus has been replaced by that of different sympatric species of Nothonotus in different river drainages. In the Cumberland River, N. rufilineatus populations were fixed for N. camurus mtDNA. In the upper Tennessee River, N. rufilineatus contained N. chlorobranchius and N. camurus mtDNA. Most surprising, our analyses indicated that N. rufilineatus has acted as a "conduit species," facilitating the introgression of N. chlorobranchius mtDNA into N. camurus in the upper Tennessee River. We identified several potential mechanisms for the observed pattern of introgression, and suggest experiments to assess their relative contributions. Comparisons among darter subclades indicated that the mitochondrial lineage of the clade is most influential in determining if the lineage is a mitochondrial donor or recipient. PMID:19930456

Keck, Benjamin P; Near, Thomas J

2010-05-01

261

Genetic differentiation among natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei, cichlidae).  

PubMed

We analysed the genetic differentiation among 17 natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) using allozymes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The populations studied, from the River Senegal to Lake Tana and from Lake Manzalla to Lake Baringo, represent all subspecies which have been previously described. Sixteen variable nuclear loci showed that these populations can be clustered in three groups: (1) West African populations (Senegal, Niger, Volta and Chad drainages), (2) Ethiopian Rift Valley populations (Lakes Awasa, Ziway, Koka and the Awash River) and (3) Nile drainage (Manzalla, Cairo, Lake Edward) and Kenyan Rift Valley populations (Lakes Turkana, Baringo and River Suguta). Nine different mtDNA haplotypes were found in the RFLP analysis of a 1 kb portion of the D-loop region. The network obtained showed that there are three geographically distinct groups; all West African populations and O. aureus are clustered, the two Ethiopian Rift Valley populations are distinct and between these two groups are the Kenyan and Ugandan Rift Valley populations. Nile populations show affinities both with West African populations and with specimens from Lakes Tana and Turkana. Taxonomic and biogeographical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:9253615

Agnèse, J F; Adépo-Gourène, B; Abban, E K; Fermon, Y

1997-07-01

262

Molecular phylogeny and conservation priorities of the subfamily Acheilognathinae (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

It is increasingly accepted that conservation work should consider the evolutionary history of target species. Fishes in the subfamily Acheilognathinae, family Cyprinidae, are, with the exception of three species exclusively distributed in Europe, restricted to Asia and show a distinct spawning behavior in laying their eggs in gill chambers of freshwater mussels. At present, many of the 70 species recognized in this group are facing with serious population decline in China and Japan, and their phylogenetic relationships are not well resolved. In the present study, based on mtDNA cyt b and 12S rRNA gene sequences, we reconstructed a more detailed species-level phylogenetic tree of this group, and assessed species conservation priorities based on their evolutionary distinctiveness. Molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that the Acheilognathinae contains two major clades: Acheilognathus clade and Tanakia-Rhodeus clade. Based on this phylogenetic result, conservation priority analyses were conducted using ED (evolutionary distinctiveness)/HED (heightened evolutionary distinctiveness), and EDGE (evolutionary distinctiveness and global endangeredness)/HEDGE (heightened evolutionary distinctiveness and global endangeredness) methods. The results suggested that T. himantegus, T. lanceolata, A. gracilis, A. imberbis, T. tanago, and A. longipinnis should be ranked as the top-priority species for conservation. According to our results, we also discussed the current conservation efforts of the bitterling fishes and gave suggestions for future work. PMID:24832903

Cheng, Peilin; Yu, Dan; Liu, Siqing; Tang, Qiongying; Liu, Huanzhang

2014-05-01

263

Pempheris bexillon, a new species of sweeper (Teleostei: Pempheridae) from the Western Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

Pempheris bexillon new species is described from the 129 mm SL holotype and 11 paratypes (119-141 mm SL) from the Comoro Islands. Twelve other specimens have been examined from the Agaléga Islands, Mascarene Islands, and Bassas da India (Madagascar). It is differentiated from other Pempheris by the following combination of characters: a yellow dorsal fin with a black, distal margin along its full length, broadest on anterior rays (pupil-diameter width) and gradually narrowing posteriorly, the last ray with only a black tip; large, deciduous cycloid scales on the flank; dark, oblong spot on the pectoral-fin base; anal fin with a dark margin; segmented anal-fin rays 38-45 (usually >40); lateral-line scales 56-65; and total gill rakers on the first arch 31-35; iris reddish-brown. Tables of standard meristic and color data for type material of all nominal species of cycloid-scaled Pempheris in the Indo-Pacific are provided. PMID:24871843

Mooi, Randall D; Randall, John E

2014-01-01

264

Phylogeography of the tidewater goby, Eucyclogobius newberryi (Teleostei, Gobiidae), in coastal California.  

PubMed

The tidewater goby, Eucyclogobius newberryi, inhabits discrete, seasonally closed estuaries and lagoons along approximately 1500 km of California coastline. This species is euryhaline but has no explicit marine stage, yet population extirpation and recolonization data suggest tidewater gobies disperse intermittently via the sea. Analyses of mitochondrial control region and cytochrome b sequences demonstrate a deep evolutionary bifurcation in the vicinity of Los Angeles that separates southern California populations from all more northerly populations. Shallower phylogeographic breaks, in the vicinities of Seacliff, Point Buchon, Big Sur, and Point Arena segregate the northerly populations into five groups in three geographic clusters: the Point Conception and Ventura groups between Los Angeles and Point Buchon, a lone Estero Bay group from central California, and San Francisco and Cape Mendocino groups from northern California. The phylogenetic relationships between and patterns of molecular diversity within the six groups are consistent with repeated, and sometimes rapid, northward and southward range expansions out of central California caused by Quaternary climate change. Plio-Pleistocene tectonism, Quaternary coastal geography and hydrography, and historical human activities probably also influenced the modern geographic and genetic structure of E. newberryi. The phylogeography of E. newberryi is concordant with phylogeographic patterns in several other coastal California taxa, suggesting common extrinsic factors have had similar effects on different species. However, there is no evidence of a phylogeographic break coincident with a biogeographic boundary at Point Conception. PMID:11475052

Dawson, M N; Staton, J L; Jacobs, D K

2001-06-01

265

Changes induced by cadmium in the kidney of Black Sea bream, Mylio macrocephalus (teleostei)  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium is known to cause injury to most of the internal organs of higher vertebrates. Chronic exposure of cadmium produces histopathological changes in the kidney in man and experimental animals and leads to its preferential accumulation in the liver and kidney. The toxic effects of cadmium on man and experimental animals such as rats, mice and rabbits have been extensively investigated. However, less is known about injurious effects of cadmium on fish, in particular marine fish species. In the present study, the time course of cadmium-induced renal toxicity and histopathological changes of the kidneys of the Black Sea bream, one of the mot common maricultural fish species in Hong Kong, after administration of cadmium chloride are described.

Ooi, V.E.C.; Law, F.K. (Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong (China))

1989-11-01

266

Eviota brahmi n. sp. from Papua New Guinea, with a redescription of Eviota nigriventris (Teleostei: Gobiidae).  

PubMed

Greenfield & Randall (2011) described the gobiid fishes Eviota dorsogilva from Fiji and E. dorsopurpurea from Papua New Guinea as new species in what they termed the Eviota nigriventris complex. They also extended the range of E. nigriventris, type locality Banda Sea, to Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea. In the present paper, we describe their misidentified E. nigriventris from Papua New Guinea as a new species, E. brahmi, and redescribe E. nigriventris based on new material from near the type locality. The four species of this complex differ mainly in coloration, but are also shown to be distinct using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. PMID:24870157

Greenfield, David W; Tornabene, Luke

2014-01-01

267

Age and growth of Distichodus antonii (Schilthuis, 1891) (Pisces, Teleostei, Distichontidae) in Pool Malebo, Congo River  

Microsoft Academic Search

-1 . The growth parameters calculated from this method revealed that this fish has a slow growth rate and it reaches a large size. The analysis of marginal increase shows that the formation of annulus takes place to the dry season. During the dry season, the environmental conditions are disturbed and the access to food becomes difficult. This is probably

Victorine Mbadu Zebe; Jean Claude Micha; Jacques Moreau; Mbomba Nseu Bekeli

2010-01-01

268

Description of a new species of Labeo (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from the lower Congo River  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new labeonine cyprinid, Labeo fulakariensis, is described from material recently collected in rapids on the lower Congo River near the mouth of the Foulakari River, a large north bank tributary, in the Republic of Congo, and from the Yelala rapids in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The new species is readily distinguished from other Congolese Labeo except L. greenii

SINASELI M. TSHIBWABWA; ROBERT C. SCHELLY

269

Three new species of Alburnoides (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Euphrates River, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey.  

PubMed

Three new species of Alburnoides, Alburnoides emineae sp. n., Alburnoides velioglui sp. n., Alburnoides recepi sp. n., are described from the Euphrates River drainages (Persian Gulf basin) in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Alburnoides emineae, from Beyazsu Stream (south-eastern Euphrates River drainage), is distinguished from all species of Alburnoides in Turkey and adjacent regions by a combination of the following characters (none unique to the species): a well developed ventral keel between pelvic and anal fins, commonly scaleless or very rarely 1-2 scales covering the anterior portion of the keel; a deep body (depth at dorsal-fin origin 31-36% SL); 37-43 + 1-2 lateral-line scales, 13½-15½ branched anal-fin rays; number of total vertebrae 41-42, modally 41, comprising 20-21 abdominal and 20-21 caudal vertebrae. Alburnoides velioglui, from S?rl?, Karasu, Divri?i and Sultansuyu streams (northern and northeastern Euphrates River drainages), is distinguished by a poorly developed ventral keel, completely scaled; a moderately deep body (depth at dorsal-fin origin 24-29% SL); 45-53 + 1-2 lateral-line scales, 11½ -13½ branched anal-fin rays; number of total vertebrae 41-42, modally 42, comprising 20-22 abdominal and 20-21 caudal vertebrae. Alburnoides recepi, from Merzimen Stream (southern Euphrates River drainage), is distinguished by a well developed ventral keel, completely scaleless; a deep body (depth at dorsal-fin origin 29-34% SL); 47-56 + 2-3 lateral-line scales; 13½-16½ branched anal-fin rays; number of total vertebrae 38-40, comprising 19-21 abdominal and 18-20 caudal vertebrae. PMID:24869683

Turan, Davut; Kaya, Cüneyt; Ekmekçi, F Güler; Do?an, Esra

2014-01-01

270

Use of cues by Lipophrys pholis L. (Teleostei, Blenniidae) in learning the position of a refuge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Lipophrys pholis to remember the position of a refuge was tested in an artificial habitat under the influence of different visual clues. L. pholis learned the position of the refuge in the presence of a clue consisting only of a small black screen. They responded to this clue by moving towards it and pressing themselves up against

J Dodd; R. N Gibson; R. N Hughes

2000-01-01

271

Sexual dimorphism and male mating success in the tentacled blenny, Parablennius tentacularis (Teleostei: Blenniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although external sexually dimorphic traits are commonly found in males of combtooth blenny species, little is known about\\u000a the benefit they can convey to male mating success. Indeed, while female preferences for large males have been demonstrated\\u000a in some species, the possible role played by dimorphic ornaments has been neglected. We now report on the tentacled blenny,\\u000a Parablennius tentacularis, a

Eva Giacomello; Maria B. Rasotto

2005-01-01

272

Feeding patterns in eastern tropical Pacific blennioid fishes (Teleostei: Tripterygiidae, Labrisomidae, Chaenopsidae, Blenniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In terms of species number (47) and numerical abundance, blennioids are the most important primary resident rocky reef fishes in the Gulf of California, Mexico. We present the feeding patterns of the 34 most abundant species of blennioid fishes, 8 of which are Gulf endemics. A total of 2,144 specimens were sampled at 51 anaesthetic stations in 9 areas throughout

Kurt Kotrschal; Don A. Thomson

1986-01-01

273

The reproduction of Blennius pavo (Teleostei, Blenniidae). I. Ovarial cycle, environmental factors and feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blennius (Salaria) pavo is a very common coastal fish in the Mediterranean Sea. The development of the ovary was studied over a period of one year; seven stages of oogenesis are described. Ripe eggs are carried during the spawning season from Juni to August. The ovary shows a resting period of more than half a year (September to March). Environmental

Robert A. Patzner

1983-01-01

274

Female preference and filial cannibalism in Aidablennius sphynx (Teleostei, Blenniidae); a combined field and laboratory study.  

PubMed

In the fish Aidablennius sphynx, in which males continuously care for up to 7000 eggs throughout the breeding season, females prefer to mate with males that already guard eggs. The present study shows that this preference appears to be adaptive because the probability of eggs being cannibalized decreased with brood size. In the field, on average 36 eggs disappeared from nests per day, where the main egg predator seemed to be the guarding male. Experiments showed that males selectively consumed dead eggs, probably to prevent the spread of infections. However, only with large broods did the numbers of eggs cannibalized in the field correspond to the egg mortality rate, that was determined to be 0.8%. When guarding small broods, males have probably also eaten healthy eggs. Breeding males suffered an average weight loss of 19.4%. This suggests that breeding males are restricted in foraging opportunities. When a male was experimentally fed, he cannibalized fewer eggs only when guarding small broods, not when guarding large broods. Therefore, it seems that caring males daily harvest eggs to remain in sufficient condition. In large broods they use eggs that recently died. When the male is guarding small broods the low numbers of dead eggs do not suffice, and healthy eggs are also eaten. PMID:24896420

Kraak, S B

1996-02-01

275

Use of cues by Lipophrys pholis L. (Teleostei, Blenniidae) in learning the position of a refuge.  

PubMed

The ability of Lipophrys pholis to remember the position of a refuge was tested in an artificial habitat under the influence of different visual clues. L. pholis learned the position of the refuge in the presence of a clue consisting only of a small black screen. They responded to this clue by moving towards it and pressing themselves up against it. Lego towers and a white screen clue did not provoke such a response. In a further experiment L. pholis continued to respond to the black screen in this way when the screen was moved to another location further from the refuge. After 12 days L. pholis learned to use the black screen in its new position as an indirect clue and navigate to the refuge directly without first approaching the black screen. These results suggested that when placed in a novel habitat the immediate reaction of L. pholis is to move quickly towards the first dark area they see but, with experience, they can use the position of large objects around them to navigate quickly and efficiently to a refuge. PMID:10794916

Dodd; Gibson; Hughes

2000-04-01

276

Diet of Lipophrys pholis (L.) (Teleostei, Blenniidae) in Cantabrian coastal waters (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between February and December 1988, a total of 261 specimens of Lipophrys pholis were caught in eleven intertidal pools on the western coast of Asturias. This blenniid species mainly feeds on different groups of invertebrates, although algal remains also appear. Mollusca is the most highly represented taxon with the largest number of prey being Gastropoda, followed by Bivalvia and, to a

Raquel A. Mazé; Josefa Domínguez; David Pérez-Cardenal

1999-01-01

277

The spermatic duct of blenniid fish (Teleostei, Blenniidae): Fine structure, histochemistry and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The annual changes of the spermatic duct ofSalaria pavo and the characteristics of the spermatic ducts of spawningAidablennius sphynx, Lipophrys adriaticus, L. dalmatinus, andParablennius incognitus are described by fine structural and histochemical methods. The spermatic duct ofS. pavo has an inactive phase during the interspawning period, a proliferation phase during the prespawning period, a phase of high secretory activity

F. Lahnsteiner; R. A. Patzner

1990-01-01

278

Female preference and filial cannibalism in Aidablennius sphynx (Teleostei, Blenniidae); a combined field and laboratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fish Aidablennius sphynx, in which males continuously care for up to 7000 eggs throughout the breeding season, females prefer to mate with males that already guard eggs. The present study shows that this preference appears to be adaptive because the probability of eggs being cannibalized decreased with brood size. In the field, on average 36 eggs disappeared from

Sarah B. M. Kraak

1996-01-01

279

Chitin in the epidermal cuticle of a vertebrate ( Paralipophrys trigloides , Blenniidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lectin binding, endo-chitinase binding and enzymatic degradation studies show that the epidermal cuticle of the bony fishParalipophrys trigloides (Blenniidae) is chitinous. This is the first evidence that a vertebrate species possesses a chitinous tissue. Recently aXenopus gene has been identified which has significant sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of yeast chitin synthase III, a chitin producing enzyme1,2. Taken together

G. P. Wagner; J. Lo; R. Laine; M. Almeder

1993-01-01

280

Genetic Divergence and Origin of Mediterranean Populations of the River Blenny Salaria fluviatilis (Teleostei: Blenniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current distribution of the River Blenny Salaria ( Blennius) fluviatilis, one of the two freshwater representatives of a large, cosmopolitan marine fish family, poses an interesting biogeographical problem because this species inhabits widely separate circum-Mediterranean watersheds. Potential scenarios of its dispersal were examined using allozyme analysis of several populations from the Iberian and Greek peninsulas. Based on Nei genetic

A. PERDICES; I. M. C OTE; A. M ACHORDOM; J. D. REYNOLDS

2000-01-01

281

Omobranchus punctatus (Teleostei: Blenniidae), an Exotic Blenny in the Southwestern Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus (Valenciennes), native to the Indo-Pacific region, is recorded in the Southwestern Atlantic coast, inhabiting natural and\\u000a artificial substrates in the proximities of three large Brazilian seaports (states of Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina).\\u000a Due to its habitat and habits, the introduction of this species was probably by ship or oil rigs, presumably associated

Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger; Matheus Oliveira Freitas; Áthila Bertoncini Andrade; Carlos Augusto Rangel

2006-01-01

282

Visual field of cultured striped trumpeter Latris lineata (Teleostei) larvae feeding on rotifer prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visual field of striped trumpeter Latris lineata larvae fed rotifer prey was determined from analysis of feeding behaviour in the horizontal plane. The visual field was forward and laterally directed, characterised by maximum reactive distances (distance at which the predator first detects and reacts to the prey) of 5.07?mm and 5.25?mm on days 13 and 17 post-hatching, respectively, 97%

Jennifer M. Cobcroft; Patricia M. Pankhurst

2006-01-01

283

New species of Freitascapillaria (Nematoda: Capillariidae) from the intestine of Cottus caeruleomentum (Teleostei: Cottidae) in Maryland.  

PubMed

A new species of capillariid nematode, Freitascapillaria laticauda n. sp. (Capillariidae), is described from the intestine of the blue ridge sculpin, Cottus caeruleomentum (Cottidae, Scorpaeniformes) from the Blue Lick Run, Maryland, United States. It differs from its congeners mainly in the body length (male 3.1-5.4 mm, female 7.0-11.1 mm), the length of the male esophagus (1.5-2.9 mm) and spicule (42-45 microm), and the size of eggs (60-66 x 27-33 microm). Previous records of Freitascapillaria spp. were from characid, poeciliid, and cyprinid fishes in Brazil, Neotropical Mexico, and China, respectively, so that F. laticauda n. sp. is the first species of this genus reported from Nearctic North America and from a scorpaeniform fish. PMID:20050003

Moravec, Frantisek; Muzzall, Patrick M

2009-08-01

284

Patterns of brain morphology in mid-European Cyprinidae (Pisces, Teleostei): a quantitative histological study.  

PubMed

The present study considers patterns of brain morphology in 14 common species of mid-European Cyprinidae. Sixteen areas per brain were measured on serial cryostat sections by computer-aided planimetry. The volumes of these areas were expressed as % of the total brain volume. These brain centres (ranked according to falling values of the coefficient of variation VR, of the interspecific mean) are: Lobus facialis, L. vagus, central acustic area, Crista cerebellaris, Bulbus olfactorius, Eminentia granularis, Stratum opticum (of the optic tectum), Torus longitudinalis, Nucleus habenularis, Valvula cerebelli, Corpus cerebelli, Telencephalon, Tectum opticum, Diencephalon, Torus semicircularis, mesencephalic tegmentum. Seven primary sensory areas are leading in VR; highest in interspecific variability were the two special viscerosensory brainstem lobes for external (L. facialis) and internal (L. vagus) taste. Low in interspecific variability were integration centres (see above). By plotting the relative volumina of those brain centres which represent three major sensory modalities: brain stem chemosense, acoustico-lateralis and sense of vision, species are separated into three groups: 1) Most species scatter along an axis from moderately (Aspius aspius, Rutilus rutilus, Leuciscus cephalus, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Alburnus alburnus, Chondrostoma nasus) to highly developed chemo- and acustico-lateralis centres (Vimba vimba, Abramis brama, Abramis ballerus). Blicca bjoercna is situated in the middle of this axis. Within the latter group the optic centres are evenly well developed. 2) Carassius carassius, Gobio gobio and Tinca tinca are characterized by relatively small acoustico-lateralis and optic areas, but highly developed chemocentres. 3) Pelecus cultratus is monotypic among the species investigated by having large acoustico-lateralis and optic, but modestly developed chemocentres. The brain patterns relative to life style are discussed. PMID:3418119

Kotrschal, K; Junger, H

1988-01-01

285

Effects of jaw adductor hypertrophy on buccal expansions during feeding of air breathing catfishes (Teleostei, Clariidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some species of Clariidae (air breathing catfishes) have extremely well developed (hypertrophied) jaw closing muscles that increase the maximal biting force of these species. As these enlarged jaw muscles tightly cover the suspensoria, which are firmly connected to the neurocranium, we expect diminished lateral expansions during suction for species with hypertrophied jaw muscles. In turn, this could imply a reduced

Sam Van Wassenbergh; Anthony Herrel; Dominique Adriaens; Peter Aerts

2004-01-01

286

Observations on the reproductive and larval biology of Blennius pavo (Pisces: Teleostei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social behaviour and spawning of adult Blennius pavo kept in the laboratory are described. Eggs are deposited in batches on the walls of artificial spawning places (PVC pipes). One male guards and tends the eggs of different females in one spawning place. Larval hatching occurs in groups according to oviposition. Minimum incubation temperature is around 14 15°C. Larval survival in 1-1 rearing jars is not related to larval total length but to density of larval stock. An experimental population of laboratory reared juvenile and adolescent B. pavo displays a male to female ratio of 1:1.4. Factors possibly influencing the sex ratio of this littoral fish are discussed in view of the situation in its natural environment.

