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Sample records for galaxy group implication

  1. Galaxy groups

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Tully, R.

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{sup 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  2. Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, R. Brent

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times {{10}12}{{M}⊙ } are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of {{Ω}matter}˜ 0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  3. INTERGALACTIC GAS IN GROUPS OF GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR DWARF SPHEROIDAL FORMATION AND THE MISSING BARYONS PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect

    Freeland, E.; Wilcots, E. E-mail: ewilcots@astro.wisc.edu

    2011-09-10

    Radio galaxies with bent jets are predominantly located in groups and clusters of galaxies. We use bent-double radio sources, under the assumption that their jets are bent by ram pressure, to probe intragroup medium (IGM) gas densities in galaxy groups. This method provides a direct measurement of the intergalactic gas density and allows us to probe intergalactic gas at large radii and in systems whose IGM is too cool to be detected by the current generation of X-ray telescopes. We find gas with densities of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -4} cm{sup -3} at group radii from 15 to 700 kpc. A rough estimate of the total baryonic mass in intergalactic gas is consistent with the missing baryons being located in the IGM of galaxy groups. The neutral gas will be easily stripped from dwarf galaxies with total masses of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} M{sub sun} in the groups studied here. Indications are that intragroup gas densities in less-massive systems like the Local Group should be high enough to strip gas from dwarfs like Leo T and, in combination with tides, produce dwarf spheroidals.

  4. Cosmological implications of ROSAT observations of groups and clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, Laurence P.; Jones, Christine; Forman, William

    1995-01-01

    We have combined ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) and optical observations of a sample of groups and clusters of galaxies to determine the fundamental parameters of these systems (e.g., the dark matter distribution, gas mass fraction, baryon mass fraction, mass-to-light ratio, and the ratio of total-to-luminous mass). Imaging X-ray spectroscopy of groups and clusters show that the gas is essentially isothermal beyond the central region, indicating that the total mass density (mostly dark matter) scales as rho(sub dark) varies as 1/r squared. The density profile of the hot X-ray emitting gas is fairly flat in groups with rho(sub gas) varies as 1/r and becomes progressively steeper in hotter richer systems, with rho(sub gas) varies as 1/r squared in the richest clusters. These results show, that in general, the hot X-ray-emitting gas is the most extended mass component in groups and clusters, the galaxies are the most centrally concentrated component, and the dark matter is intermediate between the two. The flatter density rofile of the hot gas compared to the dark matter produces a gas mass fraction that increases with radius within each object. There is also a clear trend of increasing gas mass fraction (from 2% to 30%) between elliptical galaxies and rich clusters due to the greater detectable extent of the X-ray emission in richer systems. For the few systems in which the X-ray emission can be traced to the virial radius (where the overdensity delta is approximately equal 200), the gas mass fraction (essentially the baryon mass fraction) approaches a roughly constant value of 30%, suggesting that this is the true primordial value. Based on standard big bang nucleosynthesis, the large baryon mass fraction implies that Omega = 0.1 - 0.2. The antibiased gas distribution suggests that feedback from galaxy formation and hydrodynamics play important roles in the formation of structure on the scale of galaxies to rich clusters. All the groups and

  5. Diffuse X-ray emission from the NGC 2300 group of galaxies - Implications for dark matter and galaxy evolution in small groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulchaey, John S.; Davis, David S.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Burstein, David

    1993-01-01

    The discovery of diffuse X-ray emission from the NGC 2300 group of galaxies using the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter is reported. The gas distributions is roughly symmetric and extends to a radius of at least 0.2/h(50) Mpc. A Raymond-Smith hot plasma model provides an excellent fit the X-ray spectrum with a best-fit value temperature of 0.9 + -/15 or - 0.14 keV and abundance 0.06 + 0/.12 or - 0.05 solar. The assumption of gravitational confinement leads to a total mass of the group of 3.0 + 0.4 or - 0.5 x 10 exp 13 solar. Baryons can reasonably account for 4 percent of this mass, and errors could push this number not higher than 10-15 percent. This is one of the strongest pieces of evidence that dark matter dominates small groups such as this one. The intragroup medium in this system has the lowest metal abundance yet found in diffuse gas in a group or cluster.

  6. Observational properties of compact groups of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickson, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Compact groups are small, relatively isolated, systems of galaxies with projected separations comparable to the diameters of the galaxies themselves. Two well-known examples are Stephan's Quintet (Stephan, 1877) and Seyfert's Sextet (Seyfert 1948a,b). In groups such as these, the apparent space density of galaxies approaches 10(exp 6) Mpc(sub -3), denser even than the cores of rich clusters. The apparent unlikeliness of the chance occurrence of such tight groupings lead Ambartsumyan (1958, 1975) to conclude that compact groups must be physically dense systems. This view is supported by clear signs of galaxy interactions that are seen in many groups. Spectroscopic observations reveal that typical relative velocities of galaxies in the groups are comparable to their internal stellar velocities. This should be conducive to strong gravitational interactions - more so than in rich clusters, where galaxy velocities are typically much higher. This suggests that compact groups could be excellent laboratories in which to study galaxy interactions and their effects. Compact groups often contain one or more galaxies whose redshift differs greatly from those of the other group members. If these galaxies are at the same distance as the other members, either entire galaxies are being ejected at high velocities from these groups, or some new physical phenomena must be occurring. If their redshifts are cosmological, we must explain why so many discordant galaxies are found in compact groups. In recent years much progress has been made in addressing these questions. Here, the author discusses the current observational data on compact groups and their implications.

  7. Isolated galaxies, pairs, and groups of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuneva, I.; Kalinkov, M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors searched for isolated galaxies, pairs and groups of galaxies in the CfA survey (Huchra et al. 1983). It was assumed that the distances to galaxies are given by R = V/H sub o, where H sub o = 100 km s(exp -1) Mpc(exp -1) and R greater than 6 Mpc. The searching procedure is close to those, applied to find superclusters of galaxies (Kalinkov and Kuneva 1985, 1986). A sphere with fixed radius r (asterisk) is described around each galaxy. The mean spatial density in the sphere is m. Let G (sup 1) be any galaxy and G (sup 2) be its nearest neighbor at a distance R sub 2. If R sub 2 exceeds the 95 percent quintile in the distribution of the distances of the second neighbors, then G (sup 1) is an isolated galaxy. Let the midpoint of G (sup 1) and G (sup 2) be O sub 2 and r sub 2=R sub 2/2. For the volume V sub 2, defined with the radius r sub 2, the density D sub 2 less than k mu, the galaxy G (sup 2) is a single one and the procedure for searching for pairs and groups, beginning with this object is over and we have to pass to another object. Here the authors present the groups - isolated and nonisolated - with n greater than 3, found in the CfA survey in the Northern galactic hemisphere. The parameters used are k = 10 and r (asterisk) = 5 Mpc. Table 1 contains: (1) the group number, (2) the galaxy, nearest to the multiplet center, (3) multiplicity n, (4) the brightest galaxy if it is not listed in (2); (5) and (6) are R.A. and Dec. (1950), (7) - mean distance D in Mpc. Further there are the mean density rho (8) of the multiplet (galaxies Mpc (exp -3), (9) the density rho (asterisk) for r (asterisk) = 5 Mpc and (10) the density rho sub g for the group with its nearest neighbor. The parenthesized digits for densities in the last three columns are powers of ten.

  8. The Assembly of Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponman, Trevor

    2001-09-01

    The most interesting phase in the evolution of a galaxy group is the virialisation stage, at which the infall velocities of the galaxies are randomised and the interstellar gas compressed and heated. The violently fluctuating environment experienced by galaxies during this phase may have long-lasting effects on their properties. Such virialising groups appear to be quite rare, since the phase is transient, but we have identified three strong candidates from an extensive study of groups with ROSAT. We propose to obtain high quality spectral images of these with ACIS in order to study the way in which the intergalactic medium is heated, and the effects of strong interactions on galaxy properties.

  9. Surface-brightness profiles of dwarf galaxies in the NGC 5044 Group: Implications for the luminosity-shape and scalelength-shape relationships as distance indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. K.; Currie, M. J.

    2001-04-01

    In a recent paper, which presents CCD photometry for fifteen dwarf and intermediate early-type galaxies in the NGC 5044 Group, it has been claimed that ``a few relatively bright galaxies with ``convex'' profiles destroy the known relation between total magnitude and the ``shape'' parameter... thus ruling out the use of this relation as a distance indicator for individual galaxies''. In the same paper, further reasons were cited supposedly ``limiting also its use as a distance indicator for groups of galaxies''. We demonstrate that none of the three relatively bright galaxies cited as possessing ``convex'' profiles actually has a convex profile, and that one of these objects should be excluded because it is a late-type galaxy. Of the two remaining objects, one has an anomalous profile shape whilst the other is brighter than one might expect from its colour alone. However, we show that all of the other issues raised have already been accounted for by Young & Currie (\\cite{you94}, \\cite{you95} & \\cite{you98}). The main implications of the new observations are: (1) that the case of one galaxy with an anomalous profile shape, N42, highlights the need for some a priori criteria to be defined in order to establish objectively which objects are not suitable for distance determinations; and (2) on the basis of another unusual galaxy, N50, colour has now been shown to be a poorer discriminant between objects of the same profile shape and scalelength (but of different central surface brightness) than previously thought. How significant this latter problem is depends on how common N50-like objects are. This consideration reinforces the case for always using the more general scalelength-shape relationship of Young & Currie (\\cite{you95}) in preference to the luminosity-shape one of Young & Currie (\\cite{you94}). Reassuringly, through a re-analysis of the same CCD photometry, we find that NGC 5044 Group galaxies observe a tight scalelength-shape relationship. This finding

  10. Tidal Dwarf Galaxies In Gas-rich Interacting Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigenthaler, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy-galaxy interactions in gas-rich galaxy groups or pairs can form tidal bridges and tails. These tidal arms can contain kinematically decoupled structures with active star formation in the same mass range as dwarf galaxies, so-called tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs). They differ from ordinary dwarf galaxies by their lack of dark matter and higher metallicity content. Compact groups of galaxies are an ideal environment to study the origin and evolution of TDGs since the high spatial volume density of member galaxies allows for frequent and efficient interactions between galaxies forming tidal tails. Hunsberger et al. (1996) identified 47 TDG candidates in Hickson compact groups (HCGs) and estimated that more than 50% of all dwarf galaxies in compact groups are former TDGs. Statistical considerations based on observations of interacting galaxies illustrate that a significant fraction of today's dwarf galaxies could have had a tidal origin. In their early evolution, TDGs can easily be distinguished from classical dwarf galaxies as they are still embedded in large tidal structures and show ongoing star formation, identified via strong Hα emission in these aggregates. Simulations of interacting galaxies, and of TDGs in particular, have shown that TDGs can survive their first starburst event and turn into long-lived dwarf sized objects. Preliminary results from deep Hα imaging with the SOAR telescope to detect new TDGs in a sample of 10 Hickson compact groups will be presented.

  11. The Nearest Group of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bergh, Sidney

    1999-06-01

    The small Antlia-Sextans clustering of galaxies is located at a distance of only 1.36 Mpc from the Sun and 1.72 Mpc from the adopted barycenter of the Local Group. The latter value is significantly greater than the radius of the zero-velocity surface of the Local Group that, for an assumed age of 14 Gyr, has R0=1.18+/-0.15 Mpc. This, together with the observation that the members of the Ant-Sex group have a mean redshift of 114+/-12 km s-1 relative to the centroid of the Local Group, suggests that the Antlia-Sextans group is not bound to our Local Group and that it is expanding with the Hubble flow. If this conclusion is correct, then Antlia-Sextans may be the nearest external clustering of galaxies. The total galactic population of the Ant-Sex group is ~1/5 that of the Local Group. However, the integrated luminosity of Ant-Sex is 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the Local Group.

  12. Comparing galaxy populations in compact and loose groups of galaxies. II. Brightest group galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Héctor J.; Coenda, Valeria; Muriel, Hernán

    2013-09-01

    Aims: The properties of the brightest galaxies (BCGs) are studied in both compact and loose groups of galaxies in order to better understand the physical mechanisms influencing galaxy evolution in different environments. Methods: Samples of BCGs are selected in compact and loose groups of galaxies previously identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The following physical properties of the BCGs in compact groups and in sub-samples of loose groups are compared, defined by their mass and total luminosity: absolute magnitude, colour, size, surface brightness, stellar mass, concentration and morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo. The fraction of BCGs classified as red and/or early-type as a function of galaxy luminosity is studied. The fraction of the group's total luminosity contained in the BCG and the difference in luminosity between the BCG and the second-ranked galaxy, are also analysed. Results: Some properties of BCGs in compact and loose groups are comparable. However, BCGs in compact groups are systematically more concentrated and have larger surface brightness than their counterparts in both, high- and low-mass loose groups. The fractions of red and early-type BCGs in compact groups are consistent with those of high-mass loose groups. Comparing BCGs in sub-samples of compact and loose groups selected for their similar luminosities, BCGs in compact groups are found to be, on average, brighter, more massive, larger, redder and more frequently classified as elliptical. In compact groups, the BCG contains a larger fraction of the system's total luminosity and differs more in absolute magnitude from the second-ranked galaxy. Using a simple model, which dry-merges the BCG in loose groups with a random choice among the 2nd, 3rd and 4th-ranked galaxies in the group, and allowing for some star loss in the process, we show that the absolute magnitude distributions of BCGs in compact and loose groups of similar luminosities can be made more alike. Conclusions

  13. ROSAT observations of compact groups of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pildis, Rachel A.; Bregman, Joel N.; Evrard, August E.

    1995-01-01

    We have systematically analyzed a sample of 13 new and archival ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) observations of compact groups of galaxies: 12 Hickson compact groups plus the NCG 2300 group. We find that approximately two-thirds of the groups have extended X-ray emission and, in four of these, the emission is resolved into diffuse emission from gas at a temperature of kT approximately 1 keV in the group potential. All but one of the groups with extended emission have a spiral fraction of less than 50%. The baryon fraction of groups with diffuse emission is 5%-19%, similar to the values in clusters of galaxies. However, with a single exception (HCG 62), the gas-to-stellar mass ratio in our groups has a median value near 5%, somewhat greater than the values for individual early-type galaxies and two orders of magnitude than in clusters of galaxies. The X-ray luminosities of individual group galaxies are comparable to those of similar field galaxies, although the L(sub X)-L(sub B) relation for early-type galaxies may be flatter in compact groups than in the field.

  14. The dynamics of isolated Local Group galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Bullock, James S.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Cohen, Judith G.

    2014-03-01

    We measured velocities of 862 individual red giant stars in seven isolated dwarf galaxies in the Local Group: NGC 6822, IC 1613, VV 124 (UGC 4879), the Pegasus dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 216), Leo A, Cetus and Aquarius (DDO 210). We also computed velocity dispersions, taking into account the measurement uncertainties on individual stars. None of the isolated galaxies is denser than the densest Local Group satellite galaxy. Furthermore, the isolated dwarf galaxies have no obvious distinction in the velocity dispersion-half-light radius plane from the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way and M31. The similarity of the isolated and satellite galaxies' dynamics and structural parameters imposes limitations on environmental solutions to the `too big to fail' problem, wherein there are fewer dense dwarf satellite galaxies than would be expected from cold dark matter simulations. This data set also has many other applications for dwarf galaxy evolution, including the transformation of dwarf irregular into dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We intend to explore these issues in future work.

  15. Dynamical theory of dense groups of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mamon, Gary A.

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that galaxies associate in groups and clusters. Perhaps 40% of all galaxies are found in groups of 4 to 20 galaxies (e.g., Tully 1987). Although most groups appear to be so loose that the galaxy interactions within them ought to be insignificant, the apparently densest groups, known as compact groups appear so dense when seen in projection onto the plane of the sky that their members often overlap. These groups thus appear as dense as the cores of rich clusters. The most popular catalog of compact groups, compiled by Hickson (1982), includes isolation among its selection critera. Therefore, in comparison with the cores of rich clusters, Hickson's compact groups (HCGs) appear to be the densest isolated regions in the Universe (in galaxies per unit volume), and thus provide in principle a clean laboratory for studying the competition of very strong gravitational interactions. The $64,000 question here is then: Are compact groups really bound systems as dense as they appear? If dense groups indeed exist, then one expects that each of the dynamical processes leading to the interaction of their member galaxies should be greatly enhanced. This leads us to the questions: How stable are dense groups? How do they form? And the related question, fascinating to any theorist: What dynamical processes predominate in dense groups of galaxies? If HCGs are not bound dense systems, but instead 1D change alignments (Mamon 1986, 1987; Walke & Mamon 1989) or 3D transient cores (Rose 1979) within larger looser systems of galaxies, then the relevant question is: How frequent are chance configurations within loose groups? Here, the author answers these last four questions after comparing in some detail the methods used and the results obtained in the different studies of dense groups.

  16. Local Group Galaxy Emission-line Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaha, Cindy; Baildon, Taylor; Mehta, Shail; Garcia, Edgar; Massey, Philip; Hodge, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of the Local Group Galaxy Emission-line Survey of Hα emission regions in M31, M33 and seven dwarf galaxies in (NGC6822, IC10, WLM, Sextans A and B, Phoenix and Pegasus). Using data from the Local Group Galaxy Survey (LGGS - see Massey et al, 2006), we used continuum-subtracted Ha emission line images to define emission regions with a faint flux limit of 10 -17 ergs-sec-1-cm-2above the background. We have obtained photometric measurements for roughly 7450 Hα emission regions in M31, M33 and five of the seven dwarf galaxies (no regions for Phoenix or Pegasus). Using these regions, with boundaries defined by Hα-emission flux limits, we also measured fluxes for the continuum-subtracted [OIII] and [SII] images and constructed a catalog of Hα fluxes, region sizes and [OIII]/ Hα and [SII]/ Hα line ratios. The HII region luminosity functions and size distributions for the spiral galaxies M31 and M33 are compared with those of the dwarf galaxies NGC 6822 and IC10. For M31 and M33, the average [SII]/ Hα and [OIII]/ Hα line ratios, plotted as a function of galactocentric radius, display a linear trend with shallow slopes consistent with other studies of metallicity gradients in these galaxies. The galaxy-wide averages of [SII]/ Hα line ratios correlate with the masses of the dwarf galaxies following the previously established dwarf galaxy mass-metallicity relationship. The slope of the luminosity functions for the dwarf galaxies varies with galaxy mass. The Carleton Catalog of this Local Group Emission-line Survey will be made available on-line.

  17. Galaxies in extreme environments: Isolated galaxies versus compact groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbala, Adriana

    2009-06-01

    This Dissertation comprises two distinct studies of galaxies in dramatically different environments: extreme isolation versus compact groups. We emphasize empirically how "nature" (i.e. internal, secular processes) plays the dominant role in defining the evolution of isolated galaxies and how "nurture" dictates the fate of galaxies in very crowded environments. Two chapters report on a detailed photometric study of a well-defined sample of N ~100 isolated Sb-Sc spiral galaxies. Data source is Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using i-band images we perform three kinds of measures: (a) bulge/disk/bar decomposition, (b) CAS parametrization (Concentration, Asymmetry, Clumpiness), and (c) Fourier decomposition/analysis of spiral arms and bar properties including dynamical measures of the torque. Having quantified a large set of properties we look for: (i) the interplay between different components of the same galaxy, (ii) trends along the morphological sequence Sb-Sbc-Sc, and (iii) statistical differences between our "isolated" sample and samples of galaxies of similar morphology constructed without regard for isolation. We find that the majority of isolated late-type disk galaxies host pseudobulges rather than classical bulges. The pseudobulges probably form through internal secular processes and bars may play an important role. A clear separation is noted between Sb and Sbc/Sc in various measures, i.e. the former are redder, brighter, have larger disks and bars, more luminous bulges, are more concentrated, more symmetric and dumpier than the latter. Isolated galaxies host larger bars than galaxies in samples defined without isolation constraints. Longer bars are not necessarily stronger, but show a higher contrast in Fourier analysis. Another chapter is a multiwavelength study of Seyfert's Sextet, the highest density galaxy aggregate in the local Universe. Four of its five galaxies are interpreted as remnant bulges of accreted spirals and are now embedded in a luminous halo

  18. Stellar kinematics and structural properties of virgo cluster dwarf early-type galaxies from the SMAKCED project. I. Kinematically decoupled cores and implications for infallen groups in clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Den Brok, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ryś, A.; Janz, J.; Lisker, T.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Paudel, S.

    2014-03-10

    We present evidence for kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs) in two dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster, VCC 1183 and VCC 1453, studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. These KDCs have radii of 1.''8 (0.14 kpc) and 4.''2 (0.33 kpc), respectively. Each of these KDCs is distinct from the main body of its host galaxy in two ways: (1) inverted sense of rotation and (2) younger (and possibly more metal-rich) stellar population. The observed stellar population differences are probably associated with the KDC, although we cannot rule out the possibility of intrinsic radial gradients in the host galaxy. We describe a statistical analysis method to detect, quantify the significance of, and characterize KDCs in long-slit rotation curve data. We apply this method to the two dE galaxies presented in this paper and to five other dEs for which KDCs have been reported in the literature. Among these seven dEs, there are four significant KDC detections, two marginal KDC detections, and one dE with an unusual central kinematic anomaly that may be an asymmetric KDC. The frequency of occurrence of KDCs and their properties provide important constraints on the formation history of their host galaxies. We discuss different formation scenarios for these KDCs in cluster environments and find that dwarf-dwarf wet mergers or gas accretion can explain the properties of these KDCs. Both of these mechanisms require that the progenitor had a close companion with a low relative velocity. This suggests that KDCs were formed in galaxy pairs residing in a poor group environment or in isolation whose subsequent infall into the cluster quenched star formation.

  19. Stellar Kinematics and Structural Properties of Virgo Cluster Dwarf Early-type Galaxies from the SMAKCED Project. I. Kinematically Decoupled Cores and Implications for Infallen Groups in Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; van de Ven, G.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; den Brok, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Paudel, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Ryś, A.; Salo, H.

    2014-03-01

    We present evidence for kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs) in two dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster, VCC 1183 and VCC 1453, studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. These KDCs have radii of 1.''8 (0.14 kpc) and 4.''2 (0.33 kpc), respectively. Each of these KDCs is distinct from the main body of its host galaxy in two ways: (1) inverted sense of rotation and (2) younger (and possibly more metal-rich) stellar population. The observed stellar population differences are probably associated with the KDC, although we cannot rule out the possibility of intrinsic radial gradients in the host galaxy. We describe a statistical analysis method to detect, quantify the significance of, and characterize KDCs in long-slit rotation curve data. We apply this method to the two dE galaxies presented in this paper and to five other dEs for which KDCs have been reported in the literature. Among these seven dEs, there are four significant KDC detections, two marginal KDC detections, and one dE with an unusual central kinematic anomaly that may be an asymmetric KDC. The frequency of occurrence of KDCs and their properties provide important constraints on the formation history of their host galaxies. We discuss different formation scenarios for these KDCs in cluster environments and find that dwarf-dwarf wet mergers or gas accretion can explain the properties of these KDCs. Both of these mechanisms require that the progenitor had a close companion with a low relative velocity. This suggests that KDCs were formed in galaxy pairs residing in a poor group environment or in isolation whose subsequent infall into the cluster quenched star formation.

  20. The properties of fossil groups of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigenthaler, P.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2009-12-01

    Numerical simulations as well as optical and X-ray observations over the last few years have shown that poor groups of galaxies can evolve to what is called a fossil group. Dynamical friction as the driving process leads to the coalescence of individual galaxies in ordinary poor groups leaving behind nothing more than a central, massive elliptical galaxy supposed to contain the merger history of the whole group. Due to merging timescales for less-massive galaxies and gas cooling timescales of the X-ray intragroup medium exceeding a Hubble time, a surrounding faint-galaxy population having survived this galactic cannibalism as well as an extended X-ray halo similar to that found in ordinary groups, is expected. Recent studies suggest that fossil groups are very abundant and could be the progenitors of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the centers of rich galaxy clusters. However, only a few objects are known to the literature. This article aims to summarize the results of observational fossil group research over the last few years and presents ongoing work by the authors. Complementary to previous research, the SDSS and RASS surveys have been cross-correlated to identify new fossil structures yielding 34 newly detected fossil group candidates. Observations with ISIS at the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope on La Palma have been carried out to study the stellar populations of the central ellipticals of 6 fossil groups. In addition multi-object spectroscopy with VLTs VIMOS has been performed to study the shape of the OLF of one fossil system.

  1. Neutral hydrogen in compact groups of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.A.; Rood, H.J.

    1987-02-01

    Integrated H I profiles were detected for 34 of 51 Hickson compact groups (HCGs) of galaxies, and sensitive upper limits to the H I flux density were measured for the other 17. About 60 percent of the galaxies within compact groups are spirals, and a significant tendency exists for the fraction of elliptical galaxies to increase with group surface brightness. The amount of dark matter within the compact group region is negligibly small. An HCG on average contains half as much neutral hydrogen as a loose group with a similar spectrum of galaxy luminosities and morphological types, implying that compact groups are independent dynamical entities and not transient or projected configurations of loose groups. The observed fraction of galaxies which are luminous enough to be possible merger products of compact groups is small compared with the fraction required by the theory of dynamical friction. A clear discrepancy thus exists between solid empirical evidence and a straightforward prediction of Newtonian dynamical theory in a setting which does not permit a dark matter explanation. 44 references.

  2. Multiple Core Galaxies: Implications for M31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. F.; Miller, R. H.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    It is generally perceived that two cores cannot survive very long within the nuclear regions of a galaxy. The recent HST discovery of a double nucleus in M31 brings this question into prominence. Physical conditions in the nuclear regions of a typical galaxy help a second core survive so it can orbit for a long time, possibly for thousands of orbits. Given the nearly uniform mass density in a core, tidal forces within a core radius are compressive in all directions and help the core survive the buffeting it takes as it orbits near the center of the galaxy. We use numerical experiments to illustrate these physical principles. Modifications to the experimental method allow the full power of the experiments to be concentrated on the nuclear regions. Spatial resolution of about 0.2 parsec comfortably resolves detail within the 1.4 parsec core radius of the second, but brighter, core (P1) in M31. The same physical principles apply in other astronomical situations, such as dumbbell galaxies, galaxies orbiting near the center of a galaxy cluster, and subclustering in galaxy clusters. The experiments also illustrate that galaxy encounters and merging are quite sensitive to external tidal forces, such as those produced by the gravitational potential in a group or cluster of galaxies.

  3. Neutral Hydrogen in Local Group Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grcevich, Jana

    The gas content of the faintest and lowest mass dwarf galaxies provide means to study the evolution of these unique objects. The evolutionary histories of low mass dwarf galaxies are interesting in their own right, but may also provide insight into fundamental cosmological problems. These include the nature of dark matter, the disagreement between the number of observed Local Group dwarf galaxies and that predicted by lambda cold dark matter models, and the discrepancy between the observed census of baryonic matter in the Milky Way's environment and theoretical predictions. This thesis explores these questions by studying the neutral hydrogen (HI) component of dwarf galaxies. First, limits on the HI mass of the ultra-faint dwarfs are presented, and the HI content of all Local Group dwarf galaxies is examined from an environmental standpoint. We find that those Local Group dwarfs within 270 kpc of a massive host galaxy are deficient in HI as compared to those at larger galactocentric distances. Ram-pressure arguments are invoked, which suggest halo densities greater than 2-3 x 10-4 cm-3 out to distances of at least 70 kpc, values which are consistent with theoretical models and suggest the halo may harbor a large fraction of the host galaxy's baryons. We also find that accounting for the incompleteness of the dwarf galaxy count, known dwarf galaxies whose gas has been removed could have provided at most 2.1 x 108 M⊙ of HI gas to the Milky Way. Second, we examine the possibility of discovering unknown gas-rich ultra-faint galaxies in the Local Group using HI. The GALFA-HI Survey catalog is searched for compact, isolated HI clouds which are most similar to the expected HI characteristics of low mass dwarf galaxies. Fifty-one Local Group dwarf galaxy candidates are identified through column density, brightness temperature, and kinematic selection criteria, and their properties are explored. Third, we present hydrodynamic simulations of dwarf galaxies experiencing a

  4. AGN feedback in galaxy clusters and groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardcastle, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Mechanical feedback via Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) jets in the centres of galaxy groups and clusters is a crucial ingredient in current models of galaxy formation and cluster evolution. Jet feedback is believed to regulate gas cooling and thus star formation in the most massive galaxies, but a robust physical understanding of this feedback mode is currently lacking. Athena will provide (1) the first kinematic measurements on relevant spatial scales of the hot gas in galaxy, group and cluster haloes as it absorbs the impact of AGN jets, and (2) vastly improved ability to map thermodynamic conditions on scales well-matched to the jets, lobes and gas disturbances produced by them. I will present new predictions of Athena's ability to measure the energetic impact of powerful jets based on our most recent set of numerical models.

  5. Stellar halos around Local Group galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnachie, Alan W.

    2016-08-01

    The Local Group is now home to 102 known galaxies and candidates, with many new faint galaxies continuing to be discovered. The total stellar mass range spanned by this population covers a factor of close to a billion, from the faintest systems with stellar masses of order a few thousand to the Milky Way and Andromeda, with stellar masses of order 1011 M ⊙. Here, I discuss the evidence for stellar halos surrounding Local Group galaxies spanning from dwarf scales (with the case of the Andromeda II dwarf spheroidal), though to intermediate mass systems (M33) and finishing with M31. Evidence of extended stellar populations and merging is seen across the luminosity function, indicating that the processes that lead to halo formation are common at all mass scales.

  6. Are groups of galaxies virialized systems?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaferio, Antonaldo; Ramella, Massimo; Geller, Margaret J.; Ferrari, Attilio

    1993-01-01

    Groups are systems of galaxies with crossing times t(cr) much smaller than the Hubble time. Most of them have t(cr) less than 0.1/H0. The usual interpretation is that they are in virial equilibrium. We compare the data of the group catalog selected from the CfA redshift survey extension with different N-body models. We show that the distributions of kinematic and dynamical quantities of the groups in the CfA catalog can be reproduced by a single collapsing group observed along different line of sights. This result shows that (1) projection effects dominate the statistics of these systems, and (2) observed groups of galaxies are probably still in the collapse phase.

  7. Choirs H I galaxy groups: The metallicity of dwarf galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Sarah M.; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Meurer, Gerhardt; Bekki, Kenji; Dopita, Michael A.; Nicholls, David C.; Kilborn, Virginia

    2014-02-10

    We present a recalibration of the luminosity-metallicity relation for gas-rich, star-forming dwarfs to magnitudes as faint as M{sub R} ∼ –13. We use the Dopita et al. metallicity calibrations to calibrate the relation for all the data in this analysis. In metallicity-luminosity space, we find two subpopulations within a sample of high-confidence Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR8 star-forming galaxies: 52% are metal-rich giants and 48% are metal-medium galaxies. Metal-rich dwarfs classified as tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) candidates in the literature are typically of metallicity 12 + log(O/H) = 8.70 ± 0.05, while SDSS dwarfs fainter than M{sub R} = –16 have a mean metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.28 ± 0.10, regardless of their luminosity, indicating that there is an approximate floor to the metallicity of low-luminosity galaxies. Our hydrodynamical simulations predict that TDGs should have metallicities elevated above the normal luminosity-metallicity relation. Metallicity can therefore be a useful diagnostic for identifying TDG candidate populations in the absence of tidal tails. At magnitudes brighter than M{sub R} ∼ –16, our sample of 53 star-forming galaxies in 9 H I gas-rich groups is consistent with the normal relation defined by the SDSS sample. At fainter magnitudes, there is an increase in dispersion of the metallicity of our sample, suggestive of a wide range of H I content and environment. In our sample, we identify three (16% of dwarfs) strong TDG candidates (12 + log(O/H) > 8.6) and four (21%) very metal-poor dwarfs (12 + log(O/H) < 8.0), which are likely gas-rich dwarfs with recently ignited star formation.

  8. The circular velocity function of group galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, Louis E.; Williams, Rik J.; Benson, Andrew J.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Mulchaey, John S.

    2014-09-20

    A robust prediction of ΛCDM cosmology is the halo circular velocity function (CVF), a dynamical cousin of the halo mass function. The correspondence between theoretical and observed CVFs is uncertain, however: cluster galaxies are reported to exhibit a power-law CVF consistent with N-body simulations, but that of the field is distinctly Schechter-like, flattened compared to ΛCDM expectations at circular velocities v {sub c} ≲ 200 km s{sup –1}. Groups offer a powerful probe of the role environment plays in this discrepancy as they bridge the field and clusters. Here, we construct the CVF for a large, mass- and multiplicity-complete sample of group galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using independent photometric v {sub c} estimators, we find no transition from field to ΛCDM-shaped CVF above v {sub c} = 50 km s{sup –1} as a function of group halo mass. All groups with 12.4 ≲ log M {sub halo}/M {sub ☉} ≲ 15.1 (Local Group analogs to rich clusters) display similar Schechter-like CVFs marginally suppressed at low v {sub c} compared to that of the field. Conversely, some agreement with N-body results emerges for samples saturated with late-type galaxies, with isolated late-types displaying a CVF similar in shape to ΛCDM predictions. We conclude that the flattening of the low-v {sub c} slope in groups is due to their depressed late-type fractions—environment affecting the CVF only to the extent that it correlates with this quantity—and that previous cluster analyses may suffer from interloper contamination. These results serve as useful benchmarks for cosmological simulations of galaxy formation.

  9. Fossil groups of galaxies: Are they groups? Are they fossils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupke, Renato de Alencar; Miller, Eric; de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes; Sodre, Laerte; Rykoff, Eli; de Oliveira, Raimundo Lopes; Proctor, Rob

    2010-11-01

    Fossil groups present a puzzle to current theories of structure formation. Despite the low number of bright galaxies, their high velocity dispersions and high TX indicate cluster-like potential wells. Measured concentration parameters seem very high indicating early formation epochs in contradiction with the observed lack of large and well defined cooling cores. There are very few fossil groups with good quality X-ray data and their idiosyncrasies may enhance these apparent contradictions. The standard explanation for their formation suggests that bright galaxies within half the virial radii of these systems were wiped out by cannibalism forming the central galaxy. Since dry mergers, typically invoked to explain the formation of the central galaxies, are not expected to change the IGM energetics significantly, thus not preventing the formation of cooling cores, we investigate the scenario where recent gaseous (wet) mergers formed the central galaxy injecting energy and changing the chemistry of the IGM in fossil groups. We show a test for this scenario using fossil groups with enough X-ray flux in the Chandra X-ray Observatory archive by looking at individual metal abundance ratio distributions near the core. Secondary SN II powered winds would tend to erase the dominance of SN IA ejecta in the core of these systems and would help to erase previously existing cold cores. Strong SN II-powered galactic winds resulting from galaxy merging would be trapped by their deep potential wells reducing the central enhancement of SN Ia/SN II iron mass fraction ratio. The results indicate that there is a decrement in the ratio of SN Ia to SN II iron mass fraction in the central regions of the systems analyzed, varying from 99±1% in the outer regions to 85±2% within the cooling radius (Figure 1) and would inject enough energy into the IGM preventing central gas cooling. The results are consistent with a scenario of later formation epoch for fossil groups, as they are defined

  10. The evolution of galaxy groups and clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzotta, Pasquale

    2016-07-01

    The Athena mission will implement the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme which poses the question of How does ordinary matter assemble into the large-scale structures we see today?. Groups and Galaxy clusters are key laboratories to understand the role of the various physical processes governing the baryonic matter from the kilo-parsec scale of super-massive black holes to the mega-parsec one of the clusters outskirts on assembling and evolving large scale structures. We will focus on the study of the galaxy groups and clusters evolution with the Athen a mission. We will review the status of current constraints in light of the newest results obtained from state of the art cosmological simulations and will discuss the perspectives out to the mission launch time in 2028.

  11. THE VELOCITY FIELD AROUND GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwick, F. D. A.

    2011-06-15

    A statistical method is presented for determining the velocity field in the immediate vicinity of groups of galaxies using only positional and redshift information with the goal of studying the perturbation of the Hubble flow around groups more distant than the Local Group. The velocities are assumed to obey a Hubble-like expansion law, i.e., V = H{sub exp} R, where the expansion rate H{sub exp} is to be determined. The method is applied to a large, representative group catalog and evidence is found for a sub-Hubble expansion rate within two well-defined radii beyond the virial radii of the groups. This result is consistent with that of Teerikorpi et al. who found a similar expansion law around three nearby groups and extends it to a more representative volume of space.

  12. The global warming of group satellite galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yozin, C.; Bekki, K.

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies adopting λRe, a proxy for specific angular momentum, have highlighted how early-type galaxies (ETGs) are composed of two kinematical classes for which distinct formation mechanisms can be inferred. With upcoming surveys expected to obtain λRe from a broad range of environments (e.g. SAMI, MaNGA), we investigate in this numerical study how the λRe-ɛe distribution of fast-rotating dwarf satellite galaxies reflects their evolutionary state. By combining N-body/SPH simulations of progenitor disc galaxies (stellar mass ≃109 M⊙), their cosmologically-motivated sub-halo infall history and a characteristic group orbit/potential, we demonstrate the evolution of a satellite ETG population driven by tidal interactions (e.g. harassment). As a general result, these satellites remain intrinsically fast-rotating oblate stellar systems since their infall as early as z = 2; mis-identifications as slow rotators often arise due to a bar/spiral lifecycle which plays an integral role in their evolution. Despite the idealistic nature of its construction, our mock λRe-ɛe distribution at z < 0.1 reproduces its observational counterpart from the ATLAS3D/SAURON projects. We predict therefore how the observed λRe-ɛe distribution of a group evolves according to these ensemble tidal interactions.