Westernhagen, H.

1983-09-01

287

Male gonadal differentiation and the paedomorphic evolution of the testis in Teleostei.  

PubMed

Testis differentiation from representatives of the Otophysi (Cyprinus carpio), Percomorpha (Amatitlania nigrofasciata), and Atherinomorpha (Poecilia reticulata) was comparatively described. In the undifferentiated gonad of C. carpio, the primordial germ cells (PGCs) are scattered throughout the gonads while in A. nigrofasciata and P. reticulata the PGCs are restricted to the ventral periphery. In the dorsal region of the developing gonads, with the exception of C. carpio, somatic cell rearrangements result in the differentiation of the sperm duct. Pre-Sertoli cells wrap around single spermatogonia forming cysts that proliferate forming acinar-clusters. In C. carpio and A. nigrofasciata, the cysts in each acinar-cluster move away from each other, creating a central lumen. In C. carpio, the acinar-clusters then fuse to each other forming tubules that become lined by the germinal epithelium. Subsequently, the tubules anastomose dorsally and create the sperm duct. In A. nigrofasciata, the acinar-clusters elongate, forming lobules that individually connect to the sperm duct. These are lined by the germinal epithelium. In P. reticulata, the spermatogonial cysts remain in the acinar-cluster organization. Subsequently, developing ducts connect each cluster to the sperm duct and lobules subsequently develop. In the differentiated testis of C. carpio and A. nigrofasciata, spermatogonia are distributed along the lengths of the anastomosing tubules or lobules, respectively. However, in P. reticulata, the spermatogonia remain restricted to the terminal end of the lobules. Considering testis ontogeny, the spermatogonial acinar-cluster is the adult characteristic of more derived taxa that approximate the early gonad developmental stages of the basal taxa. PMID:24740886

Mazzoni, Talita Sarah; Grier, Harry J; Quagio-Grassiotto, Irani

2014-06-01

288

Shape based assignment tests suggest transgressive phenotypes in natural sculpin hybrids (Teleostei, Scorpaeniformes, Cottidae)  

PubMed Central

Background Hybridization receives attention because of the potential role that it may play in generating evolutionary novelty. An explanation for the emergence of novel phenotypes is given by transgressive segregation, which, if frequent, would imply an important evolutionary role for hybridization. This process is still rarely studied in natural populations as samples of recent hybrids and their parental populations are needed. Further, the detection of transgressive segregation requires phenotypes that can be easily quantified and analysed. We analyse variability in body shape of divergent populations of European sculpins (Cottus gobio complex) as well as natural hybrids among them. Results A distance-based method is developed to assign unknown specimens to known groups based on morphometric data. Apparently, body shape represents a highly informative set of characters that parallels the discriminatory power of microsatellite markers in our study system. Populations of sculpins are distinct and "unknown" specimens can be correctly assigned to their source population based on body shape. Recent hybrids are intermediate along the axes separating their parental groups but display additional differentiation that is unique and coupled with the hybrid genetic background. Conclusion There is a specific hybrid shape component in natural sculpin hybrids that can be best explained by transgressive segregation. This inference of how hybrids differ from their ancestors provides basic information for future evolutionary studies. Furthermore, our approach may serve to assign candidate specimens to their source populations based on morphometric data and help in the interpretation of population differentiation.

Nolte, Arne W; Sheets, H David

2005-01-01

289

Comparative cytogenetics and molecular phylogeography in the group astyanax altiparanae--Astyanax aff. bimaculatus (Teleostei, Characidae).  

PubMed

The genus Astyanax comprises small characin fish of the neotropical region. The so-called 'yellow-tailed characins' compose one of the most widely distributed Astyanax groups. A. altiparanae and A. aff. bimaculatus, are evolutionarily closely related and commonly found in several Brazilian hydrographic basins. In the present work, chromosomal data of specimens of A. altiparanae and A. aff. bimaculatus from 4 hydrographic basins in the states of São Paulo (Upper Tietê, Paranapanema, Ribeira de Iguape) and Rio de Janeiro (Guapimirim) are shown. All the populations showed 50 chromosomes, with different karyotypic formula. Although only a single Ag-NOR bearing chromosome pair was observed, all populations possess multiple cistrons of 18S rDNA. FISH with the 5S rDNA probe showed single signals at the interstitial position of one metacentric chromosome pair. C-bands are distributed in the terminal and interstitial regions of several chromosomes. However, the As-51 satDNA are frugally located in a few chromosomes of fishes from Upper Tietê, Paranapanema and Guapimirim Rivers, being absent in individuals of A. aff. bimaculatus from Ribeira de Iguape River basin. Beside these 4 populations, molecular phylogeography studies were also performed in individuals from Middle and Lower Tietê River basin and from 2 additional collection sites in the Paranapanema and Ribeira de Iguape River basins. The phylogeographic analysis using 2 mtDNA regions (totalizing 1.314 bp of ND2 and ATPase6/8 genes) of 8 populations of the group of 'yellow-tailed characins' from 3 major hydrographic basins showed structuring of populations, suggesting a correlation between chromosomal (nuclear) and molecular (mitochondrial) data. PMID:21447941

Kavalco, K F; Pazza, R; Brandão, K D O; Garcia, C; Almeida-Toledo, L F

2011-01-01

290

Stone loaches of Choman River system, Kurdistan, Iran (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).  

PubMed

For the first time, we present data on species composition and distributions of nemacheilid loaches in the Choman River basin of Kurdistan province, Iran. Two genera and four species are recorded from the area, of which three species are new for science: Oxynoemacheilus kurdistanicus, O. zagrosensis, O. chomanicus spp. nov., and Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi B?n. et Nalb. Detailed and illustrated morphological descriptions and univariate and multivariate analysis of morphometric and meristic features are for each of these species. Forty morphometric and eleven meristic characters were used in multivariate analysis to select characters that could discriminate between the four loach species. Discriminant Function Analysis revealed that sixteen morphometric measures and five meristic characters have the most variability between the loach species. The dendrograms based on cluster analysis of Mahalanobis distances of morphometrics and a combination of both characters confirmed two distinct groups: Oxynoemacheilus spp. and T. kosswigi. Within Oxynoemacheilus, O. zagrosensis and O. chomanicus are more similar to one other rather to either is to O. kurdistanicus. PMID:24869808

Kamangar, Barzan Bahrami; Prokofiev, Artem M; Ghaderi, Edris; Nalbant, Theodore T

2014-01-01

291

Karyotypic diversity and evolutionary trends in the Neotropical catfish genus Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Loricariidae).  

PubMed

The family Loricariidae with 813 nominal species is one of the largest fish families of the world. Hypostominae, its more complex subfamily, was recently divided into five tribes. The tribe Hypostomini is composed of a single genus, Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, which exhibits the largest karyotypic diversity in the family Loricariidae. With the main objective of contributing to a better understanding of the relationship and the patterns of evolution among the karyotypes of Hypostomus species, cytogenetic studies were conducted in six species of the genus from Brazil and Venezuela. The results show a great chromosome variety with diploid numbers ranging from 2n=68 to 2n=76, with a clear predominance of acrocentric chromosomes. The Ag-NORs are located in terminal position in all species analyzed. Three species have single Ag-NORs (Hypostomus albopunctatus (Regan, 1908), Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758), and Hypostomus prope paulinus (Ihering, 1905)) and three have multiple Ag-NORs (Hypostomus ancistroides (Ihering, 1911), Hypostomus prope iheringi (Regan, 1908), and Hypostomus strigaticeps (Regan, 1908)). In the process of karyotype evolution of the group, the main type of chromosome rearrangements was possibly centric fissions, which may have been facilitated by the putative tetraploid origin of Hypostomus species. The relationship between the karyotype changes and the evolution in the genus is discussed. PMID:24260683

Alves, Anderson Luis; de Borba, Rafael Splendore; Oliveira, Claudio; Mauro Nirchio; Granado, Angel; Foresti, Fausto

2012-01-01

292

Pituitary gland morphogenesis and ontogeny of adenohypophyseal cells of Salminus brasiliensis (Teleostei, Characiformes).  

PubMed

In this study, we describe for the first time the details of the pituitary gland morphogenesis and the ontogeny of adenohypophyseal cells of a South American Characiform species with great importance for Brazilian Aquaculture, Salminus brasiliensis (Characiformes, Characidae), from hatching to 25 days after hatching (dah), by histochemical and immunocytochemical methods. The pituitary placode was first detected at hatching (0 dah), and the pituitary anlage became more defined at 0.5 dah. The neurohypophysis (NH) development started at 3 dah, and the early formation of its stalk at 12.5 dah. An increase in adenohypophyseal and NH tissues was also observed, and in juveniles at 25 dah, the pituitary displayed similar morphology to that found in adults of this species, displaying the main features of the teleost pituitary. PRL cells were detected at 0.5 dah, together with ACTH and ?-MSH cells, followed by GH and SL cells at 1.5 dah. ?-FSH cells were detected at 25 dah, while ?-LH cells at 5 dah. The pituitary development in this species comprises a dynamic process similar to other teleosts. Our findings in S. brasiliensis corroborate the heterogeneity in the ontogeny of adenohypophyseal cells in teleosts and suggest a role for adenohypophyseal hormones in the early development of this species. PMID:24310491

de Jesus, Lázaro Wender Oliveira; Chehade, Chayrra; Costa, Fabiano Gonçalves; Borella, Maria Inês

2014-06-01

293

A new dispersed element in the genome of the catfish Hisonotus leucofrenatus (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Hypoptopomatinae).  

PubMed

Eight restriction enzymes were used in the prospection and isolation of repetitive sequences in the genome of the catfish Hisonotus leucofrenatus, a siluriform fish species that presents a large heterochromatic block in the W chromosome. In the tested enzymes, only the BamHI enzyme revealed a distinct band of 224 bp G+C value of 37%. In comparative analyses with sequences already available in the GenBank, the BamHI fragment sequence showed similarity with part of a Lepidoptera transposon. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that this sequence presents a dispersed pattern in the genome of H. leucofrenatus, forming clusters in some chromosome pairs in the pericentromeric region, which frequently are rich in constitutive heterochromatin. Based on the analysis performed, it can be inferred that the HLBam fragment constitutes a genomically dispersed transposon type element. It can be considered that the findings in this study can contribute to a better understanding of the organization and distribution of transposable elements in the genome of teleost fish. PMID:22016856

Ferreira, Daniela Cristina; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

2011-07-01

294

Stages in the early and larval development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei, Clariidae).  

PubMed

Summary The African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822 is a favourite aquaculture fish in many parts of Africa and Asia because of its hardiness and fast growth rate. In this study, early, post-embryonic and larval developmental stages of C. gariepinus were examined chronologically and described. Photomicrographs of unfertilized matured oocytes from 0 min of fertilization through all cell stages to alevin, to complete yolk absorption, to free swimming larval stages are shown and documented live from lateral and top views, with the aid of a light microscope. Extruded oocytes had a mean diameter of 1 ± 0.1 mm, and possessed a thin perivitelline membrane whose space was filled with a protoplasmic layer. Heartbeat was in the range of 115-160/min prior to hatching. Hatchability rate was 85% and hatching occurred at 17 h at a controlled temperature of 28.5 ± 0.5°C, while ontogeny of the eyes and other organs were discernible. At day 4, larvae mean length was 9.3 ± 0.5 mm, exogenous feeding had commenced fully and melanophores spread cephalocaudally but were concentrated significantly on the head parts. This paper, for the first time, presents the significant chronological developmental stages of C. gariepinus embryology that will have significant implications for genetic manipulation and catfish seed production for aquaculture. PMID:23534899

Olaniyi, Wasiu Adekunle; Omitogun, Ofelia Galman

2014-08-01

295

Cryptic Diversity and Venom Glands in Western Atlantic Clingfishes of the Genus Acyrtus (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae)  

PubMed Central

Examination of genetic data (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I) for western Atlantic clingfishes revealed two distinct lineages within a group of individuals originally identified as Acyrtus artius. Subsequent investigation of preserved voucher specimens was conducted to reconcile the genetic data and the existing classification, which is based on morphology. In addition to discovering that one of the genetic lineages is an undescribed species, which we describe as Acyrtus lanthanum, new species, we found that the nominal species Acyrtus artius has a putative venom gland associated with the subopercle that has been overlooked since the species was described nearly 60 years ago. The new species lacks the subopercular gland as does Acyrtus rubiginosus, but one is present in the related Arcos nudus. Venom glands have not been reported previously for the Gobiesocidae, and the venom gland described herein for Acyrtus and Arcos represents the first example in teleost fishes of a venom gland associated with the subopercle.

Conway, Kevin W.; Baldwin, Carole; White, Macaulay D.

2014-01-01

296

Phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of Pseudoxiphophorus (Teleostei: Poeciliidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relationships of species of genus Pseudoxiphophorus have been only tackled in detail based on morphology so far. However, phylogenetic evidence based on molecular data is still lacking. In this study, we have used five molecular markers (mitochondrial cytb, 16S, atp6-8, and nuclear actB and S7) to reconstruct a robust, inclusive phylogeny of Pseudoxiphophorus. Our phylogenetic results strongly disagree with the main morphological hypothesis, and indicate different phylogenetic relationships among the recognized species of Pseudoxiphophorus. Pseudoxiphophorus jonesii is recovered as the sister group of all other Pseudoxiphophorus lineages, and this initial splitting may be associated to the extension of the Mexican Neovolcanic Plateau at the Punta del Morro site (event used to calibrate our dating analysis). The branch leading to all other Pseudoxiphophorus separated subsequently into two major groups, one comprising those lineages occurring in southern Mexico and Guatemala-Belize, and another with those lineages that extended further southwards to Honduras and Nicaragua. This event took place during the Pliocene, and is likely associated with periods of inundation of the Polochic-Motagua fault area. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec also appears to have been a strong biogeographic barrier triggering cladogenesis in Pseudoxiphophorus. Heterandria formosa (traditionally placed as sister to Pseudoxiphophorus) is not sharing the most recent common ancestor with Pseudoxiphophorus, and is recovered as more distantly related to them. Furthermore, Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (the most cosmopolitan species) is also recovered as a polyphyletic assemblage that appears to comprise those Pseudoxiphophorus that have not been assigned to the other eight, more localized species. All this suggests that Pseudoxiphophorus needs a major taxonomic revision as a whole in order to incorporate all existing diversity. PMID:23023208

Agorreta, Ainhoa; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar; Reina, Ruth G; Miranda, Rafael; Bermingham, Eldredge; Doadrio, Ignacio

2013-01-01

297

A new species of Didogobius (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the Canary Islands.  

PubMed

Didogobius helenae is described from the Canary Islands. It has a sensory papillae pattern that is consistent with the current diagnosis for Didogobius, but lacks all head canals and pores that are present in other members of the genus. Pores, in general, are replaced by large papillae.  The species is defined by first dorsal fin VI; second dorsal fin I,10; anal fin I,9; pectoral fin 16-17; pelvic fin I,5 and disk shaped; lateral scales 28-30, cycloid at anterior, becoming ctenoid posteriorly; cycloid scales present on belly and posterior breast; predorsal region, cheek, operculum and base of pectoral fin without scales; lower most scale on the caudal fin-base with elongate, thickened ctenii along the upper and lower posterior edges. Color in life consists of four mottled, wide brown-orange bars separated by narrower white bars on the trunk, the cheek whitish with 5 more or less circular blotches of orange, outlined in dark brown and a black spot on ventral operculum. A key to the species is provided.  PMID:24870184

Van Tassell, James L; Kramer, Annemarie

2014-01-01

298

Detection of interstitial telomeric sequences in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) (Teleostei: Salmonidae).  

PubMed

Highly polymorphic Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus Linnaeus, 1758) chromosomes were studied using conventional and molecular methods. The diploid chromosome number in the studied individuals was 2n = 81 or 2n = 82, with a fundamental arm number (NF) = 100. These differences are due to Robertsonian fusions. Interindividual variation in the number and size of DAPI and CMA(3) positively stained chromatin sites was observed in studied specimens. In the case of two individuals, the subtelomeric region of the long arm (q) of the largest acrocentric chromosome (chromosome number 10) was positively stained by CMA(3) fluorochrome. Both primed in situ labelling (PRINS) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that this CMA(3)-positive region was flanked by telomeric sequences. Previously, the subterminal position of interstitial telomeric sequences located in the vicinity of the CMA(3)-positive guanine-rich chromatin have been described in two other Salvelinus species, brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis ) and lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush ). Moreover, multichromosomal location and variation in size of CMA(3) bands have been observed in various Salvelinus taxa, including fishes with internally located telomeric sequences. These results suggest that relocation of CMA(3)-positive chromatin segments in these species may be facilitated by flanking interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs). PMID:22166084

Pomianowski, K; Jankun, M; Ocalewicz, K

2012-01-01

299

Is sexual selection driving diversification of the bioluminescent ponyfishes (Teleostei: Leiognathidae)?  

PubMed

Sexual selection may facilitate genetic isolation among populations and result in increased rates of diversification. As a mechanism driving diversification, sexual selection has been invoked and upheld in numerous empirical studies across disparate taxa, including birds, plants and spiders. In this study, we investigate the potential impact of sexual selection on the tempo and mode of ponyfish evolution. Ponyfishes (Leiognathidae) are bioluminescent marine fishes that exhibit sexually dimorphic features of their unique light-organ system (LOS). Although sexual selection is widely considered to be the driving force behind ponyfish speciation, this hypothesis has never been formally tested. Given that some leiognathid species have a sexually dimorphic LOS, whereas others do not, this family provides an excellent system within which to study the potential role of sexual selection in diversification and morphological differentiation. In this study, we estimate the phylogenetic relationships and divergence times for Leiognathidae, investigate the tempo and mode of ponyfish diversification, and explore morphological shape disparity among leiognathid clades. We recover strong support for a monophyletic Leiognathidae and estimate that all major ponyfish lineages evolved during the Paleogene. Our studies of ponyfish diversification demonstrate that there is no conclusive evidence that sexually dimorphic clades are significantly more species rich than nonsexually dimorphic lineages and that evidence is lacking to support any significant diversification rate increases within ponyfishes. Further, we detected a lineage-through-time signal indicating that ponyfishes have continuously diversified through time, which is in contrast to many recent diversification studies that identify lineage-through-time patterns that support mechanisms of density-dependent speciation. Additionally, there is no evidence of sexual selection hindering morphological diversity, as sexually dimorphic taxa are shown to be more disparate in overall shape morphology than nonsexually dimorphic taxa. Our results suggest that if sexual selection is occurring in ponyfish evolution, it is likely acting only as a genetic isolating mechanism that has allowed ponyfishes to continuously diversify over time, with no overall impact on increases in diversification rate or morphological disparity. PMID:21623980

Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Davis, Matthew P; Smith, W Leo; Baldwin, Zachary H; Sparks, John S

2011-07-01

300

Clarias insolitus, a new species of clariid catfish (Teleostei: Siluri- formes) from southern Borneo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of catfish in the genus Clarias is described from the Barito River drainage in south- ern Borneo. Clarias insolitus can be clearly distinguished from all other Southeast Asian Clarias species in having a long and thin anterior fontanel and hypertrophied sensory canal pores on the head and body that are easily visible to the naked eye. Additional

HEOK HEE NG

301

Pseudomystus stenogrammus, a new species of bagrid catfish from Borneo (Teleostei, Bagridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomystus stenogrammus, a new species of bagrid catfish, is described from the Barito River drainage of southern Borneo. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its colour pat- tern.

HEOK HEE NG; DARRELL J. SIEBERT

302

Kudoa inornata sp. n. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) from the skeletal muscles of Cynoscion nebulosus (Teleostei: Sciaenidae).  

PubMed

A new myxosporean species, Kudoa inornata sp. n. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida), is described from skeletal muscles of the spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier), collected in estuarine waters along the coast of South Carolina, USA. Light microscopic and ultrastructural characters rank this species to the group of Kudoa species with simple-shaped spores. The uniqueness of the SSU and LSU rDNA sequences justifies its status of a new species with sister relationship to Kudoa paniformis. The 100% prevalence in seatrout from four out of five localities sampled and pathogenicity of K. inornata recognized in this study should motivate further screening for infections in its host, which is considered a commercially important game fish with a wide distribution in the Western North Atlantic. PMID:19606785

Dyková, Iva; de Buron, Isaure; Fiala, Ivan; Roumillat, William A

2009-06-01

303

Cave molly females ( Poecilia mexicana , Poeciliidae, Teleostei) like well-fed males  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the preference of Atlantic molly females (Poecilia mexicana) to associate with a well-fed or a starved male in simultaneous choice tests. Females from three different populations were tested in three treatments: (1) the females could choose on the basis of multiple cues from the males (visual plus non-visual); (2) only non-visual cues could be perceived in darkness, (3)

Martin Plath; Katja U. Heubel; Francisco J. García de León; Ingo Schlupp

2005-01-01

304

Vision in the grass goby, Zosterisessor ophiocephalus (Teleostei, Gobiidae): A morphological and behavioural study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visual abilities of Zosterisessor ophiocephalus, an ambushing predator inhabiting the intertidal seagrass meadows of lagoons, were studied by morphological and behavioural methods. In its retina, a high number of rods, double and single cones packed in a square mosaic were found, together with the retinomotor response involving the pigment granules and both kinds of photoreceptors. The retinal topography was

Damijana Ota; Marco Francese; Enrico A. Ferrero

1999-01-01

305

Embryonic fissure and photoreceptor differentiation in the eye of adult Garra rufa Heckel 1843 (Cyprinidae, Teleostei).  

PubMed

The retina of the adult teleost Garra rufa retains a curved, open embryonic fissure indicating an asymmetrical postembryonic retinal growth. Undifferentiated, oval photoreceptors are observed on both sides of the middle of the fissure with their larger diameter running parallel to the fissure to which they may attach by desmosomes. They detach from the fissure, rotate to become perpendicular to it and begin an active process of differentiation as they slide along the temporal side of the outer half of the fissure. This process is divided into stages for simplicity. The photoreceptors develop stumpy inner segments extending into a ventricular space that appears between the retinal pigment epithelium and the photoreceptors. Calycal processes arise from the inner segments and the distal centriole of each photoreceptor forms a connecting cilium. The proximal centriole is retained for some time after the outer segment develops. The formation of rod spherules and cone pedicles takes place almost concomitantly with the outer segments. Double cones appear first as single cones before pairing. One or more of the principal cone mitochondria accumulate electron-dense material and merge to form the ellipsosome. The retinal pigment epithelium undergoes a parallel differentiation. The developmental events described in the present work conform those recorded in embryonic teleostean retinas. PMID:11987455

al-Adhami, M A; Qar, J; al Khodur, M

2001-01-01

306

Structure and vascularization of the ventricular myocardium of Piaractus mesopotamicus and Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei).  

PubMed

The structural characteristics of the ventricular myocardium and the arterial distribution of the ventricular wall were studied in two freshwater teleost fish species (Piaractus mesopotamicus and Clarias gariepinus). The ventricular myocardium consists of two distinct layers, an external compact layer and an internal spongy layer. In Piaractus mesopotamicus the compact layer contains fibres with an external longitudinal arrangement and an internal circular arrangement. The arterial vascularization of the compact layer is provided by subepicardial vessels and their ramifications in both species. PMID:10488629

Simões, K; Vicentini, C A; da Cruz, C; Benetti, E J

1999-08-01

307

PCR-based identification of Adriatic specimen of three scorpionfish species (Scorpaenidae, Teleostei).  

PubMed

The identification of three scorpionfish species, the black scorpionfish (Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus, 1758), the large-scaled scorpionfish (S. scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) and the small red scorpionfish (S. notata Rafinesque, 1810) is possible in adults by morphometry, but often problematic in juveniles due to their similar phenotypes. To develop a molecular species identification tool, first, we have analyzed the genetic similarity of the three species by a PCR-based 'blind method' that amplified bands from various locations of the genome. We found high levels of nucleotide similarity between S. porcus and S. scrofa, whereas S. notata showed a higher level of divergence from the other two species. Then, we have searched these patterns for differences between the genomes of Adriatic specimen of these three species and identified several species-specific products in two of them. For the third one a species-specific primer pair amplifying from the 16S ribosomal DNA was designed. One marker for each species was cloned, sequenced and converted into Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) markers amplified by specific primer pairs. The SCAR markers amplified robust bands of limited variability from the target species, while no or only occasional weak products were obtained from the other two, proving that they can be used for molecular identification of these three species. These markers can help the conservation and future analysis of these three species as well as their possible selection programs for aquaculture purposes. PMID:24873907

Saju, J M; Németh, Sz; Sz?cs, Réka; Sukumaran, Rashmi; Lim, Z; Wong, L; Orbán, L; Bercsényi, M

2014-06-01

308

Dactylogyrids (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) of Labeo (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from West African Coastal Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dactylogyrids from Labeo parvus Boulenger, 1902, L. alluaudi Pellegrin, 1933, and L. rouaneti, Daget, 1962, were studied in Atlantic coastal basins in West Africa. Nine species (6 new) of Dactylogyridae were found Dactylogyrus longiphallus Papema, 1973, D. falcilocus Guégan, Lambert, and Euzet, 1988, and Dog-elius kabaensis sp. n. from L. parvus populations in coastal rivers of Guinea, Sierra Leone, and

JEAN-FRANÇOIS GUEGAN; ALAIN LAMBERT

1991-01-01

309

A new Pseudophoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) species from Asi River Drainage (Turkey)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Pseudophoxinus turani sp. n. is described from the ?ncesu Spring (Hassa-Hatay) drainage of Asi River, Turkey. It is distinguished from other Eastern Mediterranean Region Pseudophoxinus species by a combination of characters: lateral line incomplete, with 12–25 (commonly 16–21) perforated scales and 38–46+2-3 scales in lateral series (commonly 41–44+2-3); 10–11 scale rows between the lateral line and dorsal-fin origin; 3–4 scale rows between the lateral line and the pelvic–fin origin; dorsal fin with 7½ branched rays; anal fin commonly with 7½ branched rays; 8-11gill rakers on the first branchial arch; dorsal profile markedly convex with marked hump at the nape, ventral profile less convex than dorsal profile; a small, irregular, black blotch on the base of the caudal fin; mouth terminal, with slightly distinct chin, its corner not reaching vertical through anterior margin of eye; snout somewhat long, with rounded tip; and its length greater than eye diameter.

Kucuk, Fahrettin; Guclu, Salim Serkan

2014-01-01

310

A thermal denaturation study of genomic DNAs from North American minnows (Cyprinidae: Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Base compositions and differential melting rate profiles of genomic DNAs from twenty species of North American cyprinid fishes were generated via thermal denaturation. Base pair composition expressed as % GC values ranged among the twenty species from 36.1–41.3%. This range is considerably broader than that observed at comparable taxonomic levels in other vertebrate groups. Both the range and average difference

W. J. Karel; J. R. Gold

1987-01-01

311

Comparative ecology of Serranochromis species (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in the Upper Zambezi River floodplain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Upper Zambezi River drainage of Zambia contains six Serranochromis species belonging to the largemouth, piscivorous subgenus Serranochromis and three smallmouth, invertebrate- feeding species of the subgenus Sargochromis. A survey of the Barotse floodplain and associated drainages revealed that two species, S. (S.) \\/ongimanus (Boulenger) and S. (S.) thumbergi (Castelnau), were uncommon on the floodplain. S. thumbergi appeared to be

K. O. Winemiller

1991-01-01

312

A new cryptic species of Aponurus Looss, 1907 (Digenea: Lecithasteridae) from Mediterranean goatfish (Teleostei: Mullidae).  

PubMed

The status of the trematode Aponurus laguncula Looss, 1907 in the western Mediterranean is re-assessed by means of a comparative morphological study and rDNA sequences based on newly collected material. A. laguncula (sensu stricto) is redescribed from Trachinus draco L. and a new cryptic species of the 'A. laguncula complex', Aponurus mulli n. sp., is described on the basis of abundant material from Mullus barbatus L. (type-host) and M. surmuletus L. off the Spanish Mediterranean coasts. The new species is differentiated from A. laguncula (sensu stricto) by its: significantly larger, elongate body, with maximum width at the level of the ventral sucker; shorter forebody; distinctly larger sinus-sac, seminal receptacle and seminal vesicle, with the latter also being more elongate; vesicular pars prostatica; more anteriorly located vitellarium, which consists of eight globular follicles; and distinctly smaller eggs, which are also smaller in relation to body size and have both their opercular and anopercular poles rounded. The variability and the allometric growth of the morphological characters in the new species were studied in detail, resulting in additional distinguishing features. Sequences of the large subunit rRNA (28S) gene (domains D1-D3) and ITS2 rRNA gene region for the new species have been submitted to GenBank in order to enhance future studies on species differentiation within the 'A. laguncula complex'. PMID:21544713

Carreras-Aubets, Marta; Repullés-Albelda, Aigües; Kostadinova, Aneta; Carrassón, Maite

2011-06-01

313

Microsatellite Development for an Endangered Bream Megalobrama pellegrini (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) Using 454 Sequencing.  

PubMed

Megalobrama pellegrini is an endemic fish species found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. This species has become endangered due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and overfishing. However, the available genetic data for this species is limited. Here, we developed 26 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the M. pellegrini genome using next-generation sequencing techniques. A total of 257,497 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on 454 GS-FLX titanium platforms and 49,811 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 404 bp; 24,522 (49.2%) sequences contained microsatellite repeats. Of the 53 loci screened, 33 were amplified successfully and 26 were polymorphic. The genetic diversity in M. pellegrini was moderate, with an average of 3.08 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.47 and 0.51, respectively. In addition, we tested cross-species amplification for all 33 loci in four additional breams: M. amblycephala, M. skolkovii, M. terminalis, and Sinibrama wui. The cross-species amplification showed a significant high level of transferability (79%-97%), which might be due to their dramatically close genetic relationships. The polymorphic microsatellites developed in the current study will not only contribute to further conservation genetic studies and parentage analyses of this endangered species, but also facilitate future work on the other closely related species. PMID:22489139

Wang, Jinjin; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhao, Kai; Zhang, Yaoguang; Tong, Jingou; Peng, Zuogang

2012-01-01

314

The germ line lineage in ukigori, Gymnogobius species (Teleostei: Gobiidae) during embryonic development.  

PubMed

In order to determine the origin and migration of ukigori primordial germ cells (PGCs), we observed the aggregation of vasa mRNA by whole mount in situ hybridization. To observe PGC migration in the germ layers, we analyzed HE-stained paraffin sections. The germ line lineages were derived from the edge of the first, second and third cleavage furrows. During subsequent cleavages, vasa mRNA aggregations were respectively taken into four to eight cells in each embryo and vasa expressing cells proliferated from the sphere stage. At the bud to early somitogenesis period, PGCs aligned from head to tail bud regions on both sides of the embryonic body. During the late somitogenesis period, PGCs mainly aggregated just underneath the body axis. After gut formation, PGCs aligned along both sides of the gut at the 4th- to 8th- somite regions. Finally, PGCs reached the genital ridge via the inside of the lateral plate mesoderm and dorsal peritoneum. These results suggest that localized patterns of vasa transcripts and the migration routes of PGCs are different among fish (Teleost) species, perhaps depending on the amount of germinal cytoplasm derived maternally and the timing of endoderm differentiation. PMID:15602693

Saito, Taiju; Otani, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Suzuki, Tohru; Nakatsuji, Takako; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuro

2004-12-01

315

Clonal diploid sperm of the diploid-triploid mosaic loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Teleostei:Cobitidae).  

PubMed

The loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus comprises diploid, triploid and diploid-triploid mosaic individuals in a wild population of the Hokkaido island, Japan. Previous studies revealed the presence of a cryptic clonal lineage among diploid loaches, which is maintained by uniparental reproduction of genetically identical diploid eggs. In the present study, we analyzed distribution and genetic status of diploid and triploid cells in infrequent mosaic males. Flow cytometry, microsatellite genotyping and DNA fingerprinting verified that mosaic males consisted of diploid cells with genotypes identical to the natural clone and triploid cells with diploid genomes of the clonal lineage plus haploid genome from sperm nucleus of the father. Thus, the occurrence of diploid-triploid mosaicism might be caused by accidental fertilization of a diploid blastomere nucleus with haploid sperm after the initiation of clonal development of unreduced eggs. Such mosaic males produced fertile sperm with diploid DNA content. The experimental cross between normal diploid female and diploid-triploid mosaic male gave rise to the appearance of triploid progeny which exhibited two microsatellite alleles identical to the clonal genotype and one allele derived from the normal female. In DNA fingerprinting, such triploid progeny gave not only all the DNA fragments from the clone, but also other fragments from the normal female. Induced androgenesis using UV irradiated eggs and sperm of the mosaic male gave rise to the occurrence of diploid individuals with paternally derived microsatellite genotypes and DNA fingerprints, absolutely identical to the natural clonal lineage. These results conclude that the diploid-triploid mosaic male produced unreduced diploid sperm with genetically identical genotypes. The spermatogenesis in the clonal diploid cells under the mosaic condition suggests that triploid male somatic cells might transform genetically all-female germ cells to differentiate into functionally male gametes. The discovery of the mosaic male producing unreduced sperm suggests the theoretical occurrence of triploids and other polyploids by the syngamy of such paternally derived diploid gametes. PMID:15181644

Morishima, Kagayaki; Oshima, Kouzou; Horie, Shin; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Yamaha, Etsuro; Arai, Katsutoshi

2004-06-01

316

Premeiotic endomitosis produces diploid eggs in the natural clone loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Teleostei: Cobitidae).  

PubMed

The natural clone loach produces unreduced eggs genetically identical to somatic cells of the mother fish and such diploid eggs normally develop as a clone without genetic contribution of sperm. Following the identification of clonal nature and diploidy of eggs, we conducted cytological studies to determine the mechanisms responsible for this unusual oogenesis. Cytolological observation of full-grown oocytes cultured in vitro revealed that oocytes of both the clone and the control loach underwent two successive meiotic divisions: formation of a bipolar spindle and metaphase in meiosis I and equal segregation of chromosomes, extrusion of the first polar body and the appearance of metaphase of meiosis II. However, spindle size of the clone was larger than that of the control. Bivalent chromosome number of germinal vesicle of oocytes was 25 in the control diploid, whereas 50 in the clone. The results suggest that chromosomes are duplicated by mitosis without cytokinesis before meiosis, i.e. premeiotic endomitosis and then oocytes differentiated from tetraploid oogonia undergo a quasinormal meiosis followed by two successive divisions to produce diploid eggs. PMID:16526047

Itono, Masaki; Morishima, Kagayaki; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Bando, Etsuko; Yamaha, Etsuro; Arai, Katsutoshi

2006-06-01

317

A new cavefish species from Southwest China, Sinocyclocheilus gracilicaudatus sp. nov. (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

One new species is added to the genus Sinocyclocheilus, the largest cyprinid genus in China and the largest cavefish genus in the world. Sinocyclocheilus gracilicaudatus sp. nov. is similar to S. donglanensis but differs to other congeners in having normal eyes and scaled body, curved lateral line with 59-64 lateral-line scale rows, half-hard dorsal fin spine, 8 gill rakers and 8 predorsal vertebrae. Compared to S. donglanensis, the new species has a longer and more narrow caudal peduncle (caudal peduncle length 21.3-22.7% vs. 16.8-20.4% of SL; caudal peduncle depth 10.5-12.0% vs. 12.5-15.5% of SL), smaller eyes (eye diameter 5.8-8.3% vs. 6.5-10.9% of SL) and longer barbels (maxillary barbel length 16.6-24.3% vs. 11.1-21.1 % of SL; rictal barbel length 19.5-21.6% vs. 11.3-21.1% of SL). The new species is distributed in a subterranean river, belonging to the Longjiang River system; S. donglanensis occurs in the Hongshuihe River system, a system separate from that where the former species occurs.  PMID:24871195

Wang, Dan; Zhao, Yahui; Yang, Junxing; Zhang, Chunguang

2014-01-01

318

Karyotype and chromosome banding of endangered crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The karyotype and other chromosomal characteristics the crucian carp (Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758)) were revealed by means of conventional banding protocols (C, CMA3, AgNOR). The diploid chromosome number (2n) in this species was 100. Its karyotype was composed of 10 pairs of metacentric, 18 pairs of submetacentric and 22 pairs of subtelo- to acrocentric chromosomes without any microchromosomes. C-banding identified blocks of telomeric heterochromatin on seven chromosome pairs. The NORs were situated on the p arms of the 14th pair of submetacentric chromosomes and on the p arms of the 32nd pair of subtelo-acrocentric chromosomes; AgNOR-positive signals corresponded to the CMA3-positive signals. These chromosome characteristics may suggest a paleo-allotetraploid origin of Carassius carassius genome.

Knytl, Martin; Kalous, Lukas; Rab, Petr

2013-01-01

319

Multiple Invasions into Freshwater by Pufferfishes (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae): A Mitogenomic Perspective  

PubMed Central

Pufferfishes of the Family Tetraodontidae are the most speciose group in the Order Tetraodontiformes and mainly inhabit coastal waters along continents. Although no members of other tetraodontiform families have fully discarded their marine lives, approximately 30 tetraodontid species spend their entire lives in freshwaters in disjunct tropical regions of South America, Central Africa, and Southeast Asia. To investigate the interrelationships of tetraodontid pufferfishes and thereby elucidate the evolutionary origins of their freshwater habitats, we performed phylogenetic analysis based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences from 50 tetraodontid species and closely related species (including 31 newly determined sequences). The resulting phylogenies reveal that the family is composed of four major lineages and that freshwater species from the different continents are independently nested in two of the four lineages. A monophyletic origin of the use of freshwater habitats was statistically rejected, and ancestral habitat reconstruction on the resulting tree demonstrates that tetraodontids independently entered freshwater habitats in different continents at least three times. Relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian divergence time estimation suggests that the timing of these invasions differs between continents, occurring at 0–10 million years ago (MA) in South America, 17–38 MA in Central Africa, and 48–78 MA in Southeast Asia. These timings are congruent with geological events that could facilitate adaptation to freshwater habitats in each continent.

Yamanoue, Yusuke; Miya, Masaki; Doi, Hiroyuki; Mabuchi, Kohji; Sakai, Harumi; Nishida, Mutsumi

2011-01-01

320

Stationary Star Formation in Disk Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Se present an trazas evolutivas para galaxias de disco en el marco de un regimen de formaci6n estelar estacionaria. Se comparan estas trazas con las propiedades integrales observadas de galaxias compiladas de la literatura. La comparaci6n involucra fundamentalmente la historia de la formaci6n estelar de las galaxias. Se obtiene una concordancia razonable en los casos de las correlaciones de

C. Firmani; A. V. Tutukov

1993-01-01

321

Factors influencing the spatial distribution patterns of the bullhead ( Cottus gobio L., Teleostei Cottidae): a multi-scale study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used general linear modelling to assess the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distribution patterns of the bullhead (Cottus gobio) at stream system, site, and microhabitat scales in southwestern France. Bullheads occurred at 67 sites (out of 554 sampling sites), chiefly close to the source, in small and shallow streams. Population density at a site was primarily influenced

M. Legalle; F. Santoul; J. Figuerola; S. Mastrorillo; R. Céréghino

2005-01-01

322

Taxonomic review of the genus Trisopterus(Teleostei: Gadidae) with recognition of the capelan Trisopterus capelanus as a valid species.  

PubMed

Trisopterus is demonstrated to be monophyletic, including four distinct species: T. capelanus, T. esmarkii, T. luscus and T. minutus. The capelan T. capelanus is resurrected from the synonymy of poor cod T. minutus, and is shown to be morphologically more similar to T. luscus, to which species it is also more closely related, indicated by a phylogenetic analysis presented here. A lectotype is designated for T. luscus. Trisopterus fasciatus, the type species of Trisopterus, is a junior synonym of T. luscus, and the lectotype of T. luscus is designated as the neotype of T. fasciatus. The lectotype of T. luscus is also designated as the neotype of Gadus barbatus. Gadus barbatus has priority over T. luscus but the name is suppressed by prevailing usage of T. luscus. A neotype is designated also for T. minutus. A phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial cytochrome b, and a fragment of the nuclear rhodopsin gene, shows that T. capelanus and T. luscus are sister species, and in turn sister to a clade formed by T. minutus and T. esmarkii. PMID:22026604

Delling, B; Noren, M; Kullander, S O; González, J A

2011-11-01

323

New nuclear markers and exploration of the relationships among Serraniformes (Acanthomorpha, Teleostei): the importance of working at multiple scales.  

PubMed

We explore the relationships within Serraniformes (Li et al., 2009) using a dense taxon sampling and seven nuclear markers. Six had already used been for teleost phylogeny (IRBP, MC1R, MLL4, Pkd1, Rhodopsin, and RNF213) at other scales, and one (MLL2) is new. The results corroborate the composition of Serraniformes described in previous publications (some Gasterosteiformes, Perciformes and Scorpaeniformes). Within the clade, Notothenioidei and Zoarcoidei are each monophyletic. Cottoidei was not monophyletic due to placement of the genus Ebinania (Psychrolutidae). Our independent data confirm the sister-group relationship of Percophidae and Notothenioidei as well as the division of Platycephaloidei in four different groups (Bembridae, Platycephalidae, Hoplichthyidae and Peristediidae with Triglidae). Within Cottoidei, Liparidae and Cyclopteridae formed a clade associated with Cottidae, the genus Cottunculus (Psychrolutidae), and Agonidae. Serranidae and Scorpaenidae are not monophyletic, with the Serranidae divided in two clades (Serraninae and Epinephelinae/Anthiinae) and Scorpaenidae including Caracanthidae and the genus Ebinania (Psychrolutidae). We discuss some morphological characters supporting clades within the Scorpaenidae. PMID:23306305

Lautredou, A-C; Motomura, H; Gallut, C; Ozouf-Costaz, C; Cruaud, C; Lecointre, G; Dettai, A

2013-04-01

324

Evolution of herbivory in a carnivorous clade of minnows (teleostei: cyprinidae): effects on gut size and digestive physiology.  