  13. The global warming of group satellite galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yozin, C.; Bekki, K.

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies adopting λRe, a proxy for specific angular momentum, have highlighted how early-type galaxies (ETGs) are composed of two kinematical classes for which distinct formation mechanisms can be inferred. With upcoming surveys expected to obtain λRe from a broad range of environments (e.g. SAMI, MaNGA), we investigate in this numerical study how the λRe-ɛe distribution of fast-rotating dwarf satellite galaxies reflects their evolutionary state. By combining N-body/SPH simulations of progenitor disc galaxies (stellar mass ≃109 M⊙), their cosmologically-motivated sub-halo infall history and a characteristic group orbit/potential, we demonstrate the evolution of a satellite ETG population driven by tidal interactions (e.g. harassment). As a general result, these satellites remain intrinsically fast-rotating oblate stellar systems since their infall as early as z = 2; mis-identifications as slow rotators often arise due to a bar/spiral lifecycle which plays an integral role in their evolution. Despite the idealistic nature of its construction, our mock λRe-ɛe distribution at z < 0.1 reproduces its observational counterpart from the ATLAS3D/SAURON projects. We predict therefore how the observed λRe-ɛe distribution of a group evolves according to these ensemble tidal interactions.

  14. The global warming of group satellite galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yozin, C.; Bekki, K.

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies adopting $\\lambda_{\\rm Re}$, a proxy for specific angular momentum, have highlighted how early-type galaxies (ETGs) are composed of two kinematic classes for which distinct formation mechanisms can be inferred. With upcoming surveys expected to obtain $\\lambda_{\\rm Re}$ from a broad range of environments (e.g. SAMI, MaNGA), we investigate in this numerical study how the $\\lambda_{\\rm Re}$-$\\epsilon_{\\rm e}$ distribution of fast-rotating dwarf satellite galaxies reflects their evolutionary state. By combining N-body/SPH simulations of progenitor disc galaxies (stellar mass $\\simeq$10$^{\\rm 9}$ M$_{\\odot}$), their cosmologically-motivated sub-halo infall history and a characteristic group orbit/potential, we demonstrate the evolution of a satellite ETG population driven by tidal interactions (e.g. harassment). As a general result, these satellites remain intrinsically fast-rotating oblate stellar systems since their infall as early as $z=2$; mis-identifications as slow rotators often arise due to a bar/spiral lifecycle which plays an integral role in their evolution. Despite the idealistic nature of its construction, our mock $\\lambda_{\\rm Re}$-$\\epsilon_{\\rm e}$ distribution at $z<0.1$ reproduces its observational counterpart from the ATLAS$^{\\rm 3D}$/SAURON projects. We predict therefore how the observed $\\lambda_{\\rm Re}$-$\\epsilon_{\\rm e}$ distribution of a group evolves according to these ensemble tidal interactions.

  15. Chemical evolution models of Local Group galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, Monica

    Status quo and perspectives of standard chemical evolution models of Local Group galaxies are summarized, and what we have learned from them is discussed, as well as what we have not learned yet, and what I think will be learned in the near future. Galactic chemical evolution models have shown that: I) stringent constraints on primordial nucleosynthesis can be derived from the observed Galactic abundances of the light elements; II) the Milky Way has been accreting external gas from early epochs to the present time; and III) the vast majority of Galactic halo stars have formed quite rapidly at early epochs. Chemical evolution models for the closest dwarf galaxies, although still uncertain, are expected to become extremely reliable in the immediate future, thanks to the quality of new generation photometric and spectroscopic data which are currently being acquired.

  16. MAGNIFICATION BY GALAXY GROUP DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Jes; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Leauthaud, Alexie; Tanaka, Masayuki; Capak, Peter; Finoguenov, Alexis; George, Matthew R.; Rhodes, Jason

    2012-08-01

    We report on the detection of gravitational lensing magnification by a population of galaxy groups, at a significance level of 4.9{sigma}. Using X-ray-selected groups in the COSMOS 1.64 deg{sup 2} field, and high-redshift Lyman break galaxies as sources, we measure a lensing-induced angular cross-correlation between the samples. After satisfying consistency checks that demonstrate we have indeed detected a magnification signal, and are not suffering from contamination by physical overlap of samples, we proceed to implement an optimally weighted cross-correlation function to further boost the signal to noise of the measurement. Interpreting this optimally weighted measurement allows us to study properties of the lensing groups. We model the full distribution of group masses using a composite-halo approach, considering both the singular isothermal sphere and Navarro-Frenk-White profiles, and find our best-fit values to be consistent with those recovered using the weak-lensing shear technique. We argue that future weak-lensing studies will need to incorporate magnification along with shear, both to reduce residual systematics and to make full use of all available source information, in an effort to maximize scientific yield of the observations.

  17. Environmentally driven star formation during a super galaxy group merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroe, Jonathan; Tran, Kim-Vy; Gonzalez, Anthony H.

    2016-01-01

    We find evidence for outside-in growth of galaxies within a merging super galaxy group at a redshift of z~0.37. We utilize Hubble Space Telescope imaging in rest-frame UV and visual to measure color gradients across the super group and internally within 138 individual galaxies that are spectroscopically confirmed members. The group members show enhanced star formation at intermediate environmental densities. The high resolution imaging shows that the group galaxies have bluer disks, i.e. most of the new stars are forming in the disk which supports outside-in growth. These disk-dominated galaxies will likely fade to become S0 members.

  18. A COMPARISON OF THE CLUSTERING PROPERTIES BETWEEN GALAXIES AND GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Xinfa

    2013-03-01

    In this study, I apply cluster analysis and perform comparative studies of clustering properties between galaxies and groups of galaxies. It is found that the number of objects N{sub max} of the richest system and the maximal length D{sub max} of the largest system for groups in all samples are apparently larger than ones for galaxies, and that galaxies preferentially form isolated, paired, and small systems, while groups preferentially form grouped and clustered systems. These results show that groups are more strongly clustered than galaxies, which is consistent with statistical results of the correlation function.

  19. What is the number of spiral galaxies in compact groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tikhonov, N. A.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of morphological types of galaxies in compact groups is studied on plates from the 6 m telescope. In compact groups there are 57 percent galaxies of late morphological types (S + Irr), 23 percent lenticulars (SO) and 20 percent elliptical galaxies. The morphological content of compact groups is very nearly the same as in loose groups. There is no dependence of galaxy morphology on density in all compact groups (and possibly in loose groups). Genuine compact groups form only 60 percent of Hickson's list.

  20. Evolution of Galaxy Groups in the Illustris Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raouf, Mojtaba; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Dariush, A.

    2016-06-01

    We present the first study of the evolution of galaxy groups in the Illustris simulation. We focus on dynamically relaxed and unrelaxed galaxy groups representing dynamically evolved and evolving galaxy systems, respectively. The evolutionary state of a group is probed from its luminosity gap and separation between the brightest group galaxy and the center of mass of the group members. We find that the Illustris simulation overproduces galaxy systems with a large luminosity gap, known as fossil systems, in comparison to observations and the probed semi-analytical predictions. However, this simulation is just as successful as the probed semi-analytic model in recovering the correlation between luminosity gap and offset of the luminosity centroid. We find evolutionary tracks based on luminosity gap that indicate that a group with a large luminosity gap is rooted in one with a small luminosity gap, regardless of the position of the brightest group galaxy within the halo. This simulation helps to explore, for the first time, the black hole mass and its accretion rate in galaxy groups. For a given stellar mass of the brightest group galaxies, the black hole mass is larger in dynamically relaxed groups with a lower rate of mass accretion. We find this to be consistent with the latest observational studies of radio activity in the brightest group galaxies in fossil groups. We also find that the intragalactic medium in dynamically evolved groups is hotter for a given halo mass than that in evolving groups, again consistent with earlier observational studies.

  1. Optical and X-ray Properties of Groups of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell'Antonio, I. P.; Geller, M. J.; Fabricant, D.

    1992-12-01

    We study the optical and x-ray properties of 30 groups of galaxies observed with EINSTEIN. We have obtained redshifts for the galaxies in the group fields down to a limiting magnitude M_B<= 15.7. Typically this corresponds to ~ 18 redshifts per group. Our sample contains 14 MKW-AWM clusters, three of which are actually superpositions of two groups. We compare the velocity dispersions and virial masses we derive from the optical data with the x-ray luminosity and structure. We find remarkable correlations between the x-ray structure and optical galaxy positions. The x-ray emission associated with the galaxies is extended even in more distant groups. This emission is probably due to hot gas in the individual galaxy potentials, which implies that the poor clusters of galaxies are dynamically young. This is consistent with results from N-body simulations of group formation.

  2. NUV signatures of environment driven galaxy quenching in SDSS groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossett, Jacob P.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Jones, D. Heath; Brown, Michael J. I.; Stott, John P.

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated the effect of group environment on residual star formation in galaxies, using GALEX NUV galaxy photometry with the SDSS group catalogue of Yang et al. (2007). We compared the (NUV - r) colours of grouped and non-grouped galaxies, and find a significant increase in the fraction of red sequence galaxies with blue (NUV - r) colours outside of groups. When comparing galaxies in mass matched samples of satellite (non-central), and non-grouped galaxies, we found a >4σ difference in the distribution of (NUV - r) colours, and an (NUV - r) blue fraction >3σ higher outside groups. A comparison of satellite and non-grouped samples has found the NUV fraction is a factor of ˜2 lower for satellite galaxies between 1010.5M⊙ and 1010.7M⊙, showing that higher mass galaxies are more able to form stars when not influenced by a group potential. There was a higher (NUV - r) blue fraction of galaxies with lower Sérsic indices (n < 3) outside of groups, not seen in the satellite sample. We have used stellar population models of Bruzual & Charlot (2003) with multiple burst, or exponentially declining star formation histories to find that many of the (NUV - r) blue non-grouped galaxies can be explained by a slow (˜2 Gyr) decay of star formation, compared to the satellite galaxies. We suggest that taken together, the difference in (NUV - r) colours between samples can be explained by a population of secularly evolving, non-grouped galaxies, where star formation declines slowly. This slow channel is less prevalent in group environments where more rapid quenching can occur.

  3. Impact of High Velocity Interactions on Galaxy Evolution in Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacek, Marie E.; Jones, C.; Forman, W. R.; Kraft, R. P.; Ashby, M. L.; Hardcastle, M. J.

    2007-05-01

    Galaxy interactions in cool groups dominate galaxy evolution at high redshift. Observations of galaxies interacting in nearby galaxy groups, where the same dynamical processes that transform galaxies at high redshift can be studied in detail, are critical to our understanding of galaxy and group evolution. X-ray observations of hot gas features, e.g. surface brightness edges and wakes, reveal that high velocity interactions play a significant role in the transformation of galaxies in groups, yet, because these encounters are difficult to identify in other wavebands, few have been studied. We present two case studies of high velocity galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-gas interactions in galaxy groups: NGC4782(3C278) and NGC4783 in LGG316, and NGC6872 and NGC6876 in the Pavo group. From Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray data, we measure the hot gas temperature, density and metal abundance in the galaxies and the intragroup medium (IGM) to characterize the thermodynamic state of the group, constrain 3D motions of the galaxies through the IGM, and determine the dominant processes transferring matter and energy between the galaxy and group gas. We compare these results with VLA observations of NGC4782/3 and Spitzer IRAC observations of NGC6872 and NGC6876 to study the impact of these interactions on nuclear activity, radio jet evolution, and star formation in these galaxies, and on the heating and enrichment of the IGM. This work was supported in part by the Smithsonian Institution, the Chandra Science Center, NASA contracts AR5-6011X, GO6-7068X, NNX06AG34G, JPL1279244 and the Royal Society.

  4. THE EVOLUTION OF CENTRAL GROUP GALAXIES IN HYDRODYNAMICAL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmann, R.; Carollo, C. M.; Mayer, L.; Lake, G.; Renzini, A.; Quinn, T.; Stinson, G. S.; Yepes, G.

    2010-01-20

    We trace the evolution of central galaxies in three approx10{sup 13} M{sub sun} galaxy groups simulated at high resolution in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. In all three cases, the evolution in the group potential leads, at z = 0, to central galaxies that are massive, gas-poor early-type systems supported by stellar velocity dispersion and which resemble either elliptical or S0 galaxies. Their z approx 2-2.5 main progenitors are massive (M{sub *} approx (3-10) x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}), star-forming (20-60 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) galaxies which host substantial reservoirs of cold gas (approx5 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}) in extended gas disks. Our simulations thus show that star-forming galaxies observed at z approx 2 are likely the main progenitors of central galaxies in galaxy groups at z = 0. At z approx 2 the stellar component of all galaxies is compact, with a half-mass radius <1 kpc. The central stellar density stays approximatively constant from such early epochs down to z = 0. Instead, the galaxies grow inside out, by acquiring a stellar envelope outside the innermost approx2 kpc. Consequently the density within the effective radius decreases by up to 2 orders of magnitude. Both major and minor mergers contribute to most (70{sup +20}{sub -15}%) of the mass accreted outside the effective radius and thus drive an episodical evolution of the half-mass radii, particularly below z = 1. In situ star formation and secular evolution processes contribute to 14{sup +18}{sub -9}% and 16{sup +6}{sub -11}%, respectively. Overall, the simulated galaxies grow by a factor approx4-5 in mass and size since redshift z approx 2. The short cooling time in the center of groups can foster a 'hot accretion' mode. In one of the three simulated groups this leads to a dramatic rejuvenation of the central group galaxy at z < 1, affecting its morphology, kinematics, and colors. This episode is eventually terminated by a group-group merger. Mergers also appear to be responsible for

  5. Local Group dwarf galaxies: nature and nurture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawala, Till; Scannapieco, Cecilia; White, Simon

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies in a high-resolution, hydrodynamical cosmological simulation of a Milky Way sized halo and its environment. Our simulation includes gas cooling, star formation, supernova feedback, metal enrichment and ultraviolet heating. In total, 90 satellites and more than 400 isolated dwarf galaxies are formed in the simulation, allowing a systematic study of the internal and environmental processes that determine their evolution. We find that 95 per cent of satellite galaxies are gas free at z= 0, and identify three mechanisms for gas loss: supernova feedback, tidal stripping and photoevaporation due to re-ionization. Gas-rich satellite galaxies are only found with total masses above ˜5 × 109 M⊙. In contrast, for isolated dwarf galaxies, a total mass of ˜109 M⊙ constitutes a sharp transition; less massive galaxies are predominantly gas free at z= 0, more massive, isolated dwarf galaxies are often able to retain their gas. In general, we find that the total mass of a dwarf galaxy is the main factor which determines its star formation, metal enrichment and its gas content, but that stripping may explain the observed difference in gas content between field dwarf galaxies and satellites with total masses close to 109 M⊙. We also find that a morphological transformation via tidal stripping of infalling, luminous dwarf galaxies whose dark matter is less concentrated than their stars cannot explain the high total mass-to-light ratios of the faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  6. On the formation of polar ring galaxies and tidal dwarf galaxies in gas-rich galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilborn, Virginia; Sweet, Sarah; Meurer, Gerhardt; Drinkwater, Michael

    2015-08-01

    We are conducting a study of the properties of galaxies and dwarfs in 16 gas-rich galaxy groups identified in the Survey for Ionization in Neutral Gas Galaxies (SINGG; Meurer et al. 2006). We have found a young gas-rich coalescing galaxy group, J1051-17. Key features of this system are gas-rich tidal tails, studded with dwarf galaxies extending 200 kpc which merge in to a low surface brightness polar disk orbiting a very red edge-on host hosting a central AGN. Accretion from the polar disk may be feeding the AGN and powering a galactic wind. The example of this system suggests that tidal interactions with gas rich satellites may be a key process that aligns satellites in to polar planes while fuelling accretion down to the very centres of the host. We discuss the formation scenario of this polar ring galaxy, and investigate the formation of tidal dwarf galaxies in the wider group sample.

  7. Multifrequency studies of galaxies and groups. I. Environmental effect on galaxy stellar mass and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudel, A.; Heinämäki, P.; Nurmi, P.; Teerikorpi, P.; Tempel, E.; Lietzen, H.; Einasto, M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. To understand the role of the environment in galaxy formation, evolution, and present-day properties, it is essential to study the multifrequency behavior of different galaxy populations under various environmental conditions. Aims: We study the stellar mass functions of different galaxy populations in groups as a function of their large-scale environments using multifrequency observations. Methods: We cross-matched the SDSS DR10 group catalog with GAMA Data Release 2 and Wide-field Survey Explorer (WISE) data to construct a catalog of 1651 groups and 11 436 galaxies containing photometric information in 15 different wavebands ranging from ultraviolet (0.152 μm) to mid-infrared (22 μm). We performed the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting of galaxies using the MAGPHYS code and estimate the rest-frame luminosities and stellar masses. We used the 1 /Vmax method to estimate the galaxy stellar mass and luminosity functions, and the luminosity density field of galaxies to define the large-scale environment of galaxies. Results: The stellar mass functions of both central and satellite galaxies in groups are different in low- and high-density, large-scale environments. Satellite galaxies in high-density environments have a steeper low-mass end slope compared to low-density environments, independent of the galaxy morphology. Central galaxies in low-density environments have a steeper low-mass end slope, but the difference disappears for fixed galaxy morphology. The characteristic stellar mass of satellite galaxies is higher in high-density environments and the difference exists only for galaxies with elliptical morphologies. Conclusions: Galaxy formation in groups is more efficient in high-density, large-scale environments. Groups in high-density environments have higher abundances of satellite galaxies, irrespective of the satellite galaxy morphology. The elliptical satellite galaxies are generally more massive in high-density environments. The stellar

  8. The star formation histories of Hickson compact group galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plauchu-Frayn, I.; Del Olmo, A.; Coziol, R.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.

    2012-10-01

    Aims: We study the star formation fistory (SFH) of 210 galaxy members of 55 Hickson compact groups (HCG) and 309 galaxies from the Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG). The SFH traces the variation of star formation over the lifetime of a galaxy, and consequently yields a snapshot picture of its formation. Comparing the SFHs in these extremes in galaxy density allows us to determine the main effects of compact groups (CG) on the formation of galaxies. Methods: We fit our spectra using the spectral synthesis code STARLIGHT and obtained the stellar population contents and mean stellar ages of HCG and CIG galaxies in three different morphological classes: early-type galaxies (EtG), early-type spirals (EtS), and late-type spirals (LtS). Results: We find that EtG and EtS galaxies in HCG show higher contents of old and intermediate stellar populations as well as an important deficit of the young stellar population, which clearly implies an older average stellar age in early galaxies in HCG. For LtS galaxies we find similar mean values for the stellar content and age in the two samples. However, we note that LtS can be split into two subclasses, namely old and young LtS. In HCG we find a higher fraction of young LtS than in the CIG sample, in addition, most of these galaxies belong to groups in which most of the galaxies are also young and actively forming stars. The specific star formation rate (SSFR) of spiral galaxies in the two samples differ. The EtS in HCG show lower SSFR values, while LtS peak at higher values compared with their counterparts in isolation. We also measured the shorter star formation time scale (SFTS) in HCG galaxies, which indicates that they have a shorter star formation activity than CIG galaxies. We take these observations as evidence that galaxies in CG have evolved more rapidly than galaxies in isolation, regardless of their morphology. Our observations are consistent with the hierarchical galaxy formation model, which states that CGs are

  9. The XMM view of the outskirts of galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastaldello, F.

    2016-06-01

    I will present the results of XMM observations on the outskirts of the bright galaxy group NGC 5044 addressing mass, entropy and metal abundances. I will discuss the results that XMM can achieve by exploring the outskirts of groups providing a complementary and fundamental piece of informations to the scenario emerging for the more massive clusters of galaxies.

  10. The Hα kinematics of interacting galaxies in 12 compact groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Flores, S.; Amram, P.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Plana, H.; Balkowski, C.; Marcelin, M.; Olave-Rojas, D.

    2014-08-01

    We present new Fabry-Perot observations for a sample of 42 galaxies located in 12 compact groups of galaxies: HCG 1, HCG 14, HCG 25, HCG 44, HCG 53, HCG 57, HCG 61, HCG 69, HCG 93, VV 304, LGG 455 and Arp 314. From the 42 observed galaxies, a total of 26 objects are spiral galaxies, which range from Sa to Im morphological types. The remaining 16 objects are E, S0 and S0a galaxies. Using these observations, we have derived velocity maps, monochromatic and velocity dispersion maps for 24 galaxies, where 18 are spiral, three are S0a, two are S0 and one is an Im galaxy. From the 24 velocity fields obtained, we could derive rotation curves for 15 galaxies; only two of them exhibit rotation curves without any clear signature of interactions. Based on kinematic information, we have evaluated the evolutionary stage of the different groups of the current sample. We identify groups that range from having no Hα emission to displaying an extremely complex kinematics, where their members display strongly perturbed velocity fields and rotation curves. In the case of galaxies with no Hα emission, we suggest that past galaxy interactions removed their gaseous components, thereby quenching their star formation. However, we cannot discard that the lack of Hα emission is linked with the detection limit for some of our observations.

  11. The luminosity function of galaxies in compact groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribeiro, A. L. B.; De Carvalho, R. R.; Zepf, S. E.

    1994-01-01

    We use counts of faint galaxies in the regions of compact groups to extend the study of the luminosity function of galaxies in compact groups to absolute magnitudes as faint as M(sub B) = -14.5 + 5 log h. We find a slope of the faint end of the luminosity function of approximately alpha = -0.8, with a formal uncertainty of 0.15. This slope is not significantly different from that found for galaxies in other environments. Our results do not support previous suggestions of a dramatic underabundance of intrinsically faint galaxies in compact groups, which were based on extrapolations from fits at brighter magnitudes. The normal faint-end slope of the luminosity function in compact groups is in agreement with previous evidence that most galaxies in compact groups have not been dramatically affected by recent merging.

  12. Automatic Detection of Galaxy Groups by Probabilistic Hough Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahem, R. T.; Tino, P.; Pearson, R. J.; Ponman, T. J.; Babul, A.

    2015-12-01

    Galaxy groups play a significant role in explaining the evolution of the universe. Given the amounts of available survey data, automated discovery of galaxy groups is of utmost interest. We introduce a novel methodology, based on probabilistic Hough transform, for finding galaxy groups embedded in a rich background. The model takes advantage of a typical signature pattern of galaxy groups known as "fingers-of-God". It also allows us to include prior astrophysical knowledge as an inherent part of the method. The proposed method is first tested in large scale controlled experiments with 2-D patterns and then verified on 3-D realistic mock data (comparing with the well-known friends-of-friends method used in astrophysics). The experiments suggest that our methodology is a promising new candidate for galaxy group finders developed within a machine learning framework.

  13. Environment of Seyfert 2 galaxies: the group of galaxies around NGC5252.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudling, W.; Prieto, M. Almudena

    1996-02-01

    The relatively large neutral hydrogen contents and enhanced density of companion galaxies around Seyfert 2 galaxies suggests that tidal interaction could play a major role in the evolution of Seyfert 2 galaxies. Recent observations of the distribution of neutral hydrogen in the active S0 galaxy NGC5252 have shown a disturbed morphology which suggests that the HI in this galaxy could have been acquired through interaction with neighboring galaxies (Prieto & Freudling 1993 and 1995). We have searched for other HI rich galaxies within a radius of 25 arcmin and a redshift range of +/-600km/s around the center location and redshift of NGC5252. A total of five galaxies were found, four of them are cataloged galaxies with no previous redshifts available. These five galaxies were mapped with the VLA in order to search for signs of recent tidal interactions. The maps and derived HI parameters are presented and compared to the one of NGC5252, the sixth member of the group. Two of the galaxies (UGC 8635) are an interacting pair. No signs of other recent interactions were found. Using the Arecibo telescope, we also searched for intergalactic neutral hydrogen between the group members as another potential source of gas for NGC5252. Upper limits on intergroup gas are given for three positions. The lack of evidence for interaction among the galaxies could be interpreted in two different ways. Either interaction occurred in the distant past and triggered activity in this galaxy over a long period of time. Alternatively, factors other than the gas supply might be responsible for the observation that Seyfert 2 galaxies tend to be surrounded by a region of enhanced galaxy density.

  14. Groups of galaxies in the ROSAT north ecliptic pole survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, J. Patrick

    1994-01-01

    The X-ray properties of groups of galaxies are presented. Their distribution of luminosity and temperature appears to be associated with the extrapolation of these distributions from rich clusters of galaxies. The properties of the ensemble of groups of galaxies are almost totally unknown. Only a few X-ray observations of groups that were selected by optical methods were published so far. A sample of eight groups with 'z' inferior to 0.04, of which three have 'z' inferior to 0.03 was investigated. The temperature and the luminosity functions at one point were determined.

  15. The statistical nature of the brightest group galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Shiyin; Yang, Xiaohu; Mo, Houjun; Van den Bosch, Frank; More, Surhud

    2014-02-10

    We examine the statistical properties of the brightest group galaxies (BGGs) by using a complete spectroscopic sample of groups/clusters of galaxies selected from the Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We test whether BGGs and other bright members of groups are consistent with an ordered population among the total population of group galaxies. We find that the luminosity distributions of BGGs do not follow the predictions from the order statistics (OS). The average luminosities of BGGs are systematically brighter than OS predictions. On the other hand, by properly taking into account the brightening effect of the BGGs, the luminosity distributions of the second brightest galaxies are in excellent agreement with the expectations of OS. The brightening of BGGs relative to the OS expectation is consistent with a scenario that the BGGs on average have overgrown about 20% masses relative to the other member galaxies. The growth (ΔM) is not stochastic but correlated with the magnitude gap (G {sub 1,} {sub 2}) between the brightest and the second brightest galaxy. The growth (ΔM) is larger for the groups having more prominent BGGs (larger G {sub 1,} {sub 2}) and averagely contributes about 30% of the final G {sub 1,} {sub 2} of the groups of galaxies.

  16. The Merger History, AGN and Dwarf Galaxies of Hickson Compact Group 59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Gallagher, S. C.; Fedotov, K.; Durrell, P. R.; Tzanavaris, P.; Hill, A. R.; Zabludoff, A. I.; Maier, M. L.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Charlton, J. C.; Johnson, K. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Walker, L. M.; Eracleous, M.; Maybhate, A.; Gronwall, C.; English, J.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Mulchaey, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Compact group galaxies often appear unaffected by their unusually dense environment. Closer examination can, however, reveal the subtle, cumulative effects of multiple galaxy interactions. Hickson Compact Group (HCG) 59 is an excellent example of this situation. We present a photometric study of this group in the optical (HST), infrared (Spitzer) and X-ray (Chandra) regimes aimed at characterizing the star formation and nuclear activity in its constituent galaxies and intra-group medium. We associate five dwarf galaxies with the group and update the velocity dispersion, leading to an increase in the dynamical mass of the group of up to a factor of 10 (to 2.8 x 10(exp 13) Stellar Mass), and a subsequent revision of its evolutionary stage. Star formation is proceeding at a level consistent with the morphological types of the four main galaxies, of which two are star-forming and the other two quiescent. Unlike in some other compact groups, star-forming complexes across HCG 59 closely follow mass-radius scaling relations typical of nearby galaxies. In contrast, the ancient globular cluster populations in galaxies HCG 59A and B show intriguing irregularities, and two extragalactic HII regions are found just west of B. We age-date a faint stellar stream in the intra-group medium at approx. 1 Gyr to examine recent interactions. We detect a likely low-luminosity AGN in HCG 59A by its approx. 10(exp 40) erg/s X-ray emission; the active nucleus rather than star formation can account for the UV+IR SED. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of galaxy evolution in dense environments.

  17. THE MERGER HISTORY, ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS, AND DWARF GALAXIES OF HICKSON COMPACT GROUP 59

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Charlton, J. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Eracleous, M.; Gronwall, C.; Gallagher, S. C.; Fedotov, K.; Hill, A. R.; Durrell, P. R.; Tzanavaris, P.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Zabludoff, A. I.; Maier, M. L.; Johnson, K. E.; Walker, L. M.; Maybhate, A.; English, J.; Mulchaey, J. S.

    2012-01-20

    Compact group galaxies often appear unaffected by their unusually dense environment. Closer examination can, however, reveal the subtle, cumulative effects of multiple galaxy interactions. Hickson Compact Group (HCG) 59 is an excellent example of this situation. We present a photometric study of this group in the optical (Hubble Space Telescope), infrared (Spitzer), and X-ray (Chandra) regimes aimed at characterizing the star formation and nuclear activity in its constituent galaxies and intra-group medium. We associate five dwarf galaxies with the group and update the velocity dispersion, leading to an increase in the dynamical mass of the group of up to a factor of 10 (to 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} M{sub Sun }), and a subsequent revision of its evolutionary stage. Star formation is proceeding at a level consistent with the morphological types of the four main galaxies, of which two are star-forming and the other are two quiescent. Unlike in some other compact groups, star-forming complexes across HCG 59 closely follow mass-radius scaling relations typical of nearby galaxies. In contrast, the ancient globular cluster populations in galaxies HCG 59A and B show intriguing irregularities, and two extragalactic H II regions are found just west of B. We age-date a faint stellar stream in the intra-group medium at {approx}1 Gyr to examine recent interactions. We detect a likely low-luminosity active galactic nucleus in HCG 59A by its {approx}10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} X-ray emission; the active nucleus rather than star formation can account for the UV+IR spectral energy distribution. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of galaxy evolution in dense environments.

  18. DISTRIBUTION OF SATELLITE GALAXIES IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GROUPS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yougang; Chen Xuelei; Park, Changbom; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2010-08-01

    We use galaxy groups at redshifts between 0.4 and 1.0 selected from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey to study the color-morphological properties of satellite galaxies and investigate possible alignment between the distribution of the satellites and the orientation of their central galaxy. We confirm the bimodal color and morphological-type distribution for satellite galaxies at this redshift range: the red and blue classes correspond to the early and late morphological types, respectively, and the early-type satellites are on average brighter than the late-type ones. Furthermore, there is a morphological conformity between the central and satellite galaxies: the fraction of early-type satellites in groups with an early-type central is higher than those with a late-type central galaxy. This effect is stronger at smaller separations from the central galaxy. We find a marginally significant signal of alignment between the major axis of the early-type central galaxy and its satellite system, while for the late-type centrals no significant alignment signal is found. We discuss the alignment signal in the context of shape evolution of groups.

  19. Chemical abundances of massive stars in Local Group galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venn, Kim A.; Kaufer, Andreas; Tolstoy, Eline; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Przybilla, Norbert; Smartt, Stephen J.; Lennon, Daniel J.

    The relative abundances of elements in galaxies can provide valuable information on the stellar and chemical evolution of a galaxy. While nebulae can provide abundances for a variety of light elements, stars are the only way to directly determine the abundances of iron-group and s-process and r-process elements in a galaxy. The new 8m and 10m class telescopes and high-efficiency spectrographs now make high-quality spectral observations of bright supergiants possible in dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. We have been concentrating on elemental abundances in the metal-poor dwarf irregular galaxies, NGC 6822, WLM, Sextants A, and GR 8. Comparing abundance ratios to those predicted from their star formation histories, determined from color-magnitude diagrams, and comparing those ratios between these galaxies can give us new insights into the evolution of these dwarf irregular galaxies. Iron-group abundances also allow us to examine the metallicities of the stars in these galaxies directly, which affects their inferred mass loss rates and predicted stellar evolution properties.

  20. The DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: The Voronoi-Delaunay Method Catalog of Galaxy Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Gerke, Brian F.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Marc; Marinoni, Christian; Yan, Renbin; Coil, Alison L.; Conroy, Charlie; Cooper, Michael C.; Faber, S.M.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kaiser, Nick; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; /Maryland U.

    2012-02-14

    We use the first 25% of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey spectroscopic data to identify groups and clusters of galaxies in redshift space. The data set contains 8370 galaxies with confirmed redshifts in the range 0.7 {<=} z {<=} 1.4, over one square degree on the sky. Groups are identified using an algorithm (the Voronoi-Delaunay Method) that has been shown to accurately reproduce the statistics of groups in simulated DEEP2-like samples. We optimize this algorithm for the DEEP2 survey by applying it to realistic mock galaxy catalogs and assessing the results using a stringent set of criteria for measuring group-finding success, which we develop and describe in detail here. We find in particular that the group-finder can successfully identify {approx}78% of real groups and that {approx}79% of the galaxies that are true members of groups can be identified as such. Conversely, we estimate that {approx}55% of the groups we find can be definitively identified with real groups and that {approx}46% of the galaxies we place into groups are interloper field galaxies. Most importantly, we find that it is possible to measure the distribution of groups in redshift and velocity dispersion, n({sigma}, z), to an accuracy limited by cosmic variance, for dispersions greater than 350 km s{sup -1}. We anticipate that such measurements will allow strong constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy in the future. Finally, we present the first DEEP2 group catalog, which assigns 32% of the galaxies to 899 distinct groups with two or more members, 153 of which have velocity dispersions above 350 km s{sup -1}. We provide locations, redshifts and properties for this high-dispersion subsample. This catalog represents the largest sample to date of spectroscopically detected groups at z {approx} 1.

  1. Compact configurations within small evolving groups of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamon, G. A.

    Small virialized groups of galaxies are evolved with a gravitational N-body code, where the galaxies and a diffuse background are treated as single particles, but with mass and luminosity profiles attached, which enbles the estimation of parameters such as internal energies, half-mass radii, and the softened potential energies of interaction. The numerical treatment includes mergers, collisional stripping, tidal limitation by the mean-field of the background (evaluated using a combination of instantaneous and impulsive formulations), galaxy heating from collisons, and background heating from dynamical friction. The groups start out either as dense as appear the groups in Hickson's (1982) catalog, or as loose as appear those in Turner and Gott's (1976a) catalog, and they are simulated many times (usually 20) with different initial positions and velocities. Dense groups of galaxies with massive dark haloes coalesce into a single galaxy and lose their compact group appearance in approximately 3 group half-mass crossing times, while dense groups of galaxies without massive haloes survive the merger instability for 15 half-mass crossing times (in a more massive background to keep the same total group mass).

  2. MASS DISTRIBUTION IN HICKSON COMPACT GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Plana, H.; Amram, P.; De Oliveira, C. Mendes; Balkowski, C.

    2010-01-15

    This study presents the mass distribution for a sample of 18 late-type galaxies in nine Hickson compact groups. We used H{alpha} rotation curves (RCs) from high-resolution two-dimensional velocity fields of Fabry-Perot observations and the J-band photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, in order to determine the dark halo and the visible matter distributions. The study compares two halo density profiles, an isothermal core-like distribution, and a cuspy one. We also compare their visible and dark matter distributions with those of galaxies belonging to cluster and field galaxies coming from two samples: 40 cluster galaxies of Barnes et al. and 35 field galaxies of Spano et al. The central halo surface density is found to be constant with respect to the total absolute magnitude similar to what is found for the isolated galaxies. This suggests that the halo density is independent of galaxy type and environment. We have found that core-like density profiles better fit the RCs than cuspy-like ones. No major differences have been found between field, cluster, and compact group galaxies with respect to their dark halo density profiles.

  3. A New Method to Estimate Halo Mass of Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi; Yang, Xiaohu; Shen, Shiyin

    2015-08-01

    Reliable halo mass estimation for a given galaxy system plays an important role both in cosmology and galaxy formation studies. Here we set out to find the way that can improve the halo mass estimation for those galaxy systems with limited brightest member galaxies been observed. Using four mock galaxy samples constructed from semi-analytical formation models, the subhalo abundance matching method and the conditional luminosity functions, respectively, we find that the luminosity gap between the brightest and the subsequent brightest member galaxies in a halo (group) can be used to significantly reduce the scatter in the halo mass estimation based on the luminosity of the brightest galaxy alone. Tests show that these corrections can significantly reduce the scatter in the halo mass estimations by $\\sim 50\\%$ to $\\sim 70\\%$ in massive halos depending on which member galaxies are considered. Comparing to the traditional ranking method, we find that this method works better for groups with less than five members, or in observations with very bright magnitude cut.

  4. The fraction of BL Lacertae objects in groups of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muriel, H.

    2016-06-01

    Context. BL Lac objects are a rare class of active galactic nuclei that typically show featureless optical spectra that make it difficult to estimate the redshift. A novel method for estimating the redshift of BL Lac objects has recently been proposed which assumes that these objects typically reside in groups of galaxies. Aims: The aim of this work is to estimate the fraction of BL Lac objects that reside in groups of galaxies. Methods: We use a sample of groups (M12 catalogue) selected by applying a friends-of-friends algorithm in the SDSS DR12. Galaxies in the M12 sample were cross-correlated with the sample of blazars in the BZCAT. We found that 121 galaxies in the M12 catalogue are blazars in the BZCAT sample, all but one are BL Lac objects, and a large fraction are classified as BL Lac-galaxy dominated. Results: Analysing the fraction of galaxies in groups as a function of redshift we have estimated a correction factor that takes into account the typical incompleteness of the catalogues based on the friends-of-friends algorithm. Once this factor was applied to the sample of BL Lac objects with a counterpart in the M12 catalogue, we found that the percentage of BL Lac objects in groups is ≳ 67 ± 8%. Conclusions: The high rate of BL Lac objects in groups found in this work strongly supports a recent method that has successfully estimated the redshift of BL Lac objects with featureless spectra.

  5. Exploring Evolution Through the Effects of Galaxy-Galaxy and Group Interactions on Gas Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fertig, Derek; Rosenberg, J. L.; Patton, D. R.; Ellison, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy-galaxy interactions are a driving force in galaxy evolution, producing changes in color, morphology, metallicity and enhancing star formation. Many factors contributing to these changes have been well studied such as environment and orientation of the interaction, however studies of the gas content have been limited. To address the question of how interactions affect the gas content of galaxy pairs, we present results from two studies taking different approaches to the question. We present results from a combined optical and HI 21 cm study of 102 galaxy pairs with projected separations up to 120 kpc and velocity differences less than 500 km/s. These pairs were selected from the SDSS spectroscopic survey and were also observed by the ALFALFA HI 21 cm survey. We use these data to study how interactions effect the SFE and HI gas content of these systems. From the second study we present initial results from VLA D-array observations of a galaxy group in which interactions appear to be removing much of the cold gas from the galaxies creating a large reservoir in the inter-group medium. We investigate how this removal of gas and subsequent reservoir impact the evolution of the galaxies within the group, particularly two systems which are transitioning through the green valley. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-000167932 and a George Mason University Presidential Fellowship.

  6. HII regions in dwarf irregular galaxies of the local group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Paul; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    1990-01-01

    Deep, narrowband H alpha Charge Coupled Device (CCD) surveys of HII regions were carried out in several dwarf irregular galaxies in and near the local group. Data are now complete for these galaxies: NGC 6822, GR 8, IC 10, IC 1613, Sextans A, Sextans B, and Sag Irr. Observations are complete for DDO 47, 53, 167, 168 and 187. Details of some of the results for the surveys completed so far are discussed. For NGC 6822, CCD survey at H alpha resulted in the detection of 145 HII regions in the local group irregular galaxy NGC 6822. Most of them are newly detected, faint surface-brightness objects. Positions, maps and dimensions are being published elsewhere. For GR 8, a deep narrowband H alpha imaging of the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy GR 8 revealed a total of 32 HII regions. Positions, H alpha luminosities, and sizes of these objects were determined. The H alpha luminosity function has the same shape as that for more luminous galaxies, except for size of sample effects. Most HII regions detected are at the very low luminosity end of the general luminosity function. For IC 10, a deep CCD narrowband H alpha imaging of the local group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10 revealed a total of 144 HII regions. Positions, H alpha luminosities, and sizes of these objects were determined. The H alpha luminosity function has the same shape as that for more luminous galaxies.

  7. Properties of Galaxies and Groups: Nature versus Nurture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Sami-Matias

    2011-09-01

    Due to the inherently nonlinear nature of gravity cosmological N-body simulations have become an invaluable tool when the growth of structure is being studied and modelled closer to the present epoch. Large simulations with high dynamical range have made it possible to model the formation and growth of cosmic structure with unprecedented accuracy. Moreover, galaxies, the basic building blocks of the Universe, can also be modelled in cosmological context. However, despite all the simulations and successes in recent decades, there are still many unanswered questions in the field of galaxy formation and evolution. One of the longest standing issue being the significance of the formation place and thus initial conditions to a galaxy's evolution in respect to environment, often formulated simply as "nature versus nurture" like in human development and psychology. Unfortunately, our understanding of galaxy evolution in different environments is still limited, albeit, for example, the morphology-density relation has shown that the density of the galaxy's local environment can affect its properties. Consequently, the environment should play a role in galaxy evolution, however despite the efforts, the exact role of the galaxy's local environment to its evolution remains open. This thesis introduction discusses briefly the background cosmology, cosmological N-body simulations and semi-analytical models. The second part is reserved for groups of galaxies, whether they are gravitationally bound, and what this may imply for galaxy evolution. The third part of the thesis concentrates on describing results of a case study of isolated field elliptical galaxies. The final chapter discusses another case study of luminous infra-red galaxies.

  8. Dust Production in Local Group Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zijlstra, Albert; Sloan, Greg; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; Blommaert, Joris A. D. L.; Cioni, Maria-Rosa; Devost, Daniel; Feast, Michael W.; Groenewegen, Martin A. T.; Habing, Harm; Hony, Sacha; Lagadec, Eric; Loup, Cecile; Matsuura, Mikako; Menzies, John W.; Sloan, Greg C.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Whitelock, Patricia A.; Wood, Peter R.; van Loon, Jacco Th.

    2006-05-01

    The superwind phase on the Asymptotic Giant Branch is a crucial ingredient of stellar and galactic evolution. The superwind ejecta are responsible for much of the interstellar hydrogen of evolved galaxies, and are a dominant contributor to the dust input into the ISM. The superwind determines the final mass of stellar remnants, and therefore affects, e.g., the type-I supernova rate. The characteristics of the superwind are still very poorly known, especially at non-solar metallicities. Spitzer has contributed a large and invaluable dataset on Magellanic Cloud stars, measuring dust, molecular bands and allowing accurate mass-loss measurements. We now propose to extend the (age, metallicity) parameter range by observing a number of other Milky Way satellites. The carbon stars in these galaxies trace an older population than the Magellanic Clouds, and extend to much lower metallicities. They are therefore crucial to allow us to extrapolate the Magellanic Cloud measurements to metal-poor environments. We propose to acquire low-resolution spectra of stars in the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy, Carina, Sculptor and Fornax. The selected stars range in metallicity from -0.55 to -2.0, and in age from 5-8 Gyr. Two low-metallicity planetary nebulae in these galaxies are also included. We will study the dust continuum, dust minerals (SiC, MgS) and gas-phase molecular bands (especially acetylene). Mass loss rates will be determined using our dust models, and we will measure the fractional abundances of amorphous carbon dust and SiC grains. Only Spitzer can provide these crucial measurements of extra-galactic AGB stars. The result will be our first knowledge of mass loss efficiency, dust formation, and dust abundances, at low to very low metallicities. These data are necessary to obtain reliable models of mass loss and of stellar evolution.

  9. CONFIRMATION OF FAINT DWARF GALAXIES IN THE M81 GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Chiboucas, Kristin; Jacobs, Bradley A.; Tully, R. Brent; Karachentsev, Igor D. E-mail: bjacobs@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: ikar@luna.sao.ru

    2013-11-01

    We have followed up on the results of a 65 deg{sup 2} CFHT/MegaCam imaging survey of the nearby M81 Group searching for faint and ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. The original survey turned up 22 faint candidate dwarf members. Based on two-color HST ACS/WFC and WFPC2 photometry, we now confirm 14 of these as dwarf galaxy members of the group. Distances and stellar population characteristics are discussed for each. To a completeness limit of M{sub r{sup '}}= -10, we find a galaxy luminosity function slope of –1.27 ± 0.04 for the M81 Group. In this region, there are now 36 M81 Group members known, including 4 blue compact dwarfs; 8 other late types including the interacting giants M81, NGC 3077, and M82; 19 early type dwarfs; and at least 5 potential tidal dwarf galaxies. We find that the dSph galaxies in M81 appear to lie in a flattened distribution, similar to that found for the Milky Way and M31. One of the newly discovered dSph galaxies has properties similar to the ultra-faint dwarfs being found in the Local Group with a size R{sub e} ∼ 100 pc and total magnitude estimates M{sub r{sup '}}= -6.8 and M{sub I} ∼ –9.1.

  10. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): galaxy radial alignments in GAMA groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Michael D.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.; Kelvin, Lee; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Norberg, Peder; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Driver, Simon; Hopkins, Andrew; Liske, Jochen; Loveday, Jon; Robotham, Aaron

    2013-08-01

    We constrain the distributions of projected radial alignment angles of satellite galaxy shapes within the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey group catalogue. We identify the galaxy groups using spectroscopic redshifts and measure galaxy projected ellipticities from Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. With a sample of 3850 groups with 13 655 satellite galaxies with high quality shape measurements, we find a less than 2σ signal of radial alignments in the mean projected ellipticity components and the projected position angle when using galaxy shape estimates optimized for weak lensing measurements. Our radial alignment measurement increases to greater than 3σ significance relative to the expectation for no alignments if we use 2D Sérsic model fits to define galaxy orientations. Our weak measurement of radial alignments is in conflict with predictions from dark-matter N-body simulations, which we interpret as evidence for large misalignments of baryons and dark matter in group and cluster satellites. Within our uncertainties, that are dominated by our small sample size, we find only weak and marginally significant trends of the radial alignment angle distributions on projected distance from the group centre, host halo mass, and redshift that could be consistent with a tidal torquing mechanism for radial alignments. Using our lensing optimized shape estimators, we estimate that intrinsic alignments of galaxy group members may contribute a systematic error to the mean differential projected surface mass density of groups inferred from weak lensing observations by -1 ± 20 per cent at scales around 300 h-1 kpc from the group centre assuming a photometric redshift rms error of 10 per cent, and given our group sample with median redshift of 0.17 and median virial masses ˜1013 h-1 M⊙.

  11. MAGGIE: Models and Algorithms for Galaxy Groups, Interlopers and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Manuel; Mamon, Gary A.

    2015-11-01

    Combining our knowledge of halo structure and internal kinematics from cosmological dark matter simulations and the distribution of halo interlopers in projected phase space measured in cosmological galaxy simulations, we develop MAGGIE, a prior- and halo-based, probabilistic, abundance matching (AM) grouping algorithm for doubly complete subsamples (in distance and luminosity) of flux-limited samples. We test MAGGIE-L and MAGGIE-M (in which group masses are derived from AM applied to the group luminosities and stellar masses, respectively) on groups of at least three galaxies extracted from a mock Sloan Digital Sky Survey Legacy redshift survey, incorporating realistic observational errors on galaxy luminosities and stellar masses. In comparison with the optimal Friends-of-Friends (FoF) group finder, groups extracted with MAGGIE are much less likely to be secondary fragments of true groups; in primary fragments, its galaxy memberships (relative to the virial sphere of the real-space group) are much more complete and usually more reliable, and its masses are much less biased and usually with less scatter, as are its group luminosities and stellar masses (computed in MAGGIE using the membership probabilities as weights). FoF outperforms MAGGIE only for high-mass clusters: for the reliability of the galaxy population and the dispersion of its total mass. In comparison with our implementation of the Yang et al. group finder, MAGGIE reaches much higher completeness and slightly lower group fragmentation and dispersion on group total masses, luminosities and stellar masses, but slightly greater bias in the latter two and lower reliabilities. MAGGIE should therefore lead to sharper trends of environmental effects on galaxies and more accurate mass-orbit modelling.

  12. On optical mass estimation methods for galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, R. J.; Ponman, T. J.; Norberg, P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Farr, W. M.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the performance of a variety of different estimators for the mass of galaxy groups, based on their galaxy distribution alone. We draw galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey for a set of groups and clusters for which hydrostatic mass estimates based on high-quality Chandra X-ray data are available. These are used to calibrate the galaxy-based mass proxies, and to test their performance. Richness, luminosity, galaxy overdensity, rms radius and dynamical mass proxies are all explored. These different mass indicators all have their merits, and we argue that using them in combination can provide protection against being misled by the effects of dynamical disturbance or variations in star formation efficiency. Using them in this way leads us to infer the presence of significant non-statistical scatter in the X-ray based mass estimates we employ. We apply a similar analysis to a set of mock groups derived from applying a semi-analytic galaxy formation code to the Millennium dark matter simulation. The relations between halo mass and the mass proxies differ significantly in some cases from those seen in the observational groups, and we discuss possible reasons for this.

  13. Planetary nebulae in galaxies beyond the Local Group.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, H. C.; Ciardullo, R.; Jacoby, G. H.; Hui, X.

    Planetary nebulae can be used to estimate the distances to galaxies and to measure stellar dynamics in faint halos. The authors discuss surveys which have netted a total of 665 candidate planetary nebulae in NGC 5128 (Cen A), NGC 5102, NGC 3031 (M81), NGC 3115, three galaxies in the Leo Group (NGC 3379, NGC 3384, NGC 3377), NGC 5866, and finally, in NGC 4486 (M87). The highly consistent distances derived from the brightnesses of the jth nebula and the median nebula in different fields in the same galaxy and from different galaxies in the same group lend strong support to the suggestion that planetaries are an accurate standard candle in old stellar populations. Comparison of theoretical luminosity functions to be observed PNLFs shows that there is a very small dispersion in the central star masses.

  14. ASKAP H I imaging of the galaxy group IC 1459

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, P.; Koribalski, B.; Kilborn, V.; Allison, J. R.; Amy, S. W.; Ball, L.; Bannister, K.; Bell, M. E.; Bock, D. C.-J.; Bolton, R.; Bowen, M.; Boyle, B.; Broadhurst, S.; Brodrick, D.; Brothers, M.; Bunton, J. D.; Chapman, J.; Cheng, W.; Chippendale, A. P.; Chung, Y.; Cooray, F.; Cornwell, T.; DeBoer, D.; Diamond, P.; Forsyth, R.; Gough, R.; Gupta, N.; Hampson, G. A.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Hay, S.; Hayman, D. B.; Heywood, I.; Hotan, A. W.; Hoyle, S.; Humphreys, B.; Indermuehle, B.; Jacka, C.; Jackson, C. A.; Jackson, S.; Jeganathan, K.; Johnston, S.; Joseph, J.; Kamphuis, P.; Leach, M.; Lenc, E.; Lensson, E.; Mackay, S.; Marquarding, M.; Marvil, J.; McClure-Griffiths, N.; McConnell, D.; Meyer, M.; Mirtschin, P.; Neuhold, S.; Ng, A.; Norris, R. P.; O'Sullivan, J.; Pathikulangara, J.; Pearce, S.; Phillips, C.; Popping, A.; Qiao, R. Y.; Reynolds, J. E.; Roberts, P.; Sault, R. J.; Schinckel, A. E. T.; Shaw, R.; Shimwell, T. W.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Storey, M.; Sweetnam, A. W.; Troup, E.; Tzioumis, A.; Voronkov, M. A.; Westmeier, T.; Whiting, M.; Wilson, C.; Wong, O. I.; Wu, X.

    2015-09-01

    We present H I imaging of the galaxy group IC 1459 carried out with six antennas of the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder equipped with phased-array feeds. We detect and resolve H I in 11 galaxies down to a column density of ˜1020 cm-2 inside a ˜6 deg2 field and with a resolution of ˜1 arcmin on the sky and ˜8 km s-1 in velocity. We present H I images, velocity fields and integrated spectra of all detections, and highlight the discovery of three H I clouds - two in the proximity of the galaxy IC 5270 and one close to NGC 7418. Each cloud has an H I mass of ˜109 M⊙ and accounts for ˜15 per cent of the H I associated with its host galaxy. Available images at ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelengths do not reveal any clear stellar counterpart of any of the clouds, suggesting that they are not gas-rich dwarf neighbours of IC 5270 and NGC 7418. Using Parkes data, we find evidence of additional extended, low-column-density H I emission around IC 5270, indicating that the clouds are the tip of the iceberg of a larger system of gas surrounding this galaxy. This result adds to the body of evidence on the presence of intragroup gas within the IC 1459 group. Altogether, the H I found outside galaxies in this group amounts to several times 109 M⊙, at least 10 per cent of the H I contained inside galaxies. This suggests a substantial flow of gas in and out of galaxies during the several billion years of the group's evolution.

  15. The formation of compact groups of galaxies. I: Optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaferio, Antonaldo; Geller, Margaret J.; Ramella, Massimo

    1994-01-01

    The small crossing time of compact groups of galaxies (t(sub cr)H(sub 0) approximately less than 0.02) makes it hard to understand why they are observable at all. Our dissipationless N-body simulations show that within a single rich collapsing group compact groups of galaxies continually form. The mean lifetime of a particular compact configuration if approximately 1 Gyr. On this time scale, members may merge and/or other galaxies in the loose group may join the compact configuration. In other words, compact configurations are continually replaced by new systems. The frequency of this process explains the observability of compact groups. Our model produces compact configurations (compact groups (CG's) with optical properties remarkably similar to Hickson's (1982) compact groups (HCG's): (1) CG's have a frequency distribution of members similar to that of HCG's; (2) CG's are approximately equals 10 times as dense as loose groups; (3) CG's have dynamical properties remarkably similar to those of HCG's; (4) most of the galaxy members of CG's are not merger remnants. The crucial aspect of the model is the relationship between CG's and the surrounding rich loose group. Our model predicts the frequency of occurrence of CG's. A preliminary analysis of 18 rich loose groups is consistent with the model prediction. We suggest further observational tests of the model.

  16. SPIDER - IX. Classifying galaxy groups according to their velocity distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A. L. B.; de Carvalho, R. R.; Trevisan, M.; Capelato, H. V.; La Barbera, F.; Lopes, P. A. A.; Schilling, A. C.

    2013-09-01

    We introduce a new method to study the velocity distribution of galaxy systems, the Hellinger Distance (HD), designed for detecting departures from a Gaussian velocity distribution. Testing different approaches to measure normality of a distribution, we conclude that HD is the least vulnerable method to type I and II statistical errors. We define a relaxed galactic system as the one with unimodal velocity distribution and a normality deviation below a critical value (HD < 0.05). In this work, we study the Gaussian nature of the velocity distribution of the Berlind group sample, and of the FoF groups from the Millennium simulation. For the Berlind group sample (z < 0.1), 67 per cent of the systems are classified as relaxed, while for the Millennium sample we find 63 per cent (z = 0). We verify that in multi-modal groups the average mass of modes in high-multiplicity (N ≥ 20) systems are significantly larger than in low-multiplicity ones (N < 20), suggesting that groups experience a mass growth at an increasing virialization rate towards z = 0, with larger systems accreting more massive subunits. We also investigate the connection between galaxy properties ([Fe/H], Age, eClass, g - r, Rpetro and <μpetro>) and the Gaussianity of the velocity distribution of the groups. Bright galaxies (Mr ≤ -20.7) residing in the inner and outer regions of groups do not show significant differences in the listed quantities regardless if the group has a Gaussian (G) or a Non-Gaussian (NG) velocity distribution. However, the situation is significantly different when we examine the faint galaxies (-20.7 < Mr ≤ -17.9). In G groups, there is a remarkable difference between the galaxy properties of the inner and outer galaxy populations, testifying how the environment is affecting the galaxies. Instead, in NG groups there is no segregation between the properties of galaxies in the inner and outer regions, showing that the properties of these galaxies still reflect the physical

  17. Effects of AGN feedback in galaxy groups and Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, C.; Padilla, N.; Cora, S.

    2009-05-01

    The combination of Cosmological numerical simulations and semi-analytical models of galaxy formation is a very appropriate method to study how different phenomena influence the galaxy and galaxy cluster formation. The main advantage of this combination consists in the fact that N-body simulations do not need to be rerun every time a change in the assumptions about baryonic processes is made since these are included in the semi-analytical models which run on the final N-Body simulation output. The Semi-analytic model takes into account radiative cooling of gas, stellar formation and different types of SN contribution, which eject energy and metals to the interstellar medium, allowing the chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium. In this project we use the semi-analytic hybrid model by Cora (2006, MNRAS, 368, 1540) and implement the AGN feedback, in two modes, the QSO mode (which takes into account mergers and galactic disk instabilities), and the Radio mode, which modifies the cooling in the galaxies These two processes allow to suppress the super flows in the hybrid model, and allows the study of QSOs in galaxy groups. This new implementation opens different possibles studies including the QSO luminosity function, the anti-hierarchical evolution of Mass Function, the BH mass and bulge mass relation, Color-Magnitude diagrams, TF relation, the galaxy luminosity function, the effects of AGN in neighbor galaxies and the behavior of QSOs in the sub-millimeter window.

  18. IGM Heating and AGN activity in Fossil Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miraghaei, H.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Ponman, T. J.; Jetha, N. N.; Raychaudhury, S.

    2014-07-01

    Fossil galaxy groups are energetically and morphologically ideal environments to study the intergalactic medium (IGM) heating, because their inter-galactic gas is undisturbed due to the lack of recent group scale mergers. We study the role of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in heating the IGM in a sample of five fossil galaxy groups by employing properties at 610 MHz and 1.4 GHz. We find that two of the dominant galaxies in fossil groups, ESO 3060170 and RX J1416.4+2315, are associated with the radio lobes. We evaluate the PdV work of the radio lobes and their corresponding heating power and compare to the X-ray emission loss within cooling radius. Our results show that the power due to mechanical heating is not sufficiently high to suppress the cooling.

  19. The Tully-Fisher relations for Hickson compact group galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Flores, S.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Plana, H.; Amram, P.; Epinat, B.

    2013-07-01

    We used K-band photometry, maximum rotational velocities derived from Fabry-Perot data and H I observed and predicted masses to study, for the first time, the K band, stellar and baryonic Tully-Fisher relations for galaxies in Hickson compact groups. We compared these relations with the ones defined for galaxies in less dense environments from the Gassendi HAlpha survey of Spirals and from a sample of gas-rich galaxies. We find that most of the Hickson compact group galaxies lie on the K-band Tully-Fisher relation defined by field galaxies with a few low-mass outliers, namely HCG 49b and HCG 96c, which appear to have had strong recent burst of star formation. The stellar Tully-Fisher relation for compact group galaxies presents a similar dispersion to that of the K-band relation, and it has no significant outliers when a proper computation of the stellar mass is done for the strongly star-forming galaxies. The scatter in these relations can be reduced if the gaseous component is taken into account, i.e. if a baryonic Tully-Fisher relation is considered. In order to explain the positions of the galaxies off the K-band Tully-Fisher relation, we favour a scenario in which their luminosities are brightened due to strong star formation or AGN activity. We argue that strong bursts of star formation can affect the B- and K-band luminosities of HCG 49b and HCG 96c and in the case of the latter also AGN activity may affect the K-band magnitude considerably, without affecting their total masses.

  20. Comparing the clustering of galaxies and galaxy group by using the SDSS DR7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiran; Brunner, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    By using the angular two-point correlation function, we measure the clustering strength of a clean sample of galaxies (explored in Wang, Brunner, & Dolence 2013) for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven. By using these same data, we first find isolated pairs, triplets, quads, and larger groups of galaxies, and subsequently measure the clustering of these subsamples. We find the clustering strength increases with groups size, which supports the halo model of galaxy clustering and demonstrates the efficacy of our isolated group catalog for general studies such as the galaxy merger rate. Finally, we explore the effects of galaxy spectral type and photometric redshift on the clustering behavior of these galaxy group samples. References: Blake, C., Collister, A., Lahav, O. 2008, MNRAS, 385, 1257 Hickson, P. 1982, ApJ, 255, 382 Ross, A. J., Brunner, R. J. 2009, MNRAS, 399, 878 Wang Y., Brunner R. J., Dolence J. C. 2013, MNRAS, 432, 1961 Zehavi, I., et al. 2004, ApJ, 608, 16

  1. THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY: THE VORONOI-DELAUNAY METHOD CATALOG OF GALAXY GROUPS

    SciTech Connect

    Gerke, Brian F.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Marc; Coil, Alison L.; Cooper, Michael C.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Faber, S. M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Noeske, Kai; Rosario, David J.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Yan, Renbin

    2012-05-20

    We present a public catalog of galaxy groups constructed from the spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the fourth data release from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) Galaxy Redshift Survey, including the Extended Groth Strip (EGS). The catalog contains 1165 groups with two or more members in the EGS over the redshift range 0 < z < 1.5 and 1295 groups at z > 0.6 in the rest of DEEP2. Twenty-five percent of EGS galaxies and fourteen percent of high-z DEEP2 galaxies are assigned to galaxy groups. The groups were detected using the Voronoi-Delaunay method (VDM) after it has been optimized on mock DEEP2 catalogs following similar methods to those employed in Gerke et al. In the optimization effort, we have taken particular care to ensure that the mock catalogs resemble the data as closely as possible, and we have fine-tuned our methods separately on mocks constructed for the EGS and the rest of DEEP2. We have also probed the effect of the assumed cosmology on our inferred group-finding efficiency by performing our optimization on three different mock catalogs with different background cosmologies, finding large differences in the group-finding success we can achieve for these different mocks. Using the mock catalog whose background cosmology is most consistent with current data, we estimate that the DEEP2 group catalog is 72% complete and 61% pure (74% and 67% for the EGS) and that the group finder correctly classifies 70% of galaxies that truly belong to groups, with an additional 46% of interloper galaxies contaminating the catalog (66% and 43% for the EGS). We also confirm that the VDM catalog reconstructs the abundance of galaxy groups with velocity dispersions above {approx}300 km s{sup -1} to an accuracy better than the sample variance, and this successful reconstruction is not strongly dependent on cosmology. This makes the DEEP2 group catalog a promising probe of the growth of cosmic structure that can potentially be used for cosmological tests.

  2. Most Distant Group of Galaxies Known in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-04-01

    New VLT Discovery Pushes Back the Beginnings Summary Using the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) , a team of astronomers from The Netherlands, Germany, France and the USA [1] have discovered the most distant group of galaxies ever seen , about 13.5 billion light-years away. It has taken the light now recorded by the VLT about nine-tenths of the age of the Universe to cover the huge distance. We therefore observe those galaxies as they were at a time when the Universe was only about 10% of its present age . The astronomers conclude that this group of early galaxies will develop into a rich cluster of galaxies, such as those seen in the nearby Universe. The newly discovered structure provides the best opportunity so far for studying when and how galaxies began to form clusters after the initial Big Bang , one of the greatest puzzles in modern cosmology. PR Photo 11a/02 : Sky field with the distant cluster of galaxies. PR Photo 11b/02 : Spectra of some of the galaxies in the cluster. Radio Galaxies as cosmic signposts A most intriguing question in modern astronomy is how the first groupings or "clusters" of galaxies emerged from the gas produced in the Big Bang. Some theoretical models predict that densely populated galaxy clusters ("rich clusters" in current astronomical terminology) are built up through a step-wise process. Clumps develop in the primeval gas, and stars condense out of these clumps to form small galaxies. Then these small galaxies merge together to form larger units. The peculiar class of "radio galaxies" is particularly important for investigating such scenarios. They are called so because their radio emission - a result of violent processes believed to be related to massive black holes located at the centres of these galaxies - is stronger by 5 - 10 orders of magnitude than that of our own Milky Way galaxy. In fact, this radio emission is often so intense that the galaxies can be spotted at extremely large distances, and thus at the remote epoch when

  3. Galaxy interactions in the Hickson Compact Group 88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosch, Noah

    2015-12-01

    I present observations of the Hickson Compact Group 88 (HCG88) obtained during the commissioning of a new 28-inch telescope at the Wise Observatory. This galaxy group was advertized to be non-interacting, or to be in a very early interaction stage, but this is not the case. The observations reported here were done using a `luminance' filter, essentially a very broad R filter, reaching a low surface brightness level of ≈26 mag arcsec-2. Additional observations were obtained in a narrow spectral band approximately centred on the rest-frame H α line from the group. Contrary to previous studies, my observations show that at least two of the major galaxies have had significant interactions in the past, although probably not between themselves. I report the discovery of a faint extended tail emerging from the brightest of the group galaxies, severe isophote twisting and possible outer shells around another galaxy, and map the H II regions in all the galaxies.

  4. Red Galaxy Structures Toward a Large Quasar Group Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williger, Gerard M.; Feil, E. C.; Haberzettl, L.; Clowes, R.; Campusano, L.; Haines, C. P.; Valls-Gabaud, D.; Lehnert, M.; Nesvadba, N.; LQG Team

    2014-01-01

    We present data from deep FUV-NUV-griz images toward a 2 sq degree region in the Clowes-Campusano Large Quasar Group field, which contains structures of quasars on the >100 Mpc scale at 0.8 and 1.2. Large Quasar Groups may be the signal posts for galaxy structures analogous to superclusters at high redshift. Using the six band photometry, we calculate photometric redshifts for red-selected galaxies to identify supercluster-size structures, and compare their locations with the quasars in the field.

  5. X-ray and optical properties of groups of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dell'antonio, Ian P.; Geller, Margaret J.; Fabricant, Daniel G.

    1994-01-01

    We have measured 125 redshifts in 31 groups of galaxies observed with Einstein, and have compiled an additional 543 redshifts from the literature. There is a correlation between galaxy surface density and group velocity dispersion, with mu is proportional to sigma(exp 1.6 +/- 0.6), but the scatter about this relation is large. We examine the relationship between the group x-ray luminosity in the 0.3-3.5 keV band and the measured velocity dispersion. Richer groups follow the same relation as rich clusters (1982) with L(sub X) proportional to sigma(exp 4.0 +/- 0.6), but the relation flattens for lower luminosity systems which have velocity dispersions below 300 km/s. We suggest that the L(sub x)-sigma relation arises from a combination of extended cluster emission and emission associated with individual galaxies. The x-ray emission for the richer groups is dominated by emission from the intragroup medium, as for the richer clusters; emission from the poorer clusters is dominated by less extended emission associated with the individual group galaxies.

  6. Galaxy evolution in nearby galaxy groups - III. A GALEX view of NGC 5846, the largest group in the local universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Antonietta; Mazzei, Paola; Rampazzo, Roberto; Bianchi, Luciana

    2016-06-01

    We explore the co-evolution of galaxies in nearby groups (Vhel ≤ 3000 km s-1) with a multiwavelength approach. We analyse GALEX far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) imaging, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey u, g, r, i, z data of groups spanning a large range of dynamical phases. We characterize the photometric properties of spectroscopically confirmed galaxy members and investigate the global properties of the groups through a dynamical analysis. Here, we focus on NGC 5846, the third most massive association of early-type galaxies (ETGs) after the Virgo and Fornax clusters. The group, composed of 90 members, is dominated by ETGs (about 80 per cent), and among ETGs about 40 per cent are dwarfs. Results are compared with those obtained for three groups in the LeoII cloud, which are radically different both in member-galaxy population and dynamical properties. The FUV-NUV cumulative colour distribution and the normalized UV luminosity function (LF) significantly differ due to the different fraction of late-type galaxy population. The UV LF of NGC 5846 resembles that of the Virgo cluster, however our analysis suggests that star formation episodes are still occurring in most of the group galaxies, including ETGs. The NUV-i colour distribution, the optical-UV colour-colour diagram, and NUV-r versus Mr colour-magnitude relation suggest that the gas contribution cannot be neglected in the evolution of ETG-type group members. Our analysis highlights that NGC 5846 is still in an active phase of its evolution, notwithstanding the dominance of dwarf and bright ETGs and its virialized configuration.

  7. The birthplace of compact groups of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramella, Massimo; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1994-01-01

    We use complete redshift surveys to study the redshift neighborhoods of 38 Hickson compact groups (HCGs). Twenty-nine of these HCGs (76%) are embedded in rich looser systems which we call HCG associations. Analysis of the redshift neighborhood of HCGs outside the CfA survey suggests that most HCGs are embedded in more extended physical systems. Rich loose groups extracted from the CfA survey (Ramella et al. (1994)) have physical properties similar to those of the HCG associations. These rich loose groups often contain compact configurations. N-body experiments (Diaferio (1994)) suggest that compact configurations analogous to HCGs form continually during the collapse of rich loose groups. These observational and numerical results suggest that rich loose groups are the birthplace of HCGs.

  8. Elliptical galaxies kinematics within general relativity with renormalization group effects

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Davi C.

    2012-09-01

    The renormalization group framework can be applied to Quantum Field Theory on curved space-time, but there is no proof whether the beta-function of the gravitational coupling indeed goes to zero in the far infrared or not. In a recent paper [1] we have shown that the amount of dark matter inside spiral galaxies may be negligible if a small running of the General Relativity coupling G is present (δG/G{sub 0}∼<10{sup −7} across a galaxy). Here we extend the proposed model to elliptical galaxies and present a detailed analysis on the modeling of NGC 4494 (an ordinary elliptical) and NGC 4374 (a giant elliptical). In order to compare our results to a well known alternative model to the standard dark matter picture, we also evaluate NGC 4374 with MOND. In this galaxy MOND leads to a significative discrepancy with the observed velocity dispersion curve and has a significative tendency towards tangential anisotropy. On the other hand, the approach based on the renormalization group and general relativity (RGGR) could be applied with good results to these elliptical galaxies and is compatible with lower mass-to-light ratios (of about the Kroupa IMF type)

  9. Constraining the Mass of the Local Group through Proper Motion Measurements of Local Group Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, S. Tony; van der Marel, R.; Anderson, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Local Group and its two dominant spiral galaxies have been the benchmark for testing many aspects of cosmological and galaxy formation theories. This includes, e.g., dark halo profiles and shapes, substructure and the "missing satellite" problem, and the minimum mass for galaxy formation. But despite the extensive work in all of these areas, our knowledge of the mass of the Milky Way and M31, and thus the total mass of the Local Group remains one of the most poorly established astronomical parameters (uncertain by a factor of 4). One important reason for this problem is the lack of information in tangential motions of galaxies, which can be only obtained through proper motion measurements. In this study, we introduce our projects for measuring absolute proper motions of (1) the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Leo I, (2) M31, and (3) the 4 dwarf galaxies near the edge of the Local Group (Cetus, Leo A, Tucana, and Sag DIG). Results from these three independent measurements will provide important clues to the mass of the Milky Way, M31, and the Local Group as a whole, respectively. We also present our proper motion measurement technique that uses compact background galaxies as astrometric reference sources.

  10. Scaling Relations of Galaxy Groups and PoorClusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming

    Galaxy groups and poor clusters are ideal systems to study baryonic physics, which is important for both using clusters for precision cosmology and understanding galaxy formation and evolution. Over the last decade, our understanding of the ICM properties of galaxy groups and poor clusters has greatly improved. However, there are still many unresolved problems. We propose to study the X-ray scaling relations of galaxy groups and poor clusters with XMM data in the archive. The study of a large sample is important to address significant systematic uncertainties. The rich XMM archive on low-mass systems is of great value, as they are selected by the cluster, galaxy, and AGN panels with different effective selection functions. Our sample includes about 100 groups and poor clusters with sufficient XMM data. The state-of-the-art method to model the local X-ray background will be applied, which is key for deriving X-ray gas properties at low surface brightness. The important scaling relations including M-T, M-Y_X, f_gas-T, entropy-M, L-T, L-Y_X, L-M and abundance-M will be derived. The scatter of in these relations will also be examined, as well as their connection to other group properties. This project represents a significant improvement over previous work. The final results will greatly improve our understanding of baryon physics in clusters and groups, especially when combined with the active efforts in simulation and analytic theory which are currently ongoing.

  11. The evolution of star formation activity in galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfanianfar, G.; Popesso, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Wuyts, S.; Wilman, D.; Biviano, A.; Ziparo, F.; Salvato, M.; Nandra, K.; Lutz, D.; Elbaz, D.; Dickinson, M.; Tanaka, M.; Mirkazemi, M.; Balogh, M. L.; Altieri, M. B.; Aussel, H.; Bauer, F.; Berta, S.; Bielby, R. M.; Brandt, N.; Cappelluti, N.; Cimatti, A.; Cooper, M.; Fadda, D.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floch, E.; Magnelli, B.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Nordon, R.; Newman, J. A.; Poglitsch, A.; Pozzi, F.

    2014-12-01

    We study the evolution of the total star formation (SF) activity, total stellar mass (ΣM*) and halo occupation distribution (HOD) in massive haloes by using one of the largest X-ray selected sample of galaxy groups with secure spectroscopic identification in the major blank field surveys (ECDFS, CDFN, COSMOS, AEGIS). We provide an accurate measurement of star formation rate (SFR) for the bulk of the star-forming galaxies using very deep mid-infrared Spitzer MIPS and far-infrared Herschel PACS observations. For undetected IR sources, we provide a well-calibrated SFR from spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. We observe a clear evolution in the level of SF activity in galaxy groups. The total SF activity in the high-redshift groups (0.5 < z < 1.1) is higher with respect to the low-redshift (0.15 < z < 0.5) sample at any mass by 0.8 ± 0.12 dex. A milder difference (0.35 ± 0.1 dex) is observed between the low-redshift bin and the groups at z ˜ 0. We show that the level of SF activity is declining more rapidly in the more massive haloes than in the more common lower mass haloes. We do not observe any evolution in the HOD and total stellar mass-halo mass relations in groups. The picture emerging from our findings suggests that the galaxy population in the most massive systems is evolving faster than galaxies in lower mass haloes, consistently with a `halo downsizing' scenario.

  12. Most Distant Group of Galaxies Known in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-04-01

    New VLT Discovery Pushes Back the Beginnings Summary Using the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) , a team of astronomers from The Netherlands, Germany, France and the USA [1] have discovered the most distant group of galaxies ever seen , about 13.5 billion light-years away. It has taken the light now recorded by the VLT about nine-tenths of the age of the Universe to cover the huge distance. We therefore observe those galaxies as they were at a time when the Universe was only about 10% of its present age . The astronomers conclude that this group of early galaxies will develop into a rich cluster of galaxies, such as those seen in the nearby Universe. The newly discovered structure provides the best opportunity so far for studying when and how galaxies began to form clusters after the initial Big Bang , one of the greatest puzzles in modern cosmology. PR Photo 11a/02 : Sky field with the distant cluster of galaxies. PR Photo 11b/02 : Spectra of some of the galaxies in the cluster. Radio Galaxies as cosmic signposts A most intriguing question in modern astronomy is how the first groupings or "clusters" of galaxies emerged from the gas produced in the Big Bang. Some theoretical models predict that densely populated galaxy clusters ("rich clusters" in current astronomical terminology) are built up through a step-wise process. Clumps develop in the primeval gas, and stars condense out of these clumps to form small galaxies. Then these small galaxies merge together to form larger units. The peculiar class of "radio galaxies" is particularly important for investigating such scenarios. They are called so because their radio emission - a result of violent processes believed to be related to massive black holes located at the centres of these galaxies - is stronger by 5 - 10 orders of magnitude than that of our own Milky Way galaxy. In fact, this radio emission is often so intense that the galaxies can be spotted at extremely large distances, and thus at the remote epoch when

  13. Properties of Galaxies and Groups at z < 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, R. S.; Lopes, P. A. A.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we analyze a sample of galaxy groups constructed from the fourth data release of the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) including the Extended Groth Strip (EGS). This sample was obtained by Gerke et al. (2012) using the Voronoi-Delaunay Method. We selected 105 galaxy groups with at least 8 members in a radius of 4 Mpc. For each group we estimated its properties such as velocity dispersion (σ), physical radius (R_{200}) and mass (M_{200}). We also classify the groups as Gaussian and non-Gaussian (dynamic evolved or not) based on their galaxy velocity distributions. This classification is based on the following statistical tests: Anderson-Darling, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Shapiro-Wilk, Jarque-Bera, Cramer-von Mises, D'Agostino and Dip test. When the Dip test confirms the hypothesis of the unimodality and all other tests prove the normality of the system, the group is classified as Gaussian. The behavior of gaussianity was checked varying the distance to the center of the group in 2-4 times its physical radius. Our results show that the number of systems classified as non-Gaussian groups grows with the increase of the physical radius.