PubMed

We constructed a phylogeny for 10 minnow species (family Cyprinidae) previously revealed to be members of sister genera with different dietary affinities and used the phylogeny to examine whether the evolution of digestive tract size and physiology is correlated with the evolution of diet in these fishes. We studied a total of 11 taxa: four herbivorous species in the genus Campostoma and six largely carnivorous species in the genus Nocomis, including two populations of Nocomis leptocephalus, the carnivorous Chattahoochee River drainage population and the herbivorous Altamaha River drainage population. Thus, we were able to compare digestive tract size and physiology among sister genera (Campostoma and Nocomis) and among sister taxa (N. leptocephalus Chattahoochee and N. leptocephalus Altamaha) in dietary and phylogenetic contexts. The herbivorous taxa had longer digestive tracts and higher activity of the carbohydrases amylase and laminarinase in their guts, whereas the carnivorous species had higher chitinase activity. Phylogenetic independent-contrast analysis suggested that the evolution of amylase and chitinase activities was correlated with the evolution of diet in these species, whereas trypsin and lipase activities showed no pattern associated with diet or phylogenetic history. Concentrations of short-chain fatty acids were low in all taxa, indicating that these fishes rely largely on endogenous digestive mechanisms to subsist on their respective diets. Subtle differences in tooth shape were observed between species in the two genera. Overall, our results suggest that dietary specialization can be observed on the level of anatomy and physiology of the digestive tracts of fishes but that such differences are most appropriately viewed in comparisons of closely related species with different diets. PMID:19929637

German, Donovan P; Nagle, Brett C; Villeda, Jennette M; Ruiz, Ana M; Thomson, Alfred W; Contreras Balderas, Salvador; Evans, David H

2010-01-01

325

Addressing gene tree discordance and non-stationarity to resolve a multi-locus phylogeny of the flatfishes (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes).  

PubMed

Non-homogeneous processes and, in particular, base compositional non-stationarity have long been recognized as a critical source of systematic error. But only a small fraction of current molecular systematic studies methodically examine and effectively account for the potentially confounding effect of non-stationarity. The problem is especially overlooked in multi-locus or phylogenomic scale analyses, in part because no efficient tools exist to accommodate base composition heterogeneity in large data sets. We present a detailed analysis of a data set with 20 genes and 214 taxa to study the phylogeny of flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) and their position among percomorphs. Most genes vary significantly in base composition among taxa and fail to resolve flatfish monophyly and other emblematic groups, suggesting that non-stationarity may be causing systematic error. We show a strong association between base compositional bias and topological discordance among individual gene partitions and their inferred trees. Phylogenetic methods applying non-homogeneous models to accommodate non-stationarity have relatively minor effect to reduce gene tree discordance, suggesting that available computer programs applying these methods do not scale up efficiently to the data set of modest size analysed in this study. By comparing phylogenetic trees obtained with species tree (STAR) and concatenation approaches, we show that gene tree discordance in our data set is most likely due to base compositional biases than to incomplete lineage sorting. Multi-locus analyses suggest that the combined phylogenetic signal from all loci in a concatenated data set overcomes systematic biases induced by non-stationarity at each partition. Finally, relationships among flatfishes and their relatives are discussed in the light of these results. We find support for the monophyly of flatfishes and confirm findings from previous molecular phylogenetic studies suggesting their close affinity with several carangimorph groups (i.e., jack and allies, barracuda, archerfish, billfish and swordfish, threadfin, moonfish, beach salmon, and snook and barramundi). PMID:23749787

Betancur-R, Ricardo; Li, Chenhong; Munroe, Thomas A; Ballesteros, Jesus A; Ortí, Guillermo

2013-09-01

326

Auerbachia bajadi sp. n. (Myxozoa: Auerbachiidae) infecting the gallbladder of orangespotted trevally Carangoides bajad (Teleostei: Carangidae) in the Red Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light microscopic description was presented for a new myxosporean species, Auerbachia bajadi. The parasite was collected from the gallbladder of orangespotted trevally Carangoides bajad (Forsskål, 1775) in Al-Quseir city, Red Sea coast, Egypt. The prevalence was 30\\/80 (37%) and the infection was reported as\\u000a an enormous amount of free mature spores floating in the bile. Spores were club-shaped with a

Abdel-Azeem Sh. Abdel-Baki

2010-01-01

327

Auerbachia bajadi sp. n. (Myxozoa: Auerbachiidae) infecting the gallbladder of orangespotted trevally Carangoides bajad (Teleostei: Carangidae) in the Red Sea.  

PubMed

Light microscopic description was presented for a new myxosporean species, Auerbachia bajadi. The parasite was collected from the gallbladder of orangespotted trevally Carangoides bajad (Forsskål, 1775) in Al-Quseir city, Red Sea coast, Egypt. The prevalence was 30/80 (37%) and the infection was reported as an enormous amount of free mature spores floating in the bile. Spores were club-shaped with a broad anterior part and a narrow caudal part. Shell valves were asymmetrical and the larger valve was drawn into a wide caudal projection. The mean spore measurements were 22.7 mum in total length and 9.5 mum in width. Polar capsule was single and elliptical-shaped with five polar filament turns. The polar capsule measured 9.5 mum in length and 4.5 mum in width. The spores were distinctly different from the four recorded species of genus Auerbachia. One of the cited species of this genus was excluded as it was related to genus Coccomyxa than genus Auerbachia. Also, the accurate citation date of this genus was discussed. PMID:20480376

Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem Sh

2010-08-01

328

Four new species of coral gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Gobiodon), with comments on their relationships within the genus  

PubMed Central

Four new species of the coral-associated gobiid genus Gobiodon were discovered in the Red Sea. Although several of these species are common not only in the Red Sea but also in the Indian and western Pacific Ocean, they have not been described before. Detailed descriptions of the four species are based on morphological and molecular genetic (mitochondrial 12s and 16s rRNA) investigations. The new species, like most species of the genus, lack scales and have species-specific life colouration. Gobiodon bilineatus sp. nov. is the closest relative to G. quinquestrigatus (Valenciennes) and of G. sp. D (Munday et al.), and has five distinct, blue lines on the head as juveniles and subadults, which disappear in adults, and which are often uniformly orange-red with two distinct, vertical blue lines through each eye. Gobiodon irregularis sp. nov. has been confused with the former new species in the past, and is closely related to G. oculolineatus Wu, but is unmistakable in live colouration. Juveniles are characterised by a transparent body, red bars on the head with bluish to greyish interspaces, and irregular red lines and dots on the nape and dorsally on the body. Adults are usually uniformly brown or green-brown, with only remnants of the bars through the eye and below the orbit. Gobiodon ater sp. nov. is a small, entirely black species and can be easily confused with other black species, although it is genetically clearly distinct from G. ceramensis Bleeker and its black relatives. Gobiodon fuscoruber sp. nov. is likely to be the closest relative of G. ater sp. nov., but is uniformly reddish-brown or brown, has bright median fin margins (at least in the Red Sea), and grows considerably larger than G. ater. It has been genetically determined that G. fuscoruber sp. nov. is identical with an Indian Ocean/western Pacific species that has been called G. unicolor Castelnau by several authors. However, examination of the holotype of G. unicolor, including the original description, revealed that the type species and original description are clearly different from the species frequently called G. unicolor. The holotype resembles G. histrio (Valenciennes) and the name G. unicolor must therefore be considered a junior synonym of G. histrio. As a consequence, a new name for this species is provided.

Bogorodsky, Sergey V.; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

2013-01-01

329

Evolutionary history of Otophysi (Teleostei), a major clade of the modern freshwater fishes: Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Freshwater harbors approximately 12,000 fish species accounting for 43% of the diversity of all modern fish. A single ancestral\\u000a lineage evolved into about two-thirds of this enormous biodiversity (? 7900 spp.) and is currently distributed throughout\\u000a the world's continents except Antarctica. Despite such remarkable species diversity and ubiquity, the evolutionary history\\u000a of this major freshwater fish clade, Otophysi, remains largely

Masanori Nakatani; Masaki Miya; Kohji Mabuchi; Kenji Saitoh; Mutsumi Nishida

2011-01-01

330

Biochemical and (ultra)structural hepatic perturbations of Brachydanio rerio (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) exposed to two sublethal concentrations of copper sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare biochemical and (ultra)structural perturbations induced by Cu in the liver of Brachydanio rerio exposed for 14 days to sublethal concentrations of copper and then replaced for 14 days to clean water. Toxicity of Cu was clearly demonstrated: simultaneously to Cu accumulation, the liver developed large lysed areas and hepatocytic alterations. However, the

S. Paris-Palacios; S. Biagianti-Risbourg; G. Vernet

2000-01-01

331

Composition and structure of the parasite faunas of cod, Gadus morhua L. (Teleostei: Gadidae), in the North East Atlantic  

PubMed Central

Background Although numerous studies on parasites of the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. have been conducted in the North Atlantic, comparative analyses on local cod parasite faunas are virtually lacking. The present study is based on examination of large samples of cod from six geographical areas of the North East Atlantic which yielded abundant baseline data on parasite distribution and abundance. Materials and Methods A total of 826 fish was sampled in the Baltic, Celtic, Irish and North seas, Icelandic waters and Trondheimsfjord (Norway) in 2002 (spring and autumn) and 2003 (spring). The gills and internal organs (oesophagus, stomach, intestine, pyloric caeca, liver, heart, spleen, gall bladder and gonads) were examined for macroparasites following a standardised protocol. The taxonomic consistency of the identification was ensured thorough the entire study. Results We discuss some problems in parasite identification, outline the composition of the parasite faunas in cod in the six North East Atlantic regions, provide novel data on parasite prevalence and abundance and a comparative assessment of the structure of the regional parasite faunas with respect to the higher-level taxonomic groupings, host specificity and zoogeographical distribution of the parasites. Altogether 57 different parasite forms were found including seven new host records (Diclidophora merlangi, Rhipidocotyle sp., Fellodistomum sp., Steringotrema sp., Cucullanus sp., Spinitectus sp., and Chondracanthus ornatus). The predominant groups of cod parasites were trematodes (19 species) and nematodes (13 species) including larval anisakids which comprised 58.2% of the total number of individuals. Conclusion Our study reveals relatively rich regional parasite faunas in cod from the North East Atlantic which are dominated by generalist parasites with Arcto-Boreal distribution. Further, it provides more detailed data on the distribution in the North East Atlantic of the majority of cod parasites which may serve as baselines for future studies on the effect of climate change. Based on the faunal comparisons, predictions can be made in relation to the structure and diversity of the parasite communities in the North East Atlantic regions studied.

Perdiguero-Alonso, Diana; Montero, Francisco E; Raga, Juan Antonio; Kostadinova, Aneta

2008-01-01

332

Haemopoiesis in the head kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae): a morphological (optical and ultrastructural) study  

PubMed Central

The present work focused on the histological and ultrastructural studies on haemopoiesis in the kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Haemopoietic tissue was found mainly in the head kidney and a small amount occurred in the mesonephros. The haemopoiesis of tilapia had the following series: erythropoiesis, granulopoiesis, thrombopoiesis, monopoiesis and lymphoplasmopoiesis. Erythropoiesis includes proerythroblasts, basophilic erythroblasts, polychromatic erythroblasts, acidophilic erythroblasts and young and mature erythrocytes. The proerythroblasts were the largest cells in the erythropoietic series. During the maturation process both the nuclear and cellular size decreased gradually due to the chromatin condensation and the progressive substitution of cytoplasmic matrix with a large amount of haemoglobin. Granulopoietic series consisted of cells with variable shape and size at different stages of maturity from myeloblasts to mature granulocytes. The promyelocytes were the largest cells in the series and were characterised by the appearance of primary (azoruphilic) granules. The maturation process involved the appearance of specific granules in the heterophilic, eosinophilic and basophilic series. It is important to mention that eosinophilic granulocytes were the dominant granulopoietic series in the haemopoietic tissue (Ht) of tilapia. Lymphopoietic series consisted of lymphoblasts, large lymphocytes, small lymphocytes and active and inactive plasma cells. Thrombopoietic series consisted of thromboblasts, prothromboblasts and thrombocytes. Thrombocytes of tilapia were nucleated and possessed a spindle shape. Melanomacrophage centres were dominant among the Ht of the head kidney. Also, monocytes were detected and shown to be large cells with an indented nucleus and cytoplasm containing numerous vesicles of different sizes and a few lysosomes.

Abdel-Aziz, El-Saydah H.; Abdu, Suzan B. S.; Fouad, Huda F.

2009-01-01

333

Myxobolus groenlandicus n. sp. (Myxozoa) distorting skeletal structures and musculature of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae).  

PubMed

A specimen of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum, 1792) caught on the west coast of Greenland (Qasigiannguit) was found to possess serious pathological changes in the body musculature. A series of cartilaginous cylindrical structures organized symmetrically at the position of the proximal pterygiophores had changed the musculature and produced irreversible distortions (cavities and holes) in the fillet of the processed fish, leaving it with no value for the industry. Histopathological investigation showed that these structures consisted of hypertrophic cartilage containing numerous myxospore-producing plasmodia. Morphometric and molecular analyses of the parasites showed that both spore morphology and rDNA sequences complied with characteristics of the genus Myxobolus, but no full affiliation with a known species could be found. The parasite is a previously undescribed species, and the name Myxobolus groenlandicus n. sp. is assigned to this new myxobolid. PMID:22436461

Buchmann, Kurt; Skovgaard, Alf; Kania, Per W

2012-03-20

334

Ultrastructure of Myxobolus brycon n. sp. (Phylum Myxozoa), parasite of the piraputanga fish Brycon hilarii (Teleostei) from Pantanal (Brazil).  

PubMed

Light and electron microscopy studies of a myxosporean, parasitizing the gill filaments of the freshwater fish Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes, 1850) (Characidae) collected in the Paraguay River (18°49'S, 57°39'W) (Pantanal), Brazil, is described. This parasite produces spherical to ellipsoidal polysporic histozoic plasmodia (Pmd) (up to ?180 ?m in diameter) delimited by a double membrane and with several pinocytic channels. The plasmodial cyst contained the youngest developmental stages at the cortical periphery and immature and mature spores more internally. The Pmd developed near the cartilaginous structure of the gill filament, forming a prominent deformation where the gill lamellae disappear. Pyriform spores measured 6.9±0.6 (range 6.5-7.2) ?m long, 4.2±0.5 (range 3.9-4.8) ?m wide, and 2.5±0.7 (range 1.9-2.8) ?m thick. The spores composed of two equal shell valves (?70 nm thick), adhering together along the straight suture line, surrounded two equal symmetric and elongated to pyriform polar capsules (PC) 4.2±0.6 (range 3.8-4.7) × 1.9±0.6 (1.7-2.5) ?m; each PC contained a coiled polar filament with eight or nine (rarely 10) turns and a binucleated sporoplasm cell. Dense irregular masses were observed among the polar filaments coils. An intercapsular appendix was not observed. The sporoplasm contained several globular sporoplasmosomes randomly distributed among an extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum system with numerous vesicles and cisternae. Based on the morphological and ultrastructural differences and specificity of the host, we establish the new species, Myxobolus brycon n. sp. PMID:21309886

Azevedo, Carlos; Casal, Graça; Marques, Débora; Silva, Edinael; Matos, Edilson

2011-01-01

335

Myxobolus myleus n. sp. infecting the bile of the Amazonian freshwater fish Myleus rubripinnis (Teleostei: Serrasalmidae): morphology and pathology.  

PubMed

Myxobolus myleus n. sp. is described from the gall-bladder of the freshwater fish Myleus rubripinnis collected near the city of Oriximiná in the Amazon System, Brazil. The spores obtained from the bile contained two equal symmetrical and smooth valves, each forming the spore wall. The spores were large, with a cone-like form, a semi spherical basal contour and measured (in ?m) 19.3 ± 0.5 (n = 25) × 8.3 ± 0.5 (n = 25) × 4.0 ± 0.3 (n = 15). The apical end of the spores contained two elongate, equal and pointed conical polar capsules measuring 13.2 ± 0.4 ?m (n = 25) in length and 3.0 ± 0.3 ?m (n = 15) in width, each having a slightly tapering polar filament with 19 to 21 turns. The polar capsules were extended below at about 4/5 of the total length of the spores. The sporoplasm was binucleate and contained some sporoplasmosomes. All infected fish presented hypertrophy of the gall-bladder due to presence of the brownish parasite floating in the bile. In this paper we describe this new species of myxosporean based on light and ultrastructural observations, together with its associated pathology. PMID:22711511

Azevedo, Carlos; São Clemente, Sérgio Carmona; Casal, Graça; Matos, Patrícia; Alves, Ângela; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Matos, Edilson

2012-07-01

336

Characterizing the resident, fermentative microbial consortium in the hindgut of the temperate-zone herbivorous fish, Hermosilla azurea (Teleostei: Kyphosidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zebraperch, Hermosilla azurea Jenkins and Evermann, a warm-temperate marine fish species with a strictly macroalgal diet, has a relatively long digestive\\u000a tract with an enlarged hindgut and an associated blind caecum (HC). In zebraperch sampled off Santa Catalina Island, California\\u000a (33°19?42??N; 118°18?37??W) in years 1995 through 2001, direct cell counts, gut epithelium assessment of bacterial attachment,\\u000a and short-chain fatty

Pat M. Fidopiastis; Daniel J. Bezdek; Michael H. Horn; Judith S. Kandel

2006-01-01

337

Phylogenetic patterns in populations of Chilean species of the genus Orestias (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae): results of mitochondrial DNA analysis.  

PubMed

Patterns of molecular genetic differentiation among taxa of the "agassii species complex" (Parenti, 1984) were analysed based on partial mtDNA control region sequences. Special attention has been paid to Chilean populations of Orestias agassii and species from isolated lakes of northern Chile, e.g., O. agassii, Orestias chungarensis, Orestias parinacotensis, Orestias laucaensis, and Orestias ascotanensis. Orestias tschudii, Orestias luteus, and Orestias ispi were analysed comparatively. Our findings support the utility of mtDNA control region sequences for phylogenetic studies within the "agassii species complex" and confirmed the monophyly of this particular lineage, excluding O. luteus. However, the monophyly of further morphologically defined lineages within the "agassii complex" appears doubtful. No support was found for the utility of these data sets for inferring phylogenetic relationships between more distantly related taxa originating from Lake Titicaca. PMID:12967616

Lüssen, Arne; Falk, Thomas M; Villwock, Wolfgang

2003-10-01

338

Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea) of Lake Tanganyika: II: description of the first Cichlidogyrus spp. parasites from Tropheini fish hosts (Teleostei, Cichlidae).  

PubMed

Although Lake Tanganyika hosts the most diverse endemic cichlid fish assemblage, its monogenean parasite fauna has hardly been documented. The cichlid tribe Tropheini has generated great interest because of its systematic position within the Haplochromini s.l. and its diversity in trophic morphology, reproductive behaviour and population structure. It has the potential to host a diverse Monogenea fauna. Here, we describe the first Cichlidogyrus spp.: Cichlidogyrus steenbergei sp. n., Cichlidogyrus irenae sp. n. and Cichlidogyrus gistelincki sp. n. The three host species, Limnotilapia dardennii, Ctenochromis horei and Gnathochromis pfefferi, are all infected by a single unique Cichlidogyrus sp. The genital and haptoral structure of the new species suggests a close relationship, which might mirror the close affinities between the hosts within the Tropheini. Based on haptoral configuration, the new species belong to a morphological group within the genus containing parasites both of West African cichlids and of Haplochromini, and hence, do not represent a new organisation of the attachment organ (as has recently been described of congeners infecting the ectodine cichlid Ophthalmotilapia). PMID:21710349

Gillardin, Céline; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Pariselle, Antoine; Huyse, Tine; Volckaert, Filip A M

2012-01-01

339

Evolutionary history of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Lamprologini (Teleostei: Perciformes) derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data.  

PubMed

Lake Tanganyika comprises a cichlid species flock with substrate-breeding and mouthbrooding lineages. While sexual selection via mate choice on male mating color is thought to boost speciation rates in mouthbrooding cichlids, this is not the case in substrate-breeding lamprologines, which mostly form stable pairs and lack sexual dichromatism. We present a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolution of the cichlid tribe Lamprologini, based upon mtDNA sequences and multilocus nuclear DNA (AFLP) markers. Twelve mtDNA clades were identified, seven of which were corroborated by the AFLP tree. The radiation is likely to have started about 5.3 MYA, contemporarily with that of the mouthbrooding C-lineage, and probably triggered by the onset of deep-water conditions in Lake Tanganyika. Neither the Congo- nor the Malagarazi River species form the most ancestral branch. Several conflicts in the mtDNA phylogeny with taxonomic assignments based upon color, eco-morphology and behavior could be resolved and complemented by the AFLP analysis. Introgressive hybridization upon secondary contact seems to be the most likely cause for paraphyly of taxa due to mtDNA capture in species involving brood-care helpers, while accidental hybridization best explains the para- or polyphyly of several gastropod shell breeders. Taxonomic error or paraphyly due to the survival of ancestral lineages appear responsible for inconsistencies in the genera Lamprologus and Neolamprologus. PMID:20601006

Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter; Duftner, Nina; Schelly, Robert; Koblmüller, Stephan

2010-10-01

340

Genetic and Morphological Evidence Implies Existence of Two Sympatric Species in Cyathopharynx furcifer (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika.  