  14. The Properties of Poor Groups of Galaxies. III. The Galaxy Luminosity Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabludoff, Ann I.; Mulchaey, John S.

    2000-08-01

    The form of the galaxy luminosity function (GLF) in poor groups-regions of intermediate galaxy density that are common environments for galaxies-is not well understood. Multiobject spectroscopy and wide-field CCD imaging now allow us to measure the GLF of bound group members directly (i.e., without statistical background subtraction) and to compare the group GLF with the GLFs of the field and of rich clusters. We use R-band images in 1.5×1.5 degree2 mosaics to obtain photometry for galaxies in the fields of six nearby (2800groups for which we have extensive spectroscopic data, including 328 new galaxy velocities. For the five groups with luminous X-ray halos, the composite group GLF for group members with -23+5loghgroup center is fit adequately by a Schechter function with M*R=-21.6+/-0.4+5log h and α=-1.3+/-0.1. We also find that (1) the ratio of dwarfs (-17+5logh>=MR>-19+5logh) to giants (MR<=-19+5logh) is significantly larger for the five groups with luminous X-ray halos than for the one marginally X-ray-detected group; (2) the composite GLF for the luminous X-ray groups is consistent in shape with two measures of the composite R-band GLF for rich clusters (Trentham; Driver et al.) and flatter at the faint end than another (α~-1.5 Smith et al.); (3) the composite group GLF rises more steeply at the faint end than the R-band GLF of the Las Campanas Redshift Survey (LCRS; α=-0.7 from Lin et al.), a large volume survey dominated by galaxies in environments more rarefied than luminous X-ray groups; (4) the shape difference between the LCRS field and composite group GLFs results mostly from the population of non-emission line galaxies (EW [O II]<5 Å), whose dwarf-to-giant ratio is larger in the denser group environment than in the field (cf. Ferguson & Sandage; Bromley et al.); and (5) the non-emission line dwarfs are more concentrated about the group center than the non

  15. Searching for merging groups of galaxies with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Maejima, Masato; Babazaki, Yasunori; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Hironori; Tawara, Yuzuru; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Sasaki, Shin; Sousbie, Thierry

    2015-08-01

    Observational studies for merging group systems are important in terms of understanding dynamical evolution into cluster systems from group-scale halos in structure formation of the Universe. However, observational samples are very limited due to mainly its low surface brightness. Thus, to search for new merging group-scale halos, 11 fields were selected in total and Suzaku X-ray observatory which possesses both high sensitivity especially in the soft energy band below 1 keV and stable background was used. Seven fields are regions located around junctions of galaxy filaments where intense structure formation is expected. The other regions include an optically-identified group in the field of view where an interaction between central and satellite galaxies is observed in optical. A galaxy-galaxy merger including a central massive galaxy can be an indicator of a major merger for group systems because a single massive galaxy can be a perturber for such low mass systems. We conducted both imaging and spectral analysis for all the fields and discovered significant excess X-ray signals compared to background components from all the fields in their images and spectra. At least 5 systems show complex morphologies with multiple peaks in their intensity maps and no corresponding early-type galaxies exist for some of the peaks, which suggests that the systems are experiencing on-going mergers. Resultant temperatures, abundances, luminosities are 1-2 keV, <0.5 solar and 1042-43 erg s-1, respectively and thus the spectral analysis revealed that the excess X-ray emissions originate from group-scale halos associated with a merging event even though no significant deviation was found compared with a known Lx-kT relation (Kawahara et al. 2011, Mitsuishi et al. 2014, Mitsuishi et al. in prep.). In this conference, we will report on the details of our analysis and results using multiwavelength data such as radio, infrared, optical and X-ray to comprehend the merger phenomena and

  16. ROSAT observations of the galaxy group AWM 7.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, D. M.; Boehringer, H.

    1995-09-01

    We present results of ROSAT/PSPC and HRI observations of the AWM 7 group of galaxies, which is a poor galaxy cluster and forms part of the Perseus-Pisces filament. The X-ray emission originates from intracluster gas at temperatures of 1.7 to 4.5keV. The cluster obviously is elliptical with a position angle perpendicular to the position angle of the dominant elliptical galaxy NGC 1129, which is offset from the cluster X-ray centre by 30kpc. The analysis of the PSPC imaging and spectral data yield a gravitational mass of 2-5x10^14^Msun_within a radius of 1.2Mpc and a cooling flow with a mass deposition rate of up to 60-66Msun_/yr.

  17. Structural properties of central galaxies in groups and clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yicheng; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Mo, H. J.; Katz, Neal; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Weinberg, Martin; Weinmann, Simone M.; Pasquali, Anna; Yang, Xiaohu

    2009-09-01

    Using a statistically representative sample of 911 central galaxies (CENs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 4 group catalogue, we study how the structure (shape and size) of the first rank (by stellar mass) group and cluster members depends on (1) galaxy stellar mass (Mstar), (2) the global environment defined by the dark matter halo mass (Mhalo) of the host group and (3) the local environment defined by their special halocentric position. We quantify the structure of SDSS galaxies with a GALFIT-based pipeline that fits two-dimensional Sérsic models to the r-band image data. Through tests with simulated and real galaxy images, we demonstrate that our pipeline can recover Sérsic parameters without significant bias. We find that the fitting results are most sensitive to the background sky level determination, and we strongly recommend using the SDSS global value. We also find that uncertainties in the background sky level translate into a strong covariance between the total magnitude, the half-light radius (r50) and the Sérsic index (n), especially for bright/massive galaxies. Applying our pipeline to the CEN sample, we find that n of CENs depends strongly on Mstar, but only weakly or not at all on Mhalo. The n-Mstar relation holds for CENs over the full range of halo masses that we consider. Less massive CENs tend to be disc like and high-mass systems are typically spheroids, with a considerable scatter in n at all galaxy masses. Similarly, CEN sizes depend on galaxy stellar mass and luminosity, with early- and late-type galaxies exhibiting different slopes for the size-luminosity (r50-L) and the size-stellar mass (r50-Mstar) scaling relations. Moreover, to test the impact of local environment on CENs, we compare the structure of CENs with that satellite galaxies (SATs) of comparable Mstar. We find that low-mass (<1010.75h-2Msolar) SATs have somewhat larger median Sérsic indices than CENs of a similar Mstar. Furthermore, low-mass, late

  18. Applying Social Networking and Clustering Algorithms to Galaxy Groups in ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramson, Ali; Wilcots, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Because most galaxies live in groups, and the environment in which it resides affects the evolution of a galaxy, it is crucial to develop tools to understand how galaxies are distributed within groups. At the same time we must understand how groups are distributed and connected in the larger scale structure of the Universe. I have applied a variety of networking techniques to assess the substructure of galaxy groups, including distance matrices, agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithms and dendrograms. We use distance matrices to locate groupings spatially in 3-D. Dendrograms created from agglomerative hierarchical clustering results allow us to quantify connections between galaxies and galaxy groups. The shape of the dendrogram reveals if the group is spatially homogenous or clumpy. These techniques are giving us new insight into the structure and dynamical state of galaxy groups and large scale structure. We specifically apply these techniques to the ALFALFA survey of the Coma-Abell 1367 supercluster and its resident galaxy groups.

  19. Deep Fabry-Perot Hα observations of two Sculptor group galaxies, NGC 247 and 300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Marcelin, M.; Epinat, B.; Carignan, C.; de Denus-Baillargeon, M.-M.; Daigle, O.; Hernandez, O.

    2011-09-01

    It has been suggested that diffuse ionized gas can extend all the way to the end of the H I disc, and even beyond, such as in the case of the warped galaxyNGC 253 (Bland-Hawthorn et al.). Detecting ionized gas at these radii could carry significant implications as to the distribution of dark matter in galaxies. With the aim of detecting this gas, we carried out a deep Hα kinematical analysis of two Sculptor group galaxies, NGC 247 and 300. The Fabry-Perot data were taken at the 36-cm Marseille Telescope in La Silla, Chile, offering a large field of view. With almost 20 hours of observations for each galaxy, very faint diffuse emission is detected. Typical emission measures of 0.1 cm-6 pc are reached. For NGC 247, emission extending up to a radius comparable with that of the H I disc (r˜ 13 arcmin) is found, but no emission is seen beyond the H I disc. For NGC 300, we detect ionized gas on the entirety of our field of view (rmax˜ 14 arcmin), and find that the bright H II regions are embedded in a diffuse background. Using the deep data, extended optical rotation curves are obtained, as well as mass models. These are the most extended optical rotation curves thus far for these galaxies. We find no evidence suggesting that NGC 247 has a warped disc, and to account for our non-detection of Hα emission beyond its H I disc, as opposed to the warped galaxy NGC 253, our results favour the model in which, only through a warp, ionization by hot young stars in the central region of a galaxy can let photons escape and ionize the interstellar medium in the outer parts.

  20. CO in Hickson compact group galaxies with enhanced warm H2 emission: Evidence for galaxy evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenfeld, U.; Appleton, P. N.; Cluver, M. E.; Guillard, P.; Alatalo, K.; Ogle, P.

    2014-10-01

    Context. Galaxies in Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) are believed to experience morphological transformations from blue, star-forming galaxies to red, early-type galaxies. Galaxies with a high ratio between the luminosities of the warm H2 to the 7.7 μm PAH emission (so-called Molecular Hydrogen Emission Galaxies, MOHEGs) are predominantly in an intermediate phase, the green valley. Their enhanced H2 emission suggests that the molecular gas is affected in the transition. Aims: We study the properties of the molecular gas traced by CO in galaxies in HCGs with measured warm H2 emission in order to look for evidence of the perturbations affecting the warm H2 in the kinematics, morphology and mass of the molecular gas. Methods: We observed the CO(1-0) emission of 20 galaxies in HCGs and complemented our sample with 11 CO(1-0) spectra from the literature. Most of the galaxies have measured warm H2 emission, and 14 of them are classified as MOHEGs. We mapped some of these galaxies in order to search for extra-galactic CO emission. We analyzed the molecular gas mass derived from CO(1-0), MH2, and its kinematics, and then compared it to the mass of the warm molecular gas, the stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR). Results: Our results are the following. (i) The mass ratio between the CO-derived and the warm H2 molecular gas is in the same range as found for field galaxies. (ii) Some of the galaxies, mostly MOHEGs, have very broad CO linewidths of up to 1000 km s-1 in the central pointing. The line shapes are irregular and show various components. (iii) In the mapped objects we found asymmetric distributions of the cold molecular gas. (iv) The star formation efficiency (=SFR/MH2) of galaxies in HCGs is very similar to isolated galaxies. No significant difference between MOHEGs and non-MOHEGs or between early-type and spiral galaxies has been found. In a few objects the SFE is significantly lower, indicating the presence of molecular gas that is not actively forming stars

  1. Finding Galaxy Groups in the Fields of Lensed Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Catherine E.; Bautz, M. W.

    2006-09-01

    Gravitationally lensed quasars can be used as an invaluable cosmological tool, however, the asymmetry observed in many lensed systems requires models of the lens to include a strong external shear component in addition to the lensing galaxy. The lensing galaxy may be a member of a group or cluster which could provide sufficient shear to account for the lensed image configuration. We are searching for X-ray emission from groups and clusters of galaxies in the fields of multiply-imaged quasars using Chandra's resolving power to separate the faint diffuse emission from the much brighter quasar images. We have analyzed all observations of gravitationally lensed quasars available in the Chandra archive from launch through the end of 2005 to search for this diffuse emission. We present a catalog of cluster and group properties for those fields with significant diffuse emission, and upper limits on group properties in fields where no diffuse emission is detected. These measurements are compared with optical data, where available, and with quasar lensing models. This research was supported by NASA contracts NAS-8-38252 and NAS-8-37716.

  2. Understanding the unique assembly history of central group galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Bundy, Kevin; Lackner, Claire; Leauthaud, Alexie; Treu, Tommaso; Mei, Simona; Coccato, Lodovico; Kneib, Jean Paul; Auger, Matthew; Nipoti, Carlo

    2014-12-10

    Central galaxies (CGs) in massive halos live in unique environments with formation histories closely linked to that of the host halo. In local clusters, they have larger sizes (R{sub e} ) and lower velocity dispersions (σ) at fixed stellar mass M {sub *}, and much larger R{sub e} at a fixed σ than field and satellite galaxies (non-CGs). Using spectroscopic observations of group galaxies selected from the COSMOS survey, we compare the dynamical scaling relations of early-type CGs and non-CGs at z ∼ 0.6 to distinguish possible mechanisms that produce the required evolution. CGs are systematically offset toward larger R{sub e} at fixed σ compared to non-CGs with similar M {sub *}. The CG R{sub e} -M {sub *} relation also shows differences, primarily driven by a subpopulation (∼15%) of galaxies with large R{sub e} , while the M {sub *}-σ relations are indistinguishable. These results are accentuated when double Sérsic profiles, which better fit light in the outer regions of galaxies, are adopted. They suggest that even group-scale CGs can develop extended components by these redshifts that can increase total R{sub e} and M {sub *} estimates by factors of ∼2. To probe the evolutionary link between our sample and cluster CGs, we also analyze two cluster samples at z ∼ 0.6 and z ∼ 0. We find similar results for the more massive halos at comparable z, but much more distinct CG scaling relations at low-z. Thus, the rapid, late-time accretion of outer components, perhaps via the stripping and accretion of satellites, would appear to be a key feature that distinguishes the evolutionary history of CGs.

  3. Faint Dwarf Galaxies in Hickson Compact Group 90

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordenes-Briceño, Yasna; Taylor, Matthew A.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Eigenthaler, Paul; Georgiev, Iskren Y.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Hilker, Michael; Lançon, Ariane; Mamon, Gary; Mieske, Steffen; Miller, Bryan W.; Peng, Eric W.; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén

    2016-08-01

    We report the discovery of a very diverse set of five low-surface brightness (LSB) dwarf galaxy candidates in Hickson Compact Group 90 (HCG 90) detected in deep U- and I-band images obtained with VLT/VIMOS. These are the first LSB dwarf galaxy candidates found in a compact group of galaxies. We measure spheroid half-light radii in the range 0.7 ≲ reff/kpc ≲ 1.5 with luminosities of -11.65 ≲ MU ≲ -9.42 and -12.79 ≲ MI ≲ -10.58 mag, corresponding to a color range of (U - I)0 ≃ 1.1 - 2.2 mag and surface brightness levels of μU ≃ 28.1 mag/arcsec2 and μI ≃ 27.4 mag/arcsec2. Their colours and luminosities are consistent with a diverse set of stellar population properties. Assuming solar and 0.02 Z⊙ metallicities we obtain stellar masses in the range M_*|_{Z_odot } ˜eq 10^{5.7-6.3} M_{odot } and M_*|_{0.02 Z_odot } ˜eq 10^{6.3-8} M_{odot }. Three dwarfs are older than 1 Gyr, while the other two significantly bluer dwarfs are younger than ˜2 Gyr at any mass/metallicity combination. Altogether, the new LSB dwarf galaxy candidates share properties with dwarf galaxies found throughout the Local Volume and in nearby galaxy clusters such as Fornax. We find a pair of candidates with ˜2 kpc projected separation, which may represent one of the closest dwarf galaxy pairs found. We also find a nucleated dwarf candidate, with a nucleus size of reff ≃ 46 - 63 pc and magnitude MU, 0 = -7.42 mag and (U - I)0 = 1.51 mag, which is consistent with a nuclear stellar disc with a stellar mass in the range 104.9 - 6.5 M⊙.

  4. Dwarf Galaxies in the Leo I Group: the Group Luminosity Function beyond the Local Group (Oral Contribution)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, K.; Bolte, M.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.

    We present first results of a survey of the Leo I group at 10 Mpc for M_R < -10 dwarf galaxies. This is part of a larger program to measure the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function in nearby poor groups. Our method is optimized to find Local-Group-like dwarfs down to dwarf spheroidal surface brightnesses, but we also find very large LSB dwarfs in Leo I with no Local Group counterpart. A preliminary measurement of the luminosity function yields a slope consistent with that measured in the Local Group.

  5. Groups of galaxies. III. the CfA survey

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, M.J.; Huchra, J.P.

    1983-06-01

    We present a statistically homogeneous group catalog (CfA) based on the CfA redshift survey (Huchra et al.). Groups in the catalog are all density enhancements in redshift space of a factor greater than 20. Group members are identified according to the procedure described in our previous study (Huchra and Geller) of a shallower whole-sky sample. All groups contain at least three members. Of the 176 groups in the CfA catalog, 102 have been identified in one or more previous studies. Because our algorithm searches for volume rather than surface density enhancements, the groups in a given region generally change only through the addition of fainter members when the magnitude limit of the galaxy catalog increases. In the region of overlap, agreement between our shallow catalog and the CfA catalog is excellent.

  6. Studying AGN Feedback in Galaxy Clusters and Groups with Athena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Jeremy; Athena Topical PanelAGN Feedback in Clusters; Groups

    2015-09-01

    In the centres of clusters of galaxies and groups the central active galactic nuclei are playing a vital role in preventing the rapid cooling of the surrounding hot atmosphere. Important scientific questions remain unanswered, however. These include (1) What is the mechanism by which the energy from jets is dissipated and distributed through intracluster or intragroup medium? (2) How is the AGN fuelling regulated? (3) What is the cumulative impact of powerful radio galaxies on baryons over cosmic time? With its high spectral resolution, good spatial resolution and large effective area, Athena promises to make important progress in answering these questions. For the first time it will measure both the spatially-resolved velocity distribution and thermodynamics of the cluster core region, allowing us to measure all the energetic contributions to feedback and cooling in the hot plasma. We describe how Athena will address these areas, as described in our supporting paper for the Athena mission proposal on AGN feedback in galaxy clusters and groups.

  7. Fossil group origins. VII. Galaxy substructures in fossil systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarattini, S.; Girardi, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Boschin, W.; Barrena, R.; del Burgo, C.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Corsini, E. M.; D'Onghia, E.; Kundert, A.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Fossil groups (FG) are expected to be the final product of galaxy merging within galaxy groups. In simulations, they are predicted to assemble their mass at high redshift. This early formation allows for the innermost M∗ galaxies to merge into a massive central galaxy. Then, they are expected to maintain their fossil status because of the few interactions with the large-scale structure. In this context, the magnitude gap between the two brightest galaxies of the system is considered a good indicator of its dynamical status. As a consequence, the systems with the largest gaps should be dynamically relaxed. Aims: In order to examine the dynamical status of these systems, we systematically analyze, for the first time, the presence of galaxy substructures in a sample of 12 spectroscopically-confirmed fossil systems with redshift z ≤ 0.25. Methods: We apply a number of tests to investigate the substructure in fossil systems in the two-dimensional space of projected positions out to R200. Moreover, for a subsample of five systems with at least 30 spectroscopically-confirmed members we also analyze the substructure in the velocity and in the three-dimensional velocity-position spaces. Additionally, we look for signs of recent mergers in the regions around the central galaxies. Results: We find that an important fraction of fossil systems show substructure. The fraction depends critically on the adopted test, since each test is more sensitive to a particular type of substructure. Conclusions: Our interpretation of the results is that fossil systems are not, in general, as relaxed as expected from simulations. Our sample of 12 spectroscopically-confirmed fossil systems need to be extended to compute an accurate fraction, but our conclusion is that this fraction is similar to the fraction of substructure detected in nonfossil clusters. This result points out that the magnitude gap alone is not a good indicator of the dynamical status of a system. However, the

  8. THE SUPPRESSION OF STAR FORMATION AND THE EFFECT OF THE GALAXY ENVIRONMENT IN LOW-REDSHIFT GALAXY GROUPS

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Mulchaey, John S.; Bai, Lei; Ponman, Trevor J.; Raychaudhury, Somak; Dariush, Ali

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the interaction between galaxies and their surroundings is central to building a coherent picture of galaxy evolution. Here we use Galaxy Evolution Explorer imaging of a statistically representative sample of 23 galaxy groups at z Almost-Equal-To 0.06 to explore how local and global group environments affect the UV properties and dust-corrected star formation rates (SFRs) of their member galaxies. The data provide SFRs out to beyond 2R{sub 200} in all groups, down to a completeness limit and limiting galaxy stellar mass of 0.06 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, respectively. At fixed galaxy stellar mass, we find that the fraction of star-forming group members is suppressed relative to the field out to an average radius of R Almost-Equal-To 1.5 Mpc Almost-Equal-To 2R{sub 200}, mirroring results for massive clusters. For the first time, we also report a similar suppression of the specific SFR within such galaxies, on average by 40% relative to the field, thus directly revealing the impact of the group environment in quenching star formation within infalling galaxies. At fixed galaxy density and stellar mass, this suppression is stronger in more massive groups, implying that both local and global group environments play a role in quenching. The results favor an average quenching timescale of {approx}> 2 Gyr and strongly suggest that a combination of tidal interactions and starvation is responsible. Despite their past and ongoing quenching, galaxy groups with more than four members still account for at least {approx}25% of the total UV output in the nearby universe.

  9. A Census of Baryons in Galaxy Clusters and Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Zabludoff, Ann I.

    2007-09-01

    We determine the contribution of stars in galaxies, intracluster stars, and the intracluster medium to the total baryon budget in nearby galaxy clusters and groups. We find that the baryon mass fraction (fb≡Ωb/Ωm) within r500 is constant for systems with M500 between 6×1013 and 1×1015 Msolar. Although fb is lower than the WMAP value, the shortfall is on the order of both the observational systematic uncertainties and the depletion of baryons within r500 that is predicted by simulations. The data therefore provide no compelling evidence for undetected baryonic components, particularly any that would be expected to vary in importance with cluster mass. A unique feature of the current analysis is direct inclusion of the contribution of intracluster light (ICL) in the baryon budget. With the addition of the ICL to the stellar mass in galaxies, the increase in X-ray gas mass fraction with increasing total mass is entirely accounted for by a decrease in the total stellar mass fraction, supporting the argument that the behavior of both the stellar and X-ray gas components is dominated by a decrease in star formation efficiency in more massive environments. Within just the stellar component, the fraction of the total stellar luminosity in the central, giant brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) and ICL (hereafter the BCG+ICL component) decreases as velocity dispersion (σ) increases for systems with 145 km s-1<=σ<=1026 km s-1, suggesting that the BCG+ICL component, and in particular the dominant ICL component, grows less efficiently in higher mass environments. The degree to which this behavior arises from our sample selection, which favored systems with central, giant elliptical galaxies, remains unclear. A more robust result is the identification of low-mass groups with large BCG+ICL components, demonstrating that the creation of ``intracluster'' stars does not require a massive cluster environment. Within r500 and r200, the BCG+ICL contributes on average 40% and 33% of

  10. The motions of clusters and group of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, Neta A.; Gramann, Mirt; Cen, Renyue

    1994-01-01

    The distributions of peculiar velocities of rich clusters and of groups of galaxies are investigated for different cosmological models and are compared with observations. Four cosmological models are studied: standard cold dark matter (CDM) (omega = 1); low-density CDM (omega = 0.3); hot dark matter (HDM) (omega = 1); and primeval baryonic isocurvature (PBI) (omega = 0.3). All models are normalized to the microwave background fluctuations observed by Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). We find that rich clusters of galaxies exhibit a Maxwellian distribution of peculiar velocities in all models, as expected from a Gaussian initial density field. The clusters appear to be fundamental and efficient tracers of the large-scale velocity field. The cluster three-dimensional velocity distribution typically peaks at v approximately 600 km/s and extends to high cluster velocities of v approximately 2000 km/s. The low-density CDM model exhibits somewhat lower velocities: it peaks at approximately 400 km/s and extends to approximately 1200 km/s. Approximately 10% (approximately 1% for low-density CDM) of all model rich clusters move with high peculiar velocities of V greater than or = 10(exp 3) km/s. The highest velocity clusters frequently originate in dense superclusters. The model velocity distributions of rich clusters are compared with the model velocity distributions of small groups of galaxies, and of the total matter. The group velocity distribution is, in general, similar to the velocity distribution of the rich clusters. The matter velocity distribution is similar to that of the rich clusters for the omega = 0.3 models; these models exhibit Maxwellian velocity distributions for clusters, for groups, and for matter that are all similar to one another. The mass distribution in the omega = 1 models, however, exhibits a longer tail of high velocities than do the clusters. This high-velocity tail originates mostly from the high velocities that exist within rich clusters

  11. THE ORIENTATIONS OF GALAXY GROUPS AND FORMATION OF THE LOCAL SUPERCLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Godlowski, Wlodzimierz; Flin, Piotr E-mail: sfflin@cyf-kr.edu.p

    2010-01-10

    We analyzed the orientation of galaxy groups in the Local Supercluster (LSC). It is strongly correlated with the distribution of neighboring groups in the scale up to about 20 Mpc. The group major axis is in alignment with both the line joining the two brightest galaxies and the direction toward the center of the LSC, i.e., Virgo cluster. These correlations suggest that two brightest galaxies were formed in filaments of matter directed toward the protosupercluster center. Afterward, the hierarchical clustering leads to aggregation of galaxies around these two galaxies. The groups are formed on the same or similarly oriented filaments. This picture is in agreement with the predictions of numerical simulations.

  12. Towards a realistic population of simulated galaxy groups and clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Brun, Amandine M. C.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Schaye, Joop; Ponman, Trevor J.

    2014-06-01

    We present a new suite of large-volume cosmological hydrodynamical simulations called cosmo-OWLS. They form an extension to the OverWhelmingly Large Simulations (OWLS) project, and have been designed to help improve our understanding of cluster astrophysics and non-linear structure formation, which are now the limiting systematic errors when using clusters as cosmological probes. Starting from identical initial conditions in either the Planck or WMAP7 cosmologies, we systematically vary the most important `sub-grid' physics, including feedback from supernovae and active galactic nuclei (AGN). We compare the properties of the simulated galaxy groups and clusters to a wide range of observational data, such as X-ray luminosity and temperature, gas mass fractions, entropy and density profiles, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux, I-band mass-to-light ratio, dominance of the brightest cluster galaxy and central massive black hole (BH) masses, by producing synthetic observations and mimicking observational analysis techniques. These comparisons demonstrate that some AGN feedback models can produce a realistic population of galaxy groups and clusters, broadly reproducing both the median trend and, for the first time, the scatter in physical properties over approximately two decades in mass (1013 M⊙ ≲ M500 ≲ 1015 M⊙) and 1.5 decades in radius (0.05 ≲ r/r500 ≲ 1.5). However, in other models, the AGN feedback is too violent (even though they reproduce the observed BH scaling relations), implying that calibration of the models is required. The production of realistic populations of simulated groups and clusters, as well as models that bracket the observations, opens the door to the creation of synthetic surveys for assisting the astrophysical and cosmological interpretation of cluster surveys, as well as quantifying the impact of selection effects.

  13. Searching for diffuse light in the M96 galaxy group

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Aaron E.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul; Feldmeier, John J.

    2014-08-10

    We present deep, wide-field imaging of the M96 galaxy group (also known as the Leo I Group). Down to surface brightness limits of μ{sub B} = 30.1 and μ{sub V} = 29.5, we find no diffuse, large-scale optical counterpart to the 'Leo Ring', an extended H I ring surrounding the central elliptical M105 (NGC 3379). However, we do find a number of extremely low surface brightness (μ{sub B} ≳ 29) small-scale streamlike features, possibly tidal in origin, two of which may be associated with the Ring. In addition, we present detailed surface photometry of each of the group's most massive members—M105, NGC 3384, M96 (NGC 3368), and M95 (NGC 3351)—out to large radius and low surface brightness, where we search for signatures of interaction and accretion events. We find that the outer isophotes of both M105 and M95 appear almost completely undisturbed, in contrast to NGC 3384 which shows a system of diffuse shells indicative of a recent minor merger. We also find photometric evidence that M96 is accreting gas from the H I ring, in agreement with H I data. In general, however, interaction signatures in the M96 Group are extremely subtle for a group environment, and provide some tension with interaction scenarios for the formation of the Leo H I Ring. The lack of a significant component of diffuse intragroup starlight in the M96 Group is consistent with its status as a loose galaxy group in which encounters are relatively mild and infrequent.

  14. Exploring stellar metallicities in dwarf galaxies and their implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Teresa Lynn

    In this thesis I discuss issues involving stellar metallicities in dwarf galaxies. Stars reflect the gas composition at the time they formed, thereby making the metallicity distribution function (MDF -- the relative number of stars as a function of metallicity) a record of the chemical evolution within a galaxy. I measure photometric metallicities using Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) observations aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Advantages of photometric metallicities include measuring every star in the field down to fainter magnitudes than allowed by spectroscopy. I quantified and calibrated the metallicity and temperature sensitivities of colors derived from nine WFC3 filters using Dartmouth isochrones and Kurucz model atmospheres. The photometric metallicities were tested and calibrated with five well studied Galactic clusters spanning three orders of magnitude in metallicity: M92, NGC 6752, NGC 104, NGC 5927, and NGC 6791. The greatest accuracy in assigning metallicity was found using the (F390M--F555W) color, with the main advantage being the increased color sensitivity at low metallicity. MDFs for a population, along with chemical evolution models provide evolutionary information about gas flows and enrichment within that galaxy. I measured photometric metallicities in Leo I, Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix, and analytical chemical evolution models were fit to their MDFs. The MDF shapes, chemical evolution models and dynamic histories suggest that the galactic conditions during periods of star formation influenced the metallicities. I find that the narrower MDFs are indicative of interactions occurring in concert with star formation, while a broader MDF indicates a passive evolution. Additionally, I explore ways to combine chemical evolution models and star formation histories (SFH), to quantify the metallicity evolution with time. The SFHs of Weisz et al. (2014) are assessed for their potential to determine MDFs for 40 Local Group dwarf galaxies. The SFH

  15. Local Group galaxies in a ΛCDM Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang-Shyang

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the galaxies in the Local Group including the Milky Way and its satellites and the Andromeda galaxy. I start with the analyses of satellites in a dark matter halo presumably similar to that of the Milky Way (Chapter 2). One of the goals is to establish the relation between the dark matter satellites seen in the simulations and the satellites (and especially their dark matter haloes) we see around the Milky Way. For example, do the simulated satellites have similar properties in terms of spatial distribution and kinematics to those of the Milky Way? I then take a further step to combine these dark matter simulations with phenomenological recipes to follow the evolution of the baryons that may be associated to the satellites (Chapter 3). The essential questions that I address here are: why there are only approximately 20 satellites around the Milky Way while many more are predicted in the simulations? What physical processes have affected the satellites and led them to have the variety of properties we observe today? In Chapter 4, I delve into the dynamical properties of the model satellites and compare the mass content in the innermost regions with the recent observational constraints for the Milky Way dwarfs. In Chapter 5, I estimate the masses of the Local Group and the Milky Way using a novel simulation of the Universe.

  16. KPNO 0.9m H(alpha) Imaging Survey of ``Transforming Galaxies" in Local Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Christopher; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Raychaudhury, Somak; Gargiulo, Adriana; Campusano, Luis

    2012-02-01

    We propose to use the KPNO 0.9-m telescope to obtain panoramic H(alpha) imaging of ~200 galaxies in two nearby (32, 35 Mpc) galaxy groups NGC 4261 and NGC 5353 from the CLoGS local group survey. In rich clusters ram-pressure stripping has been shown to be very effective at removing the gas contents and quenching star formation in infalling spiral galaxies. It is much less clear how galaxies are affected by the much lower ram pressures found in galaxy groups, or if other environmental processes begin to dominate. Given that >50% of galaxies in the local volume reside in groups, it is vital we gain new insights into which mechanisms drive the SFR-density relation in groups. The proposed H(alpha) imaging will allow us to resolve where star-formation is occuring in each galaxy. This can effectively discriminate between ram-pressure stripping characterized by truncated H(alpha) disks, the much gentler starvation mechanism which produces anemic spirals, and nuclear star-bursts triggered by low-velocity encounters which should be most frequent in groups.

  17. KPNO 0.9m H(alpha) Imaging Survey of ``Transforming Galaxies'' in Local Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Christopher; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Raychaudhury, Somak; Egami, Eiichi; Campusano, Luis

    2012-08-01

    We propose to use the KPNO 0.9-m telescope to obtain panoramic H(alpha) imaging of ~135 galaxies in ten nearby galaxy groups (60- 80 Mpc) from the Complete Local-Volume Groups Sample (CLoGS). In rich clusters ram-pressure stripping has been shown to be very effective at removing the gas contents and quenching star formation in infalling spiral galaxies. It is much less clear how galaxies are affected by the much lower ram pressures found in galaxy groups, or if other environmental processes begin to dominate. Given that >50% of galaxies in the local volume reside in groups, it is vital that we gain new insights into which mechanisms drive the SFR-density relation in groups. The proposed H(alpha) imaging will allow us to resolve where star-formation is occurring in each galaxy. This can effectively discriminate between ram-pressure stripping characterized by truncated H(alpha) disks, the much gentler starvation mechanism which produces anemic spirals, and nuclear starbursts triggered by low-velocity encounters and mergers which should be most frequent in groups.

  18. Star formation in globular clusters and dwarf galaxies and implications for the early evolution of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Douglas N. C.; Murray, Stephen D.

    1991-01-01

    Based upon the observed properties of globular clusters and dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, we present important theoretical constraints on star formation in these systems. These constraints indicate that protoglobular cluster clouds had long dormant periods and a brief epoch of violent star formation. Collisions between protocluster clouds triggered fragmentation into individual stars. Most protocluster clouds dispersed into the Galactic halo during the star formation epoch. In contrast, the large spread in stellar metallicity in dwarf galaxies suggests that star formation in their pregenitors was self-regulated: we propose the protocluster clouds formed from thermal instability in the protogalactic clouds and show that a population of massive stars is needed to provide sufficient UV flux to prevent the collapsing protogalactic clouds from fragmenting into individual stars. Based upon these constraints, we propose a unified scenario to describe the early epochs of star formation in the Galactic halo as well as the thick and thin components of the Galactic disk.

  19. Probing the Stellar Content of Galaxy Groups with Value-Added Group Catalogues in the SDSS DR7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Victor; Berlind, Andreas A.; Sinha, Manodeep; McBride, Cameron; Scoccimarro, Roman

    2016-01-01

    We present galaxy group catalogues from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7). Specifically, we use the Berlind et. al. (2006) Friends-of-Friends group finding algorithm to identify galaxy groups and clusters in three volume-limited samples. We assign group masses, Mgroup, to the galaxy groups via abundance matching based on their total luminosity, and we designate galaxies as centrals or satellites, where each central galaxy is the brightest member of its group. Additionally, we assign stellar masses, Mstar, and star formation rates, SFRs, to the galaxies from the MPA-JHU value- added catalogue. We explore the relationships between Mstar, SFR, and Mgroup for central and satellite galaxies, as well as for galaxy groups as a whole. We also present a set of mock group catalogues that are constructed from N-body simulations and we use them to estimate the impact of group-finding errors on our results. The SDSS and mock group catalogues will be made publicly available.

  20. Progress in the Study of ALFALFA Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Nichols, Nathan

    2013-04-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team Groups Project is a collaborative undertaking of faculty and students at 11 institutions, aimed at investigating properties of galaxy groups surveyed by the ALFALFA blind HI survey. The survey covers 7,000 square degrees and is expected to include more than 30,000 extragalactic sources when completed. Here we present analysis of HI spectra taken at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center and report on progress made with developing analysis software tools as part of the UAT study. These tools will be implemented with follow up observations of targeted sources generated from the original blind survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918, AST-0725267 and AST-0725380.

  1. Evolution of Group Galaxies from the First Red-Sequence Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, I. H.; Yee, H. K. C.; Hsieh, B. C.; Gladders, M.

    2012-04-01

    We study the evolution of the red-galaxy fraction (f red) in 905 galaxy groups with 0.15 <= z < 0.52. The galaxy groups are identified by the "probability friends-of-friends" algorithm from the first Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS1) photometric-redshift sample. There is a high degree of uniformity in the properties of the red sequence of the group galaxies, indicating that the luminous red-sequence galaxies in the groups are already in place by z ~ 0.5 and that they have a formation epoch of z >~ 2. In general, groups at lower redshifts exhibit larger f red than those at higher redshifts, showing a group Butcher-Oemler effect. We investigate the evolution of f red by examining its dependence on four parameters, one of which can be classified as intrinsic and three of which can be classified as environmental: galaxy stellar mass (M *), total group stellar mass (M *, grp, a proxy for group halo mass), normalized group-centric radius (r grp), and local galaxy density (Σ5). We find that M * is the dominant parameter such that there is a strong correlation between f red and galaxy stellar mass. Furthermore, the dependence of f red on the environmental parameters is also a strong function of M *. Massive galaxies (M * >~ 1011 M ⊙) show little dependence of f red on r grp, M *, grp, and Σ5 over the redshift range. The dependence of f red on these parameters is primarily seen for galaxies with lower masses, especially for M * <~ 1010.6 M ⊙. We observe an apparent "group down-sizing" effect, in that galaxies in lower-mass halos, after controlling for galaxy stellar mass, have lower f red. We find a dependence of f red on both r grp and Σ5 after the other parameters are controlled. At a fixed r grp, there is a significant dependence of f red on Σ5, while r grp gradients of f red are seen for galaxies in similar Σ5 regions. This indicates that galaxy group environment has a residual effect over that of local galaxy density (or vice versa), and both parameters need

  2. THE NATURE OF FOSSIL GALAXY GROUPS: ARE THEY REALLY FOSSILS?

    SciTech Connect

    La Barbera, F.; Sorrentino, G.; De Carvalho, R. R.; De la Rosa, I. G.; Gal, R. R.; Kohl-Moreira, J. L.

    2009-04-15

    We use SDSS-DR4 photometric and spectroscopic data out to redshift z {approx} 0.1 combined with ROSAT All Sky Survey X-ray data to produce a sample of 25 fossil groups (FGs), defined as bound systems dominated by a single, luminous elliptical galaxy with extended X-ray emission. We examine possible biases introduced by varying the parameters used to define the sample, and the main pitfalls are also discussed. The spatial density of FGs, estimated via the V/V {sub MAX} test, is 2.83 x 10{sup -6} h {sup 3} {sub 75} Mpc{sup -3} for L{sub X} > 0.89 x 10{sup 42} h {sup -2} {sub 75} erg s{sup -1} consistent with Vikhlinin et al., who examined an X-ray overluminous elliptical galaxy sample (OLEG). We compare the general properties of FGs identified here with a sample of bright field ellipticals generated from the same data set. These two samples show no differences in the distribution of neighboring faint galaxy density excess, distance from the red sequence in the color-magnitude diagram, and structural parameters such as a {sub 4} and internal color gradients. Furthermore, examination of stellar populations shows that our 25 FGs have similar ages, metallicities, and {alpha}-enhancement as the bright field ellipticals, undermining the idea that these systems represent fossils of a physical mechanism that occurred at high redshift. Our study reveals no difference between FGs and field ellipticals, suggesting that FGs might not be a distinct family of true fossils, but rather the final stage of mass assembly in the universe.

  3. Observational Evidence for Galaxy Evolution in the Local Group (Invited Talk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstoy, E.

    This review aims to give a summary of our understanding of galaxy evolution as infered from studies of nearby galaxies; how observations made with the Hubble Space Telescope have contributed significantly to our detailed understanding of the older stellar populations in Local Group dwarf galaxies. Recent results from VLT are also promising interesting future prospects for the study of resolved stellar populations in nearby dwarf galaxies.

  4. MID-INFRARED EVIDENCE FOR ACCELERATED EVOLUTION IN COMPACT GROUP GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Hibbard, John E.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Charlton, Jane C.; Jarrett, Thomas H.

    2010-11-15

    Compact galaxy groups are at the extremes of the group environment, with high number densities and low velocity dispersions that likely affect member galaxy evolution. To explore the impact of this environment in detail, we examine the distribution in the mid-infrared (MIR) 3.6-8.0 {mu}m color space of 42 galaxies from 12 Hickson compact groups (HCGs) in comparison with several control samples, including the LVL+SINGS galaxies, interacting galaxies, and galaxies from the Coma Cluster. We find that the HCG galaxies are strongly bimodal, with statistically significant evidence for a gap in their distribution. In contrast, none of the other samples show such a marked gap, and only galaxies in the Coma infall region have a distribution that is statistically consistent with the HCGs in this parameter space. To further investigate the cause of the HCG gap, we compare the galaxy morphologies of the HCG and LVL+SINGS galaxies, and also probe the specific star formation rate (SSFR) of the HCG galaxies. While galaxy morphology in HCG galaxies is strongly linked to position with MIR color space, the more fundamental property appears to be the SSFR, or star formation rate normalized by stellar mass. We conclude that the unusual MIR color distribution of HCG galaxies is a direct product of their environment, which is most similar to that of the Coma infall region. In both cases, galaxy densities are high, but gas has not been fully processed or stripped. We speculate that the compact group environment fosters accelerated evolution of galaxies from star-forming and neutral gas-rich to quiescent and neutral gas-poor, leaving few members in the MIR gap at any time.

  5. Intracluster medium cooling, AGN feedback, and brightest cluster galaxy properties of galaxy groups. Five properties where groups differ from clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaj, V.; Reiprich, T. H.; Schellenberger, G.; Eckmiller, H. J.; Mittal, R.; Israel, H.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: We aim to investigate cool-core and non-cool-core properties of galaxy groups through X-ray data and compare them to the AGN radio output to understand the network of intracluster medium (ICM) cooling and feedback by supermassive black holes. We also aim to investigate the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) to see how they are affected by cooling and heating processes, and compare the properties of groups to those of clusters. Methods: Using Chandra data for a sample of 26 galaxy groups, we constrained the central cooling times (CCTs) of the ICM and classified the groups as strong cool-core (SCC), weak cool-core (WCC), and non-cool-core (NCC) based on their CCTs. The total radio luminosity of the BCG was obtained using radio catalogue data and/or literature, which in turn was compared to the cooling time of the ICM to understand the link between gas cooling and radio output. We determined K-band luminosities of the BCG with 2MASS data, and used a scaling relation to constrain the masses of the supermassive black holes, which were then compared to the radio output. We also tested for correlations between the BCG luminosity and the overall X-ray luminosity and mass of the group. The results obtained for the group sample were also compared to previous results for clusters. Results: The observed cool-core/non-cool-core fractions for groups are comparable to those of clusters. However, notable differences are seen: 1) for clusters, all SCCs have a central temperature drop, but for groups this is not the case as some have centrally rising temperature profiles despite very short cooling times; 2) while for the cluster sample, all SCC clusters have a central radio source as opposed to only 45% of the NCCs, for the group sample, all NCC groups have a central radio source as opposed to 77% of the SCC groups; 3) for clusters, there are indications of an anticorrelation trend between radio luminosity and CCT. However, for groups this trend is absent; 4) the indication of

  6. GALAXIES IN X-RAY GROUPS. III. SATELLITE COLOR AND MORPHOLOGY TRANSFORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    George, Matthew R.; Ma, Chung-Pei; Bundy, Kevin; Leauthaud, Alexie; Vulcani, Benedetta; Tinker, Jeremy; Wechsler, Risa H.; Finoguenov, Alexis

    2013-06-20

    While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z = 0.2-1 with halo masses of 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} M{sub Sun} and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16,644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of satellite galaxies with group-centric distance and across cosmic time. Specifically at low stellar mass (log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 9.8-10.3), the fraction of disk-dominated star-forming galaxies declines from >50% among field galaxies to <20% among satellites near the centers of groups. This decline is accompanied by a rise in quenched galaxies with intermediate bulge+disk morphologies, and only a weak increase in red bulge-dominated systems. These results show that both color and morphology are influenced by a galaxy's location within a group halo. We suggest that strangulation and disk fading alone are insufficient to explain the observed morphological dependence on environment, and that galaxy mergers or close tidal encounters must play a role in building up the population of quenched galaxies with bulges seen in dense environments at low redshift.

  7. THE ZURICH ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY OF GALAXIES IN GROUPS ALONG THE COSMIC WEB. I. WHICH ENVIRONMENT AFFECTS GALAXY EVOLUTION?

    SciTech Connect

    Carollo, C. Marcella; Cibinel, Anna; Lilly, Simon J.; Miniati, Francesco; Cameron, Ewan; Peng, Yingjie; Pipino, Antonio; Rudick, Craig S.; Norberg, Peder; Silverman, John D.; Van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Finoguenov, Alexis

    2013-10-20

    The Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS) is based on a sample of ∼1500 galaxy members of 141 groups in the mass range ∼10{sup 12.5-14.5} M{sub ☉} within the narrow redshift range 0.05 < z < 0.0585. ZENS adopts novel approaches, described here, to quantify four different galactic environments, namely: (1) the mass of the host group halo; (2) the projected halo-centric distance; (3) the rank of galaxies as central or satellites within their group halos; and (4) the filamentary large-scale structure density. No self-consistent identification of a central galaxy is found in ∼40% of <10{sup 13.5} M{sub ☉} groups, from which we estimate that ∼15% of groups at these masses are dynamically unrelaxed systems. Central galaxies in relaxed and unrelaxed groups generally have similar properties, suggesting that centrals are regulated by their mass and not by their environment. Centrals in relaxed groups have, however, ∼30% larger sizes than in unrelaxed groups, possibly due to accretion of small satellites in virialized group halos. At M > 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}, satellite galaxies in relaxed and unrelaxed groups have similar size, color, and (specific) star formation rate distributions; at lower galaxy masses, satellites are marginally redder in relaxed relative to unrelaxed groups, suggesting quenching of star formation in low-mass satellites by physical processes active in relaxed halos. Overall, relaxed and unrelaxed groups show similar stellar mass populations, likely indicating similar stellar mass conversion efficiencies. In the enclosed ZENS catalog, we publish all environmental diagnostics as well as the galaxy structural and photometric measurements described in companion ZENS papers II and III.

  8. The Zurich Environmental Study of Galaxies in Groups along the Cosmic Web. I. Which Environment Affects Galaxy Evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carollo, C. Marcella; Cibinel, Anna; Lilly, Simon J.; Miniati, Francesco; Norberg, Peder; Silverman, John D.; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Cameron, Ewan; Finoguenov, Alexis; Peng, Yingjie; Pipino, Antonio; Rudick, Craig S.

    2013-10-01

    The Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS) is based on a sample of ~1500 galaxy members of 141 groups in the mass range ~1012.5-14.5 M ⊙ within the narrow redshift range 0.05 < z < 0.0585. ZENS adopts novel approaches, described here, to quantify four different galactic environments, namely: (1) the mass of the host group halo; (2) the projected halo-centric distance; (3) the rank of galaxies as central or satellites within their group halos; and (4) the filamentary large-scale structure density. No self-consistent identification of a central galaxy is found in ~40% of <1013.5 M ⊙ groups, from which we estimate that ~15% of groups at these masses are dynamically unrelaxed systems. Central galaxies in relaxed and unrelaxed groups generally have similar properties, suggesting that centrals are regulated by their mass and not by their environment. Centrals in relaxed groups have, however, ~30% larger sizes than in unrelaxed groups, possibly due to accretion of small satellites in virialized group halos. At M > 1010 M ⊙, satellite galaxies in relaxed and unrelaxed groups have similar size, color, and (specific) star formation rate distributions; at lower galaxy masses, satellites are marginally redder in relaxed relative to unrelaxed groups, suggesting quenching of star formation in low-mass satellites by physical processes active in relaxed halos. Overall, relaxed and unrelaxed groups show similar stellar mass populations, likely indicating similar stellar mass conversion efficiencies. In the enclosed ZENS catalog, we publish all environmental diagnostics as well as the galaxy structural and photometric measurements described in companion ZENS papers II and III. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla Chile. Program ID 177.A-0680.

  9. BRIGHTEST SATELLITE GALAXY ALIGNMENT OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY GALAXY GROUPS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhigang; Wang Yougang; Chen Xuelei; Yang Xiaohu; Xie Lizhi; Wang Xin E-mail: wangygcluster@gmail.com E-mail: lzxie@bao.ac.cn E-mail: wangxin@pha.jhu.edu

    2013-05-01

    We study the alignment signal between the distribution of the brightest satellite galaxies (BSGs) and the major axes of their host groups using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey group catalog constructed by Yang et al. After correcting for the effect of group ellipticity, a statistically significant ({approx}5{sigma}) major-axis alignment is detected and the alignment angle is found to be 43. Degree-Sign 0 {+-} 0. Degree-Sign 4. More massive and richer groups show a stronger BSG alignment. The BSG alignment around blue brightest central galaxies (BCGs) is slightly stronger than that around red BCGs. Red BSGs have a much stronger major-axis alignment than blue BSGs. Unlike BSGs, other satellites do not show very significant alignment with their group's major axis. We further explore BSG alignment using the semi-analytic model (SAM) constructed by Guo et al. In general, we found good agreement of the model with observations: BSGs in the SAM show a strong major-axis alignment that depends on group mass and richness in the same way as in observations and none of the other satellites exhibit prominent alignment. However, a discrepancy also exists in that the SAM shows a BSG color dependence opposite of that in observations, which is most probably induced by a missing large-scale environment ingredient in the SAM. The combination of two popular scenarios can explain the BSG alignment we detected. First, satellites merged into the group along the surrounding filaments, which are strongly aligned with the major axis of the group. Second, BSGs entered their host group more recently than other satellites, so they have preserved more information about their assembling history and major-axis alignment. In the SAM, we found positive evidence for the second scenario in the fact that BSGs merged into groups statistically more recently than other satellites. We also found that most of the BSGs (80%) were BCGs before they merged into groups and earlier merging BSGs tend to be closer to

  10. Detection of Molecular Gas in Void Galaxies : Implications for Star Formation in Isolated Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, M.; Saito, T.; Iono, D.; Honey, M.; Ramya, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present the detection of molecular gas from galaxies located in nearby voids using the CO(1-0) line emission as a tracer. The observations were performed using the 45 m single dish radio telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory. Void galaxies lie in the most underdense parts of our universe and a significant fraction of them are gas rich, late-type spiral galaxies. Although isolated, they have ongoing star formation but appear to be slowly evolving compared to galaxies in denser environments. Not much is known about their star formation properties or cold gas content. In this study, we searched for molecular gas in five void galaxies. The galaxies were selected based on their relatively high IRAS fluxes or Hα line luminosities, both of which signify ongoing star formation. All five galaxies appear to be isolated and two lie within the Bootes void. We detected CO(1-0) emission from four of the five galaxies in our sample and their molecular gas masses lie between 108 and 109 M⊙. We conducted follow-up Hα imaging observations of three detected galaxies using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope and determined their star formation rates (SFRs) from their Hα fluxes. The SFR varies from 0.2 to 1 M⊙ yr-1 which is similar to that observed in local galaxies. Our study indicates that although void galaxies reside in underdense regions, their disks contain molecular gas and have SFRs similar to galaxies in denser environments. We discuss the implications of our results.

  11. Mass dependent galaxy transformation mechanisms in the complex environment of SuperGroup Abell 1882

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Aparajita

    We present our data and results from panchromatic photometry and optical spectrometry of the nearest (extremely rich) filamentary large scale structure, SuperGroup Abell 1882. It is a precursor of a cluster and is an inevitable part of the narrative in the study of galaxy transformations. There has been strong empirical evidence over the past three decades that galaxy environment affects galaxy properties. Blue disky galaxies transform into red bulge-like galaxies as they traverse into the deeper recesses of a cluster. However, we have little insight into the story of galaxy evolution in the early stages of cluster formation. Besides, in relaxed clusters that have been studied extensively, several evolutionary mechanisms take effect on similar spatial and temporal scales, making it almost impossible to disentangle different local and global mechanisms. A SuperGroup on the other hand, has a shallower dark-matter potential. Here, the accreting galaxies are subjected to evolutionary mechanisms over larger time and spatial scales. This separates processes that are otherwise superimposed in rich cluster-filament interfaces. As has been found from cluster studies, galaxy color and morphology tie very strongly with local galaxy density even in a complex and nascent structure like Abell 1882. Our major results indicate that there is a strong dependence of galaxy transformations on the galaxy masses themselves. Mass- dependent evolutionary mechanisms affect galaxies at different spatial scales. The galaxy color also varies with radial projected distance from the assumed center of the structure for a constant local galaxy density, indicating the underlying large scale structure as a second order evolutionary driver. We have looked for clues to the types of mechanisms that might cause the transformations at various mass regimes. We have found the thoroughly quenched low mass galaxies confined to the groups, whereas there are evidences of intermediate-mass quenched galaxies

  12. Hot Gas and AGN Feedback in Galaxies and Nearby Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christine; Forman, William; Bogdan, Akos; Randall, Scott; Kraft, Ralph; Churazov, Eugene

    2013-07-01

    Massive galaxies harbor a supermassive black hole at their centers. At high redshifts, these galaxies experienced a very active quasar phase, when, as their black holes grew by accretion, they produced enormous amounts of energy. At the present epoch, these black holes still undergo occasional outbursts, although the mode of their energy release is primarily mechanical rather than radiative. The energy from these outbursts can reheat the cooling gas in the galaxy cores and maintain the red and dead nature of the early-type galaxies. These outbursts also can have dramatic effects on the galaxy-scale hot coronae found in the more massive galaxies. We describe research in three areas related to the hot gas around galaxies and their supermassive black holes. First we present examples of galaxies with AGN outbursts that have been studied in detail. Second, we show that X-ray emitting low-luminosity AGN are present in 80% of the galaxies studied. Third, we discuss the first examples of extensive hot gas and dark matter halos in optically faint galaxies.

  13. The Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS): Galaxy Evolution in Groups in the Nearby Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudick, Craig; Carollo, M.; Cibinel, A.; Pipino, A.; Lu, T.; Cameron, E.; Lilly, S.; Peng, Y.; Miniati, F.; Bonoli, S.; Silverman, J.; van Gorkum, J.

    2012-05-01

    ZENS is a survey of nearby (z 0.05) galaxy groups in the mass range 1012-1014 MSUN. From both spectroscopy and deep optical imaging, we have analyzed the structural, stellar population, and star-formation properties of the group galaxies. By comparing the galaxy populations, at fixed galactic stellar mass, across a wide range of environmental indicators - including group halo mass, group-centric radius, large scale structure density, and satellite vs. central galaxies - we are able to determine the dependence of galactic properties on each of these environmental measures. Our results indicate that the most significant environmental effects are seen for satellite galaxies as a function of the group-centric distance, where galaxies nearer the group centers are more likely to be quenched, be more bulge-dominated, and have redder colors (particularly in the disk component) than galaxies in the group outskirts. Group halo mass, LSS-density, and the central/satellite dichotomy tend to have smaller, although not always negligible, effects. Additionally, the group environment has a more pronounced affect on galaxies at lower stellar masses. We compare these results to those of several state-of-the art semi-analytic models of galaxy evolution. We find that the standard recipes tend to predict both an over-abundance of, and overly red colors for quenched galaxies. We instead find that a model in which the star-formation rate of galaxies is tied to the observed specific star formation evolution with redshift more accurately reproduced the numbers and colors of these quenched galaxies.

  14. Cosmological Implications of ROSAT Observations of Distant Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, J.; Jones, C.; Forman, W.; Donnally, R. H.; Rines, K. J.

    1996-12-01

    We have used ROSAT HRI observations to study the structure and properties of clusters of galaxies at redshifts of z = 0.2 - 0.33. In our sample of thirteen clusters, seven show obvious substructure in the form of double peaked emission, elliptical iso-intensity contours, and offset centers. For a subset of nine clusters in our sample, the standard isothermal-hydrostatic model has been used to determine physical properties of the hot gas distribution of the clusters. From the measured high, central gas densities and short cooling times, we conclude that at least six of these nine clusters possess cooling flows in their cores. The gas density distributions were used to determine the gas masses of the clusters. With temperatures determined from ASCA observations (Rines, 1997), the total gravitational masses for Abell 963, CL 1358+6245, Abell 2219, Abell 115, and Abell 2390 have been computed within 1 Mpc (H_0 = 50 km s(-1) Mpc(-1) . The gas mass fractions within 1 Mpc measured for these clusters average ~ 25%, and range from 0.16% to 0.32%. As galaxies only contribute a small fraction of the total mass of the clusters, we can essentially take this to be the baryon fraction, f_b. Assuming light-element nucleosynthesis, the f_b for these clusters, and others (e.g. David et al. 1995), requires Omega to be much smaller than unity, and thus does not support the standard inflationary model for a closed universe. In a comparison with a sample of nearby clusters we find that the weighted average core radius for the clusters in our sample falls below the average nearby core radius. But, scatter in our sample and a strong possibility of sample bias towards clusters with small core radii (cooling flow clusters) places doubt on an actual increase in core radius size from z = 0.2 to the present. The cosmological implications of these results will be discussed.

  15. On the Formation of Elliptical Galaxies via Mergers in Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranu, Dan; Dubinski, John; Yee, Howard K. C.

    2015-08-01

    Giant elliptical galaxies have long been thought to form through gas-rich "major" mergers of two roughly equal-mass spiral galaxies. However, ellipticals are often found at the centers of groups and are likely to have undergone several significant mergers since z=2. We test the hypothesis that ellipticals form through multiple, mainly minor and dry mergers in groups, using hundreds of N-body simulations of mergers in groups of three to twenty-five spirals (Taranu et al. 2013).Realistic mock observations of the central merger remnants show that they have similar surface brightness profiles to local ellipticals. The size-luminosity and velocity dispersion-luminosity relations have modest (~0.1 dex) scatter, with similar slopes; however, most remnants are too large and have too low dispersions for their luminosities. Some remnants show substantial (v/σ > 0.1) rotational support, but most are slow rotators with v/σ << 0.5.Ellipticals also follow a tight "fundamental plane" scaling relation between size R, mean surface brightness μ and velocity dispersion σ: R ∝ σ^a μ^b. This relation has small (<0.06 dex) scatter and significantly different coefficients from the expected scaling (a "tilt"). The remnants lie on a similar fundamental plane, with even smaller scatter (0.02 dex) and a tilt in the correct sense - albeit weaker than observed. This tilt is caused by variable dark matter fractions within the effective radius, such that massive merger remnants have larger central dark matter fractions than their lower-mass counterparts (Taranu et al. 2015).These results suggest that massive ellipticals can originate from multiple, mainly minor and dry mergers of spirals at z<2, producing tight scaling relations in the process. However, significant gas dissipation and/or more compact progenitor spirals may be needed to produce lower-mass, rapidly-rotating ellipticals. I will also show preliminary results from simulations with more realistic progenitor galaxies (including

  16. Group-galaxy correlations in redshift space as a probe of the growth of structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, F. G.; de la Torre, S.; Bianchi, D.; Guzzo, L.; Peacock, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the use of the cross-correlation between galaxies and galaxy groups to measure redshift-space distortions (RSD) and thus probe the growth rate of cosmological structure. This is compared to the classical approach based on using galaxy auto-correlation. We make use of realistic simulated galaxy catalogues that have been constructed by populating simulated dark matter haloes with galaxies through halo occupation prescriptions. We adapt the classical RSD dispersion model to the case of the group-galaxy cross-correlation function and estimate the RSD parameter β by fitting both the full anisotropic correlation function ξs(rp, π) and its multipole moments. In addition, we define a modified version of the latter statistics by truncating the multipole moments to exclude strongly non-linear distortions at small transverse scales. We fit these three observable quantities in our set of simulated galaxy catalogues and estimate statistical and systematic errors on β for the case of galaxy-galaxy, group-group, and group-galaxy correlation functions. When ignoring off-diagonal elements of the covariance matrix in the fitting, the truncated multipole moments of the group-galaxy cross-correlation function provide the most accurate estimate, with systematic errors below 3 per cent when fitting transverse scales larger than 10 h-1 Mpc. Including the full data covariance enlarges statistical errors but keep unchanged the level of systematic error. Although statistical errors are generally larger for groups, the use of group-galaxy cross-correlation can potentially allow the reduction of systematics while using simple linear or dispersion models.

  17. Galaxy Group Stephan's Quintet Video File HubbleMinute: Battle Royale in Stephan's Quintet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's closeup view of Stephan's Quintet, a group of five galaxies, reveals a string of brighter star clusters that separate like a diamond necklace. Astronomers studying the compact galaxy group Stephan's Quintet have seen creative destruction in the many collisions taking place among its galaxies. This HubbleMinute discusses what astronomers are learning and hope to learn from exploring the quintet.

  18. Galaxy Group Stephan's Quintet Video File HubbleMinute: Battle Royale in Stephan's Quintet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's closeup view of Stephan's Quintet, a group of five galaxies, reveals a string of brighter star clusters that separate like a diamond necklace. Astronomers studying the compact galaxy group Stephan's Quintet have seen creative destruction in the many collisions taking place among its galaxies. This HubbleMinute discusses what astronomers are learning and hope to learn from exploring the quintet.

  19. TIDAL INTERACTION AS THE ORIGIN OF EARLY-TYPE DWARF GALAXIES IN GROUP ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Paudel, Sanjaya; Ree, Chang H.

    2014-11-20

    We present a sample of dwarf galaxies that suffer ongoing disruption by the tidal forces of nearby massive galaxies. By analyzing structural and stellar population properties using the archival imaging and spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that they are likely a ''smoking gun'' example of the formation through tidal stirring of early-type dwarf galaxies (dEs) in the galaxy group environment. The inner cores of these galaxies are fairly intact and the observed light profiles are well fit by the Sérsic functions while the tidally stretched stellar halos are prominent in the outer parts. They are all located within a sky-projected distance of 50 kpc from the centers of the host galaxies and no dwarf galaxies have relative line-of-sight velocities larger than 205 km s{sup –1} to their hosts. We derive the Composite Stellar Population properties of these galaxies by fitting the SDSS optical spectra to a multiple-burst composite stellar population model. We find that these galaxies accumulate a significant fraction of stellar mass within the last 1 Gyr and contain a majority stellar population with an intermediate age of 2 to 4 Gyr. Based on this evidence, we argue that tidal stirring, particularly through the galaxy-galaxy interaction, might have an important role in the formation and evolution of dEs in the group environment where the influence of other gas stripping mechanism might be limited.

  20. Evidence for Tidal Interactions and Mergers as the Origin of Galaxy Morphology Evolution in Compact Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coziol, R.; Plauchu-Frayn, I.

    2007-06-01

    We present the results of a morphological study based on NIR images of 25 galaxies, with different levels of nuclear activity (star formation or AGN), in eight compact groups (CGs) of galaxies. We independently perform two different analyses: a study of the deviations of the isophotal levels from pure ellipses and a study of morphological asymmetries. The results yielded by the two analyses are highly consistent. For the first time, it is possible to show that deviations from pure ellipses are produced by inhomogeneous stellar mass distributions related to galaxy interactions and mergers. We find evidence of mass asymmetries in 74% of the galaxies in our sample. In 59% of these cases, the asymmetries come in pairs and are consistent with tidal effects produced by the proximity of companion galaxies. The symmetric galaxies are generally small in size or mass and inactive, and have an early-type morphology. They may have already lost their gas and least-attached envelope of stars to their more massive companions. In 20% of the galaxies we find evidence for cannibalism: a big galaxy swallowing a smaller companion. In 36% of the early-type galaxies the color gradient is positive (blue nucleus) or flat. Summing up these results, as much as 52% of the galaxies in our sample could show evidence of an ongoing or past merger. Our observations also suggest that galaxies in CGs merge more frequently under ``dry'' conditions (that is, once they have lost most of their gas). The high frequency of interacting and merging galaxies observed in our study is consistent with the bias of our sample toward CGs of type B, which represent the most active phase in the evolution of the groups. In these groups we also find a strong correlation between asymmetries and nuclear activity in early-type galaxies. This correlation allows us to identify tidal interactions and mergers as the cause of galaxy morphology transformation in CGs.

  1. Jets and Outflows in Radio Galaxies: Implications for AGN Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torresi, Eleonora; Grandi, Paola; Costantini, Elisa; Palumbo, Giorgio G. C.

    One of the main debated astrophysical problems is the role of the AGN feedback in galaxy formation. It is known that massive black holes have a profound effect on the formation and evolution of galaxies, but how black holes and galaxies communicate is still an unsolved problem. For Radio Galaxies, feedback studies have mainly focused on jet/cavity systems in the most massive and X-ray luminous galaxy clusters. The recent high-resolution detection of warm absorbers in some Broad Line Radio Galaxies allow us to investigate the interplay between the nuclear engine and the surrounding medium from a different perspective. We report on the detection of warm absorbers in two Broad Line Radio Galaxies, 3C 382 and 3C 390.3, and discuss the physical and energetic properties of the absorbing gas. Finally, we attempt a comparison between radio-loud and radio-quiet outflows.

  2. The Effect of Halo Mass on the H I Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Ilsang; Rosenberg, Jessica L.

    2015-10-01

    We combine data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA) to study the cold atomic gas content of galaxies in groups and clusters in the local universe. A careful cross-matching of galaxies in the SDSS, ALFALFA, and SDSS group catalogs provides a sample of group galaxies with stellar masses {10}8.4{M}⊙ ≤slant {M}*≤slant {10}10.6{M}⊙ and group halo masses {10}12.5{h}-1{M}⊙ ≤slant {M}h≤slant {10}15.0{h}-1{M}⊙ . Controlling our sample in stellar mass and redshift, we find no significant radial variation in the galaxy H i gas-to-stellar mass ratio for the halo mass range in our sample. However, the fraction of galaxies detected in ALFALFA declines steadily toward the centers of groups, with the effect being most prominent in the most massive halos. In the outskirts of massive halos a hint of a depressed detection fraction for low-mass galaxies suggests pre-processing that decreases the H i in these galaxies before they fall into massive clusters. We interpret the decline in the ALFALFA detection of galaxies in the context of a threshold halo mass for ram pressure stripping for a given galaxy stellar mass. The lack of an observable decrease in the galaxy H i gas-to-stellar mass ratio with the position of galaxies within groups and clusters highlights the difficulty of detecting the impact of environment on the galaxy H i content in a shallow H i survey.

  3. The Effect of Halo Mass on the H I Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Ilsang; Rosenberg, Jessica L.

    2015-10-01

    We combine data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA) to study the cold atomic gas content of galaxies in groups and clusters in the local universe. A careful cross-matching of galaxies in the SDSS, ALFALFA, and SDSS group catalogs provides a sample of group galaxies with stellar masses {10}8.4{M}ȯ ≤slant {M}*≤slant {10}10.6{M}ȯ and group halo masses {10}12.5{h}-1{M}ȯ ≤slant {M}h≤slant {10}15.0{h}-1{M}ȯ . Controlling our sample in stellar mass and redshift, we find no significant radial variation in the galaxy H i gas-to-stellar mass ratio for the halo mass range in our sample. However, the fraction of galaxies detected in ALFALFA declines steadily toward the centers of groups, with the effect being most prominent in the most massive halos. In the outskirts of massive halos a hint of a depressed detection fraction for low-mass galaxies suggests pre-processing that decreases the H i in these galaxies before they fall into massive clusters. We interpret the decline in the ALFALFA detection of galaxies in the context of a threshold halo mass for ram pressure stripping for a given galaxy stellar mass. The lack of an observable decrease in the galaxy H i gas-to-stellar mass ratio with the position of galaxies within groups and clusters highlights the difficulty of detecting the impact of environment on the galaxy H i content in a shallow H i survey.

  4. An X-ray View of Galaxies in Compact Groups and the Coma Cluster Infall Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Tyler D.

    2015-01-01

    As the majority of galaxies in the nearby universe exist in groups and clusters, it is imperative for our understanding of galaxy evolution to examine the effects these environments have on their member galaxies. In particular, compact groups of galaxies (CGs) occupy an interesting part of the parameter space having low velocity dispersions and high number densities. These characteristics increase the likelihood of multi-galaxy interactions over long timescales. Infrared observations of galaxies in CGs have suggested that CG members experience accelerated evolution from star-forming to passive. Using X-ray imaging spectroscopy from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, I characterize the luminosity and morphology of the hot intragroup gas in 19 CGs and compare the results with known galaxy cluster scaling relations and other group properties. Only the most massive CGs have hot intragroup gas similar to galaxy clusters. At low group masses, the hot gas becomes associated with individual galaxies and is linked to star formation. The low derived hot gas densities and low galaxy velocities imply that ram-pressure stripping, a common quenching process in galaxy clusters, is probably not the cause of the accelerated evolution in CGs. Using deep XMM observations, I also examine the X-ray emission from individual galaxies in the Coma cluster infall region, inside which the galaxies have infrared properties suggestive of accelerated evolution similar to CG members. While the Coma galaxies have X-ray emission consistent with known scaling relations between X-ray luminosity, star formation rate, and stellar mass, a CG galaxy comparison sample shows enhanced X-ray emission sometimes an order of magnitude more luminous than the expected value. Thus, while the mid-infrared properties of CG and Coma infall galaxies are similar, the X-ray data reveal that there are marked differences between these environments. While it has been hypothesized that low gas-phase metallicity may cause

  5. The Heavy Element Abundance in Groups of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, Laurence

    2000-01-01

    Over the past few years we have analyzed a sample of clusters observed by the Advanced Spacecraft for Cosmology Astrophysics (ASCA) X-ray satellite. We performed spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy of a sample of 18 relaxed clusters of galaxies with gas temperatures below 4 keV. The spectral analysis was done using ASCA/SIS (Solid state Imaging Spectrometer) data combined with imaging data from ROSAT/PSPC (German acronym for X-ray satellite/Position Sensitive Proportional Counter) and Einstein/IPC (Imaging Proportional Counter) observations. We derived temperature profiles using single-temperature fits for all of the clusters in the sample, and also corrected for the presence of cold gas in the center of so-called 'cooling flow' clusters. For all of the clusters in the sample we derived Si and Fe abundance profiles. For a few of the clusters we also were able to derive Ne and S abundance profiles. We compared the elemental abundances derived at similar overdensities in all of the clusters in the sample. We also compared element mass-to-light ratios for the entire sample. We concluded that the preferential accretion of low entropy, low abundance gas into the potentials of groups and cold clusters can explain most of the observed trends in metallicity. In addition, we discussed the importance of preheating of the intracluster medium by Type II supernovae on the cluster scaling relations.

  6. Midlife Crises in Dwarf Galaxies in the NGC 5353/4 Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, R. Brent; Trentham, Neil

    2008-04-01

    This third paper in a series about the dwarf galaxy populations in groups within the Local Supercluster concerns the intermediate mass (2.1 × 1013 M sun) NGC 5353/4 Group with a core dominated by S0 systems and a periphery of mostly spiral systems. Dwarf galaxies are strongly concentrated toward the core. The mass-to-light ratio M/LR = 105 M sun/L sun is a factor of 3 lower than for the two groups studied earlier in the series. The properties of the group suggest it is much less dynamically evolved than those two groups of early-type galaxies. By comparison, the NGC 5353/4 Group lacks superluminous systems but has a large fraction of intermediate-luminosity galaxies; or equivalently, a luminosity function with a flatter faint-end slope. The luminosity function for the NGC 5353/4 Group should steepen as the intermediate-luminosity galaxies merge. Evidence for the ongoing collapse of the group is provided by the unusually large incidence of star-formation activity in small galaxies with early morphological types. The pattern in the distribution of galaxies with activity suggests a succession of infall events. Residual gas in dwarfs that enter the group is used up in sputtering events. The resolution of midlife crises is exhaustion.

  7. Chemical substructure and inhomogeneous mixing in Local Group dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venn, K. A.

    Evidence for inhomogeneous mixing in the Carina, Draco, and Sculptor dwarf galaxies is examined from chemical abundance patterns. Inhomogeneous mixing at early times is indicated in the classical dwarf galaxies, though cannot be ascertained in ultra faint dwarfs. Mixing efficiencies can affect the early metallicity distribution function, the pre-enrichment levels in globular clusters, and also have an impact on the structure of dwarf systems at early times. Numerical models that include chemical evolution explicitly do a better job in reproducing the observations, and make interesting predictions for the nature of dwarf galaxies and their first stars at the earliest times.

  8. RR Lyrae variables in the Andromeda group galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Soung-Chul

    2011-08-01

    /H ]AndXI = -1.75; [Fe/H] AndXIII = --1.74) are consistent with the values calculated from the RGB slope indicating that our measurements are not significantly affected by the evolutionary effects of RRL stars. The distance to each galaxy was calculated using the absolute V magnitudes of the RRab stars. We obtained (m -- M)0, V = 24.54 for And XI and this value becomes (m -- M)0,V = 24.71 for And XIII. We discuss the origins of And XI and And XIII based on a comparative analysis of the luminosity-metallicity (L-M) relation of Local Group dwarf galaxies.

  9. Unveiling the Effects of Environment on Star Formation in Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, George; Bai, Lei; Marcillac, Delphine; Momcheva, Ivelina; Mulchaey, John; Rieke, Marcia; Tyler, Krystal; Zabludoff, Ann

    2008-03-01

    As galaxies evolve, they are subject to a menagerie of violent events that can disrupt or entirely subdue ongoing star formation. Nowhere is this more apparent than in high-density environments. Clustering due to hierarchical formation results in interactions between galaxies and the intracluster medium, leading to the demise of star formation and the rise of red sequence galaxies. However, correlations between local density and galaxy properties like morphology, star formation rate, and color exist from the largest clusters down to the poorest groups. It is likely, since the majority of galaxies lie in groups, that global trends in fundamental properties are driven by this environment. That is, the strong observed decline in star formation rate from z ~ 1 is likely to be directly related to processes affecting group galaxies. Despite this, groups are rarely studied, especially compared to the massive amounts of data available for clusters. Indeed, if we wish to study the effect of density on galaxy evolution, we need to focus on all densities. We propose to observe 48 groups of galaxies at intermediate redshifts (0.12 < z < 0.82), the era where strong evolution and transformation are expected for groups, with MIPS at 24-microns. This waveband is ideal for studying obscured star formation in galaxies, which is especially useful for our intermediate redshift range, where other star formation indicators, such as H-alpha and [OII] emission lines, become difficult to acquire and/or correct for obscuration. We will combine our groups with additional data for nearby groups and those at z ~ 1, as well as data for clusters at similar redshifts, to study the effects of a wide variety of densities on galaxy evolution from z ~ 1 to the present.

  10. The transition of galaxy groups from an invigorating environment to a suffocating one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, Michael; McGee, Sean; Parker, Laura; Bower, Richard; Mulchaey, John; Finoguenov, Alexis; Wilman, Dave; Connelly, Jennifer

    2010-02-01

    At low redshift, galaxy groups are hostile environments, gradually shutting down star formation activity; but at z=1 there is evidence that groups actually induce star formation in massive galaxies. While much can be learned about this important process from wide-field, sparsely sampled redshift surveys, a complementary and necessary approach is to study a smaller, pure sample of groups in detail. Only then is it possible to robustly measure the group mass, centre and radius, and the group-to-group variations predicted by simple infall models. We propose to continue a 3 semester programme begun in 09A, to study galaxies in 16 groups at 0.8galaxies in these systems.