PubMed

Although the cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika are treated as a textbook example of adaptive radiation, many taxonomic problems remain unresolved. Cyathopharynx furcifer, which belongs to the currently monospecific genus Cyathopharynx, contains two colour morphs at the southern end of the lake: one has a yellow anal fin, and the other has a black anal fin. Some books for hobbyists of ornamental fish treat these morphs as different species, but taxonomic studies have neither mentioned the existence nor addressed the status of these colour morphs. In the present paper, we analysed these two colour morphs using mitochondrial, microsatellite, morphometric, and meristic data sets. Both molecular and morphological data allowed clear discrimination between these morphs, suggesting the existence of two distinct sympatric species. Three taxonomic species have been described in this genus, and only C. furcifer is currently considered valid. Observations of type specimens of these three nominal species will be needed to determine the scientific names of these colour morphs. PMID:22675655

Takahashi, Tetsumi; Hori, Michio

2012-01-01

341

Ovarian follicular atresia is mediated by heterophagy, autophagy, and apoptosis in Prochilodus argenteus and Leporinus taeniatus (Teleostei: Characiformes).  

PubMed

We investigated apoptosis, cell proliferation antigen (PCNA), and heat shock protein (HSP70) during ovarian follicular atresia in two freshwater teleost species from the São Francisco River basin, Brazil: curimatã-pacu, Prochilodus argenteus and piau-jejo, Leporinus taeniatus. Fishes were maintained in captivity after the reproductive period and ovarian regression was assessed by gonadosomatic index for three stages: early, advanced, and late regression. Follicular atresia was analysed by light and transmission electron microscopy, as well as by TUNEL and immunohistochemistry for HSP70 and PCNA. During early regression, atretic follicles exhibited zona pellucida breakdown, yolk degeneration, and hypertrophied follicular cells (e.g., granulosa in mammals). Intense heterophagy to engulf the yolk, and autophagy were detected in the follicular cells during advanced and late atresia. The TUNEL assay detected DNA fragmentation, mainly in late follicular atresia. The apoptosis rate of the follicular cells increased up to 10% during follicular atresia in both species and was negatively correlated with follicular area. Immunohistochemistry reaction for HSP70 stained the follicular cells strongly during advanced atresia, when they are intensively involved in yolk engulfment, whereas the reaction for PCNA labelled theca cells. We inferred that heterophagy, autophagy, and apoptosis contributed to follicular atresia in teleost ovaries, thereby achieving a more efficient removal of the degenerating oocyte and dying follicular cells. Additionally, HSP70 may protect the follicular cells before apoptosis when they are involved in yolk engulfment, and cell proliferation in the theca contributed to ovarian remodelling. PMID:18701155

Santos, H B; Thomé, R G; Arantes, F P; Sato, Y; Bazzoli, N; Rizzo, E

2008-12-01

342

Mapping the potential distribution of the invasive Red Shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) across waterways of the conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Predicting the future spread of non-native aquatic species continues to be a high priority for natural resource managers striving to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem function. Modeling the potential distributions of alien aquatic species through spatially explicit mapping is an increasingly important tool for risk assessment and prediction. Habitat modeling also facilitates the identification of key environmental variables influencing species distributions. We modeled the potential distribution of an aggressive invasive minnow, the red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), in waterways of the conterminous United States using maximum entropy (Maxent). We used inventory records from the USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, native records for C. lutrensis from museum collections, and a geographic information system of 20 raster climatic and environmental variables to produce a map of potential red shiner habitat. Summer climatic variables were the most important environmental predictors of C. lutrensis distribution, which was consistent with the high temperature tolerance of this species. Results from this study provide insights into the locations and environmental conditions in the US that are susceptible to red shiner invasion.

Poulos, Helen M.; Chernoff, Barry; Fuller, Pam L.; Butman, David

2012-01-01

343

Marine-freshwater transitions are associated with the evolution of dietary diversification in terapontid grunters (Teleostei: Terapontidae).  

PubMed

The ecological opportunities associated with transitions across the marine-freshwater interface are regarded as an important catalyst of diversification in a range of aquatic taxa. Here, we examined the role of these major habitat transitions and trophic diversification in a radiation of Australasian fishes using a new molecular phylogeny incorporating 37 Terapontidae species. A combined mitochondrial and nuclear gene analysis yielded a well-supported tree with most nodes resolved. Ancestral terapontids appear to have been euryhaline in habitat affiliation, with a single transition to freshwater environments producing all Australasian freshwater species. Mapping of terapontid feeding modes onto the molecular phylogeny-predicted carnivorous dietary habits was displayed by ancestral terapontids, which subsequently diversified into a range of additional carnivorous, omnivorous, herbivorous and detritivorous dietary modes upon transition to freshwater habitats. Comparative analyses suggested that following the freshwater invasion, the single freshwater clade has exhibited an increased rate of diversification at almost three times the background rate evident across the rest of the family. The marine-freshwater transition within Terapontidae appears to have resulted in substantial dietary radiation in freshwater environments, as well as increased lineage diversification rates relative to euryhaline-marine habitats. PMID:22519660

Davis, A M; Unmack, P J; Pusey, B J; Johnson, J B; Pearson, R G

2012-06-01

344

The role of structural organization of blood plasma proteins in the stabilization of water metabolism in bony fish (Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oligomeric proteins capable of dissociation into subunits of which they consist, when fish were kept under conditions of an\\u000a increased salinity (higher than 10‰), were found in the blood of bony fish in the albumin fraction. The dissociation of oligomers\\u000a proceeded in the course of their transcapillary transport into interstitial fluid. Oligomeric proteins were found only in\\u000a fish whose life

A. M. Andreeva

2010-01-01

345

Comparative spermatogenesis, spermatocytogenesis, and spermatozeugmata formation in males of viviparous species of clinid fishes (Teleostei: Clinidae, Blennioidei).  

PubMed

Spermatogenesis and spermatocytogenesis in 16 species of viviparous clinid fishes (Clinidae, Blennioidei) from various localities were followed for the first time by means of light and electron microscopy. The testes of the studied species are of the lobular type, with germinal stem cells situated at the apical ends of the lobules and a vas efferens along the internal margin. Maturation of the spermatides takes place in spermatocysts formed by Sertoli cells around the B-spermatogonia. The gradual condensation and relocation of the chromosomes along the nuclei membranes are highly prominent in this process, which can be divided into several stages. Anisodiametric and slightly flattened sperm heads are eventually formed, 0.4-0.5 microm in diameter and 7.5 +/- 1 microm long, bearing 80 +/- 15 microm long flagella. The sperms are packed into spermatozeugmata within the spermatocysts, enveloped and penetrated by the mucotic material of the Sertoli cells. With division of the germ cells and maturation of the spermatids, the spermatocyst dimensions increase, attaining 40 +/- 8 microm in diameter in the smaller species of Heteroclinus, and up to 90 +/- 10 microm in the larger males of Clinus superciliosus and C. cottoides. Accordingly, the volume of the maturing spermatocysts attains ca. 1,300 +/- 100 microm(3) in the smaller species, and ca. 6,500 +/- 300 microm(3) in the larger ones. As sperm head volume is ca. 2.24 microm(3), the number of sperm in the smallest mature spermatocysts reaches ca. 440 and in the largest over 2,900. Upon release from the cysts, the spermatozeugmata are transported along the sperm ducts to the posterior ampullae where they are stored in the epididymis. During copulation, the sperms are transported from there to the female via the intromittent organ. The sperm formation parameters and their structure and numbers are discussed. PMID:17525946

Fishelson, Lev; Gon, Ofer; Holdengreber, Vered; Delarea, Yakob

2007-03-01

346

Ovarian follicular atresia is mediated by heterophagy, autophagy, and apoptosis in Prochilodus argenteus and Leporinus taeniatus (Teleostei: Characiformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated apoptosis, cell proliferation antigen (PCNA), and heat shock protein (HSP70) during ovarian follicular atresia in two freshwater teleost species from the São Francisco River basin, Brazil: curimatã-pacu, Prochilodus argenteus and piau-jejo, Leporinus taeniatus. Fishes were maintained in captivity after the reproductive period and ovarian regression was assessed by gonadosomatic index for three stages: early, advanced, and late regression.

H. B. Santos; R. G. Thomé; F. P. Arantes; Y. Sato; N. Bazzoli; E. Rizzo

2008-01-01

347

Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin 1 (IL1) exert multiple physiological effects in the tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus (Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain insight in immuno-endocrine communication in teleosts the physiological effects of interleukin 1 and bacterial lipopolysaccharide in teleosts were investigated. Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) were treated with murine interleukin 1 and E. coli lipopolysaccharide in vivo, and lipopolysaccharide was administered to pituitary lobes and head kidneys in vitro. The integument of the fish appeared to be a sensitive target for

P. H. M. Balm; E. van Lieshout; J. Lokate; S. E. Wendelaar Bonga

1995-01-01

348

Molecular phylogenetics of squirrelfishes and soldierfishes (Teleostei: Beryciformes: Holocentridae): reconciling more than 100 years of taxonomic confusion.  

PubMed

Squirrelfishes and soldierfishes (Holocentridae) are among the most conspicuous species in the nocturnal reef fish community. However, there is no clear consensus regarding their evolutionary relationships, which is reflected in a complicated taxonomic history. We collected DNA sequence data from multiple single copy nuclear genes and one mitochondrial gene sampled from over fifty percent of the recognized holocentrid species and infer the first species-level phylogeny of the Holocentridae. Our results strongly support the monophyly of the clades Myripristinae (soldierfishes) and Holocentrinae (squirrelfishes). The molecular phylogenies differ with regard to previous hypotheses of relationships within the Myriprisitinae, resolving a clade of cryptic reef associated and deep water non-reef dwelling lineages (Corniger+Plectrypops+Ostichthys) that is the sister lineage to a monophyletic Myripristis. Within Holocentrinae, Neoniphon and Sargocentron are strongly supported as paraphyletic, while Holocentrus is nested within Sargocentron. Using Bayesian ancestral state reconstruction methods, we demonstrate the taxonomically diagnostic characters for Neoniphon and Sargocentron likely represent character states with a complex evolutionary history that is not reflective of shared common ancestry. We propose a new classification for Holocentrinae, recognizing four lineages that are treated as genera: Sargocentron Fowler, 1904, Holocentrus Scopoli, 1777, Flameo Jordan and Evermann, 1898, and Neoniphon Castelnau, 1875. PMID:22884866

Dornburg, Alex; Moore, Jon A; Webster, Rachel; Warren, Dan L; Brandley, Matthew C; Iglesias, Teresa L; Wainwright, Peter C; Near, Thomas J

2012-11-01

349

Postglacial recolonization of eastern Blacknose Dace,Rhinichthys atratulus(Teleostei: Cyprinidae), through the gateway of New England  

PubMed Central

During the last ice age, much of North America far south as 40°N was covered by glaciers (Hewitt 2000). About 20,000 years ago, as the glaciers retreated, the hydrologic landscape changed dramatically creating waterways for fish dispersal. The number of populations responsible for recolonization and the regions from which they recolonized are unknown for many freshwater fishes living in New England and southeastern Canada. The Blacknose Dace,Rhinichthys atratulus, is one of the freshwater fish species that recolonized this region. We hypothesize that the earliest deglaciated region, modern-day Connecticut, was recolonized byR. atratulusvia a single founding event by a single population. In this paper, we test this hypothesis phylogenetically with regard to the major drainage basins within Connecticut. The mitochondrial DNA exhibits low nucleotide diversity, high haplotype diversity, and a dominant haplotype found across the state. A small percentage of individuals in the Housatonic drainage basin, however, share a haplotype with populations in New York drainage basins, a haplotype not found elsewhere in Connecticut's drainage basins. We calculated a range for the rate of divergence for NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nd2) and control region (ctr) of 4.43–6.76% and 3.84–8.48% per million years (my), respectively. While this range is higher than the commonly accepted rate of 2% for mitochondrial DNA, these results join a growing list of publications finding high rates of divergence for various taxa (Peterson and Masel 2009). The data support the conclusion that Connecticut as a whole was recolonized initially by a single founding event that came from a single refugium. Subsequently, the Housatonic basin alone experienced a secondary recolonization event.

Tipton, Michelle L; Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Sarah; Stonebraker, Phoebe; Chernoff, Barry

2011-01-01

350

Three cone opsin genes determine the properties of the visual spectra in the Japanese anchovy, Engraulis japonicus (Engraulidae, Teleostei).  

PubMed

A complement of cone visual pigments was identified in the Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus, one of the engraulid fish species that has a retina specialized for polarization and color vision. The nature of the chromophore bound to opsin proteins was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. The opsin genes were then cloned and sequenced, and the absorption spectra of different types of cones were obtained by microspectrophotometry. Two green (EJ-RH2-1, EJ-RH2-2) and one red (EJ-LWS) cone opsin genes were identified and are presumably related to the vitamin A1-based visual pigments (i.e. rhodopsins) with ?max values of 492, 474 and 512 nm, respectively. The long and short cones from the ventro-temporal retinal zone consisted of a pure population of RH2 class gene-based pigments (?max=492 nm). The long and short cones from other retinal areas and the lateral components of the triple cones possessed a mixture of RH2 and LWS class gene-based pigments that exhibited a ?max of ~502 nm. The central component of the triple cones contained only RH2 class gene-based pigments (?max=474 nm). Thus, E. japonicus possesses a middle-wave range of spectral sensitivity and acquires different color vision systems in distinct visual fields. PMID:23197087

Kondrashev, Sergei L; Miyazaki, Taeko; Lamash, Nina E; Tsuchiya, Tohru

2013-03-15

351

Phylogeny and biogeography of 91 species of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) based on sequences of the cytochrome b gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heroini constitute the second largest tribe of Neotropical cichlids and show their greatest diversity in Mesoamerica. Although heroine species are morphologically and ecologically very diverse, they were all historically assigned to one single genus, Cichlasoma that was never formally revised from a phylogenetic point of view. Here, we present the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the tribe Heroini to date,

Gustavo A. Concheiro Pérez; Old?ich ?í?an; Guillermo Ortí; Eldredge Bermingham; Ignacio Doadrio; Rafael Zardoya

2007-01-01

352

Not a simple case – A first comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for the Midas cichlid complex in Nicaragua (Teleostei: Cichlidae: Amphilophus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicaraguan Midas cichlids from crater lakes have recently attracted attention as potential model systems for speciation research, but no attempt has been made to comprehensively reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of this highly diverse and recently evolved species complex. We present a first AFLP (2793 loci) and mtDNA based phylogenetic hypothesis including all described and several undescribed species from six crater lakes

Matthias F. Geiger; Jeffrey K. McCrary; Ulrich K. Schliewen

2010-01-01

353

Crystallaria cincotta, a new species of darter (Teleostei: Percidae) from the Elk River of the Ohio River drainage, West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new species of percid, Crystallaria cincotta, is described from the Cumberland, Elk, Green, and Muskingum river drainages of the Ohio River basin, USA. It differs from populations of Crystallaria asprella of the Gulf Coast, lower Mississippi River, middle Mississippi River, upper Mississippi River, and Wabash River drainages by having a reduced number of cheek scale rows restricted to the post-orbital region, a falcate margin on the pelvic fins, a preorbital blotch distinctly separate from the anterior orbital rim, and a wide mouth gape. The Elk River population is also divergent genetically from populations of the Gulf Coast, lower Mississippi River, and upper Mississippi River drainages. Crystallaria cincotta, discovered in the Elk River of the Ohio River drainage in 1980, is a rare species with the only extant population represented by 12 individuals collected from 1980-2005 from the lower 36 km section of the Elk River, West Virginia. Copyright ?? 2008 Magnolia Press.

Welsh, S. A.; Wood, R. M.

2008-01-01

354

A young clade repeating an old pattern: diversity in Nothonotus darters (Teleostei: Percidae) endemic to the Cumberland River.  

PubMed

Hypotheses of diversification in eastern North American freshwater fishes have focused primarily on allopatric distributions of species between disjunct highland areas and major river systems. However, these hypotheses do not fully explain the rich diversity of species within highland regions and river systems. Relatively old diversification events at small geographic scales have been observed in the Barcheek Darter subclade that occurs in the Cumberland River drainage (CRD) in Kentucky and Tennessee, United States of America, but it is unknown if this pattern is consistent in other darter subclades. We explored phylogeographic diversity in two species of Nothonotus darters, N. microlepidus and N. sanguifluus, endemic to the CRD to compare phylogenetic patterns between Barcheek Darters and species of Nothonotus. We collected sequence data for a mitochondrial gene (cytb) and three nuclear genes (MLL, S7 and RAG1) from 19 N. microlepidus and 35 N. sanguifluus specimens. Gene trees were estimated using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, and a 'species tree' was inferred using a Bayesian method. These trees indicate that species diversity in Nothonotus is underestimated. Five distinct lineages were evident, despite retained ancestral polymorphism and unsampled extirpated populations. Comparison of chronograms for Barcheek Darters and Nothonotus revealed that microendemism resulting from species diversification at small geographic scales in the CRD is a consistent pattern in both old and young darter subclades. Our analyses reveal that geographic isolating mechanisms that result in similar phylogeographic patterns in the CRD are persistent through long expanses of evolutionary time. PMID:20946590

Keck, Benjamin P; Near, Thomas J

2010-11-01

355

Free from mitochondrial DNA: Nuclear genes and the inference of species trees among closely related darter lineages (Teleostei: Percidae: Etheostomatinae).  

PubMed

Investigations into the phylogenetics of closely related animal species are dominated by the use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data. However, the near-ubiquitous use of mtDNA to infer phylogeny among closely related animal lineages is tempered by an increasing number of studies that document high rates of transfer of mtDNA genomes among closely related species through hybridization, leading to substantial discordance between phylogenies inferred from mtDNA and nuclear gene sequences. In addition, the recent development of methods that simultaneously infer a species phylogeny and estimate divergence times, while accounting for incongruence among individual gene trees, has ushered in a new era in the investigation of phylogeny among closely related species. In this study we assess if DNA sequence data sampled from a modest number of nuclear genes can resolve relationships of a species-rich clade of North American freshwater teleost fishes, the darters. We articulate and expand on a recently introduced method to infer a time-calibrated multi-species coalescent phylogeny using the computer program (*)BEAST. Our analyses result in well-resolved and strongly supported time-calibrated darter species tree. Contrary to the expectation that mtDNA will provide greater phylogenetic resolution than nuclear gene data; the darter species tree inferred exclusively from nuclear genes exhibits a higher frequency of strongly supported nodes than the mtDNA time-calibrated gene tree. PMID:23178741

Near, Thomas J; Keck, Benjamin P

2013-03-01

356

Systematics and biogeography of snubnose darters, genus Etheostoma (Teleostei: Percidae) from the black warrior river system Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of theEtheostoma chermocki species group, formerly known only as the Warrior snubnose darter, were examined from throughout their ranges for products of 44 presumptive gene loci. Polyallelic loci support the specific recognition ofE. chemocki and indicate thatE. bellator is actually a composite of three distinct evolutionary species diagnosable on the basis of both fixed allelic products and significant allele

K. Emily Knott; Robert M. Wood; Richard L. Mayden

1996-01-01

357

Diversification of egg-deposition behaviours and the evolution of male parental care in darters (Teleostei: Percidae: Etheostomatinae).  

PubMed

Male-only care is the most frequent parental care behaviour in teleost fishes, but little is known about its evolutionary origins and patterns of diversity in species-rich lineages. Darters are a clade of North American freshwater fishes that contain both nonparental care species and species with male-only care. In darters, paternal care takes the form of egg-guarding and other egg-tending behaviours that are dependent on the female mode of egg deposition. Male care has been hypothesized to evolve independently in darters at least three times, and it has been thought to be irreversible. We investigated the diversification of egg-deposition behaviours and the evolution of complex male care using published descriptions of darter reproductive behaviours and a multilocus molecular phylogeny that included all 146 species for which reproductive behaviours are known. We find support for two origins of male-only care behaviour. One origin of paternal care occurred relatively early in the radiation of Etheostoma and is characteristic of a recently discovered clade, Goneaperca. The other origin of male-only care occurred much more recently in a derived clade of Nothonotus. Our analyses of character diversification demonstrate reversals from care to noncare and multiple transitions between egg-deposition behaviours that are not associated with parental care. PMID:22356511

Kelly, N B; Near, T J; Alonzo, S H

2012-05-01

358

Phylogenetic inference of nuptial trait evolution in the context of asymmetrical introgression in North American darters (teleostei).  