  11. Cluster of galaxies & Cosmology - X-ray analysis of fossil group RXJ1720.1+2360

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozada, Monica

    2012-09-01

    We present the results on the X-ray analysis of fossil group of galaxies RXJ1720.1+2360. Fossil Groups are systems associated to extended emission in X-rays with one single central elliptical galaxy surrounded by very faint companions. This unusual lack of bright galaxies in the group is presumably due to galactic cannibalism. In this study we present for the first time the imaging and spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton data of RXJ1720.1+2360. This work is part of a systematic study to determine the X-ray properties of fossil groups.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Friends-of-friends galaxy group finder (Tempel+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempel, E.; Kipper, R.; Tamm, A.; Gramann, M.; Einasto, M.; Sepp, T.; Tuvikene, T.

    2016-01-01

    To delineate galaxy groups in the local Universe, we used galaxy data from the extragalactic distance database (EDD2; Tully et al., 2009AJ....138..323T). The sample encompasses three datasets. As the main source, we used the Two Micron All Sky Survey (Skrutskie et al. 2006AJ....131.1163S, Cat. VII/233) Redshift Survey (2MRS) galaxies brighter than 11.75 mag in the Ks band (for a description of the catalogue, see Huchra et al., 2012, Cat. J/ApJS/199/26). We only used galaxies that are securely off the Galactic plane: Galactic latitude |b|>5°. Since the galaxy sample becomes extremely sparse farther away, we only used galaxies with a cosmic microwave background (CMB) corrected redshift z=0...0.1 (up to 430Mpc). This selection restricts our 2MRS sample to 43480 galaxies. For our analysis, we complemented the main 2MRS sample with two other sources. From the CosmicFlows-2 survey that contains 8198 galaxies with redshift-independent distance estimates (CF2; Tully et al., 2013, Cat. J/AJ/146/86), we added 3627 (of these, 2799 galaxies do not have a measured Ks magnitude). In addition, we made use of the 2M++ catalogue Lavaux & Hudson (2011, Cat. J/MNRAS/416/2840), which combines elements from the 2MRS, the 6DF Galaxy Survey (Jones et al. 2009MNRAS.399..683J, Cat. VII/259), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al., 2000AJ....120.1579Y). Of the 64745 galaxies of the 2M++, we added 31271 galaxies down to Ks<12.54, which extends the sample well beyond the 2MRS magnitude limit. Our final galaxy dataset includes 78378 galaxies. (4 data files).

  13. The environmental history of group and cluster galaxies in a Λ cold dark matter universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucia, Gabriella; Weinmann, Simone; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2012-06-01

    We use publicly available galaxy merger trees, obtained applying semi-analytic techniques to a large high-resolution cosmological simulation, to study the environmental history of group and cluster galaxies. Our results highlight the existence of an intrinsic history bias which makes the nature versus nurture (as well as the mass versus environment) debate inherently ill posed. In particular, we show that (i) surviving massive satellites were accreted later than their less massive counterparts, from more massive haloes and (ii) the mixing of galaxy populations is incomplete during halo assembly, which creates a correlation between the time a galaxy becomes satellite and its present distance from the parent halo centre. The weakest trends are found for the most massive satellites, as a result of efficient dynamical friction and late formation times of massive haloes. A large fraction of the most massive group/cluster members are accreted on to the main progenitor of the final halo as central galaxies, while about half of the galaxies with low and intermediate stellar masses are accreted as satellites. Large fractions of group and cluster galaxies (in particular those of low stellar mass) have therefore been ‘pre-processed’ as satellites of groups with mass ˜1013 M⊙. To quantify the relevance of hierarchical structure growth on the observed environmental trends, we have considered observational estimates of the passive galaxy fractions and their variation as a function of halo mass and clustercentric distance. Comparisons with our theoretical predictions require relatively long times (˜5-7 Gyr) for the suppression of star formation in group and cluster satellites. It is unclear how such a gentle mode of strangulation can be achieved by simply relaxing the assumption of instantaneous stripping of the hot gas reservoir associated with accreting galaxies, or if the difficulties encountered by recent galaxy formation models in reproducing the observed trends

  14. Herschel observations of Hickson compact groups of galaxies: Unveiling the properties of cold dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsakis, Th.

    2013-09-01

    We present results of a Herschel far-IR and sub-mm study of a sample of 120 galaxies in 28 Hickson Compact Groups. Using the theoretical model of da Cunha et al. (2008), we have estimated the dust masses, luminosities and temperatures of the individual galaxies. Based on our results, we find that about half of the late-type galaxies in dynamically "old" groups, which were found to display redder UV-optical colors, have significantly lower dust-to-stellar mass ratios compared to those of actively star-forming galaxies of the same mass found both in HCGs and the field. Examining their dust-to-gas ratios we conclude that it is much easier for the dynamical interactions to strip the HI rather than the interstellar dust and H2 out of the galaxies. About 40% of the early-type galaxies (mostly lenticulars), of the dynamically "old" groups, where found to display similar dust properties with the "red" late-type galaxies. We detect the presence of diffuse cold dust in 4 HCGs and we estimate its mass. In addition, we quantify the fraction of the 250Ïm emission, which is located out of the main bodies of the "red" late-type galaxies to be 20% of their total emission at this band. Our findings suggest that the "red" late-type, as well as these lenticular galaxies should consist the transition populations between the star-forming and the quiescent galaxies sequences. On the other hand, the complete absence of any correlation between the dust and stellar masses of the elliptical galaxies (about 30% of the far-IR detected early-type galaxies), implies the external origin of their dust content.

  15. RADIO GALAXY FEEDBACK IN X-RAY-SELECTED GROUPS FROM COSMOS: THE EFFECT ON THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Giodini, S.; Finoguenov, A.; Boehringer, H.; Pierini, D.; Smolcic, V.; Massey, R.; BIrzan, L.; Zamorani, G.; Oklopcic, A.; Pratt, G. W.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Thompson, D.

    2010-05-01

    We quantify the importance of the mechanical energy released by radio galaxies inside galaxy groups. We use scaling relations to estimate the mechanical energy released by 16 radio-active galactic nuclei located inside X-ray-detected galaxy groups in the COSMOS field. By comparing this energy output to the host groups' gravitational binding energy, we find that radio galaxies produce sufficient energy to unbind a significant fraction of the intragroup medium. This unbinding effect is negligible in massive galaxy clusters with deeper potential wells. Our results correctly reproduce the breaking of self-similarity observed in the scaling relation between entropy and temperature for galaxy groups.

  16. RESOLVING THE GALAXIES WITHIN A GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULA: WITNESSING THE FORMATION OF A GALAXY GROUP?

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Brodwin, Mark; Chaffee, Frederic H.; Desai, Vandana; Soifer, B. T.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Matsuda, Yuichi

    2012-06-20

    Detailed analysis of the substructure of Ly{alpha} nebulae can put important constraints on the physical mechanisms at work and the properties of galaxies forming within them. Using high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of a Ly{alpha} nebula at z Almost-Equal-To 2.656, we have taken a census of the compact galaxies in the vicinity, used optical/near-infrared colors to select system members, and put constraints on the morphology of the spatially extended emission. The system is characterized by (1) a population of compact, low-luminosity ({approx}0.1 L*) sources-17 primarily young, small (R{sub e} Almost-Equal-To 1-2 kpc), disky galaxies including an obscured active galactic nucleus-that are all substantially offset ({approx}>20 kpc) from the line-emitting nebula; (2) the lack of a central galaxy at or near the peak of the Ly{alpha} emission; and (3) several nearly coincident, spatially extended emission components-Ly{alpha}, He II, and UV continuum-that are extremely smooth. These morphological findings are difficult to reconcile with theoretical models that invoke outflows, cold flows, or resonant scattering, suggesting that while all of these physical phenomena may be occurring, they are not sufficient to explain the powering and large extent of Ly{alpha} nebulae. In addition, although the compact galaxies within the system are irrelevant as power sources, the region is significantly overdense relative to the field galaxy population (by at least a factor of four). These observations provide the first estimate of the luminosity function of galaxies within an individual Ly{alpha} nebula system and suggest that large Ly{alpha} nebulae may be the seeds of galaxy groups or low-mass clusters.

  17. WARM-HOT GAS IN GROUPS AND GALAXIES TOWARD H2356-309

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Rik J.; Mulchaey, John S.; Kollmeier, Juna A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the galaxy and group distributions around three reported X-ray absorption line systems in the spectrum of the quasar H2356-309. Previous studies associated these absorbers with known large-scale galaxy structures (i.e., walls and filaments) along the line of sight. Such absorption lines typically trace {approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} K gas, and may be evidence of the elusive warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) thought to harbor the bulk of the low-redshift {sup m}issing baryons{sup ;} alternatively, they may be linked to individual galaxies or groups in the filaments. Here we combine existing galaxy survey data with new, multi-object Magellan spectroscopy to investigate the detailed galaxy distribution near each absorber. All of these three absorption systems are within the projected virial radii of nearby galaxies and/or groups, and could therefore arise in these virialized structures rather than (or in addition to) the WHIM. However, we find no additional galaxies near a fourth 'void' absorber recently found in the spectrum, suggesting that this system may indeed trace gas unassociated with any individual halo. Though the number of known systems is still small, spatial coincidences suggest that some X-ray absorbers lie in galaxy and/or group environments, though others could still trace the large-scale filamentary WHIM gas predicted by simulations.

  18. EVOLUTION OF GROUP GALAXIES FROM THE FIRST RED-SEQUENCE CLUSTER SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Li, I. H.; Yee, H. K. C.; Hsieh, B. C.; Gladders, M. E-mail: hyee@astro.utoronto.ca E-mail: gladders@oddjob.uchicago.edu

    2012-04-20

    We study the evolution of the red-galaxy fraction (f{sub red}) in 905 galaxy groups with 0.15 {<=} z < 0.52. The galaxy groups are identified by the 'probability friends-of-friends' algorithm from the first Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS1) photometric-redshift sample. There is a high degree of uniformity in the properties of the red sequence of the group galaxies, indicating that the luminous red-sequence galaxies in the groups are already in place by z {approx} 0.5 and that they have a formation epoch of z {approx}> 2. In general, groups at lower redshifts exhibit larger f{sub red} than those at higher redshifts, showing a group Butcher-Oemler effect. We investigate the evolution of f{sub red} by examining its dependence on four parameters, one of which can be classified as intrinsic and three of which can be classified as environmental: galaxy stellar mass (M{sub *}), total group stellar mass (M{sub *,grp}, a proxy for group halo mass), normalized group-centric radius (r{sub grp}), and local galaxy density ({Sigma}{sub 5}). We find that M{sub *} is the dominant parameter such that there is a strong correlation between f{sub red} and galaxy stellar mass. Furthermore, the dependence of f{sub red} on the environmental parameters is also a strong function of M{sub *}. Massive galaxies (M{sub *} {approx}> 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }) show little dependence of f{sub red} on r{sub grp}, M{sub *,grp}, and {Sigma}{sub 5} over the redshift range. The dependence of f{sub red} on these parameters is primarily seen for galaxies with lower masses, especially for M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 10.6} M{sub Sun }. We observe an apparent 'group down-sizing' effect, in that galaxies in lower-mass halos, after controlling for galaxy stellar mass, have lower f{sub red}. We find a dependence of f{sub red} on both r{sub grp} and {Sigma}{sub 5} after the other parameters are controlled. At a fixed r{sub grp}, there is a significant dependence of f{sub red} on {Sigma}{sub 5}, while r{sub grp

  19. Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented.

  20. Mechanisms for Galaxy Transformation in the Complex Environment of SuperGroup Abell 1882

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Aparajita; Keel, W. C.; Morrison, G. E.; Windhorst, R. A.; Smith, B.

    2013-01-01

    We present our results from a multi-wavelength study of galaxy transformations in the outskirts of SuperGroup Abell 1882, a highly filamentary and clumpy structure caught in the early stages of coalescing into a Coma-like cluster. Our data have been drawn from MMT, GMOS, WIYN, SDSS, SARA, CFHT, GALEX, Spitzer and Chandra. Clusters grow by accretion through filaments, and these accreted galaxies undergo transformations due to environmental effects. Radial locations of these transformations in cluster outskirts can be mapped to a time sequence. In relaxed clusters, several evolutionary mechanisms take effect on similar spatial and temporal scales, thus making it almost impossible to disentangle different local and global mechanisms. A SuperGroup, on the other hand, has shallower Dark Matter potential. Here, the accreting galaxies are subjected to evolutionary mechanisms over larger time and spatial scales. This separates processes that are otherwise superimposed in rich cluster-filament interfaces. We have studied transformations in Specific Star Formation Rate, birth rate parameter, color and morphological properties of 342 spectroscopically confirmed member galaxies of Abell 1882, as they make their journey through the feeding filaments into the high density core of the structure, as a function of their local galaxy density and structure-centric distance. Our results show that significant transformations in galaxies begin to occur much before the galaxies reach the X-ray gas environments of the dense groups. This indicates that ram pressure stripping is unlikely driver of early galaxy transformations in proto-clusters.

  1. Local group irregular galaxies LGS 3 and Pegasus

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, C.A.; Tully, R.B.

    1983-07-01

    The Galileo/IFA 500 x 500 CCD camera was used to resolve red giant stars in the gas-rich dwarf galaxy LGS 3 at magnitudes fainter than V = 21.8. Depending on whether these stars are >10/sup 9/ yr old or 10/sup 8/--10/sup 9/ yr old, the distance of the galaxy is 0.7--1.2 Mpc. Although H I gas has been detected in this system, there has been no significant star formation for at least the last 7 x 10/sup 7/ yr. The CM diagram of LGS 3 is compared with the CM diagrams of the Pegasus irregular galaxy discussed by Hoessel and Mould. A distance of 1.3 Mpc is suggested for Pegasus, rather than the larger distance preferred by Hoessel and Mould or the very much larger distance offered by Sandage and Tammann.

  2. The ultraviolet and infrared star formation rates of compact group galaxies: an expanded sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenkić, Laura; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Desjardins, Tyler D.; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Fedotov, Konstantin; Charlton, Jane; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Durrell, Pat R.; Gronwall, Caryl

    2016-07-01

    Compact groups of galaxies provide insight into the role of low-mass, dense environments in galaxy evolution because the low velocity dispersions and close proximity of galaxy members result in frequent interactions that take place over extended time-scales. We expand the census of star formation in compact group galaxies by Tzanavaris et al. (2010) and collaborators with Swift UVOT, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 μm photometry of a sample of 183 galaxies in 46 compact groups. After correcting luminosities for the contribution from old stellar populations, we estimate the dust-unobscured star formation rate (SFRUV) using the UVOT uvw2 photometry. Similarly, we use the MIPS 24 μm photometry to estimate the component of the SFR that is obscured by dust (SFRIR). We find that galaxies which are MIR-active (MIR-`red'), also have bluer UV colours, higher specific SFRs, and tend to lie in H I-rich groups, while galaxies that are MIR-inactive (MIR-`blue') have redder UV colours, lower specific SFRs, and tend to lie in H I-poor groups. We find the SFRs to be continuously distributed with a peak at about 1 M⊙ yr-1, indicating this might be the most common value in compact groups. In contrast, the specific SFR distribution is bimodal, and there is a clear distinction between star-forming and quiescent galaxies. Overall, our results suggest that the specific SFR is the best tracer of gas depletion and galaxy evolution in compact groups.

  3. OCCUPATION OF X-RAY-SELECTED GALAXY GROUPS BY X-RAY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A.; Hasinger, G.; Cappelluti, N.; Miyaji, T.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Zamorani, G.; Gilli, R.; George, M. R.; Tanaka, M.; Silverman, J.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Shankar, F.

    2012-10-10

    We present the first direct measurement of the mean halo occupation distribution (HOD) of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the COSMOS field at z {<=} 1, based on the association of 41 XMM and 17 C-COSMOS AGNs with member galaxies of 189 X-ray-detected galaxy groups from XMM-Newton and Chandra data. We model the mean AGN occupation in the halo mass range log M{sub 200} [M{sub Sun }] = 13-14.5 with a rolling-off power law with the best-fit index {alpha} = 0.06(- 0.22; 0.36) and normalization parameter f{sub a} 0.05(0.04; 0.06). We find the mean HOD of AGNs among central galaxies to be modeled by a softened step function at log M{sub h} > log M{sub min} = 12.75(12.10, 12.95) M{sub Sun} while for the satellite AGN HOD we find a preference for an increasing AGN fraction with M{sub h} , suggesting that the average number of AGNs in satellite galaxies grows slower ({alpha}{sub s} < 0.6) than the linear proportion ({alpha}{sub s} = 1) observed for the satellite HOD of samples of galaxies. We present an estimate of the projected autocorrelation function (ACF) of galaxy groups over the range of r{sub p} = 0.1-40 h {sup -1} Mpc at (z) = 0.5. We use the large-scale clustering signal to verify the agreement between the group bias estimated by using the observed galaxy groups ACF and the value derived from the group mass estimates. We perform a measurement of the projected AGN-galaxy-group cross-correlation function, excluding from the analysis AGNs that are within galaxy groups and we model the two-halo term of the clustering signal with the mean AGN HOD based on our results.

  4. Resolving the stellar halos of six massive disk galaxies beyond the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; Radburn-Smith, David J.; de Jong, Roelof S.; Bailin, Jeremy; Holwerda, Benne; Streich, David

    2016-08-01

    Models of galaxy formation in a hierarchical universe predict substantial scatter in the halo-to-halo stellar properties, owing to stochasticity in galaxies' merger histories. Currently, only few detailed observations of stellar halos are available, mainly for the Milky Way and M31. We present the stellar halo color/metallicity and density profiles of red giant branch stars out to ~60 kpc along the minor axis of six massive nearby Milky Way-like galaxies beyond the Local Group from the Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disks and Star clusters (GHOSTS) HST survey. This enlargement of the sample of galaxies with observations of stellar halo properties is needed to understand the range of possible halo properties, i.e. not only the mean properties but also the halo-to-halo scatter, what a `typical' halo looks like, and how similar the Milky Way halo is to other halos beyond the Local Group.

  5. The HST Snapshot Survey of Nearby Dwarf Galaxy Candidates. III. Resolved Dwarf Galaxies In and Beyond the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebel, E. K.; Seitzer, P.; Dolphin, A. E.; Geisler, D.; Guhathakurta, P.; Hodge, P. W.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Karachentseva, V. E.; Sarajedini, A.; Sharina, M. E.

    1999-12-01

    We present results for several nearby, resolved dwarf galaxies imaged with WFPC2 in the framework of our HST snapshot survey of nearby dwarf galaxy candidates (Seitzer et al., paper I in this series). All data presented here were analyzed with the automated photometry package HSTPHOT (Dolphin et al., paper IV in this series). Our closest target is the recently discovered Cassiopeia dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy (Karachentsev & Karachentseva 1999, A&A, 341, 355), a new Local Group member and companion of M31 (Grebel & Guhathakurta 1999, ApJ, 511, 101). Our WFPC2 snapshot data reveal a pronounced red horizontal branch in Cas dSph. IC 5152 is a dwarf irregular (dIrr) just beyond the Local Group. Our data show a significant intermediate-age population with a strongly tilted asymptotic giant branch (AGB), a substantial young population, and a wide giant branch. Other nearby galaxies to be discussed include NGC 1560, ESO 471-G006, ESO 470-G018, and KK 035. Most of these galaxies are being resolved into stars for the first time. We describe their properties in detail and derive distances for all dwarfs with a well-defined tip of the red giant branch. Membership of these galaxies in nearby groups is discussed. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant GO-08192.97A from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. EKG acknowledges support by NASA through grant HF-01108.01-98A from the Space Telescope Science Institute. EKG and IDK are supported by the Henri Chrétien International Research Grant administered by the American Astronomical Society. PG is an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow.

  6. NGC 5291: Implications for the Formation of Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malphrus, Benjamin K.; Simpson, Caroline E.; Gottesman, S. T.; Hawarden, Timothy G.

    1997-01-01

    The possible formation and evolution of dwarf irregular galaxies from material derived from perturbed evolved galaxies is addressed via an H I study of a likely example, the peculiar system NGC 5291. This system, located in the western outskirts of the cluster Abell 3574, contains the lenticular galaxy NGC 5291 which is in close proximity to a disturbed companion and is flanked by an extensive complex of numerous knots extending roughly 4 min north and 4 min south of the galaxy. In an initial optical and radio study, Longmore et al. (1979, MNRAS, 188, 285) showed that these knots have the spectra of vigorous star-forming regions, and suggested that some may in fact be young dwarf irregular galaxies. High resolution 21-cm line observations taken with the VLA are presented here and reveal that the H I distribution associated with this system encompasses not only the entire N-S complex of optical knots, but also forms an incomplete ring or tail that extends approximately 3 min to the west. The H I associated with NGC 5291 itself shows a high velocity range; the Seashell is not detected. The formation mechanism for this unusual system is unclear and two models - a large, low-luminosity ram-swept disk, and a ram-swept interaction-are discussed. The H I in the system contains numerous concentrations, mostly along the N-S arc of the star-forming complexes, which generally coincide with one or more optical knots; the larger H I features contain several x 10(exp 9) solar mass of gas. Each of the knots is compared to a set of criteria designed to determine if these objects are bound against their own internal kinetic energy and are tidally stable relative to the host galaxy. An analysis of the properties of the H I concentrations surrounding the optical star-forming complexes indicates that at least the largest of these is a bound system; it also possesses a stellar component. It is suggested that this object is a genuinely young dwarf irregular galaxy that has evolved from

  7. Groups and clusters of galaxies in the SDSS DR8. Value-added catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempel, E.; Tago, E.; Liivamägi, L. J.

    2012-04-01

    Aims: We intend to compile a new galaxy group and cluster sample of the latest available SDSS data, adding several parameter for the purpose of studying the supercluster network, galaxy and group evolution, and their connection to the surrounding environment. Methods: We used a modified friends-of-friends (FoF) method with a variable linking length in the transverse and radial directions to eliminate selection effects and to find reliably as many groups as possible. Using the galaxies as a basis, we calculated the luminosity density field. Results: We create a new catalogue of groups and clusters for the SDSS data release 8 sample. We find and add environmental parameters to our catalogue, together with other galaxy parameters (e.g., morphology), missing from our previous catalogues. We take into account various selection effects caused by a magnitude limited galaxy sample. Our final sample contains 576 493 galaxies and 77 858 groups. The group catalogue is available at http://www.aai.ee/~elmo/dr8groups/ and at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/540/A106

  8. Metallicity Distribution Functions of Four Local Group Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Teresa L.; Holtzman, Jon; Saha, Abhijit; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.

    2015-06-01

    We present stellar metallicities in Leo I, Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix dwarf galaxies derived from medium (F390M) and broad (F555W, F814W) band photometry using the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We measured metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) in two ways, (1) matching stars to isochrones in color-color diagrams and (2) solving for the best linear combination of synthetic populations to match the observed color-color diagram. The synthetic technique reduces the effect of photometric scatter and produces MDFs 30%-50% narrower than the MDFs produced from individually matched stars. We fit the synthetic and individual MDFs to analytical chemical evolution models (CEMs) to quantify the enrichment and the effect of gas flows within the galaxies. Additionally, we measure stellar metallicity gradients in Leo I and II. For IC 1613 and Phoenix our data do not have the radial extent to confirm a metallicity gradient for either galaxy. We find the MDF of Leo I (dwarf spheroidal) to be very peaked with a steep metal-rich cutoff and an extended metal-poor tail, while Leo II (dwarf spheroidal), Phoenix (dwarf transition), and IC 1613 (dwarf irregular) have wider, less peaked MDFs than Leo I. A simple CEM is not the best fit for any of our galaxies; therefore we also fit the “Best Accretion Model” of Lynden-Bell. For Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix we find similar accretion parameters for the CEM even though they all have different effective yields, masses, star formation histories, and morphologies. We suggest that the dynamical history of a galaxy is reflected in the MDF, where broad MDFs are seen in galaxies that have chemically evolved in relative isolation and narrowly peaked MDFs are seen in galaxies that have experienced more complicated dynamical interactions concurrent with their chemical evolution. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is

  9. FRESH ACTIVITY IN OLD SYSTEMS: RADIO AGNs IN FOSSIL GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Kelley M.; Wilcots, Eric M.; Hartwick, Victoria L. E-mail: ewilcots@astro.wisc.edu

    2012-08-15

    We present the first systematic 1.4 GHz Very Large Array radio continuum survey of fossil galaxy group candidates. These are virialized systems believed to have assembled over a gigayear in the past through the merging of galaxy group members into a single, isolated, massive elliptical galaxy and featuring an extended hot X-ray halo. We use new photometric and spectroscopic data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to determine that three of the candidates are clearly not fossil groups. Of the remaining 30 candidates, 67% contain a radio-loud (L{sub 1.4GHz} > 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}) active galactic nucleus (AGN) at the center of their dominant elliptical galaxy. We find a weak correlation between the radio luminosity of the AGN and the X-ray luminosity of the halo suggesting that the AGN contributes to energy deposition into the intragroup medium. We only find a correlation between the radio and optical luminosity of the central elliptical galaxy when we include X-ray-selected, elliptically dominated non-fossil groups, indicating a weak relationship between AGN strength and the mass assembly history of the groups. The dominant elliptical galaxy of fossil groups is on average roughly an order of magnitude more luminous than normal group elliptical galaxies in optical, X-ray, and radio luminosities and our findings are consistent with previous results that the radio-loud fraction in elliptical galaxies is linked to the stellar mass of a population. The current level of activity in fossil groups suggests that AGN fueling continues long after the last major merger. We discuss several possibilities for fueling the AGN at the present epoch.

  10. Star formation and environmental quenching of GEEC2 group galaxies at z ˜ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Angus; Balogh, Michael L.; McGee, Sean L.; Wilman, David J.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Tanaka, Masayuki; Bower, Richard G.; Hou, Annie; Mulchaey, John S.; Parker, Laura C.

    2014-03-01

    We present new analysis from the Group Environment Evolution Collaboration 2 (GEEC2) spectroscopic survey of galaxy groups at 0.8 < z < 1. Our previous work revealed an intermediate population between the star-forming and quiescent sequences and a strong environmental dependence in the fraction of quiescent galaxies. Only ˜5 per cent of star-forming galaxies in both the group and field sample show a significant enhancement in star formation, which suggests that quenching is the primary process in the transition from the star-forming to the quiescent state. To model the environmental quenching scenario, we have tested the use of different exponential quenching time-scales and delays between satellite accretion and the onset of quenching. We find that with no delay, the quenching time-scale needs to be long in order to match the observed quiescent fraction, but then this model produces too many intermediate galaxies. Fixing a delay time of 3 Gyr, as suggested from the local Universe, produces too few quiescent galaxies. The observed fractions are best matched with a model that includes a delay that is proportional to the dynamical time and a rapid quenching time-scale (˜0.25 Gyr), but this model also predicts intermediate galaxies Hδ strength higher than that observed. Using stellar synthesis models, we have tested other scenarios, such as the rejuvenation of star formation in early-type galaxies and a portion of quenched galaxies possessing residual star formation. If environment quenching plays a role in the GEEC2 sample, then our work suggests that only a fraction of intermediate galaxies may be undergoing this transition and that quenching occurs quite rapidly in satellite galaxies (≲0.25 Gyr).

  11. INTRAGROUP AND GALAXY-LINKED DIFFUSE X-RAY EMISSION IN HICKSON COMPACT GROUPS

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, Tyler D.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Brandt, William N.; Charlton, Jane C.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Gronwall, Caryl; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Zabludoff, Ann I.

    2013-02-15

    Isolated compact groups (CGs) of galaxies present a range of dynamical states, group velocity dispersions, and galaxy morphologies with which to study galaxy evolution, particularly the properties of gas both within the galaxies and in the intragroup medium. As part of a large, multiwavelength examination of CGs, we present an archival study of diffuse X-ray emission in a subset of nine Hickson compact groups (HCGs) observed with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. We find that seven of the groups in our sample exhibit detectable diffuse emission. However, unlike large-scale emission in galaxy clusters, the diffuse features in the majority of the detected groups are linked to the individual galaxies, in the form of both plumes and halos likely as a result of vigourous star formation or activity in the galaxy nucleus, as well as in emission from tidal features. Unlike previous studies from earlier X-ray missions, HCGs 31, 42, 59, and 92 are found to be consistent with the L{sub X} -T relationship from clusters within the errors, while HCGs 16 and 31 are consistent with the cluster L{sub X} -{sigma} relation, though this is likely coincidental given that the hot gas in these two systems is largely due to star formation. We find that L{sub X} increases with decreasing group H I to dynamical-mass ratio with tentative evidence for a dependence in X-ray luminosity on H I morphology whereby systems with intragroup H I indicative of strong interactions are considerably more X-ray luminous than passively evolving groups. We also find a gap in the L{sub X} of groups as a function of the total group specific star formation rate. Our findings suggest that the hot gas in these groups is not in hydrostatic equilibrium and these systems are not low-mass analogs of rich groups or clusters, with the possible exception of HCG 62.

  12. Intragroup and Galaxy-linked Diffuse X-ray Emission In Hickson Compact Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, Tyler D.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Mulchaey, John S.; Brandt, William N.; Charlton, Jane C.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Gronwall, Caryl; Cardiff, Ann; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis, S.; Zabludoff, Ann I.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated compact groups (CGs) of galaxies present a range of dynamical states, group velocity dispersions, and galaxy morphologies with which to study galaxy evolution, particularly the properties of gas both within the galaxies and in the intragroup medium. As part of a large, multiwavelength examination of CGs, we present an archival study of diffuse X-ray emission in a subset of nine Hickson compact groups (HCGs) observed with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. We find that seven of the groups in our sample exhibit detectable diffuse emission. However, unlike large-scale emission in galaxy clusters, the diffuse features in the majority of the detected groups are linked to the individual galaxies, in the form of both plumes and halos likely as a result of vigourous star formation or activity in the galaxy nucleus, as well as in emission from tidal features. Unlike previous studies from earlier X-ray missions, HCGs 31, 42, 59, and 92 are found to be consistent with the L(sub X-Tau) relationship from clusters within the errors, while HCGs 16 and 31 are consistent with the cluster L(sub X-sigma) relation, though this is likely coincidental given that the hot gas in these two systems is largely due to star formation. We find that L(sub X) increases with decreasing group Hi to dynamical-mass ratio with tentative evidence for a dependence in X-ray luminosity on Hi morphology whereby systems with intragroup Hi indicative of strong interactions are considerably more X-ray luminous than passively evolving groups. We also find a gap in the L(sub X) of groups as a function of the total group specific star formation rate. Our findings suggest that the hot gas in these groups is not in hydrostatic equilibrium and these systems are not low-mass analogs of rich groups or clusters, with the possible exception of HCG 62.

  13. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies. III. Characterizing Quenching in Low-mass Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2015-05-01

    We explore the quenching of low-mass galaxies (104 ≲ {{M}\\star } ≲ 108 {{M}⊙ }) as a function of lookback time using the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies. The SFHs were derived by analyzing color-magnitude diagrams of resolved stellar populations in archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. We find: (1) lower-mass galaxies quench earlier than higher-mass galaxies; (2) inside of Rvirial there is no correlation between a satellite’s current proximity to a massive host and its quenching epoch; and (3) there are hints of systematic differences in the quenching times of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites, although the sample size and uncertainties in the SFHs of M31 dwarfs prohibit definitive conclusions. Combined with results from the literature, we qualitatively consider the redshift evolution (z = 0-1) of the quenched galaxy fraction over ˜7 dex in stellar mass (104 ≲ {{M}\\star } ≲ 1011.5 {{M}⊙ }). The quenched fraction of all galaxies generally increases toward the present, with both the lowest and highest-mass systems exhibiting the largest quenched fractions at all redshifts. In contrast, galaxies between {{M}\\star } ˜ 108-1010 {{M}⊙ } have the lowest quenched fractions. We suggest that such intermediate-mass galaxies are the least efficient at quenching. Finally, we compare our quenching times with predictions for infall times for low-mass galaxies associated with the MW. We find that some of the lowest-mass satellites (e.g., CVn II, Leo IV) may have been quenched before infall, while higher-mass satellites (e.g., Leo I, Fornax) typically quench ˜1-4 Gyr after infall. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA constract NAS 5-26555.

  14. Friends-of-friends galaxy group finder with membership refinement. Application to the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempel, E.; Kipper, R.; Tamm, A.; Gramann, M.; Einasto, M.; Sepp, T.; Tuvikene, T.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Groups form the most abundant class of galaxy systems. They act as the principal drivers of galaxy evolution and can be used as tracers of the large-scale structure and the underlying cosmology. However, the detection of galaxy groups from galaxy redshift survey data is hampered by several observational limitations. Aims: We improve the widely used friends-of-friends (FoF) group finding algorithm with membership refinement procedures and apply the method to a combined dataset of galaxies in the local Universe. A major aim of the refinement is to detect subgroups within the FoF groups, enabling a more reliable suppression of the fingers-of-God effect. Methods: The FoF algorithm is often suspected of leaving subsystems of groups and clusters undetected. We used a galaxy sample built of the 2MRS, CF2, and 2M++ survey data comprising nearly 80 000 galaxies within the local volume of 430 Mpc radius to detect FoF groups. We conducted a multimodality check on the detected groups in search for subgroups. We furthermore refined group membership using the group virial radius and escape velocity to expose unbound galaxies. We used the virial theorem to estimate group masses. Results: The analysis results in a catalogue of 6282 galaxy groups in the 2MRS sample with two or more members, together with their mass estimates. About half of the initial FoF groups with ten or more members were split into smaller systems with the multimodality check. An interesting comparison to our detected groups is provided by another group catalogue that is based on similar data but a completely different methodology. Two thirds of the groups are identical or very similar. Differences mostly concern the smallest and largest of these other groups, the former sometimes missing and the latter being divided into subsystems in our catalogue. The catalogues are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  15. The Discovery of Globular Clusters in the Protospiral Galaxy NGC 2915: Implications for Hierarchical Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Sirianni, M.; Ford, H. C.; Illingworth, G. D.; Benítez, N.; Clampin, M.; Menanteau, F.; Tran, H. D.; Kimble, R. A.; Hartig, G. F.; Ardila, D. R.; Bartko, F.; Bouwens, R. J.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Brown, R. A.; Burrows, C. J.; Cheng, E. S.; Cross, N. J. G.; Feldman, P. D.; Golimowski, D. A.; Gronwall, C.; Infante, L.; Krist, J. E.; Lesser, M. P.; Martel, A. R.; Miley, G. K.; Postman, M.; Rosati, P.; Sparks, W. B.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.; White, R. L.; Zheng, W.

    2003-12-01

    We have discovered three globular clusters beyond the Holmberg radius in Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys images of the gas-rich dark matter-dominated blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC 2915. The clusters, all of which start to resolve into stars, have MV606=-8.9 to -9.8 mag, significantly brighter than the peak of the luminosity function of Milky Way globular clusters. Their colors suggest a metallicity [Fe/H]~-1.9 dex, typical of metal-poor Galactic globular clusters. The specific frequency of clusters is at a minimum normal, compared to spiral galaxies. However, since only a small portion of the system has been surveyed, it is more likely that the luminosity and mass normalized cluster content is higher, like that seen in elliptical galaxies and galaxy clusters. This suggests that NGC 2915 resembles a key phase in the early hierarchical assembly of galaxies-the epoch when much of the old stellar population has formed but little of the stellar disk. Depending on the subsequent interaction history, such systems could go on to build up larger elliptical galaxies, evolve into normal spirals, or in rare circumstances remain suspended in their development to become systems like NGC 2915.

  16. Determining the Importance of Shocks on Galaxy Evolution in Compact Groups: a Herschel and CARMA View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatalo, Katherine A.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.; Cluver, M. E.; Bitsakis, T.; Guillard, P.; Charmandaris, V.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of galaxies from starforming blue cloud objects into quiescent red sequence galaxies has been revolutionized by observations taken with the Herschel Space Observatory, allowing astronomers to probe both the cold dust as well as the cool ISM in a large set of galaxies, with unprecedented sensitivity. Recent Herschel observations of [C II], a known tracer of star formation, in Hickson Compact Groups of galaxies (HCGs) has shown that [C II] can also be highly excited in shocks. CARMA CO observations of these [C II]-bright HCGs therefore shed light on the impact of shocks on the excitation of the ISM, as well as the starforming (molecular) material. I will present preliminary results from our Herschel-CARMA combined observations of HCGs, which are able to tell us about the synergistic relationships between shocks, star formation and the cool ISM in the context of galaxy evolution.

  17. Evidence for Multiple Mergers among Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies: Remnants of Compact Groups?

    PubMed

    Borne; Bushouse; Lucas; Colina

    2000-02-01

    In a large sample of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope, we have identified a significant subsample that shows evidence for multiple mergers. The evidence is seen among two classes of ULIRGs: (1) those with multiple remnant nuclei in their core, sometimes accompanied by a complex system of tidal tails, and (2) those that are in fact dense groupings of interacting (soon-to-merge) galaxies. We conservatively estimate that, in the redshift range 0.05groups of galaxies (see Hickson). An evolutionary progression is consistent with the results: from compact groups to pairs to ULIRGs to elliptical galaxies. The last step follows the blowout of gas and dust from the ULIRG. PMID:10622759

  18. AGN feedback in groups of galaxies: a joint X-ray/low-frequency radio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacintucci, S.; O'Sullivan, E.; Vrtilek, J. M.; Raychaudhury, S.; David, L. P.; Venturi, T.; Athreya, R.; Gitti, M.

    2010-07-01

    We present an ongoing, low-frequency radio/X-ray study of 18 nearby galaxy groups, chosen for the evidence, either in the X-ray or radio images, of AGN/intragroup gas interaction. We have obtained radio observations at 235 MHz and 610 MHz with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) for all the groups, and 327 MHz and 150 MHz for a few. We present results of the recent Chandra/GMRT study of the interesting case of AWM 4, a relaxed poor cluster of galaxies with no evidence of a large cool core and no X-ray cavities associated with the central radio galaxy. Our analysis shows how joining low-frequency radio data (to track the history of AGN outbursts) with X-ray data (to determine the state of the hot gas, its disturbances, heating and cooling) can provide a unique insight into the nature of the feedback mechanism in galaxy groups.