PubMed

Introgressive hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting complicate the inference of phylogeny, and available species-tree methods do not simultaneously account for these processes. Both hybridization and ancestral polymorphism have been invoked to explain divergent phylogenies inferred from different datasets for Stigmacerca, a clade of 11 North American darter species. Species of Stigmacerca are characterized by a mating system involving parental care with males guarding nesting territories and fertilized eggs. Males of four species of Stigmacerca develop egg-mimic nuptial structures on their second dorsal fins during the breeding season. Previous phylogenies suggest contrasting scenarios for the evolution of this nuptial trait. Using a combination of coalescent-based methods, we analyzed a dataset comprising a mitochondrial gene and 15 nuclear loci to estimate relationships and simultaneously test for introgressive hybridization. Our analyses identified several instances of interspecific gene flow involving both cytoplamsmic haplotypes and nuclear alleles. The new phylogeny was used to infer a single origin and recent loss of egg-mimic structures in Stigmacerca and led to the discovery of a phylogenetically distinct species. Our results highlight the limited strategies available to account for introgressive hybridization in the inference of species relationships and the likely effects of this process on reconstructing trait evolution. PMID:23356612

Harrington, Richard C; Benavides, Edgar; Near, Thomas J

2013-02-01

359

Schistura sexnubes, a new diminutive river loach from the upper Mekong basin, Yunnan Province, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).  

PubMed

An ichthyofaunistic survey of Mekong tributaries in Lincang Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China yielded a new species of nemacheilid loach, herein described as Schistura sexnubes species nova. The new species is readily distinguishable from its congeners by the following combination of characters: 8+8 branched caudal fin rays, an incomplete lateral line, a dissociated caudal bar, a shallow caudal peduncle depth (7.6%-9.6% SL; respectively caudal peduncle 1.76-1.95 times longer than deep), a diminutive size of less than 50 mm SL, and no sexual dimorphism. A dorsocephalic pattern consisting of a black, forward directed V-shaped formation located between the nares, and a white, ovoid blotch on the upper operculum serves as an autapomorphy. PMID:24470455

Endruweit, Marco

2014-01-01

360

Phylogenetic relationships within the speciose family Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) based on multilocus analysis and extensive ingroup sampling  

PubMed Central

Background With nearly 1,100 species, the fish family Characidae represents more than half of the species of Characiformes, and is a key component of Neotropical freshwater ecosystems. The composition, phylogeny, and classification of Characidae is currently uncertain, despite significant efforts based on analysis of morphological and molecular data. No consensus about the monophyly of this group or its position within the order Characiformes has been reached, challenged by the fact that many key studies to date have non-overlapping taxonomic representation and focus only on subsets of this diversity. Results In the present study we propose a new definition of the family Characidae and a hypothesis of relationships for the Characiformes based on phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (4,680 base pairs). The sequences were obtained from 211 samples representing 166 genera distributed among all 18 recognized families in the order Characiformes, all 14 recognized subfamilies in the Characidae, plus 56 of the genera so far considered incertae sedis in the Characidae. The phylogeny obtained is robust, with most lineages significantly supported by posterior probabilities in Bayesian analysis, and high bootstrap values from maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses. Conclusion A monophyletic assemblage strongly supported in all our phylogenetic analysis is herein defined as the Characidae and includes the characiform species lacking a supraorbital bone and with a derived position of the emergence of the hyoid artery from the anterior ceratohyal. To recognize this and several other monophyletic groups within characiforms we propose changes in the limits of several families to facilitate future studies in the Characiformes and particularly the Characidae. This work presents a new phylogenetic framework for a speciose and morphologically diverse group of freshwater fishes of significant ecological and evolutionary importance across the Neotropics and portions of Africa.

2011-01-01

361

Adaptive radiation in the Congo River: An ecological speciation scenario for African weakly electric fish (Teleostei; Mormyridae; Campylomormyrus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate aim of this study is to better understand the diversification of African weakly electric fish in the Congo River. Based on a robust phylogenetic hypothesis we examined the radiation within the mormyrid genus Campylomormyrus. Morphological traits relevant for the divergence between the identified species were detected. Among them, the variation in the shape of the trunk-like elongated snout

Philine G. D. Feulner; Frank Kirschbaum; Ralph Tiedemann

2008-01-01

362

Adaptive radiation in the Congo River: an ecological speciation scenario for African weakly electric fish (Teleostei; Mormyridae; Campylomormyrus).  

PubMed

The ultimate aim of this study is to better understand the diversification of African weakly electric fish in the Congo River. Based on a robust phylogenetic hypothesis we examined the radiation within the mormyrid genus Campylomormyrus. Morphological traits relevant for the divergence between the identified species were detected. Among them, the variation in the shape of the trunk-like elongated snout suggested the presence of different trophic specializations. Furthermore, the chosen model taxon, the genus Campylomormyrus, exhibits a wide diversity of electric organ discharge (EOD) waveforms. A comparison of EOD waveform types and phylogenetic relationships showed major differences in EOD between closely related species. This indicates that the EOD might function as a reproductive isolation mechanism. In conclusion, we provide a plausible scenario of an adaptive radiation triggered by sexual selection and assortative mating based on EOD characteristics, but caused by a divergent selection on the feeding apparatus. These findings point towards an adaptive radiation of at least some Campylomormyrus species occurring in the Lower Congo River. PMID:18984043

Feulner, Philine G D; Kirschbaum, Frank; Tiedemann, Ralph

2008-01-01

363

Light and ultrastructural description of Meglitschia mylei n. sp. (myxozoa) from Myleus rubripinnis (Teleostei: Serrasalmidae) in the Amazon River system.  

PubMed

Meglitschia mylei n. sp. found in the gall bladder of the teleostean fish Myleus rubripinnis (Serrasalmidae) from the middle Amazonian region of Brazil is described using light and transmission electron microscopy. The spores observed in the bile averaged 24.6±0.8 ?m long, 8.7±0.4 ?m wide and 5.1±0.3 ?m thick and were strongly furcate and arcuate ?-shaped composed of two symmetric equal-sized valves, up to ?70 nm thick. Each valve possessed one opposed tapering appendage, 20.1±0.7 ?m long, oriented parallel towards the basal tip of the appendages and joined along a right suture line forming a thick strand. The strand goes around the central part of the spore, which in turn surrounds two equal and symmetric spherical polar capsules (PC), 2.1±0.3 ?m in diameter, located at the same level. Each capsule contains a polar filament with five (rarely six) coils. The binucleate sporoplasm was irregular in shape, contained several sporoplasmosomes, ?175 nm in diameter and filled all the space of the two caudal appendages. Based on the arc shape of the spore with two tapering caudal appendages oriented to the basis of spores, on the number and position of the PC and of the polar filament coils and arrangements, and on the host specificity, we propose the name M. mylei n. sp. for this new myxozoan. Accordingly, this is the second described species of this genus. PMID:21895844

Azevedo, Carlos; Ribeiro, Mariana; Clemente, Sérgio C S; Casal, Graça; Lopes, Leila; Matos, Patrícia; Al-Quraishy, Saleh A; Matos, Edilson

2011-01-01

364

Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure of the digenean Neoapocreadium chabaudi (Apocreadiidae), a parasite of Balistes capriscus (Pisces, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spermiogenesis and the ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of the digenean Neoapocreadium chabaudi are described by means of transmission electron microscopy.Spermiogenesis follows the usual pattern found in the digeneans. It begins with the formation of a zone of differentiation bordered by cortical microtubules, characterized by the presence of an intercentriolar body composed of seven electron-dense plates situated between two striated

H. Kacem; A. J. S. Bakhoum; L. Neifar; J. Miquel

2010-01-01

365

Taxonomic validity and phylogenetic relationships of a newly-described tooth-carp, Aphanius mesopotamicus Coad, 2009 (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae).  

PubMed

Variation among complete cytb sequences (1140 bp) of Aphanius mesopotamicus Coad, 2009 was compared with closely related species, to investigate the validity of this taxon as a newly-described tooth-carp based on morphological characteristics. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian likelihood trees supported the monophyly of A. mesopotamicus and its sister group relationship to A. sophiae. Some 10-16 differences were found when compared to four different population samples of A. sophiae, whereas, intraspecific differences were only up to 6 bp. These distances suggest divergence from a common ancestor with A. sophiae at roughly 1 million years ago. These results are congruent with morphology-based hypotheses, indicating a recent speciation event. PMID:24871855

Alavi-Yeganeh, Mohammad Sadegh; Keivany, Yazdan; Seyfabadi, Jafar; Kazemi, Bahram; Wallis, Graham P

2014-01-01

366

Reproductive allocation in Aidablennius sphynx (Teleostei, Blenniidae): females lay more eggs faster when paired with larger males.  

PubMed

Individuals are expected to invest more in current reproductive effort when paired with a partner of higher than average quality. Aidablennius sphynx is an external fertilizing fish with paternal care in which females gain direct benefits from spawning with large males, but often 'make do' with small males. In this study, female reproductive responses to large and small males were investigated. When paired with large males, females spawned more eggs per unit time (i.e., at a faster rate). There was no difference in the size of the eggs spawned by females in relation to partner size. By ovipositing at a faster rate, females may have allocated more reproductive effort to large males. In addition, since small males are known to release far fewer sperm than large males, females may have reduced their spawn rate with small males as a tactic to ensure fertilization. PMID:16161016

Locatello, Lisa; Neat, Francis C

2005-10-01

367

Vascularization of male gonads in Blennius pavo (Teleostei, Blenniidae) as revealed by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts.  

PubMed

The vascular architecture of male gonads of Blennius pavo is studied by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. Arterial supply to the gonads is by a branch of the first ventral segmental artery of the tail. From the surface of the gonads, this vessel gives rise to branches which supply testes, spermatic ducts, testicular glands, blind pouches, urogenital sinus and urogenital papilla. The testis has a rope-ladder-like capillary network around the seminiferous tubules, while in the testicular gland the capillary network is irregular in form. The spermatic ducts are found to have an exterior capillary network located in the compact connective tissue layer and an interior one, lying subepithelially. Urogenital sinus and urogenital papilla show a multilayered capillary network. Angioarchitecture in mature and immature gonads does not differ. PMID:3238381

Lahnsteiner, F; Lametschwandtner, A; Patzner, R A; Adam, H

1988-12-01

368

A quantitative description of the reproductive biology of the Mediterranean blenny Aidablennius sphynx (Teleostei, Blenniidae) in its natural habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the reproductive behaviour of Aidablennius sphynx, which was studied in the field during four breeding seasons. Artificial nest sites were used for the determination of nest contents. The breeding season started at the end of April, when water temperature had just reached 14–15° C. The breeding season extended into August. Breeding males defended nests (crevices in the

Sarah B. M. Kraak

1996-01-01

369

Species recognition by the sequence of discharge intervals in weakly electric fishes of the genus Campylomormyrus (Mormyridae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two Campylornormyrus species, tamandua and rhynchophorus from Central Africa, the electric organ discharge (EOD) activity was studied during the nocturnal activity phase in the laboratory. Both species have a pulse-type EOD of less than 200 ps duration and similar waveform; the sequence of inter-discharge intervals, however, differed characteristically: C. tamandua displayed a 'micro-pattern' encompassing nearly the whole range of

BERND KRAMER; BIRGIT KUHN

1994-01-01

370

Electrophysiological and molecular genetic evidence for sympatrically occuring cryptic species in African weakly electric fishes (Teleostei: Mormyridae: Campylomormyrus).  

PubMed

For two sympatric species of African weakly electric fish, Campylomormyrus tamandua and Campylomormyrus numenius, we monitored ontogenetic differentiation in electric organ discharge (EOD) and established a molecular phylogeny, based on 2222bp from cytochrome b, the S7 ribosomal protein gene, and four flanking regions of unlinked microsatellite loci. In C. tamandua, there is one common EOD type, regardless of age and sex, whereas in C. numenius we were able to identify three different male adult EOD waveform types, which emerged from a single common EOD observed in juveniles. Two of these EOD types formed well supported clades in our phylogenetic analysis. In an independent line of evidence, we were able to affirm the classification into three groups by microsatellite data. The correct assignment and the high pairwise F(ST) values support our hypothesis that these groups are reproductively isolated. We propose that in C. numenius there are cryptic species, hidden behind similar and, at least as juveniles, identical morphs. PMID:16271299

Feulner, P G D; Kirschbaum, F; Schugardt, C; Ketmaier, V; Tiedemann, R

2006-04-01

371

Electrophysiological and molecular genetic evidence for sympatrically occuring cryptic species in African weakly electric fishes (Teleostei: Mormyridae: Campylomormyrus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For two sympatric species of African weakly electric fish, Campylomormyrus tamandua and Campylomormyrus numenius, we monitored ontogenetic differentiation in electric organ discharge (EOD) and established a molecular phylogeny, based on 2222bp from cytochrome b, the S7 ribosomal protein gene, and four flanking regions of unlinked microsatellite loci. In C. tamandua, there is one common EOD type, regardless of age and

P. G. D. Feulner; F. Kirschbaum; C. Schugardt; V. Ketmaier; R. Tiedemann

2006-01-01

372

Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae) do not seem to hybridize in natural populations  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil) and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept) easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers.

Ferreira-Neto, Maressa; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Camacho, Juan Pedro Martinez; Bakkali, Mohammed; de Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

2012-01-01

373

Experimentally induced pigment changes in small African 'Barbus' (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): Synonymy of 'Barbus' amphigramma and 'Barbus' taitensis with 'Barbus' paludinosus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pigmentation in fishes is known to be variable both among individuals of a species and within individuals over time. Use of pigment characters for taxonomic diagnoses must, therefore, be carefully considered. I present experimental evidence showing that pigment characters previously considered diagnostic for three small African 'Barbus' species may differ between living and preserved specimens and that lasting changes in these characters can be induced experimentally by placing fishes in a different, less turbid environment. Lateral line pigmentation and presence of a spot on the caudal peduncle showed significant changes that resulted in different species identifications before and after the experiment. These pigment patterns are thereby shown to be labile, nontrenchant characters having little or no diagnostic utility. 'Barbus' amphigramma Boulenger, 1903, and 'Barbus' taitensis Gu??nther, 1894, are thus shown to be junior synonyms of 'Barbus' paludinosus Peters, 1852.

Farm, B. P.

2001-01-01

374

Evidence for panmixia despite barriers to gene flow in the southern African endemic, Caffrogobius caffer (Teleostei: Gobiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Oceanography and life-history characteristics are known to influence the genetic structure of marine species, however the relative role that these factors play in shaping phylogeographic patterns remains unresolved. The population genetic structure of the endemic, rocky shore dwelling Caffrogobius caffer was investigated across a known major oceanographic barrier, Cape Agulhas, which has previously been shown to strongly influence genetic

Marlene Neethling; Conrad A Matthee; Rauri CK Bowie; Sophie von der Heyden

2008-01-01

375

Differentiation and growth of myotomal muscles in a non-model tropical fish Pterophyllum scalare (Teleostei: Cichlidae).  

PubMed

Somite differentiation, muscle fibres formation and growth were analysed in a non-model tropical fish Pterophyllum scalare. In this study, it was found that during somite differentiation, a primary myotome appears. The primary myotome is filled with multinucleated myotubes that constitute the major part of the somite. Subsequently, Pax-3 (paired-box protein)-positive cells, located externally to the myotomes, appear. In post-hatching stages, mononucleated proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells are observed in the inter-myotomal spaces and within the myotomes. The mononucleated cells, situated in the myotomes, first express desmin in their cytoplasm and then Pax-7 (paired-box protein) in their nuclei. Expression of desmin indicates that they will enter myogenic pathway, whereas expression of Pax-7 suggests their role of satellite cells. We assume that mononucleated intramyotomal cells are myogenic precursors involved in muscle growth. In advanced (post-hatching) stages of myogenesis, myotomes contain both primary and new muscle fibres. Morphometric analyses show that in Pterophyllum scalare, growth of muscle fibres is mainly a result of hypertrophy. PMID:21569078

Kacperczyk, A; J?drzejowska, I; Daczewska, M

2011-12-01

376

Ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of Pronoprymna ventricosa (Digenea, Baccigerinae), parasite of the twaite shad Alosa fallax Lacepede (Pisces, Teleostei).  

PubMed

In this paper, we describe the ultrastructural organisation of the spermatozoon of a Digenea Baccigerinae Pronoprymna ventricosa. This spermatozoon possesses the elements found in the others digeneans: two axonemes with 9 + "1" pattern, a mitochondrion, a nucleus, cortical microtubules and external ornamentations. However, this spermatozoon presents two particularities. The first is the presence of a single field of cortical microtubules disposed in the ventral side (mitochondrion side) of the spermatozoon. In the other digeneans, two fields of cortical microtubules are observed between the two axonemes. The second is the presence of external ornamentations not associated with cortical microtubules. These two points have, to our knowledge, never been described in another digenean. Moreover, a separation in two groups of the digenean spermatozoa is proposed in relation to the localisation of the external ornamentations. We propose to distinguish a first group exhibiting these elements in the proximal part of the spermatozoon and a second one with external ornamentations in a second part of the gamete. PMID:17594115

Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Josephine; Marchand, Bernard

2007-09-01

377

Phylogeny and biogeography of 91 species of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) based on sequences of the cytochrome b gene.  

PubMed

Heroini constitute the second largest tribe of Neotropical cichlids and show their greatest diversity in Mesoamerica. Although heroine species are morphologically and ecologically very diverse, they were all historically assigned to one single genus, Cichlasoma that was never formally revised from a phylogenetic point of view. Here, we present the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the tribe Heroini to date, based on the complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b, and the analysis of 204 individuals representing 91 species. Phylogenetic analyses did not support the monophyly of heroines because the genus Pterophyllum was placed as the sister group of all remaining heroines plus cichlasomatines. However, the recovered relative position of Pterophyllum was without strong statistical support. Within the remaining heroines, Hyspelecara and Hoplarchus are recovered with low support in a basal position with respect to a clade that includes Heros, Uaru, Mesonauta, and Symphysodon, and the circumamazonian (CAM) heroines. The first clade is restricted to South America. The largest clade of heroines, the CAM heroines, include more than 85% of the species within the tribe. This clade is mostly Mesoamerican, but also contains four species found in the Greater Antilles (Nandopsis), and three genera found in South America (the 'Heros' festae group, Australoheros, and Caquetaia). Up to eight major lineages can be recovered within the CAM heroines, but the phylogenetic relationships among them remain unresolved. Two large suprageneric groups can be distinguished, the amphilophines and the herichthyines. The amphilophines include Amphilophus, Archocentrus, Hypsophrys, Neetroplus, Parachromis, Petenia, and five additional unnamed genera (the 'Heros' istlanus group, the 'Amphilophus' calobrensis group, the 'Heros' urophthalmus group, the 'Heros' wesseli group, and the 'Heros' sieboldii group). The herichthyines include the crown-group herichthyines (Herichthys, Theraps, Vieja, and Paratheraps) and the genera Tomocichla, Herotilapia, and Thorichthys, together with three unnamed genera (the 'Heros' umbriferus group, the 'Heros' grammodes group, and the 'Heros' salvini group). Amphilophines are prevalent in southern Mesomerica south of the Motagua fault. Herichthyines have basal linages in Central America, whereas crown-group herichthyines and three related genera are found north from the Motagua fault. At least two independent origins are required to explain current Mesoamerican heroine distribution. Dispersal of heroines from South America into Mesoamerica was dated between 24 and 16 million years ago (MYA) based on geological calibrations and on standard fish mitochondrial cytochrome b rates, respectively. These datings cannot be reconciled with currently known geological evidence, and the existence of a connection between Central America and South America in the Miocene needs to be postulated in order to explain the origins of Mesoamerican heroine lineages. However, our datings agree with those estimated for the dispersal of other secondary freshwater fishes (Rivulidae, Synbranchus) into Mesoamerica, and predate the invasion of primary freshwater fishes by at least 10 myr. PMID:17045493

Pérez, Gustavo A Concheiro; Rícan, Oldrich; Ortí, Guillermo; Bermingham, Eldredge; Doadrio, Ignacio; Zardoya, Rafael

2007-04-01

378

Comparisons between the reproductive biology of black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri (Teleostei: Sparidae) in four estuaries with widely differing characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive biology of Acanthopagrus butcheri has been studied in the permanently open Swan River and intermittently open Moore River estuaries on the lower west coast of Australia (31--32 °S) and in the permanently open Nornalup Walpole and normally closed Wellstead estuaries on the southern coast of Western Australia (34--35 °S). Trends exhibited by gonadosomatic indices, gonadal maturity stages and

G. A. Sarre; I. C. Potter

1999-01-01

379

Comparisons between the reproductive biology of black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri (Teleostei: Sparidae) in four estuaries with widely differing characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive biology ofAcanthopagrus butcheri has been studied in the permanently open Swan River and intermittently open Moore River estuaries on the lower west coast\\u000a of Australia (31–32°S) and in the permanently open Nornalup Walpole and normally closed Wellstead estuaries on the southern\\u000a coast of Western Australia (34–35°S). Trends exhibited by gonadosomatic indices, gonadal maturity stages and the sizes and

G. A. Sarre; I. C. Potter

1999-01-01

380

Evidence for panmixia despite barriers to gene flow in the southern African endemic, Caffrogobius caffer (Teleostei: Gobiidae)  

PubMed Central

Background Oceanography and life-history characteristics are known to influence the genetic structure of marine species, however the relative role that these factors play in shaping phylogeographic patterns remains unresolved. The population genetic structure of the endemic, rocky shore dwelling Caffrogobius caffer was investigated across a known major oceanographic barrier, Cape Agulhas, which has previously been shown to strongly influence genetic structuring of South African rocky shore and intertidal marine organisms. Given the variable and dynamic oceanographical features of the region, we further sought to test how the pattern of gene flow between C. caffer populations is affected by the dominant Agulhas and Benguela current systems of the southern oceans. Results The variable 5' region of the mtDNA control region was amplified for 242 individuals from ten localities spanning the distributional range of C. caffer. Fifty-five haplotypes were recovered and in stark contrast to previous phylogeographic studies of South African marine species, C. caffer showed no significant population genetic structuring along 1300 km of coastline. The parsimony haplotype network, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses revealed panmixia. Coalescent analyses reveal that gene flow in C. caffer is strongly asymmetrical and predominantly affected by the Agulhas Current. Notably, there was no gene flow between the east coast and all other populations, although all other analyses detect no significant population structure, suggesting a recent divergence. The mismatch distribution suggests that C. caffer underwent a population expansion at least 14 500 years ago. Conclusion We propose several possible life-history adaptations that could have enabled C. caffer to maintain gene flow across its distributional range, including a long pelagic larval stage. We have shown that life-history characteristics can be an important contributing factor to the phylogeography of marine species and that the effects of oceanography do not necessarily suppress its influence on effective dispersal.