  19. MCG 06-45-001 - Not a local group galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, Steven N.; Sage, Leslie J.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of (C-12)O and (C-13)O J = 1 to 0 for MCG 06-45-001 are examined. It is argued that two features of CO emission with velocities of 1 and 10 km/s indicate that the object is similar to the Galactic molecular clouds in the immediate vicinity, and not to a spiral galaxy as suggested previously. It is considered that CO emission cannot arise from a spiral galaxy at a distance of 2-5 Mpc and that the object is unlikely to be a nearby dwarf. The feature at 10 km/s is considered to arise from a molecular cloud associated with an H II region, which produces the observed IRAS flux.

  20. Star Formation, Structure and Evolution of Galaxies in Loose Groups: The Environmental Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcum, Pamela Marie

    1994-01-01

    Galaxies seldom live in isolation. Rather, they reside in multi-galaxy systems (clusters, loose groups, compact groups) spanning a large range in kinematical properties. This thesis investigates the relationship between environment and properties of galaxies belonging to loose groups. The galactic properties which we consider are morphology, near infrared colors, Ha surface brightness (proportional to star formation rate), Ha emission equivalent width (sensitive to the star formation history), color gradients light distribution profiles, and luminosity functions. Recent N-body simulations predict that transitory compact configurations, each typically consisting of approx. 2 to 5 galaxies, are created continuously during collapse of a loose group. Given this model, a loose group is expected to acquire an increasing number of merger remnants and peculiar galaxies as that group evolves dynamically. This thesis investigates the possible observational consequences of group evolution by comparing two samples of galaxy groups: (1) groups that contain galaxies listed in the 'Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies', which either have obvious disturbed morphologies and/or are likely to be involved in an interaction with a close neighboring group member(s), and (2) a control sample containing members having 'normal' galaxy properties. The thesis consists of 3 papers: the first paper describes observations and data analysis for the near infrared (JHK) imaging, taken with the Kitt Peak SQIID detector at the 1.3 meter telescope. Near infrared contours, aperture photometry, and results based on the near infrared colors are presented. The second paper provides a description of the data analysis for the R and H(alpha) CCD images, taken with the Case Western Reserve University Burrell Schmidt telescope at Kitt Peak. The morphology of the star forming regions are shown by displaying H(alpha) maps overlaid with R band contours. Near infrared H(alpha) band and optical R band surface brightness

  1. VLA neutral hydrogen imaging of compact groups of galaxies. II - HCG 31, 44, and 79

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.A.; Mcmahon, P.M.; Van gorkom, J.H. Columbia University, New York )

    1991-06-01

    Neutral hydrogen images of three compact groups of galaxies are presented: HCG 31, 44, and 79. The images were obtained with the very large array (VLA), an on-line Hanning smoothing was applied to the data, and the H I spectral channel was isolated. The images were made on the Pipeline, and were produced by means of a method described by Gorkon and Ekers (1988). The images of HCG 44 are compared with earlier Arecibo observations. The H I emission in HCG 44 is discovered within the galaxies, whereas the emission in 31 and 79 can be found throughout the group in clouds that are larger than the galaxies. Evidence of a relationship between the compact groups is found in the H I data, and the groups are considered to be merging into a single object. Some of the groups are theorized to be young amorphous galaxies where the H I is still bound to individual galaxies, and which have just begun to condense from the intergalactic medium. The kinematics of the gas are shown to vary, and a common gaseous envelope contains the dwarf galaxies. 42 refs.

  2. The frequency and properties of young tidal dwarf galaxies in nearby gas-rich groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Waddell, K.; Spekkens, K.; Chandra, P.; Patra, N.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Wang, J.; Haynes, M. P.; Cannon, J.; Stierwalt, S.; Sick, J.; Giovanelli, R.

    2016-08-01

    We present high-resolution Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) H I observations and deep Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) optical imaging of two galaxy groups: NGC 4725/47 and NGC 3166/9. These data are part of a multi-wavelength unbiased survey of the gas-rich dwarf galaxy populations in three nearby interacting galaxy groups. The NGC 4725/47 group hosts two tidal knots and one dwarf irregular galaxy (dIrr). Both tidal knots are located within a prominent H I tidal tail, appear to have sufficient mass (Mgas ≈ 108 M⊙) to evolve into long-lived tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs) and are fairly young in age. The NGC 3166/9 group contains a TDG candidate, AGC 208457, at least three dIrrs and four H I knots. Deep CFHT imaging confirms that the optical component of AGC 208457 is bluer - with a 0.28 mag g - r colour - and a few Gyr younger than its purported parent galaxies. Combining the results for these groups with those from the NGC 871/6/7 group reported earlier, we find that the H I properties, estimated stellar ages and baryonic content of the gas-rich dwarfs clearly distinguish tidal features from their classical counterparts. We optimistically identify four potentially long-lived tidal objects associated with three separate pairs of interacting galaxies, implying that TDGs are not readily produced during interaction events as suggested by some recent simulations. The tidal objects examined in this survey also appear to have a wider variety of properties than TDGs of similar mass formed in current simulations of interacting galaxies, which could be the result of pre- or post-formation environmental influences.

  3. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF SEVEN IRREGULAR AND THREE TIDAL DWARF GALAXIES IN THE M81 GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Croxall, Kevin V.; Van Zee, Liese; Lee, Henry; Miller, Bryan W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Lee, Janice C.; Cote, Stephanie; Kennicutt, Robert C. E-mail: vanzee@astro.indiana.ed E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.ed E-mail: stephanie.cote@nrc-cnrc.gc.c E-mail: bmiller@gemini.ed

    2009-11-01

    We have derived nebular abundances for 10 dwarf galaxies belonging to the M81 Group, including several galaxies which do not have abundances previously reported in the literature. For each galaxy, multiple H II regions were observed with GMOS-N at the Gemini Observatory in order to determine abundances of several elements (oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, neon, and argon). For seven galaxies, at least one H II region had a detection of the temperature sensitive [O III] lambda4363 line, allowing a 'direct' determination of the oxygen abundance. No abundance gradients were detected in the targeted galaxies, and the observed oxygen abundances are typically in agreement with the well-known metallicity-luminosity relation. However, three candidate 'tidal dwarf' galaxies lie well off this relation: UGC 5336, Garland, and KDG 61. The nature of these systems suggests that UGC 5336 and Garland are indeed recently formed systems, whereas KDG 61 is most likely a dwarf spheroidal galaxy which lies along the same line of sight as the M81 tidal debris field. We propose that these H II regions formed from previously enriched gas which was stripped from nearby massive galaxies (e.g., NGC 3077 and M81) during a recent tidal interaction.

  4. The Termination Phase in Group Therapy: Implications for Geriatric Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklof, Mona

    1984-01-01

    Hypothesizes that a geriatric counseling group would have a particularly difficult time with termination because of their unique position in relation to the issues of loss and dependency. Concludes that the major work of group therapy termination involves the issues of loss and separation anxiety. (LLL)

  5. Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group and in the Local Volume (Invited Talk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebel, E. K.

    After summarizing the characteristics of different types of dwarf galaxies I briefly review our current state of knowledge of dwarf galaxy evolution in the Local Group, for which we now have a fairly detailed although by no means comprehensive picture. All Local Group dwarfs studied to date contain an old population, though its fraction varies considerably. The majority of the dwarf companions of the Milky Way shows evidence for a common epoch of ancient star formation. Spatial variations in star formation are frequently observed in many dwarf galaxies in the Local Group and beyond. These spatial variations range from a seemingly stochastic distribution of star-forming regions in gas-rich, high-mass dwarfs to radial gradients in low-mass dwarfs. The global mode of star formation may be either continuous with amplitude variations or episodic. High-mass dwarf galaxies tend to form stars over a Hubble time, whereas low-mass dwarfs eventually cease to form stars, possibly aided by environmental effects. Much less is known about the content and properties of dwarf galaxies in the Local Volume, which we are trying to remedy through a large observational effort. Dwarf galaxies in the Local Volume follow a similar trend with absolute magnitude, mean metallicity, and central surface brightness as the Local Group dwarfs do, and appear to be subject to morphological segregation.

  6. THE RELATION BETWEEN MORPHOLOGY AND DYNAMICS OF POOR GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tovmassian, Hrant M.; Plionis, M. E-mail: mplionis@astro.noa.gr

    2009-05-10

    We investigate the relation between the projected morphology and the velocity dispersion of groups of galaxies using two recently compiled group catalogs, one based on the Two Micron All Sky Survey redshift survey (Crook et al.) and the other on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 galaxy catalog (Tago et al.). We analyze a suitable subsample of groups from each catalog selected such that it minimizes possible systematic effects. We find that the velocity dispersion of groups is strongly correlated with the group-projected shape and size, with elongated and larger groups having a lower velocity dispersion. Such a correlation could be attributed to the dynamical evolution of groups, with groups in the initial stages of formation, before virialization is complete, having small velocity dispersion, a large size, and an elongated shape that reflects the anisotropic accretion of galaxies along filamentary structures. However, we show that the same sort of correlations could also be reproduced in prolatelike groups, irrespective of their dynamical state, if the net galaxy motion is preferentially along the group elongation, since then the groups oriented close to the line of sight will appear more spherical, will have a small projected size and high-velocity dispersion, while groups oriented close to the sky plane will appear larger in projection, more elongated, and will have smaller velocity dispersion. Although both factors must play a role in shaping the observed correlations, we attempt to disentangle them by performing tests that relate only to the dynamical evolution of groups (i.e., calculating the fraction of early-type galaxies in groups and the projected group compactness). Indeed we find a strong positive (negative) correlation between the group velocity dispersion (group-projected major axis) with the fraction of early-type galaxy members. We conclude that (1) the observed dependences of the group velocity dispersion on the group-projected size and

  7. A redshift survey of IRAS galaxies. V - The acceleration on the Local Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Michael A.; Yahil, Amos; Davis, Marc; Huchra, John P.; Fisher, Karl

    1992-01-01

    The acceleration on the Local Group is calculated based on a full-sky redshift survey of 5288 galaxies detected by IRAS. A formalism is developed to compute the distribution function of the IRAS acceleration for a given power spectrum of initial perturbations. The computed acceleration on the Local Group points 18-28 deg from the direction of the Local Group peculiar velocity vector. The data suggest that the CMB dipole is indeed due to the motion of the Local Group, that this motion is gravitationally induced, and that the distribution of IRAS galaxies on large scales is related to that of dark matter by a simple linear biasing model.

  8. A 3D analysis of the metal distribution in the compact group of galaxies HCG 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Flores, Sergio; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; Alfaro-Cuello, Mayte; Rodrigo Carrasco, Eleazar; de Mello, Duilia; Amram, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    We present new Gemini/GMOS integral field unit observations of the central region of the merging compact group of galaxies HCG 31. Using this data set, we derive the oxygen abundances for the merging galaxies HCG 31A and HCG 31C. We found a smooth metallicity gradient between the nuclei of these galaxies, suggesting a mixing of metals between these objects. These results are confirmed by high-resolution Fabry-Perot data, from which we infer that gas is flowing between HCG 31A and HCG 31C.

  9. The Local Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxy NGC 6822: new insight on its star formation history .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, F.; Buonanno, R.; Bono, G.; Cassisi, S.; Monelli, M.; Pietrinferni, A.; Hidalgo, S. L.; Aparicio, A.

    We present a new photometric analysis of the Local Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxy NGC 6822 based on archival Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys images. The data correspond to three fields covering the south-east region of the galaxy; for each field F475W and F814W HST bands are available. For each field an accurate color magnitude diagram (F814W, F475W-F814W) has been obtained. Preliminary hints on the galaxy star formation history are presented based on the comparison with isochrones from "A Bag of Stellar Tracks and Isochrones" (BaSTI) database.

  10. Determination of the distribution of galaxies in groups and clusters by correlation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sanroma, M.; Salvador-Sole, E. )

    1989-07-01

    A new method for determining the two-dimensional number density profile in groups and clusters of galaxies is presented and tested. It is based on the use of the distribution of intergalactic projected separations, which can be calculated in a straightforward manner from the positions of galaxies in a plate. After establishing the mathematical foundation and practical implementation of the method, we show its potential by applying it to Monte Carlo clusters with a small number of galaxies. Several questions of interest to the general user are discussed and illustrated with real data. With this new method, reliable number density profiles can be determined for groups and clusters with a small number of galaxies. 21 refs.

  11. Effect of Halo Mass on HI Gas Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Ilsang; Rosenberg, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    We combine the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) Survey to study the distribution of cold atomic gas fraction of galaxies that reside in groups and clusters in local Universe. A careful cross-matching between galaxies in SDSS, ALFALFA, and SDSS halo group catalog produces a sample of galaxies with decent statistics in the stellar mass range 108.4 M⊙ ≦ M* ≦ 1010.6 M⊙ and the halo mass range 1012.5 h-1 M⊙ ≦ Mh ≦ 1015.0 h-1 M⊙ for a range of projected distance from the group center 0.04 ≦ r/rvir ≦ 2.0. In order to limit our study to group and cluster interaction processes (not tidal stripping in pairs), we remove close pairs that may be undergoing tidal interactions from the sample. We construct a comparison sample from the isolated field galaxies and investigate the radial distribution of the gas-to-stellar mass ratio for galaxies in groups and clusters relative to the comparison samples with similar stellar mass and redshift. We find that the gas-to-stellar mass ratio decreases toward the centers of groups with halo mass greater than ≈ 1013.8 h-1 M⊙ but find no such trend for galaxies in small halo mass groups. This halo mass dependent effect suggests that there is a threshold for efficient gas stripping due to interaction between galaxies and intracluster medium (ICM). This trend together with the HI line profile properties of our sample galaxies in groups and clusters is consistent with the ram pressure stripping. In particular, the observed relationship between stripping and halo mass is predicted by the classical Gunn-Gott ram pressure stripping criterion modified by scaling relations for galaxies and dark matter halo, which indicates that there is a threshold halo mass for efficient ram pressure stripping for given galaxy stellar mass and ICM temperature. This study was funded by NSF grant AST-000167932.

  12. SLOSHING COLD FRONTS IN GALAXY GROUPS AND THEIR PERTURBING DISK GALAXIES: AN X-RAY, OPTICAL, AND RADIO CASE STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Gastaldello, Fabio; Di Gesu, Laura; Ghizzardi, Simona; Rossetti, Mariachiara; Giacintucci, Simona; Girardi, Marisa; Roediger, Elke; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Buote, David A.; Humphrey, Philip J.; Eckert, Dominique; Ettori, Stefano; Mathews, William G.

    2013-06-10

    We present a combined X-ray, optical, and radio analysis of the galaxy group IC 1860 using the currently available Chandra and XMM data, multi-object spectroscopy data from the literature, and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) data. The Chandra and XMM imaging and spectroscopy reveal two surface brightness discontinuities at 45 and 76 kpc shown to be consistent with a pair of cold fronts. These features are interpreted as due to sloshing of the central gas induced by an off-axis minor merger with a perturber. This scenario is further supported by the presence of a peculiar velocity of the central galaxy IC 1860 and the identification of a possible perturber in the optically disturbed spiral galaxy IC 1859. The identification of the perturber is consistent with the comparison with numerical simulations of sloshing. The GMRT observation at 325 MHz shows faint, extended radio emission contained within the inner cold front, as seen in some galaxy clusters hosting diffuse radio mini-halos. However, unlike mini-halos, no particle reacceleration is needed to explain the extended radio emission, which is consistent with aged radio plasma redistributed by the sloshing. There is a strong analogy between the X-ray and optical phenomenology of the IC 1860 group and that of two other groups, NGC 5044 and NGC 5846, showing cold fronts. The evidence presented in this paper is among the strongest supporting the currently favored model of cold-front formation in relaxed objects and establishes the group scale as a chief environment for studying this phenomenon.

  13. Estimated number of field stars toward Galactic globular clusters and Local Group Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnatunga, K. U.; Bahcall, J. N.

    1985-01-01

    Field star densities are estimated for 89 fields with /b/ greater than 10 degrees based on the Galaxy model of Bahcall and Soneira (1980, 1984; Bahcall et al. 1985). Calculated tables are presented for 76 of the fields toward Galactic globular clusters, and 16 Local Group Galaxies in 13 fields. The estimates can be used as an initial guide for planning both ground-based and Space Telescope observations of globular clusters at intermediate-to-high Galactic latitudes.

  14. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey: precursor observations of the NGC 628 group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auld, R.; Minchin, R. F.; Davies, J. I.; Catinella, B.; van Driel, W.; Henning, P. A.; Linder, S.; Momjian, E.; Muller, E.; O'Neil, K.; Sabatini, S.; Schneider, S.; Bothun, G.; Cortese, L.; Disney, M.; Hoffman, G. L.; Putman, M.; Rosenberg, J. L.; Baes, M.; de Blok, W. J. G.; Boselli, A.; Brinks, E.; Brosch, N.; Irwin, J.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B.; Spekkens, K.

    2006-10-01

    The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey (AGES) is one of several HI surveys utilizing the new Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) fitted to the 305-m radio telescope at Arecibo.a The survey is specifically designed to investigate various galactic environments to higher sensitivity, higher velocity resolution and higher spatial resolution than previous fully sampled, 21-cm multibeam surveys. The emphasis is on making detailed observations of nearby objects although the large system bandwidth (100MHz) will allow us to quantify the HI properties over a large instantaneous velocity range. In this paper, we describe the survey and its goals and present the results from the precursor observations of a 5 × 1-deg2 region containing the nearby (~10Mpc) NGC 628 group. We have detected all the group galaxies in the region including the low-mass (MHI ~107Msolar) dwarf, dw0137+1541. The fluxes and velocities for these galaxies compare well with previously published data. There is no intragroup neutral gas detected down to a limiting column density of 2 × 1018cm-2. In addition to the group galaxies we have detected 22 galaxies beyond the NGC 628 group, nine of which are previously uncatalogued. We present the HI data for these objects and also SuperCOSMOS images for possible optical galaxies that might be associated with the HI signal. We have used V/Vmax analysis to model how many galaxies beyond 1000kms-1 should be detected and compare this with our results. The predicted number of detectable galaxies varies depending on the HI mass function (HIMF) used in the analysis. Unfortunately the precursor survey area is too small to determine whether this is saying anything fundamental about the HIMF or simply highlighting the effect of low number statistics. This is just one of many questions that will be addressed by the complete AGES survey.

  15. Tracing the evolution within nearby galaxy groups: a multi-wavelength approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettoni, Daniela; Marino, Antonina; Rampazzo, Roberto; Plana, Henri; Rosado, Margarita; Galletta, Giuseppe; Mazzei, Paola; Bianchi, Luciana; Buson, Lucio M.; Ambrocio-Cruz, Patricia; Gabbasov, Ruslan

    2015-03-01

    Evolutionary scenarios suggest that several mechanisms (from inner secular evolution to accretion/merging) may transform galaxy members, driving groups from an active star forming phase to a more passive, typical of dense environments. We are investigating this transition in a nearby group sample, designed to cover a wide range of properties (see also Marino et al. (2010), Bettoni et al. (2011) and Marino et al. (2012)). We study two groups, USGC U268 and USGC U376 located in different regions of the Leo cloud, through a photometric and kinematic characterization of their member galaxies. We revisit the group membership, using results from recent red-shift surveys, and we investigate their substructures. U268, composed of 10 catalogued members and 11 new added members, has a small fraction (~24%) of early-type galaxies (ETGs). U376 has 16 plus 8 new added members, with ~38% of ETGs. We find the significant substructuring in both groups suggesting that they are likely accreting galaxies. U268 is located in a more loose environment than U376. For each member galaxy, broad band integrated and surface photometry have been obtained in far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) with GALEX, and in u, g, r, i, z (SDSS) bands. Hα imaging and 2D high resolution kinematical data have been obtained using PUMA Scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer at the 2.12 m telescope in San Pedro Mártir (Baja California, México). We improved the galaxy classification and we detected morphological and kinematical distortions that may be connected to either on-going and/or past interaction/accretion events or environmental induced secular evolution. U268 appears more active than U376, with a large fraction of galaxies showing interaction signatures (60% vs. 13%). The presence of bars among late-type galaxies is ~10% in U268 and 29% in U376. The cumulative distribution of (FUV - NUV) colors of galaxies in U268 is significantly different (bluer) than that of U376's galaxies. Most (80%) of the early

  16. A GROUP-GALAXY CROSS-CORRELATION FUNCTION ANALYSIS IN zCOSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Knobel, C.; Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Caputi, K.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Cucciati, O.; Iovino, A.; De la Torre, S.; De Ravel, L.; and others

    2012-08-10

    We present a group-galaxy cross-correlation analysis using a group catalog produced from the 16,500 spectra from the optical zCOSMOS galaxy survey. Our aim is to perform a consistency test in the redshift range 0.2 {<=} z {<=} 0.8 between the clustering strength of the groups and mass estimates that are based on the richness of the groups. We measure the linear bias of the groups by means of a group-galaxy cross-correlation analysis and convert it into mass using the bias-mass relation for a given cosmology, checking the systematic errors using realistic group and galaxy mock catalogs. The measured bias for the zCOSMOS groups increases with group richness as expected by the theory of cosmic structure formation and yields masses that are reasonably consistent with the masses estimated from the richness directly, considering the scatter that is obtained from the 24 mock catalogs. Some exceptions are the richest groups at high redshift (estimated to be more massive than 10{sup 13.5} M{sub Sun }), for which the measured bias is significantly larger than for any of the 24 mock catalogs (corresponding to a 3{sigma} effect), which is attributed to the extremely large structure that is present in the COSMOS field at z {approx} 0.7. Our results are in general agreement with previous studies that reported unusually strong clustering in the COSMOS field.

  17. The frequency and properties of young tidal dwarf galaxies in nearby gas-rich groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Waddell, K.; Spekkens, K.; Chandra, P.; Patra, N.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Wang, J.; Haynes, M. P.; Cannon, J.; Stierwalt, S.; Sick, J.; Giovanelli, R.

    2016-08-01

    We present high-resolution Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) HI observations and deep Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) optical imaging of two galaxy groups: NGC 4725/47 and NGC 3166/9. These data are part of a multi-wavelength unbiased survey of the gas-rich dwarf galaxy populations in three nearby interacting galaxy groups. The NGC 4725/47 group hosts two tidal knots and one dIrr. Both tidal knots are located within a prominent HI tidal tail, appear to have sufficient mass (M_gas~10^8 M_sol) to evolve into long-lived tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs) and are fairly young in age. The NGC 3166/9 group contains a TDG candidate, AGC 208457, at least three dIrrs and four HI knots. Deep CFHT imaging confirms that the optical component of AGC 208457 is bluer -- with a 0.28 mag g-r colour -- and a few Gyr younger than its purported parent galaxies. Combining the results for these groups with those from the NGC 871/6/7 group reported earlier, we find that the HI properties, estimated stellar ages and baryonic content of the gas-rich dwarfs clearly distinguish tidal features from their classical counterparts. We optimistically identify four potentially long-lived tidal objects associated to three separate pairs of interacting galaxies, implying that TDGs are not readily produced during interaction events as suggested by some recent simulations. The tidal objects examined in this survey also appear to have a wider variety of properties than TDGs of similar mass formed in current simulations of interacting galaxies, which could be the result of pre- or post-formation environmental influences.

  18. X-RAY GROUPS OF GALAXIES IN THE AEGIS DEEP AND WIDE FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Erfanianfar, G.; Lerchster, M.; Nandra, K.; Connelly, J. L.; Mirkazemi, M.; Finoguenov, A.; Tanaka, M.; Laird, E.; Bielby, R.; Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, D.; Jeltema, T.; Newman, J. A.; Coil, A. L.; Brimioulle, F.; Davis, M.; McCracken, H. J.; Willmer, C.; Gerke, B.; and others

    2013-03-10

    We present the results of a search for extended X-ray sources and their corresponding galaxy groups from 800 ks Chandra coverage of the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS). This yields one of the largest X-ray-selected galaxy group catalogs from a blind survey to date. The red-sequence technique and spectroscopic redshifts allow us to identify 100% of reliable sources, leading to a catalog of 52 galaxy groups. These groups span the redshift range z {approx} 0.066-1.544 and virial mass range M{sub 200} {approx} 1.34 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13}-1.33 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }. For the 49 extended sources that lie within DEEP2 and DEEP3 Galaxy Redshift Survey coverage, we identify spectroscopic counterparts and determine velocity dispersions. We select member galaxies by applying different cuts along the line of sight or in projected spatial coordinates. A constant cut along the line of sight can cause a large scatter in scaling relations in low-mass or high-mass systems depending on the size of the cut. A velocity-dispersion-based virial radius can cause a larger overestimation of velocity dispersion in comparison to an X-ray-based virial radius for low-mass systems. There is no significant difference between these two radial cuts for more massive systems. Independent of radial cut, an overestimation of velocity dispersion can be created in the case of the existence of significant substructure and compactness in X-ray emission, which mostly occur in low-mass systems. We also present a comparison between X-ray galaxy groups and optical galaxy groups detected using the Voronoi-Delaunay method for DEEP2 data in this field.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxies in Fornax Cluster and five nearby groups (Ferguson+ 1990)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, H. C.

    1997-07-01

    the sample of background galaxiesBD (Paper III) Five nearby groups of galaxies have been surveyed using large-scale plates from the 2.5 m duPont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Catalogs of galaxies brighter than BT ~ 20 are presented for the Leo, Dorado, NGC 1400, NGC 5044, and Antlia groups. A total of 1044 galaxies are included, from visual inspection of 14 plates, covering 31deg square. Galaxies have been classified in the extended Hubble system, and group memberships have been assigned based on velocity (where available) and morphology. About half the galaxies listed are likely members of one of the nearby groups. The catalogs are complete to BT ~ 18, although the completeness limits vary slightly from group to group. Based on King model fits to the surface density profiles, the core radii of the groups range from 0.3 to 1 Mpc, and central densities range from 120 to 1900 galaxies Mpc-3 brighter than MBT = -12.5. Dynamical analysis indicates that all of the groups of likely to be gravitationally bound. (8 data files).

  20. Fossil groups in the Millennium simulation. From the brightest to the faintest galaxies during the past 8 Gyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagusuku, María José; Díaz-Giménez, Eugenia; Zandivarez, Ariel

    2016-02-01

    Aims: We investigate the evolution of bright and faint galaxies in fossil and non-fossil groups. Methods: We used mock galaxies constructed based on the Millennium run simulation II. We identified fossil groups at redshift zero according to two different selection criteria, and then built reliable control samples of non-fossil groups that reproduce the fossil virial mass and assembly time distributions. The faint galaxies were defined as having r-band absolute magnitudes in the range [-16, -11]. We analysed the properties of the bright and faint galaxies in fossil and non-fossil groups during the past 8 Gyr. Results: We observed that the brightest galaxy in fossil groups is typically brighter and more massive than their counterparts in control groups. Fossil groups developed their large magnitude gap between the brightest galaxies around 3.5 Gyr ago. The brightest galaxy stellar masses of all groups show a notorious increment at that time. By analysing the behaviour of the magnitude gap between the first and the second, third, and fourth ranked galaxies, we found that at earlier times, fossil groups comprised two large brightest galaxies with similar magnitudes surrounded by much fainter galaxies, while in control groups these magnitude gaps were never as large as in fossils. At early times, fossil groups in the faint population were denser than non-fossil groups, then this trend reversed, and finally they became similar at the present day. The mean number of faint galaxies in non-fossil systems increases in an almost constant rate towards later times, while this number in fossil groups reaches a plateau at z ~ 0.6 that lasts ~2 Gyr, and then starts growing again more rapidly. Conclusions: The formation of fossil groups is defined at the very beginning of the groups according to their galaxy luminosity sampling, which could be determined by their merging rate at early times.

  1. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-21

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day 'dormant' descendants of this population of 'active' black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall--the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600--a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes. PMID:27049949

  2. Chandra and XMM View Galaxy Groups: New Details from Sharper Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtilek, J. M.; Ponman, T. J.; O'Sullivan, E. J.; David, L. P.; Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Lane, W. M.; Kassim, N. E.

    2004-08-01

    Groups and poor clusters are the locus of most galaxies in the present-day Universe and the building blocks from which clusters form. They accordingly occupy a significant place in the continuum of structure between isolated galaxies and rich clusters. Owing to the lower temperature of their intracluster gas, X-ray emission from groups produces strong lines from a broader range of elements than do hotter clusters. Here we show results from an examination of several X-ray bright groups, mostly from the Hickson, AWM, and MKW lists, relevant to issues of current interest in the study of both groups and clusters: the distribution of heavy elements, the presence and nature of X-ray cavities and their relation to radio observations, the presence of cooling cores, and X-ray signatures of recent galaxy interactions. This work was supported in part by NASA grants GO2-3186X and GO4-5154X.

  3. THE STELLAR-TO-HALO MASS RELATION FOR LOCAL GROUP GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Brook, C. B.; Cintio, A. Di; Knebe, A.; Yepes, G.; Gottlöber, S.; Hoffman, Y.; Garrison-Kimmel, S.

    2014-03-20

    We contend that a single power-law halo mass distribution is appropriate for direct matching to the stellar masses of observed Local Group dwarf galaxies, allowing the determination of the slope of the stellar mass-halo mass relation for low-mass galaxies. Errors in halo masses are well defined as the Poisson noise of simulated Local Group realizations, which we determine using local volume simulations. For the stellar mass range 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}galaxies, we find that the stellar mass-halo mass relation follows a power law with slope of 3.1, significantly steeper than most values in the literature. This steep relation between stellar and halo masses would indicate that Local Group dwarf galaxies are hosted by dark matter halos with a small range of mass. Our methodology is robust down to the stellar mass to which the census of observed Local Group galaxies is complete, but the significant uncertainty in the currently measured slope of the stellar-to-halo mass relation will decrease dramatically if the Local Group completeness limit was 10{sup 6.5} M {sub ☉} or below, highlighting the importance of pushing such limit to lower masses and larger volumes.

  4. Herschel observations of Hickson compact groups of galaxies: Unveiling the properties of cold dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsakis, T.; Charmandaris, V.; Appleton, P. N.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Le Floc'h, E.; da Cunha, E.; Alatalo, K.; Cluver, M.

    2014-05-01

    We present a Herschel far-infrared and sub-millimetre (sub-mm) study of a sample of 120 galaxies in 28 Hickson compact groups (HCGs). Fitting their UV to sub-mm spectral energy distributions with the model of da Cunha et al. (2008), we accurately estimate the dust masses, luminosities, and temperatures of the individual galaxies. We find that nearly half of the late-type galaxies in dynamically "old" groups, those with more than 25% of early-type members and redder UV-optical colours, also have significantly lower dust-to-stellar mass ratios compared to those of actively star-forming galaxies of the same mass found both in HCGs and in the field. Examining their dust-to-gas mass ratios, we conclude that dust was stripped out of these systems as a result of the gravitational and hydrodynamic interactions, experienced owing to previous encounters with other group members. About 40% of the early-type galaxies (mostly lenticulars), in dynamically "old" groups, display dust properties similar to those of the UV-optical red late-type galaxies. Given their stellar masses, star formation rates, and UV-optical colours, we suggest that red late-type and dusty lenticular galaxies represent transition populations between blue star-forming disk galaxies and quiescent early-type ellipticals. On the other hand, both the complete absence of any correlation between the dust and stellar masses of the dusty ellipticals and their enhanced star formation activity, suggest the increase in their gas and dust content due to accretion and merging. Our deep Herschel observations also allow us to detect the presence of diffuse cold intragroup dust in 4 HCGs. We also find that the fraction of 250 μm emission that is located outside of the main bodies of both the red late-type galaxies and the dusty lenticulars is 15-20% of their integrated emission at this band. All these findings are consistent with an evolutionary scenario in which gas dissipation, shocks, and turbulence, in addition to

  5. Compact Groups of Galaxies with Complete Spectroscopic Redshifts in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Jubee; Hwang, Ho Seong; Geller, Margaret J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Rines, Kenneth J.; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lee, Gwang-Ho

    2015-12-01

    Dynamical analysis of compact groups provides important tests of models of compact group formation and evolution. By compiling 2066 redshifts from FLWO/FAST, from the literature, and from SDSS DR12 in the fields of compact groups in tet{McC09}, we construct the largest sample of compact groups with complete spectroscopic redshifts in the redshift range 0.01 < z < 0.22. This large redshift sample shows that the interloper fraction in the tet{McC09} compact group candidates is ˜ 42%. A secure sample of 332 compact groups includes 192 groups with four or more member galaxies and 140 groups with three members. The fraction of early-type galaxies in these compact groups is 62%, higher than for the original Hickson compact groups. The velocity dispersions of early- and late-type galaxies in compact groups change little with groupcentric radius; the radii sampled are less than 100 h^{-1} kpc, smaller than the radii typically sampled by members of massive clusters of galaxies. The physical properties of our sample compact groups include size, number density, velocity dispersion, and local environment; these properties slightly differ from those derived for the original Hickson compact groups and for the DPOSS II compact groups. Differences result from subtle differences in the way the group candidates were originally selected. The abundance of the compact groups changes little with redshift over the range covered by this sample. The approximate constancy of the abundance for this sample is a potential constraint on the evolution of compact groups on a few Gigayear timescale.

  6. Deep Optical Imaging of a Compact Group of Galaxies: Seyfert's Sextet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiura, Shingo; Murayama, Takashi; Shimada, Masashi; Sato, Yasunori; Nagao, Tohru; Molikawa, Kohji; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Sanders, D. B.

    2000-11-01

    To investigate the dynamical status of Seyfert's Sextet (SS), we have obtained a deep optical (VR+I) image of this group. Our image shows that a faint envelope, down to a surface brightness μoptical(AB)~=27 mag arcsec-2, surrounds the member galaxies. This envelope is irregular in shape. It is likely that this shape is attributed either to recent-past or to ongoing galaxy interactions in SS. If the member galaxies have experienced a number of mutual interactions over a long timescale, the shape of the envelope should be rounder. Therefore, the irregularly shaped morphology suggests that SS is in an early phase of dynamical interaction among the member galaxies. It is interesting to note that the soft X-ray image obtained with ROSAT (Pildis, Bregman, & Evrard) is significantly similar in morphology. We discuss the possible future evolution of SS briefly.

  7. The HI Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odekon, Mary Crone; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose A.; McGowan, Christopher; Micula, Adina; Reed, Lyle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 systems at distances between 70 and 160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5<' {log} M/{M}⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger dependence of HI properties on environment, despite a similar dependence of color on environment at fixed stellar mass. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/{R}200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. While both central and satellite galaxies in the blue cloud exhibit a significant dependence of HI content on local density, only centrals show a strong dependence on stellar mass, and only satellites show a strong dependence on halo mass. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps ram-pressure stripping.

  8. The HI Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odekon, Mary Crone; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose A.; McGowan, Christopher; Micula, Adina; Reed, Lyle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    We present the H i content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 systems at distances between 70 and 160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5\\lt {log} M/{M}ȯ \\lt 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack H i at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger dependence of H i properties on environment, despite a similar dependence of color on environment at fixed stellar mass. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/{R}200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. While both central and satellite galaxies in the blue cloud exhibit a significant dependence of H i content on local density, only centrals show a strong dependence on stellar mass, and only satellites show a strong dependence on halo mass. Finally, we see evidence that H i is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where H i is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps ram-pressure stripping.

  9. Clusters and groups of galaxies in the 2dF galaxy redshift survey: A new catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tago, E.; Einasto, J.; Saar, E.; Einasto, M.; Suhhonenko, I.; Jõeveer, M.; Vennik, J.; Heinämäki, P.; Tucker, D. L.

    2006-05-01

    We create a new catalogue of groups and clusters, applying the friends-of-friends method to the 2dF GRS final release. We investigate various selection effects due to the use of a magnitude limited sample. For this purpose we follow the changes in group sizes and mean galaxy number densities within groups when shifting nearby observed groups to larger distances. We study the distribution of sizes of dark matter haloes in N-body simulations and compare properties of these haloes and the 2dF groups. We show that at large distances from the observer luminous and intrinsically greater groups dominate, but in these groups only very bright members are seen, which form compact cores of the groups. These two effects almost cancel each other, so that the mean sizes and densities of groups do not change considerably with distance. Our final sample contains 10750 groups in the Northern part, and 14465 groups in the Southern part of the 2dF survey with membership N_gal ≥ 2. We estimate the total luminosities of our groups, correcting for group members fainter than the observational limit of the survey. The cluster catalogue is available at our web-site (\\texttt{http://www.aai.ee/˜maret/2dfgr.html}).

  10. The Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS) of Galaxies in Groups along the Cosmic Web. II. Galaxy Structural Measurements and the Concentration of Morphologically Classified Satellites in Diverse Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibinel, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Lilly, S. J.; Miniati, F.; Silverman, J. D.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Cameron, E.; Finoguenov, A.; Norberg, P.; Peng, Y.; Pipino, A.; Rudick, C. S.

    2013-10-01

    We present structural measurements for the galaxies in the 0.05 < z < 0.0585 groups of the Zurich Environmental Study, aimed at establishing how galaxy properties depend on four environmental parameters: group halo mass (M GROUP), group-centric distance (R/R 200), ranking into central or satellite, and large-scale structure density (δLSS). Global galaxy structure is quantified both parametrically and non-parametrically. We correct all these measurements for observational biases due to point-spread function blurring and surface brightness effects as a function of galaxy size, magnitude, steepness of light profile, and ellipticity. Structural parameters are derived also for bulges, disks, and bars. We use the galaxy bulge-to-total ratios (B/T) together with the calibrated non-parametric structural estimators to implement a quantitative morphological classification that maximizes purity in the resulting morphological samples. We investigate how the concentration C of satellite galaxies depends on galaxy mass for each Hubble type and on M GROUP, R/R 200, and δLSS. At galaxy masses M >= 1010 M ⊙, the concentration of disk satellites increases with increasing stellar mass separately within each morphological bin of B/T. The known increase in concentration with stellar mass for disk satellites is thus due, at least in part, to an increase in galaxy central stellar density at constant B/T. The correlation between concentration and galaxy stellar mass becomes progressively steeper for later morphological types. The concentration of disk satellites shows a barely significant dependence on δLSS or R/R 200. The strongest environmental effect is found with group mass for >1010 M ⊙ disk-dominated satellites, which are ~10% more concentrated in high mass groups than in lower mass groups. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla Chile, Program ID 177.A-0680.