2008-01-01

381

Karyotypic diversity and evolutionary trends in the Neotropical catfish genus Hypostomus Lac?p?de, 1803 (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The family Loricariidae with 813 nominal species is one of the largest fish families of the world. Hypostominae, its more complex subfamily, was recently divided into five tribes. The tribe Hypostomini is composed of a single genus, Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, which exhibits the largest karyotypic diversity in the family Loricariidae. With the main objective of contributing to a better understanding of the relationship and the patterns of evolution among the karyotypes of Hypostomus species, cytogenetic studies were conducted in six species of the genus from Brazil and Venezuela. The results show a great chromosome variety with diploid numbers ranging from 2n=68 to 2n=76, with a clear predominance of acrocentric chromosomes. The Ag-NORs are located in terminal position in all species analyzed. Three species have single Ag-NORs (Hypostomus albopunctatus (Regan, 1908), Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758), and Hypostomus prope paulinus (Ihering, 1905)) and three have multiple Ag-NORs (Hypostomus ancistroides (Ihering, 1911), Hypostomus prope iheringi (Regan, 1908), and Hypostomus strigaticeps (Regan, 1908)). In the process of karyotype evolution of the group, the main type of chromosome rearrangements was possibly centric fissions, which may have been facilitated by the putative tetraploid origin of Hypostomus species. The relationship between the karyotype changes and the evolution in the genus is discussed.

Alves, Anderson Luis; de Borba, Rafael Splendore; Oliveira, Claudio; Mauro Nirchio; Granado, Angel; Foresti, Fausto

2012-01-01

382

Identification of Antarctic fish eggs by surface structure as shown by the eggs of Trematomus eulepidotus (Teleostei: Nototheniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oocytes and incubated eggs of the antarctic nototheniid fish Trematomus eulepidotus were observed with a scanning electron microscope to investigate whether their surface structures show a similar pattern. Oocytes were taken from the ovary or were stripped from running females. For comparison, incubated eggs of stages I and IV (classification after Apstein 1909) were sampled from a bottom trawl catch.

R. Riehl; W. Ekau

1990-01-01

383

Two new species of protogyrodactylus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) from the gills of Gerres nigri (Teleostei: Gerreidae) from Senegal.  

PubMed

Protogyrodactylus ethiopicus sp. n. and P. kritskyi sp. n. are described from the gills of Gerres nigri Günther (Gerreidae, Perciformes) captured from the estuary of the Sine-Saloum River (Senegal, West Africa). These new species differ from previously described species within the genus by a mid- or dextro-ventral vaginal opening (dextral in all other species). They are part of a morphological species group within Protogyrodactylus Johnston et Tiegs, 1922 that has the tip of the superficial root of the ventral anchor resembling a hook and two anterior projections on the anterior margin of the ventral bar. Protogyrodactylus ethiopicus differs from the remaining species in this group mainly by the morphology of the base of the male copulatory organ (MCO), which is disk-shaped, and the shape of the anterior projections of the ventral bar (round in the new species and relatively elongate in the other species of the group). The other new species, P. kritskyi, differs from all others in the same morphological group in having a MCO with a greatly expanded base that bears a heel-like subterminal sclerotization. PMID:22439429

Boeger, Walter A; Diamanka, Arfang; Pariselle, Antoine; Patella, Luciana

2012-02-01

384

Redescription of Liza bandialensis (Teleostei: Mugilidae) with an identification key to mullet species of Eastern Central Atlantic.  

PubMed

Liza bandialensis Diouf 1991 is redescribed because previous descriptions have not been in well-distributed publications and have lacked sufficient detail or reference to voucher specimens. The description provided here is based on specimens from the Sine Saloum estuary, Senegal (West Africa), from where the species was originally described. The distinctness of the species is confirmed both by meristic and molecular criteria. L. bandialensis presents a unique combination of characters with a low number of scales in the longitudinal series (32-33), 10.5-12 transverse scale rows, and distinctly yellowish dorsal, anal, and caudal fins. The currently known distribution of L. bandialensis includes coastal waters of Senegal, Gambia and Guinea Bissau. Finally, we provide a morphological identification key for the sixteen species of Mugilidae species occurring along the eastern central Atlantic coast of Africa. PMID:22325565

Trape, Sébastien; Harrison, Ian J; Diouf, Papa Samba; Durand, Jean-Dominique

2012-02-01

385

Blood cleansing cells in head kidney and spleen in Buenos Aires tetra, Hyphessobrycon anisitsi (Eigenmann), (Characidae: Teleostei).  

PubMed

The general structure and cell types in kidney and spleen in Buenos Aires tetra, Hyphessobrycon anisitsi, family Characidae, are described. The capability and capacity of these organs to clean foreign ferritin from the blood stream are analysed and compared. Head kidney was mainly composed of neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes and other white blood cells, whereas unmatured and matured red blood cells were few in number. Spleen often contained much red pulp, that is mainly matured red blood cells between splenic cords, often with some macrophages and neutrophils in the latter. Occasionally, this pulp contained large volumes of unmatured red blood cells, particularly in the periphery of the spleen. The splenic white pulp consisted of ellipsoids composed of an inner endothelial layer covered by a thick sheet of white blood cells, which in the periphery consisted mainly of macrophages. Erythrocytes occupied nearly the entire splenic volume in some specimens, whereas up to half of this volume was filled by ellipsoid macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes and other white blood cells in other specimens. The macrophages and sinusoidal endothelial cells in kidney and spleen from ferritin-injected specimens were tightly packed by yellow-brown granules or Prussian blue precipitations, in tissue treated with Mallory stain or acid ferrocyanide, respectively, suggesting a large uptake of foreign ferritin. In the present tetra large amounts of white blood cells are developed in head kidney, where macrophages and sinusoidal endothelial cells play important roles in the cleansing of scavenger and foreign molecules and particles from the blood stream. The spleen seems primarily to be a site for iron recycling and production and storage of red blood cells. Sometimes, however, it was rich in macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes and other white blood cells, suggesting functions like blood cleansing and non-specific and specific defence in such specimens. PMID:22462793

Leknes, I L

2012-06-01

386

Descriptions of three new species of Marcusenius Gill, 1862
(Teleostei: Mormyridae) from South Africa and Mozambique.
 

PubMed

Morphological and genetic studies of mormyrid fishes belonging to the genus Marcusenius from South Africa and Mozambique revealed four species of which three are described as new. Marcusenius pongolensis is widespread throughout the Incomati, Pongola and Kosi river systems, and sparsely represented in the Limpopo River system in South Africa. Marcusenius krameri sp. nov. is endemic to the Limpopo River system, and is the sister taxon of M. caudisquamatus sp. nov. from the Nseleni and Mhlatuze river systems in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. The Ruvuma specimens were well differentiated from all southern and eastern African species of Marcusenius, and are therefore recognised as M. lucombesi sp. nov. Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene showed that the three new species and M. altisambesi form a monophyletic lineage that is sister to a group containing M. pongolensis and M. macrolepidotus. Marcusenius krameri and M. lucombesi seems to prefer slow flowing reaches of rivers, whereas M. pongolensis and M. caudisquamatus seems to mainly inhabit rapid flowing sections of rivers with a rocky substrate. A key to the southern African species of Marcusenius is provided. PMID:24871846

Maake, Pholoshi A; Gon, Ofer; Swartz, Ernst R

2014-01-01

387

Molecular resolution of the systematics of a problematic group of fishes (Teleostei: Osmeridae) and evidence for morphological homoplasy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships among the species of Northern Hemisphere smelts (family Osmeridae) have long been debated in the fish systematics literature. Eight independent studies based on morphological characters failed to reach any consensus on osmerid interrelationships. We reconstruct the osmerid phylogeny based on DNA sequence data from three mitochondrial (cytb, 16S, 12S) and three nuclear (ITS2, S71, RAG1) gene regions from multiple

Katriina L. Ilves; Eric B. Taylor

2009-01-01

388

Stenorynchoacrum xijiangensis, a new genus and a new species of Labeoninae fish from Guangxi, China (Teleostei: Cyprinidae.  

PubMed

Stenorynchoacrum xijiangensis, a new genus and a new species of Cyprinidae, is described from a tributary of the Zhujiang River (Pearl River) in Guangxi Province, China. It can be distinguished from other genera of Labeoninae by the following characters: middle part of rostral cap undeveloped, narrow, only covering the base of the upper jaw, both sides of rostral cap well developed and extending upward, rostral cap connected the lower lip with free lateral margin, the median part of lower lip protruded to form a round fleshy pad, whose posterior margin continuous with the mental region. PMID:24870177

Huang, Yanfei; Yang, Junxing; Chen, Xiaoyong

2014-01-01

389

Evolution and diversification of a sexually dimorphic luminescent system in ponyfishes (Teleostei: Leiognathidae), including diagnoses for two new genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phylogeny was generated for Leiognathidae, an assemblage of bioluminescent, Indo-Pacific schooling fishes, using 6175 characters derived from seven mitochondrial genes (16S, COI, ND4, ND5, tRNA-His, tRNA-Ser, tRNA-Leu), two nuclear genes (28S, histone H3), and 15 morphological transformations corresponding to features of the fishes' sexually dimorphic light-organ system (LOS; e.g., circumesophageal light organ, lateral lining of the gas bladder, transparent

John S. Sparks; Paul V. Dunlap; W. Leo Smith

2005-01-01

390

Kudoa unicapsula n. sp. (Myxosporea: Kudoidae) a parasite of the Mediterranean mullets Liza ramada and L. aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).  

PubMed

A new multivalvulid myxozoan parasite, Kudoa unicapsula n. sp., is described from the intestinal mesentery, intestine and pyloric caeca of the thin-lipped grey mullet Liza ramada (Risso 1826) and the golden grey mullet L. aurata (Risso, 1810) from the Mediterranean coastal waters of Spain. It is characterized by the presence of elongated, rice corn-like white cysts of 0.47-0.56 x 0.18-0.38 mm, filled with tetracapsulate, slightly asymmetric spores, rectangular in apical view and tear-shaped in lateral view with four polar capsules of considerably different size and slightly unequal spore valves with rounded edges, overlapping each other on the apex of the spore. One large polar capsule includes a polar filament coiled in two to three turns, and the other three polar capsules, which are very small, posses only a rudimental filament. Both light and electron microscopy data showed that this species differs from all previously described Kudoa spp. with unequal polar capsules. The molecular analysis based on 18S and 28S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid DNA sequence data of K. unicapsula n. sp. indicates a close relationship and thus phylogenetic clustering together with K. trifolia, a myxozoan from the same host and the same geographical location. PMID:17846792

Yurakhno, V M; Ovcharenko, M O; Holzer, A S; Sarabeev, V L; Balbuena, J A

2007-11-01

391

Gene Rearrangements and Evolution of tRNA Pseudogenes in the Mitochondrial Genome of the Parrotfish (Teleostei: Perciformes: Scaridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic size of animal mitochondrial DNA is usually minimized over time. Thus, when regional duplications occur, they are followed by a rapid elimination of redundant material. In contrast to this general view, we report here long-sustained tRNA pseudogenes in the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of teleost fishes of the family Scaridae (parrotfishes). During the course of a molecular phylogenetic study of

Kohji Mabuchi; Masaki Miya; Takashi P. Satoh; Mark W. Westneat; Mutsumi Nishida

2004-01-01

392

First evidence for interspecific hybridization between invasive goby species Neogobius fluviatilis and Neogobius melanostomus (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Benthophilinae).  

PubMed

Two hybrids between the monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis and the round goby Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River were identified by genotyping and morphological comparison. These are the first records of goby-hybrids outside the parent species' native ranges worldwide. PMID:23731157

Lindner, K; Cerwenka, A F; Brandner, J; Gertzen, S; Borcherding, J; Geist, J; Schliewen, U K

2013-06-01

393

A new Pseudophoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) species from Southwestern Anatolia, with remarks on the distribution of the genus in western Anatolia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Pseudophoxinus burduricus sp. n. is described from drainages of Salda and Burdur lakes, southwestern Turkey. It is distinguished from other Anatolian Pseudophoxinus by a combination of characters: lateral line incomplete, with 21–39 (commonly 26–37) perforated scales and 47–57+1-2 scales in lateral series; 10½–12½ scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin, 3–4(5) scale rows between lateral line and the pelvic fin origin; dorsal fin commonly with 7½ branched rays; anal fin commonly with 6½ branched rays; 7–8(9) gill rakers on the first branchial arch; a faint and diffuse epidermal black stripe from eye to caudal fin base in alive and preserved individuals; mouth slightly subterminal, tip of mouth cleft on about level of lower margin of eye; snout rounded, its length greater than eye diameter. Comparison is given with all Pseudophoxinus species from western Anatolia.

Kucuk, Fahrettin; Gulle, Iskender; Guclu, S. Serkan; Ciftci, Y?lmaz; Erdogan, Omer

2013-01-01

394

Evolutionary history of Otophysi (Teleostei), a major clade of the modern freshwater fishes: Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation  

PubMed Central

Background Freshwater harbors approximately 12,000 fish species accounting for 43% of the diversity of all modern fish. A single ancestral lineage evolved into about two-thirds of this enormous biodiversity (? 7900 spp.) and is currently distributed throughout the world's continents except Antarctica. Despite such remarkable species diversity and ubiquity, the evolutionary history of this major freshwater fish clade, Otophysi, remains largely unexplored. To gain insight into the history of otophysan diversification, we constructed a timetree based on whole mitogenome sequences across 110 species representing 55 of the 64 families. Results Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis based on unambiguously aligned sequences (9923 bp) confidently recovered the monophyly of Otophysi and the two constituent subgroups (Cypriniformes and Characiphysi). The latter clade comprised three orders (Gymnotiformes, Characiformes, Siluriformes), and Gymnotiformes was sister to the latter two groups. One of the two suborders in Characiformes (Characoidei) was more closely related to Siluriformes than to its own suborder (Citharinoidei), rendering the characiforms paraphyletic. Although this novel relationship did not receive strong statistical support, it was supported by analyzing independent nuclear markers. A relaxed molecular clock Bayesian analysis of the divergence times and reconstruction of ancestral habitats on the timetree suggest a Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation of otophysans. Conclusions The present timetree demonstrates that survival of the ancestral lineages through the two consecutive mass extinctions on Pangaea, and subsequent radiations during the Jurassic through early Cretaceous shaped the modern familial diversity of otophysans. This evolutionary scenario is consistent with recent arguments based on biogeographic inferences and molecular divergence time estimates. No fossil otophysan, however, has been recorded before the Albian, the early Cretaceous 100-112 Ma, creating an over 100 million year time span without fossil evidence. This formidable ghost range partially reflects a genuine difference between the estimated ages of stem group origin (molecular divergence time) and crown group morphological diversification (fossil divergence time); the ghost range, however, would be filled with discoveries of older fossils that can be used as more reasonable time constraints as well as with developments of more realistic models that capture the rates of molecular sequences accurately.

2011-01-01

395

Scavenger receptors facilitate protein transport in the trophotaenial placenta of the goodeid fish, Ameca splendens (Teleostei: Atheriniformes).  

PubMed

In the goodeid placental analogue, trophotaeniae provide extraembryonic gut-derived exchange surfaces. Ameca splendens embryos possess endocytosing trophotaeniae that are capable of absorbing a dazzling array of proteinaceous substances. The iron core protein, native ferritin (NF), and several radioiodinated proteinaceous substances were used to study ligand and binding site pathways in the trophotaenial absorptive cells (TACs). Time sequence analysis of NF trafficking indicated an exclusively lysosomal pathway. Binding to TACs of NF was completely inhibitable by proteins containing multiple lysine residues such as apoferritin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), human transferrin (HTf), fetuin, hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochrome c, ubiquitin, parvalbumin as well as the random copolymers, poly(Glu,Lys,Tyr)6:3:1 and poly(D-Glu,D-Lys)6:4. Peptide hormones and pepsin that contains only one lysine residue did not produce inhibitory effects. Radiolabels such as (125)I-BSA, (125)I-HTf and (125)I-poly(Glu,Lys,Tyr) bound to trophotaeniae in a specific saturable manner. Any two proteins were shown to hinder one another in getting hold of a binding site. Concentration-dependent (125)I-BSA binding and Scatchard analysis of the data revealed both low- and medium-affinity binding with apparent dissociation constants, K(d)s, of 3.4 x 10(-5) M and 2 x 10(-7) M, respectively. Binding of NF and radioiodinated proteins was inhibited in the presence of a large excess of L-Lys, D-Lys, and several dipeptides containing Lys. Both Ca(2+)-depletion and low pH dramatically reduced the TACs' capacity to bind proteins. The effects of acidotropic agents included a reversible loss of surface protein binding sites, tremendous vacuolation, and the arrest of lysosomal degradation. Collectively, present results demonstrate that TACs bind and absorb multiple proteinaceous substances through a mechanism satisfying the criteria of receptor-mediated endocytosis. It is concluded that scavenger protein binding sites are used to ingest proteins for lysosomal degradation, helping to meet the embryos' amino acid requirement. PMID:12975808

Schindler, Joachim F

2003-10-01

396

Trilosporoides platessae gen. et sp. n. (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) in the plaice Pleuronectes platessa (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae) from Denmark.  

PubMed

A new myxosporean species, Trilosporoides platessae gen. et sp. n. (Multivalvulida), is described from the gallbladder of the plaice Pleuronectes platessa L. (Pleuronectidae) from Denmark. The myxospore of T. platessae is conical in side view, with a 24 microm long, pointed posterior projection. In apical view, the myxospore (diameter 9.4 microm) is round, trilobed and with three spherical polar capsules arranged peripherally, equidistant and opening peripherally through protruding tips. The polar capsules are of different sizes, one often larger than the others (diameter 3.3 microm vs. 2.5 microm). Apart from the long posterior projection, the myxospore of T. platessae differs from those of the three known species of Trilospora Noble, 1959 and from all genera within the order Multivalvulida Shulman, 1959 in the arrangement of the polar capsules. Trilosporoides platessae may temporarily be placed in the vicinity of the Trilosporidae. PMID:16405293

Køie, Marianne

2005-11-01

397

Kudoa ogawai n. sp. (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from the trunk muscle of Pacific barrelfish Hyperoglyphe japonica (Teleostei: Centrolophidae) in Japan.  

PubMed

Kudoa ogawai n. sp. (Myxozoa; Multivalvulida) is described from the trunk muscle of Pacific barrelfish Hyperoglyphe japonica caught in Japan. Oval to ellipsoidal cysts, white to yellowish in colour, 1-2 mm in size, were filled with numerous spores having four polar capsules. Spores were stellate with rounded peripheral edges in apical view, and garlic shaped with four prominent apical projections in side view. Average (range) spore size was 13.3 (12.0-14.2) ?m in width and 9.0 (8.3-9.7) ?m in length. The spore dimensions and the apical projections of K. ogawai n. sp. were clearly distinguishable from the other muscle-infecting species. Molecular analyses of 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA sequences showed that K. ogawai n. sp. is closely related to Kudo iwatai and Kudoa hemiscylli (95% and 92% genetic similarity, respectively), but the present species is morphologically distinct from the two species. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S and 28S rDNA placed K. ogawai n. sp. sister to all Kudoa spp. available in GenBank. PMID:22173453

Yokoyama, H; Yanagida, T; Shirakashi, S

2012-06-01

398

Sexual selection in darkness? Female mating preferences in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many species, females prefer large males as mating partners. Male size can easily be determined visually. We examined how such mate choice evolves when individuals are deprived of sensory information previously used to determine male quality. Using a cave-dwelling population of Atlantic mollies, Poecilia mexicana, as a model, we asked whether the female mating preference for large male body

Martin Plath; Jakob Parzefall; Kay E. Körner; Ingo Schlupp

2004-01-01

399

The role of sexual harassment in cave and surface dwelling populations of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual coercion is a common behaviour for males trying to compensate for being inferior in male competition and\\/or female choice. We measured the cost of male sexual harassment for females as reduced feeding time in three populations of the Atlantic molly ( Poecilia mexicana). Of these populations, one originated from a typical river habitat, another from a lightless cave chamber

Martin Plath; Jakob Parzefall; Ingo Schlupp

2003-01-01

400

Cryptic clonal lineages and genetic diversity in the loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Teleostei: Cobitidae) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatue, the asexual lineage, which produces unreduced clonal diploid eggs, has been identified. Among 833 specimens collected from\\u000a 54 localities in Japan and two localities in China, 82 candidates of other lineage(s) of cryptic clones were screened by examining\\u000a RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism)-PCR haplotypes in the control region of mtDNA. This analysis was performed\\u000a because

Kagayaki Morishima; Yuka Nakamura-Shiokawa; Etsuko Bando; Ya-Juan Li; Alicja Boro?; Katsutoshi Arai

2008-01-01

401

Postglacial recolonization of eastern Blacknose Dace,Rhinichthys atratulus(Teleostei: Cyprinidae), through the gateway of New England.  

PubMed

During the last ice age, much of North America far south as 40°N was covered by glaciers (Hewitt 2000). About 20,000 years ago, as the glaciers retreated, the hydrologic landscape changed dramatically creating waterways for fish dispersal. The number of populations responsible for recolonization and the regions from which they recolonized are unknown for many freshwater fishes living in New England and southeastern Canada. The Blacknose Dace,Rhinichthys atratulus, is one of the freshwater fish species that recolonized this region. We hypothesize that the earliest deglaciated region, modern-day Connecticut, was recolonized byR. atratulusvia a single founding event by a single population. In this paper, we test this hypothesis phylogenetically with regard to the major drainage basins within Connecticut. The mitochondrial DNA exhibits low nucleotide diversity, high haplotype diversity, and a dominant haplotype found across the state. A small percentage of individuals in the Housatonic drainage basin, however, share a haplotype with populations in New York drainage basins, a haplotype not found elsewhere in Connecticut's drainage basins. We calculated a range for the rate of divergence for NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nd2) and control region (ctr) of 4.43-6.76% and 3.84-8.48% per million years (my), respectively. While this range is higher than the commonly accepted rate of 2% for mitochondrial DNA, these results join a growing list of publications finding high rates of divergence for various taxa (Peterson and Masel 2009). The data support the conclusion that Connecticut as a whole was recolonized initially by a single founding event that came from a single refugium. Subsequently, the Housatonic basin alone experienced a secondary recolonization event. PMID:22393505

Tipton, Michelle L; Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Sarah; Stonebraker, Phoebe; Chernoff, Barry

2011-11-01

402

Morphological, histochemical and morphometric study of the myotomal muscle tissue of the pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg 1887: Serrasalminae, Characidae, Teleostei).  

PubMed

Histochemical, ultrastructural and morphometric methods were used to study growth patterns of red, pink and white muscle fibres and their relation to body weight and total length in the fast-growing freshwater fish Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg. The correlations amongst body weight, body length and diameter of red, pink and white fibres were low. From 10-15 to 40-50 cm, body weight increased 102.7 times, while the diameter of each type of fibre increased by factors of 0.94, 0.74 and 0.70, respectively. Muscle fibres revealed different morphological and histochemical stages of maturation. The frequencies of < 20 microns fibres of red, pink and white muscle tissue in the youngest and oldest classes were 64.5 and 11.0, 38.2 and 7.7 and 24.0 and 1.4%, respectively. In 30-40 cm fish, the frequency of < 20 microns fibres in the red and pink tissue was 24.5 and 25.5%, while in the white tissue it was 11.5%. During sexual maturity (40-50 cm), the recruitment of < 20 microns fibres in white muscle was 1.4%. Muscle fibres of this species showed continuous growth by both hyperplastic and hypertrophic mechanisms, and hyperplasia was particularly active in the juvenile phase. PMID:11103517

Dal Pai, V; Pai-Silva, M D; Carvalho, E D; Fujihara, C Y; Gregório, E A; Curi, P R

2000-10-01

403

Occurrence and ultrastructural characterization of "nuage" during oogenesis and early spermatogenesis of Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Teleostei).  

PubMed

We investigated the occurrence and ultrastructurally characterized electrondense nuclear material (nuage) released from the nucleus during oogenesis and early spermatogenesis of Piaractus mesopotamicus, a fish from Pantanal Matogrossense (Brazil) having a seasonal reproductive cycle. The female germ cells presented two instances of nuclear material extrusion: in the oogonia and in the oocyte in the perinucleolar phase. In males, material with similar morphology and behavior occurred in the spematogonia. In all cases, this material was associated to mitochondria. The possible function of this material is discussed. PMID:15619993

Abdalla, F C; Cruz-Landim, C

2004-08-01

404

Phylogenetic relationships of the Cobitoidea (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes with analyses of gene evolution.  

PubMed

The superfamily Cobitoidea of the order Cypriniformes is a diverse group of fishes, inhabiting freshwater ecosystems across Eurasia and North Africa. The phylogenetic relationships of this well-corroborated natural group and diverse clade are critical to not only informing scientific communities of the phylogeny of the order Cypriniformes, the world's largest freshwater fish order, but are key to every area of comparative biology examining the evolution of traits, functional structures, and breeding behaviors to their biogeographic histories, speciation, anagenetic divergence, and divergence time estimates. In the present study, two mitochondrial gene sequences (COI, ND4+5) and four single-copy nuclear gene segments (RH1, RAG1, EGR2B, IRBP) were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships of the Cobitoidea as reconstructed from maximum likelihood (ML) and partitioned Bayesian Analysis (BA). Analyses of the combined mitochondrial/nuclear gene datasets revealed five strongly supported monophyletic Cobitoidea families and their sister-group relationships: Botiidae+(Vaillantellidae+(Cobitidae+(Nemacheilidae+Balitoridae))). These recovered relationships are in agreement with previous systematic studies on the order Cypriniformes and/or those focusing on the superfamily Cobitoidea. Using these relationships, our analyses revealed pattern lineage- or ecological-group-specific evolution of these genes for the Cobitoidea. These observations and results corroborate the hypothesis that these group-specific-ancestral ecological characters have contributed in the diversification and/or adaptations within these groups. Positive selections were detected in RH1 of nemacheilids and in RAG1 of nemacheilids and genus Vaillantella, which indicated that evolution of RH1 (related to eye's optic sense) and RAG1 (related to immunity) genes appeared to be important for the diversification of these groups. The balitorid lineage (those species inhabiting fast-flowing riverine habitats) had, as compared with other cobitoid lineages, significantly different dN/dS, dN and dS values for ND4 and IRBP genes. These significant differences are usually indicative of weaker selection pressure, and lineage-specific evolution on genes along the balitorid lineage. Furthermore, within Cobitoidea, excluding balitorids, species living in subtropics had significantly higher dN/dS values in RAG1 and IRBP genes than those living in temperate and tropical zones. Among tropical cobitoids, genes COI, ND5, EGR2B, IRBP and RH1, had a significantly higher mean dS value than those species in subtropical and temperate groups. These findings suggest that the evolution of these genes could also be ecological-group-specific and may have played an important role in the adaptive evolution and diversification of these groups. Thus, we hypothesize that the genes included in the present study were actively involved in lineage- and/or ecological-group-specific evolutionary processes of the highly diverse Cobitoidea. These two evolutionary patterns, both subject to further testing, are hypothesized as integral in the diversification with this major clade of the world's most diverse group of freshwater fishes. PMID:22868207

Liu, Si-Qing; Mayden, Richard L; Zhang, Jia-Bo; Yu, Dan; Tang, Qiong-Ying; Deng, Xin; Liu, Huan-Zhang

2012-10-15

405

Ellipsomyxa gobii (Myxozoa: Ceratomyxidae) in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps (Teleostei: Gobiidae) uses Nereis spp. (Annelida: Polychaeta) as invertebrate hosts.  

PubMed

Nereis diversicolor O.F. Müller and N. succinea Frey et Leuckart (Polychaeta, Nereidae) living in brackish shallow areas in Denmark are naturally infected with tetractinomyxon actinospores. Infected Nereis spp. were experimentally fed to various potential fish hosts, and the actinosporean stages developed into myxosporean stages of Ellipsomyxa gobii Køie, 2003 (Ceratomyxidae) in the gallbladder of the common goby Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer) (Gobiidae). The European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.), three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L., small sand eel Ammodytes tobianus L., flounder Platichthys flesus (L.), European plaice Pleuronectes platessa L. and common sole Solea solea (L.) did not become experimentally infected. In Danish shallow brackish areas P. microps is naturally infected with E. gobii, in some areas with a prevalence >90%. We compared small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences of the actinosporean with E. gobii from P. microps. Sequences were identical, which further verifies that both forms belong to the same organism. This is the first myxozoan two-host life cycle in the marine environment. PMID:15139372

Køie, Marianne; Whipps, Christopher M; Kent, Michael L

2004-03-01

406

Evolutionary and biogeographic patterns of the Badidae (Teleostei: Perciformes) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships of the family Badidae using both mitochondrial and nuclear nucleotide sequence data to address badid systematics and to evaluate the role of vicariant speciation on their evolution and current distribution. Phylogenetic hypotheses were derived from complete cytochrome b (1140 base pairs) sequences of 33 individuals representing 13 badid species, and using three species of Nandidae as

Lukas Rüber; Ralf Britz; Sven O. Kullander; Rafael Zardoya

2004-01-01

407

Cytological mechanisms of gynogenesis and sperm incorporation in unreduced diploid eggs of the clonal loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Teleostei: Cobitidae).  

PubMed

The loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus comprises diploid clonal, triploid and diploid-triploid mosaic individuals in a wild population on Hokkaido island, Japan. When diploid eggs of clonal loaches are fertilized by haploid sperm of normal bisexual loaches, both diploid clonal and non-diploid aclonal individuals occur in the progeny. Flow cytometry and microsatellite analyses revealed that the occurrence of triploid, diploid-triploid and other progeny was essentially due to the genetic incorporation of sperm to diploid clonal genomes of unreduced eggs. In this study, we examined the influence of water temperature from fertilization to early embryogenesis on frequencies of diploid clonal and other progeny and observed that progeny of three out of four clonal females examined exhibited approximately constant rates of diploid clonal individuals (54.2-68.9%) at hatching stage. Thus, no drastic increase of non-diploid progeny was detected. However, the 28 degrees C group of the fourth clonal female gave significantly lower rate (28.1%) of diploid clonal progeny, suggesting that this temperature might be a critical or a borderline temperature inducing sperm incorporation. We also examined the cytological process by which diploid clonal and other aclonal progeny develop after fertilization. In some fertilized eggs, the sperm nucleus remained condensed throughout fertilization and early embryogenesis and never fused with the female pronucleus. This cytological observation concludes that clonal eggs develop by the mechanism of gynogenesis. However, some other eggs showed the cytological process of syngamy between the female pronucleus and an accidentally formed male nucleus, suggesting the formation of triploid progeny. The syngamy between an accidentally activated sperm nucleus with a male pronucleus-like structure and nucleus of a blastomere of gynogenetically developing clonal diploid embryo might produce a diploid-triploid mosaic individual. PMID:17094112

Itono, Masaki; Okabayashi, Naoki; Morishima, Kagayaki; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Yamaha, Etsuro; Arai, Katsutoshi

2007-01-01

408

Karyotypic conservatism in samples of Characidium cf. zebra (Teleostei, Characiformes, Crenuchidae): Physical mapping of ribosomal genes and natural triploidy  

PubMed Central

Basic and molecular cytogenetic analyses were performed in specimens of Characidium cf. zebra from five collection sites located throughout the Tietê, Paranapanema and Paraguay river basins. The diploid number in specimens from all samples was 2n = 50 with a karyotype composed of 32 metacentric and 18 submetacentric chromosomes in both males and females. Constitutive heterochromatin was present at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and pair 23, had additional interstitial heterochromatic blocks on its long arms. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were located on the long arms of pair 23, while the 5S rDNA sites were detected in different chromosomes among the studied samples. One specimen from the Alambari river was a natural triploid and had two extra chromosomes, resulting in 2n = 77. The remarkable karyotypic similarity among the specimens of C. cf. zebra suggests a close evolutionary relationship. On the other hand, the distinct patterns of 5S rDNA distribution may be the result of gene flow constraints during their evolutionary history.

Pansonato-Alves, Jose Carlos; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

2011-01-01

409

Capillostrongyloides morae sp. n. (Nematoda: Capillariidae) from deep-sea fish (Teleostei, Moridae) in the western Mediterranean Sea.  

PubMed

A new capillariid nematode, Capillostrongyloides morae sp. n., is described from specimens collected from the stomach and intestine of the common mora, Mora moro (Risso), and the Mediterranean codling, Lepidion lepidion (Risso) (both Gadiformes, Moridae), off the Mediterranean coasts of Spain. The new species shows similar morphological features as other congeneric species occurring in freshwater and marine fishes, but it differs in the length of the body and spicules, the size of the caudal bursa, and the presence of an elevated anterior vulvar lip. Capillostrongyloides morae sp. n. is the second species within the genus for which the presence of a stylet is reported, and the first one in which this structure along with the distribution of cephalic papillae and oral structures (e.g. lips and lobes) are clearly shown by using scanning electron microscopy. PMID:24684054

González-Solís, David; Carrassón, Maite; Pérez-del-Olmo, Ana

2014-02-01

410

Molecular and cytogenetic analysis of the telomeric (TTAGGG) n repetitive sequences in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of chromosomes in Oreochromis niloticus, as with most fish karyotyped to date, cannot be individually identified owing to their small size. As a first step in establishing a physical map for this important aquaculture species of tilapia we have analyzed the location of the vertebrate telomeric repeat sequence, (TTAGGG)n, in O. niloticus. Southern blot hybridization analysis and a

Joyce S. K. Chew; Claudio Oliveira; Jonathan M. Wright; Melanie J. Dobson

2002-01-01

411

Vanmanenia maculata, a new species of hillstream loach from the Chang-Jiang Basin, South China (Teleostei: Gastromyzontidae).  

PubMed

Vanmanenia maculata, new species, is described from the middle and lower Chang-Jiang basin in Hubei, Hunan, and Jiangxi provinces, South China. This new species, along with V. caldwelli, V. stenosoma, and V. striata, is distinguished from all other Chinese species of the genus by lacking secondary rostral barbels. It is distinct from V. caldwelli and V. striata in anus placement, rostral lobule shape, and body coloration, and from V. stenosoma in having a larger scaleless area on the ventral surface of the body and a shallower caudal-peduncle. Vanmanenia polylepis should be removed from the synonymy of V. pingchowensis and regarded as valid. PMID:24870994

Yi, Wen-Jing; Zhang, E; Shen, Jian-Zhong

2014-01-01

412

Review of the crevalle jacks, Caranx hippos complex (Teleostei: Carangidae), with a description of a new species from West Africa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Caranx hippos species complex comprises three extant species: crevalle jack (Caranx hippos) (Linnaeus, 1766) from both the western and eastern Atlantic oceans; Pacific crevalle jack (Caranx caninus) Gu??nther, 1868 from the eastern Pacific Ocean; and longfin crevalle jack (Caranx fischeri) new species, from the eastern Atlantic, including the Mediterranean Sea and Ascension Island. Adults of all three species are superficially similar with a black blotch on the lower half of the pectoral fin, a black spot on the upper margin of opercle, one or two pairs of enlarged symphyseal canines on the lower jaw, and a similar pattern of breast squamation. Each species has a different pattern of hyperostotic bone development and anal-fin color. The two sympatric eastern Atlantic species also differ from each other in number of dorsal- and anal-fin rays, and in large adults of C. fischeri the lobes of these fins are longer and the body is deeper. Caranx hippos from opposite sides of the Atlantic are virtually indistinguishable externally but differ consistently in the expression of hyperostosis of the first dorsal-fin pterygiophore. The fossil species Caranx carangopsis Steindachner 1859 appears to have been based on composite material of Trachurus sp. and a fourth species of the Caranx hippos complex. Patterns of hyperostotic bone development are compared in the nine (of 15 total) species of Caranx sensu stricto that exhibit hyperostosis.

Smith-Vaniz, W. F.; Carpenter, K. E.

2007-01-01

413

Nested clade and phylogeographic analyses of the chub, Leuciscus cephalus (Teleostei, cyprinidae), in Greece: implications for Balkan Peninsula biogeography.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relationships among Greek populations of the chub, Leuciscus cephalus, were investigated using 600 bp of the cytochrome b gene. The aim of this study was to test the assumption that the main difference in ichthyological composition between both sides of the Balkan Peninsula is directly linked to differences in the dispersion mechanisms used by fish in order to extend their distribution range. Phylogenetic and nested clade analyses clearly showed that populations in Greece are significantly differentiated. Greek populations were found to descend from three lineages in three geographical provinces: Western, Central, and Eastern Greece. The chub reached Western Greece at the beginning of the Pleistocene and Eastern Greece during the mid-Pleistocene. Chub dispersion occurred mainly by river confluence due to sea level lowering and river capture in Western Greece and sea dispersal with low-salinity conditions within the Aegean Sea in Eastern Greece. However, in Central Greece, the original mtDNA lineage has presumably been lost owing to a genetic introgression following a second invasion from the Danube during the final stage of the last glaciation. This study provides new elements for a better understanding of the composition of the contemporary ichthyofauna in Greece and highlights possible evolutionary mechanisms responsible for the high endemism rate in the Western Greek biogeographic province. PMID:10620414

Durand, J D; Templeton, A R; Guinand, B; Imsiridou, A; Bouvet, Y

1999-12-01

414

Evaluation of neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil obtained by different methods and neem powder for the management of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored cowpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neem seed oil obtained by extraction with analytical grade acetone using a Soxhlet apparatus, NSO(S) and that obtained by the traditional kneading method, NSO(K) were compared with the powder equivalent weights (PEW, the neem seed powder capable of yielding the equivalent amounts of the oil used for the treatments) for their relative efficacy in reducing the reproductive potential of the

N. E. S Lale; H. T Abdulrahman

1999-01-01

415

Purification of a lectin from the marine red alga Gracilaria ornata and its effect on the development of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lectin from the marine red alga Gracilaria ornata (Gracilariaceae, Rodophyta) was purified and characterized. The purification procedure consisted of extracting soluble proteins in 0.025 M Tris–HCl buffer, pH 7.5, followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation (70% saturation), ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and affinity chromatography on mucin-Sepharose 4B. The purified G. ornata lectin (GOL) showed a single protein band with

Yáskara Fabíola Monteiro Marques Leite; Luana Maria Castelo Melo Silva; Rodrigo César das Neves Amorim; Eder Almeida Freire; Daniel Macedo de Melo Jorge; Thalles Barbosa Grangeiro; Norma Maria Barros Benevides

2005-01-01

416

Species profiles: Life history and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. [Scomberomorus cavalla; Scomberomorus maculatus  

SciTech Connect

This Species Profile on king and Spanish mackerel summarizes the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, fishery descriptions, ecological role, and environmental requirements of these coastal pelagic fish to assist environmental impact assessment. King and Spanish mackerel support major commercial and sport fisheries in south Florida. In 1974 to 1983, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic commercial landings of king mackerel declined from 10.4 to 4.3 million lb.; Spanish mackerel have fluctuated between 4.9 to 17.4 million lb. Both inhabit coastal waters, but Spanish mackerel are generally found closer to beaches and in outer estuarine waters. Both species feed principally on estuarine-dependent species. They are highly migratory, exhibiting seasonal migrations to winter feeding grounds off south Florida and summer spawning/feeding grounds in the northern Gulf of Mexico and off the Atlantic coast of the Southeastern US. Spawning occurs from March/April through September/October between the middle and Outer Continental Shelf (35 to 183 mi) for king mackerel and the inner shelf (12 to 34 mi) for Spanish mackerel. King mackerel reach sexual maturity in their 3rd and 4th years and Spanish, between their 2nd and 3rd. Female king mackerel live longer and grow larger and faster than males. Spanish mackerel live to 8 years; females also grow faster than males. King and Spanish mackerel feed principally on schooling fishes. Larvae and juveniles of both species are prey to little tunny and dolphin; adults are prey for sharks and bottlenose dolphin. Temperature and salinity are important factors regulating mackerel distribution.

Godcharles, M.F.; Murphy, M.D.

1986-06-01

417

Longitudinal monitoring of plasma and fecal androgens in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) and the spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus).  

PubMed

Improved knowledge of the breeding biology of carnivorous marsupials is warranted given their heightened conservation status. Past studies have focused on smaller dasyurids and little is known of male reproductive physiology in the larger species. This study aimed to characterize the pattern of androgen concentrations in male devils and spotted-tailed quolls and to evaluate fecal steroid measurement as a practical, alternative technique for monitoring reproductive activity. Blood and fecal samples were collected from captive adult devils (n=6) and adult quolls (n=8). Plasma and fecal androgen concentrations were significantly positively correlated. In both species there was a significant effect of season on androgen concentrations; and the annual increase preceded female estrus activity. For devils, fecal androgens were elevated during the austral summer: peak concentrations were observed in January-February, and copulation occurred from late February-late May. In quolls, fecal androgen concentrations were highest during austral autumn/winter: the annual increase began in April and copulation occurred from mid-May to early October. The lengthy period of elevated plasma and fecal androgens and protracted annual period of mating activity implies a period of extended spermatogenesis in both species. PMID:18602773

Hesterman, H; Jones, S M

2009-06-01

418

Hair Cell Heterogeneity in the Goldfish Saccule.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A set of cytological studies performed in the utricle and saccule of Astronotus ocellatus (Teleostei, Percomorphi, Cichlidae) identified two basic types of hair cells and others with some intermediate characteristics. This paper reports on applying the sa...

W. M. Saidel P. J. Lanford H. Y. Yan A. N. Popper