  11. THE ZURICH ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY (ZENS) OF GALAXIES IN GROUPS ALONG THE COSMIC WEB. II. GALAXY STRUCTURAL MEASUREMENTS AND THE CONCENTRATION OF MORPHOLOGICALLY CLASSIFIED SATELLITES IN DIVERSE ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Cibinel, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Lilly, S. J.; Miniati, F.; Cameron, E.; Peng, Y.; Pipino, A.; Rudick, C. S.; Silverman, J. D.; Van Gorkom, J. H.; Finoguenov, A.; Norberg, P. E-mail: marcella@phys.ethz.ch

    2013-10-20

    We present structural measurements for the galaxies in the 0.05 < z < 0.0585 groups of the Zurich Environmental Study, aimed at establishing how galaxy properties depend on four environmental parameters: group halo mass (M{sub GROUP}), group-centric distance (R/R{sub 200}), ranking into central or satellite, and large-scale structure density (δ{sub LSS}). Global galaxy structure is quantified both parametrically and non-parametrically. We correct all these measurements for observational biases due to point-spread function blurring and surface brightness effects as a function of galaxy size, magnitude, steepness of light profile, and ellipticity. Structural parameters are derived also for bulges, disks, and bars. We use the galaxy bulge-to-total ratios (B/T) together with the calibrated non-parametric structural estimators to implement a quantitative morphological classification that maximizes purity in the resulting morphological samples. We investigate how the concentration C of satellite galaxies depends on galaxy mass for each Hubble type and on M{sub GROUP}, R/R{sub 200}, and δ{sub LSS}. At galaxy masses M ≥ 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}, the concentration of disk satellites increases with increasing stellar mass separately within each morphological bin of B/T. The known increase in concentration with stellar mass for disk satellites is thus due, at least in part, to an increase in galaxy central stellar density at constant B/T. The correlation between concentration and galaxy stellar mass becomes progressively steeper for later morphological types. The concentration of disk satellites shows a barely significant dependence on δ{sub LSS} or R/R{sub 200}. The strongest environmental effect is found with group mass for >10{sup 10} M{sub ☉} disk-dominated satellites, which are ∼10% more concentrated in high mass groups than in lower mass groups.

  12. Measurable relationship between bright galaxies and their faint companions in WHL J085910.0+294957, a galaxy cluster at z = 0.30: vestiges of infallen groups?

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon Hyeop; Lee, Hye-Ran; Kim, Minjin; Seon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Sang Chul; Yang, Soung-Chul; Ree, Chang Hee; Lee, Jong Chul; Jeong, Hyunjin; Ko, Jongwan; Choi, Changsu

    2014-08-20

    The properties of satellite galaxies are closely related to their host galaxies in galaxy groups. In cluster environments, on the other hand, the interaction between close neighbors is known to be limited. Our goal is to examine the relationships between host and satellite galaxies in the harsh environment of a galaxy cluster. To achieve this goal, we study a galaxy cluster WHL J085910.0+294957 at z = 0.30 using deep images obtained with CQUEAN CCD camera mounted on the 2.1 m Otto Struve Telescope. After member selection based on the scaling relations of photometric and structural parameters, we investigate the relationship between bright (M{sub i} ≤ –18) galaxies and their faint (–18 < M{sub i} ≤ –15) companions. The weighted mean color of faint companion galaxies shows no significant dependence (<1σ to bootstrap uncertainties) on cluster-centric distance and local luminosity density as well as the luminosity and concentration of an adjacent bright galaxy. However, the weighted mean color shows marginal dependence (∼2.2σ) on the color of an adjacent bright galaxy when the sample is limited to bright galaxies with at least two faint companions. By using a permutation test, we confirm that the correlation in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in this cluster is statistically significant with a confidence level of 98.7%. The statistical significance increases if we additionally remove non-members using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric redshift information (∼2.6σ and 99.3%). Our results suggest three possible scenarios: (1) vestiges of infallen groups, (2) dwarf capturing, and (3) tidal tearing of bright galaxies.

  13. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effects from Quasars in Galaxies and Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapi, A.; Cavaliere, A.; De Zotti, G.

    2003-11-01

    The energy fed by active galactic nuclei to the surrounding diffuse baryons changes their amount, temperature, and distribution; so in groups and in member galaxies it affects the X-ray luminosity and also the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. Here we compute how the latter is enhanced by the transient blast wave driven by an active quasar and is depressed when the equilibrium is recovered with a depleted density. We constrain such depressions and enhancements with the masses of relic black holes in galaxies and the X-ray luminosities in groups. We discuss how all these linked observables can tell the quasar contribution to the thermal history of the baryons pervading galaxies and groups.

  14. CCD photometry of the BL Lacertae object 1400+162 and the associated group of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, D.; Reitsema, H. J.; Smith, B. A.; Shaffer, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    Surface photometry of the BL Lacertae object 1400+162 and an apparently associated group of galaxies has been obtained using a CCD camera. Observations were made in V, broad bandpasses centered on 0.75 micron and 1.0 micron and with no filter. The colors of all but two of the galaxies suggest they are ellipticals, with the colors of the remaining two considerably bluer. Analysis using a method described by Schechter and Press (1976) suggests the group is a small one. The group may be similar to the one associated with the quasar 3C 273. The spectral index of the BL Lac object is 1.49 + or 0.21. This value allows, but does not require, the presence of an underlying elliptical galaxy. The radio-optical and optical-X-ray indices for 1400+162 are similar to values found for quasars.

  15. XMM study of the interplay between the intra-group medium and galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miniati, Francesco

    2010-10-01

    Current models of galaxy evolution rely critically on AGN and SN feedback processes. However, these ideas have not been fully tested, particularly in the intra-group medium (IGM), the environment most commonly experienced by galaxies. For this purpose we propose to use XMM-Newton to study the thermodynamic properties of the IGM (via its diffuse X-ray emission), which retains a fossil record of the energy released by past star formation and AGN activity, for an unbiased sample of 23 groups with fully determined galaxy population and AGN properties. The 23 target groups are selected from our Zurich ENvironmental Survey, for which we have optical spectroscopic, photometric and morphological information as well as HI mass content.

  16. Ongoing assembly of massive galaxies by major merging in large groups and clusters from the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Daniel H.; Guo, Yicheng; Hertzberg, Jen; Katz, Neal; Mo, H. J.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Yang, Xiaohu

    2008-08-01

    We investigate the incidence of major mergers creating massive (Mstar > 1011Msolar) galaxies in present-day (z <= 0.12) groups and clusters. Using a volume-limited sample of 845 groups with dark matter halo masses above 2.5 × 1013Msolar, we isolate 221 galaxy pairs with <=1.5r-band magnitude differences, <=30 kpc projected separations and combined masses above 1011Msolar. We fit the r-band images of each pair as the line-of-sight projection of symmetric models and identify 38 mergers by the presence of residual asymmetric structure associated with both progenitors, such as non-concentric isophotes, broad and diffuse tidal tails and dynamical friction wakes. In other words, at the resolution and sensitivity of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), 16 per cent of massive major pairs in dense environments have mutual tidal interaction signatures; relying on automated searches of major pairs from the SDSS spectroscopic galaxy sample will result in missing 70 per cent of these mergers owing to spectroscopic incompleteness in high-density regions. We find that 90 per cent of these mergers are between two nearly equal-mass progenitors with red-sequence colours and centrally concentrated morphologies, in agreement with numerical simulations that predict that an important mechanism for the formation of massive elliptical galaxies is the dissipationless (gas-poor or so-called dry) major merging of spheroid-dominated galaxies. We identify seven additional massive mergers with disturbed morphologies and semiresolved double nuclei; thus, 1.5 +/- 0.2 per cent of Mstar >= 5 × 1010Msolar galaxies in large groups are involved in the major merger assembly of massive galaxies. Mergers at the centres of these groups are more common than between two satellites, but both types are morphologically indistinguishable and we tentatively conclude that the latter are likely located at the dynamical centres of large subhaloes that have recently been accreted by their host halo. Based on

  17. Searching for intermediate groups of galaxies with Suzaku in Bootes field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawara, Yuzuru; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki

    2016-07-01

    To investigate redshift evolution of groups of galaxies is significant also in terms of galaxy evolution. Recent observational studies show that an AGN fraction and a magnitude gap between the first and the second brightest group galaxies increase in group environments at lower redshifts (Oh et al. 2014 & Gozaliasl et al. 2014). Thus, comprehension for the evolution of the systems will bring us to hints on both morphological evolution of galaxies and galaxy-galaxy interactions. However, observational samples of groups of galaxies at higher redshifts are limited due to its low flux and surface brightness. Thus, we aimed at searching for new samples using both X-ray and optical data. To identify the group systems at higher redshifts, deep optical imaging and spectroscopic data are needed. Bootes field is one of the best regions for this purpose because there are up to 17 bands of data available per source from infrared, optical, UV, and X-ray (e.g., Kenter et al. 2005, Chung et al. 2014). XBootes survey was conducted in 2003 using Chandra (Murray et al. 2005) and X-ray extended sources were detected around intermediate optically-identified groups of galaxies even though Chandra could not reveal their origins due to poor photon statistics. Thus, we conducted X-ray follow-up observations using Suzaku which has low and stable background and thus is optimum for such low surface brightness sources for brightest 6 group candidates with redshifts of 0.15-0.42. Consequently, Suzaku detected excess emissions from all the targets in their images and spectral analysis reveals that 6 sources are originated from group- or poor-cluster-scale halos with temperatures, abundances and luminosities of 1.6-3.0 keV, <0.3 solar and ~1044 erg s-1, respectively. In this conference, we will report on the details of our analysis and results using multiwavelength data such as radio, optical and X-ray to examine the AGN fractions and magnitude gaps in our samples and discuss the redshift

  18. Searching for intermediate groups of galaxies with Suzaku in Bootes field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Maejima, Masato; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Babazaki, Yasunori; Matsumoto, Hironori; Tawara, Yuzuru; Miller, Eric D.

    2015-08-01

    To investigate redshift evolution of groups of galaxies is significant also in terms of galaxy evolution. Recent observational studies show that an AGN fraction and a magnitude gap between the first and the second brightest group galaxies increase in group environments at lower redshifts (Oh et al. 2014 & Gozaliasl et al. 2014). Thus, comprehension for the evolution of the systems will bring us to hints on both morphological evolution of galaxies and galaxy-galaxy interactions. However, observational samples of groups of galaxies at higher redshifts are limited due to its low flux and surface brightness. Thus, we aimed at searching for new samples using both X-ray and optical data. To identify the group systems at higher redshifts, deep optical imaging and spectroscopic data are needed. Bootes field is one of the best regions for this purpose because there are up to 17 bands of data available per source from infrared, optical, UV, and X-ray (e.g., Kenter et al. 2005, Chung et al. 2014). XBootes survey was conducted in 2003 using Chandra (Murray et al. 2005) and X-ray extended sources were detected around intermediate optically-identified groups of galaxies even though Chandra could not reveal their origins due to poor photon statistics. Thus, we conducted X-ray follow-up observations using Suzaku which has low and stable background and thus is optimum for such low surface brightness sources for brightest 6 group candidates with redshifts of 0.15-0.42. Consequently, Suzaku detected excess emissions from all the targets in their images and spectral analysis reveals that 4 sources are originated from group- or poor-cluster-scale halos with temperatures, abundances and luminosities of 1.6-3.0 keV, <0.3 solar and ~1044 erg s-1, respectively while no significant emissions from diffuse sources were found from the other two targets. In this conference, we will report on the details of our analysis and results using multiwavelength data such as radio, optical and X-ray to

  19. X-Ray-selected Galaxy Groups in Boötes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajgel, Bruna; Jones, Christine; Lopes, Paulo A. A.; Forman, William R.; Murray, Stephen S.; Goulding, Andrew; Andrade-Santos, Felipe

    2014-10-01

    We present the X-ray and optical properties of the galaxy groups selected in the Chandra X-Boötes survey. We used follow-up Chandra observations to better define the group sample and their X-ray properties. Group redshifts were measured from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey spectroscopic data. We used photometric data from the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey to estimate the group richness (N gals) and the optical luminosity (L opt). Our final sample comprises 32 systems at z < 1.75 with 14 below z = 0.35. For these 14 systems, we estimate velocity dispersions (σ gr ) and perform a virial analysis to obtain the radii (R 200 and R 500) and total masses (M 200 and M 500) for groups with at least 5 galaxy members. We use the Chandra X-ray observations to derive the X-ray luminosity (LX ). We examine the performance of the group properties σgr, L opt, and LX , as proxies for the group mass. Understanding how well these observables measure the total mass is important to estimate how precisely the cluster/group mass function is determined. Exploring the scaling relations built with the X-Boötes sample and comparing these with samples from the literature, we find a break in the LX -M 500 relation at approximately M 500 = 5 × 1013 M ⊙ (for M 500 > 5 × 1013 M ⊙, M500 \\propto L_X0.61+/- 0.02, while for M 500 <= 5 × 1013 M ⊙, M500 \\propto L_X0.44+/- 0.05). Thus, the mass-luminosity relation for galaxy groups cannot be described by the same power law as galaxy clusters. A possible explanation for this break is the dynamical friction, tidal interactions, and projection effects that reduce the velocity dispersion values of the galaxy groups. By extending the cluster luminosity function to the group regime, we predict the number of groups that new X-ray surveys, particularly eROSITA, will detect. Based on our cluster/group luminosity function estimates, eROSITA will identify ~1800 groups (LX = 1041-1043 erg s-1) within a distance of 200 Mpc. Since groups lie in large

  20. The Reddening law outside the local group galaxies: The case of NGC 7552 and NGC 5236

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Anne L.; Calzetti, Daniela; Bica, Eduardo; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    1994-01-01

    The dust reddening law from the UV to the near-IR for the extended regions of galaxies is here derived from the spectral distributions of the starburst spiral galaxies NGC 7552 and NGC 5236. The centers of these galaxies have similar absorption and emission line spectra, differing only if the strength of their interstellar lines and in the continuum distribution, with NGC 7552 appearing more reddened than NGC 5236. The disk of NGC 7552 is more inclined, and there is evidence that its center is observed through additional foreground dust and gas clouds, as compared to the center of NGC 5236. While the galaxies can be expected to have similar dust content, they are known to have different dust path lengths to our line of sight. Therefore, differences in the shape of the spectra can be attributed mainly to the effects of dust, allowing us to probe for the first time the properties of the reddening law outside the local group of galaxies. We derive the reddening law based on the optical depth of the emission line of H Alpha and H Beta and also based on the continuum distribtuion. We find that the optical depth from the emission line regions are about twice the optical depth of the continuum regions. Thus, dereddening a starburst galaxy by scaling the Milky Way reddening laws to optical depths obtained from the H Alpha/H Beta line ratio overcompensates for the effect of dust.

  1. H I IN LOCAL GROUP DWARF GALAXIES AND STRIPPING BY THE GALACTIC HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Grcevich, Jana; Putman, Mary E E-mail: mputman@astro.columbia.edu

    2009-05-01

    We examine the H I content and environment of all of the Local Group dwarf galaxies (M {sub tot} < 10{sup 10} M {sub sun}), including the numerous newly discovered satellites of the Milky Way and M31. All of the new dwarfs, with the exception of Leo T, have no detected H I. The majority of dwarf galaxies within {approx}270 kpc of the Milky Way or Andromeda are undetected in H I (<10{sup 4} M {sub sun} for Milky Way dwarfs), while those further than {approx}270 kpc are predominantly detected with masses {approx}10{sup 5} to 10{sup 8} M {sub sun}. Analytical ram-pressure arguments combined with velocities obtained via proper motion studies allow for an estimate of the halo density of the Milky Way at several distances. This halo density is constrained to be greater than 2x 10{sup -4}-3 x 10{sup -4} cm{sup -3} out to distances of at least 70 kpc. This is broadly consistent with theoretical models of the diffuse gas in a Milky Way-like halo and is consistent with this component hosting a large fraction of a galaxy's baryons. Accounting for completeness in the dwarf galaxy count, gasless dwarf galaxies could have provided at most 2.1 x 10{sup 8} M {sub sun} of H I gas to the Milky Way, which suggests that most of our Galaxy's star formation fuel does not come from accreted small satellites in the current era.

  2. What have we learned from the XMM-Newton surveys of Local Group Galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberl, F.

    2016-06-01

    The study of X-ray source populations and diffuse X-ray emission in nearby galaxies is of major importance in understanding the X-ray output of more distant galaxies as well as learning about processes that occur on interstellar scales within our own Galaxy. Depending on the star formation history of the galaxies different types of X-ray sources dominate the total X-ray emission. With modern observatories like XMM-Newton the various classes of X-ray sources (high and low mass X-ray binaries, supernova remnants, super-soft sources) can be studied to the faintest end of their luminosity distribution in Local Group galaxies. XMM-Newton successfully surveyed the large spiral galaxies M31 and M33 and the star forming, irregular Magellanic Clouds. I'll summarise the most important results we have obtained from older populations like low mass X-ray binaries and classical novae in M31 to the younger populations of high mass X-ray binaries and supernova remnants in the Magellanic Clouds. I'll discuss still open questions in this field of research which can be addressed using the high sensitivity of the XMM-Newton instruments.

  3. Radio properties of galaxy groups in the Local Universe (<80 Mpc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokythas, K.

    2013-09-01

    The most likely source of energy injection into the intergalactic medium of galaxy groups is AGN (Active Galactic Nuclei) feedback. Since >50% of galaxies in the local Universe reside in groups and many of them host radiative cooling gas halos, which can fuel a central SMBH, they are probably the key environment for the study of AGN/hot gas interactions. Using a complete, optically selected sample of groups -the Complete Local-Volume Groups Sample (CLoGS) project- observed in both radio and Xray bands, I examine the radio properties of AGN in nearby galaxy groups. My work targets to the characterization of the AGN population in groups, and examination of their impact on the intra-group gas and member galaxies. By focusing on low-frequency radio emission (240 MHz and 610 MHz ), past as well as current AGN activity can be identified with the combination of good spatial resolution at 610 MHz and the sensitivity to older electron populations at 235 MHz. The combination then of radio with optical and X-ray bands reveals the complex interactions with their environment and the physical processes that govern galaxy transformations. Results from our new GMRT observations at 235 and 610 MHz will be presented here for the first time for the systems of 4261, 5982, 1060 and 5903. These systems are good examples of the wide variety of radio properties: from groups dominated by a single powerful central source (4261), through weak AGN and star-formation dominated systems (1060, 5982) to diffuse, merger-related sources (5903). These are all important for the investigation of the IGM/AGN connection and the understanding of the physical mechanisms of the energy injection.

  4. Redshift Survey of Galaxies around a Selected Sample of Compact Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho, Reinaldo R.; Ribeiro, André L. B.; Capelato, Hugo V.; Zepf, Stephen E.

    We report the results of a spectroscopic survey of faint galaxies in the regions surrounding Hickson compact groups. Our sample is composed of 17 groups within 9000 km s-1. The spectra were taken at the prime focus of the Tololo 4 m telescope, using the ARGUS fiber-fed spectrograph. From these observations, redshifts were determined for the faint galaxies previously identified by de Carvalho, Ribeiro, & Zepf in the surroundings of the groups. Statistical methods were applied to the resultant catalog in order to determine the kinematical structure of each group. This analysis confirms the idea that the Hickson sample of compact groups contains a wide variety of projection and dynamical configurations. Our results demonstrate the necessity of new spectroscopic surveys around compact groups in order to assess their complete velocity distribution.

  5. Merger Histories of Galaxy Halos and Implications for Disk Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Zentner, Andrew R.

    2008-05-16

    The authors study the merger histories of galaxy dark matter halos using a high resolution {Lambda}CDM N-body simulation. The merger trees follow {approx} 17,000 halos with masses M{sub 0} = (10{sup 11} - 10{sup 13})h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}} at z = 0 and track accretion events involving objects as small as m {approx_equal} 10{sup 10} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}}. They find that mass assembly is remarkably self-similar in m/M{sub 0}, and dominated by mergers that are {approx}10% of the final halo mass. While very large mergers, m {approx}> 0.4 M{sub 0}, are quite rare, sizeable accretion events, m {approx} 0.1 M{sub 0}, are common. Over the last {approx} 10 Gyr, an overwhelming majority ({approx} 95%) of Milky Way-sized halos with M{sub 0} = 10{sup 12} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}} have accreted at least one object with greater total mass than the Milky Way disk (m > 5 x 10{sup 10} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}}), and approximately 70% have accreted an object with more than twice that mass (m > 10{sup 11} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}}). The results raise serious concerns about the survival of thin-disk dominated galaxies within the current paradigm for galaxy formation in a {Lambda}CDM universe. in order to achieve a {approx} 70% disk-dominated fraction in Milky Way-sized {Lambda}CDM halos, mergers involving m {approx_equal} 2 x 10{sup 11} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}} objects must not destroy disks. Considering that most thick disks and bulges contain old stellar populations, the situation is even more restrictive: these mergers must not heat disks or drive gas into their centers to create young bulges.

  6. Some implications of ultraviolet observations of quasars and active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidsen, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of the order of magnitude discrepancy in the expected and observed ratios of the Lyman and Balmer lines in quasars and active galaxies is reviewed. Whereas early photoionization models for the emission line regions predicted F(L-alpha)/F(H-beta) not less than 40, the observations give values for this ratio in the range 3-8. Attempts at explaining the observations have involved dust, both external and internal to the emission line regions, and improved treatments of the collisional processes and radiative transfer effects in dense (Ne about 10 to the 10th/cu cm), optically thick clouds. None of the effects considered is, by itself, able to explain all the observations, and a combination of several of them is probably required.

  7. The Local Group as a time machine: studying the high-redshift Universe with nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Weisz, Daniel R.; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Bullock, James S.; Conroy, Charlie; Fitts, Alex

    2015-10-01

    We infer the UV luminosities of Local Group galaxies at early cosmic times (z ˜ 2 and z ˜ 7) by combining stellar population synthesis modelling with star formation histories derived from deep colour-magnitude diagrams constructed from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. Our analysis provides a basis for understanding high-z galaxies - including those that may be unobservable even with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) - in the context of familiar, well-studied objects in the very low-z Universe. We find that, at the epoch of reionization, all Local Group dwarfs were less luminous than the faintest galaxies detectable in deep HST observations of blank fields. We predict that JWST will observe z ˜ 7 progenitors of galaxies similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud today; however, the HST Frontier Fields initiative may already be observing such galaxies, highlighting the power of gravitational lensing. Consensus reionization models require an extrapolation of the observed blank-field luminosity function (LF) at z ≈ 7 by at least 2 orders of magnitude in order to maintain reionization. This scenario requires the progenitors of the Fornax and Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxies to be contributors to the ionizing background at z ˜ 7. Combined with numerical simulations, our results argue for a break in the UV LF from a faint-end slope of α ˜ -2 at MUV ≲ -13 to α ˜ -1.2 at lower luminosities. Applied to photometric samples at lower redshifts, our analysis suggests that HST observations in lensing fields at z ˜ 2 are capable of probing galaxies with luminosities comparable to the expected progenitor of Fornax.

  8. X-ray analysis of the galaxy group UGC 03957 beyond R200 with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thölken, Sophia; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Reiprich, Thomas H.; Hasenbusch, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Context. In the last few years, the outskirts of galaxy clusters have been studied in detail and the analyses have brought up interesting results such as indications of possible gas clumping and the breakdown of hydrostatic, thermal, and ionization equilibrium. These phenomena affect the entropy profiles of clusters, which often show deviations from the self-similar prediction around R200. However, significant uncertainties remain for groups of galaxies. In particular the question, of whether entropy profiles are similar to those of galaxy clusters. Aims: We investigated the gas properties of the galaxy group UGC 03957 up to 1.4 R200 ≈ 1.4 Mpc in four azimuthal directions with the Suzaku satellite. We checked for azimuthal symmetry and obtained temperature, entropy, density, and gas mass profiles. Previous studies point to deviations from equilibrium states at the outskirts of groups and clusters and so we studied the hydrodynamical status of the gas at these large radii. Methods: We performed a spectral analysis of five Suzaku observations of UGC 03957 with ~138 ks good exposure time in total and five Chandra snapshot observations for point source detection. We investigated systematic effects such as point spread function and uncertainties in the different background components, and performed a deprojection of the density and temperature profile. Results: We found a temperature drop of a factor of ~3 from the center to the outskirts that is consistent with previous results for galaxy clusters. The metal abundance profile shows a flat behavior towards large radii, which is a hint for galactic winds as the primary ICM enrichment process. The entropy profile is consistent with numerical simulations after applying a gas mass fraction correction. Feedback processes and AGN activity might be one explanation for entropy modification, imprinting out to larger radii in galaxy groups than in galaxy clusters. Previous analyses for clusters and groups often showed an

  9. A catalog of compact groups of galaxies in the RSDSS commissioning data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Brian C.; Allam, Sahar S.; Tucker, Douglas L.; Annis, James; Blanton, Michael R.; Johnston, David E.; Scranton, Ryan; Acebo, Yamina; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bartelmann, Matthias; Bohringer, Hans; Ellman, Nancy; Grebel, Eva K.; Infante, Leopoldo; Loveday, Jon; McKay, Timothy A.; Prada, Francisco; Schneider, Donald P.; Stoughton, Chris; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Voges, Wolfgang; Yanny, Brian

    2003-11-18

    Compact groups (CGs) of galaxies--relatively poor groups of galaxies in which the typical separations between members is of the order of a galaxy diameter--offer an exceptional laboratory for the study of dense galaxian environments with short (<1Gyr) dynamical time-scales. In this paper, we present an objectively defined catalog of CGs in 153 sq deg of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Early Data Release (SDSS EDR). To identify CGs, we applied a modified version of Hickson's (1982) criteria aimed at finding the highest density CGs and thus reducing the number of chance alignments. Our catalog contains 175 CGs down to a limiting galaxy magnitude of r* = 21. The resulting catalog has a median depth of approximately z = 0.13, substantially deeper than previous CG catalogs. Since the SDSS will eventually image up to one quarter of the celestial sphere, we expect our final catalog, based upon the completed SDSS, will contain on the order of 5,000-10,000 CGs. This catalog will be useful for conducting studies of the general characteristics of CGs, their environments, and their component galaxies.

  10. Status of The Dynamical Census of Galaxies and Groups in the RESOLVE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Kathleen D.; Kannappan, Sheila; Hall, Kirsten; Moffett, Amanda J.; Norris, Mark A.; Stark, David; Hoversten, Erik A.; Snyder, Elaine M.; Bittner, Ashley; Norman, Dara J.; Naluminsa, Elizabeth; Crawford, Steve; Vaisanen, Petri; Baker, Ashley; Berlind, Andreas A.; Rosenberg, Daniel; Beauchemin, Ryan William; Bonfield, Charles; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    The REsolved Spectroscopy of a Local VolumE (RESOLVE) survey is measuring either velocity dispersions or rotation velocities for ~1500 galaxies and ~200 multi-galaxy groups within >50,000 cubic Mpc of the z~0 universe, above a galaxy baryonic mass limit of ~10^9 Msun. Our kinematic census combines multi-slit, IFU, Fabry-Perot, long-slit, and radio linewidth data from the SOAR, SALT, Gemini, AAT, GBT, and Arecibo telescopes, with telescope/instrument combinations optimized for individual galaxy properties. We present a status update of the data taken, particularly focusing on the RESOLVE Early Science region overlapping Stripe 82. We also discuss challenges for dynamical measurements including measuring galaxy inclinations, determining the mix of support from rotational and random motions, and measuring dynamical masses for groups with few members. Finally, we conclude with a preliminary velocity function for the RESOLVE Early Science region. This work has been supported by the NSF through grants AST-0955368 and OCI-1156614, the NC Space Grant Graduate Research Fellowship Program, and a UNC Royster Society of Fellows Dissertation Completion Fellowship.

  11. Catalogs of Compact Groups of Galaxies from the Enhanced SDSS DR12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Jubee; Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Zahid, H. Jabran; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2016-08-01

    We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to an enhanced SDSS DR12 spectroscopic catalog, including redshift from the literature to construct a catalog of 1588 N≥slant 3 compact groups of galaxies containing 5178 member galaxies and covering the redshift range 0.01 < z < 0.19. This catalog contains 18 times as many systems and reaches 3 times the depth of the similar catalog of Barton et al. We construct catalogs from both magnitude-limited and volume-limited galaxy samples. Like Barton et al. we omit the frequently applied isolation criterion in the compact group selection algorithm. Thus the groups selected by fixed projected spatial and rest-frame line-of-sight velocity separation produce a catalog of groups with a redshift-independent median size. In contrast to previous catalogs, the enhanced SDSS DR12 catalog (including galaxies with r < 14.5) includes many systems with z ≲ 0.05. The volume-limited samples are unique to this study. The compact group candidates in these samples have a median stellar mass independent of redshift. Groups with velocity dispersion ≲100 {km} {{{s}}}-1 show abundant evidence for ongoing dynamical interactions among the members. The number density of the volume-limited catalogs agrees with previous catalogs at the lowest redshifts but decreases as the redshift increases. The SDSS fiber placement constraints limit the catalog’s completeness. In spite of this issue, the volume-limited catalogs provide a promising basis for detailed spatially resolved probes of the impact of galaxy–galaxy interactions within similar dense systems over a broad redshift range.

  12. ANCIENT STARS BEYOND THE LOCAL GROUP: RR LYRAE VARIABLES AND BLUE HORIZONTAL BRANCH STARS IN SCULPTOR GROUP DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Da Costa, G. S.; Jerjen, H.; Rejkuba, M.; Grebel, E. K.

    2010-01-10

    We have used Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys images to generate color-magnitude diagrams that reach below the magnitude of the horizontal branch in the Sculptor Group dwarf galaxies ESO294-010 and ESO410-005. In both diagrams, blue horizontal branch stars are unambiguously present, a signature of the existence of an ancient stellar population whose age is comparable to that of the Galactic halo globular clusters. The result is reinforced by the discovery of numerous RR Lyrae variables in both galaxies. The occurrence of these stars is the first direct confirmation of the existence of ancient stellar populations beyond the Local Group and indicates that star formation can occur at the earliest epochs even in low-density environments.

  13. Star Formation Suppression in Compact Group Galaxies: A New Path to Quenching?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.; Bitsakis, T.; Lanz, L.; Lacy, M.; Charmandaris, V.; Cluver, M.; Dopita, M. A.; Guillard, P.; Jarrett, T.; Kewley, L. J.; Nyland, K.; Ogle, P. M.; Rasmussen, J.; Rich, J. A.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Xu, C. K.; Yun, M.

    2015-10-01

    We present CO(1-0) maps of 12 warm H2-selected Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs), covering 14 individually imaged warm H2 bright galaxies, with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy. We found a variety of molecular gas distributions within the HCGs, including regularly rotating disks, bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and early-type galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression of < {S} > =10+/- 5, distributed bimodally, with five objects exhibiting suppressions of {S} ≳ 10 and depletion timescales ≳10 Gyr. This SF inefficiency is also seen in the efficiency per freefall time of Krumholz et al. We investigate the gas-to-dust ratios of these galaxies to determine if an incorrect LCO-M(H2) conversion caused the apparent suppression and find that HCGs have normal gas-to-dust ratios. It is likely that the cause of the apparent suppression in these objects is associated with shocks injecting turbulence into the molecular gas, supported by the fact that the required turbulent injection luminosity is consistent with the bright H2 luminosity reported by Cluver et al. Galaxies with high SF suppression ({S} ≳ 10) also appear to be those in the most advanced stages of transition across both optical and infrared color space. This supports the idea that at least some galaxies in HCGs are transitioning objects, where a disruption of the existing molecular gas in the system suppresses SF by inhibiting the molecular gas from collapsing and forming stars efficiently. These observations, combined with recent work on poststarburst galaxies with molecular reservoirs, indicates that galaxies do not need to expel their molecular reservoirs prior to quenching SF and transitioning from blue spirals to red early-type galaxies. This may imply that SF quenching can

  14. On the recovery of the local group motion from galaxy redshift surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Nusser, Adi; Davis, Marc; Branchini, Enzo E-mail: mdavis@berkeley.edu

    2014-06-20

    There is an ∼150 km s{sup –1} discrepancy between the measured motion of the Local Group (LG) of galaxies with respect to the cosmic microwave background and the linear theory prediction based on the gravitational force field of the large-scale structure in full-sky redshift surveys. We perform a variety of tests which show that the LG motion cannot be recovered to better than 150-200 km s{sup –1} in amplitude and within ≈10° in direction. The tests rely on catalogs of mock galaxies identified in the Millennium simulation using semi-analytic galaxy formation models. We compare these results to the K{sub s} = 11.75 Two-Mass Galaxy Redshift Survey, which provides the deepest and most complete all-sky spatial distribution of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts available thus far. In our analysis, we use a new concise relation for deriving the LG motion and bulk flow from the true distribution of galaxies in redshift space. Our results show that the main source of uncertainty is the small effective depth of surveys like the Two-Mass Redshift Survey (2MRS), which prevents a proper sampling of the large-scale structure beyond ∼100 h {sup –1} Mpc. Deeper redshift surveys are needed to reach the 'convergence scale' of ≈250 h {sup –1} Mpc in a ΛCDM universe. Deeper surveys would also mitigate the impact of the 'Kaiser rocket' which, in a survey like 2MRS, remains a significant source of uncertainty. Thanks to the quiet and moderate density environment of the LG, purely dynamical uncertainties of the linear predictions are subdominant at the level of ∼90 km s{sup –1}. Finally, we show that deviations from linear galaxy biasing and shot noise errors provide a minor contribution to the total error budget.

  15. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J.; Greene, Jenny E.; Blakeslee, John P.; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day ‘dormant’ descendants of this population of ‘active’ black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall—the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600—a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes.

  16. Hierarchical Formation in Action: Characterizing Accelerated Galaxy Evolution in Compact Groups Using Whole-sky WISE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, Catherine; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey; Gallagher, Sarah; Alatalo, Katherine; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis

    2016-04-01

    Compact groups provide an environment to study the growth of galaxies amid multiple prolonged interactions. With their dense galaxy concentrations and relatively low velocity dispersions, compact groups mimic the conditions of hierarchical galaxy assembly. Compact group galaxies are known to show a bimodality in Spitzer IRAC infrared color space: galaxies are preferentially either quiescent with low specific star formation rates (SSFRs) or prolifically forming stars—galaxies with moderate levels of specific star formation are rare. Previous Spitzer IRAC studies identifying this “canyon” have been limited by small number statistics. We utilize whole-sky Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data to study 163 compact groups, thereby tripling our previous sample and including more galaxies with intermediate mid-IR colors indicative of moderate SSFRs. We define a distinct WISE mid-IR color space ≤ft({log}≤ft[\\tfrac{{f}12}{{f}4.6}\\right]\\right) versus ≤ft({log}≤ft[\\tfrac{{f}22}{{f}3.4}\\right]\\right) that we use to identify canyon galaxies from the larger sample. We confirm that compact group galaxies show a bimodal distribution in the mid-infrared and identify 37 canyon galaxies with reliable photometry and intermediate mid-IR colors. Morphologically, we find that the canyon harbors a large population of both Sa–Sbc and E/S0 type galaxies, and that they fall on the optical red sequence rather than the green valley. Finally, we provide a catalog of WISE photometry for 567 of 652 galaxies selected from the sample of 163 compact groups.

  17. Studying high redshift galaxy groups with the Athena Wide-Field-Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacaud, Florian; Reiprich, Thomas; Ramos Ceja, Miriam Elizabeth; Lovisari, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    In this contribution, we will discuss the potential of Athena to study high redshift galaxy groups (1groups in Athena WFI observations and our ability to identify them as extended sources among the numerous active galactic nuclei (AGN) at similar fluxes. Our analysis also includes the determination of the physical properties of these galaxy groups (average gas temperature, luminosity). Based on these tools, we discuss the science achievable with such systems thanks to Athena and its dependance on the final instrumental set-up. In particular, we investigate the impact of different levels of contamination by AGNs and assumptions on the luminosity of the groups as a function of their mass.

  18. The Role of Star Formation in Radio-Loud Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Hanna; Wilcots, E.; Hess, K.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray observations have shown that additional non-gravitational processes are required to explain the heating of the intergalactic medium in galaxy groups. The two most likely processes are galactic outflows from starbursts and feedback from AGN. Here, we look at star formation as a possible additional heating mechanism in X-ray luminous groups such as NGC 741, NGC 1052, NGC 524, and NGC 1587. We report on the results of optical imaging of these groups carried out using the WIYN 3.5m telescope with a specific emphasis on measuring the star formation rates of the resident galaxies in each group and estimating the impact of that star formation on the thermodynamics of the intragroup medium.

  19. LENTICULAR GALAXIES AT THE OUTSKIRTS OF THE LEO II GROUP: NGC 3599 AND NGC 3626

    SciTech Connect

    Sil'chenko, O. K.; Shulga, A. P.; Moiseev, A. V. E-mail: alina.shulga@gmail.co

    2010-11-15

    We have studied unbarred S0 galaxies, NGC 3599 and NGC 3626, the members of the X-ray bright group Leo II, by means of three-dimensional spectroscopy, long-slit spectroscopy, and imaging, with the aim of identifying the epoch and mechanisms of their transformation from spirals. Both galaxies have appeared to bear complex features obviously resulting from minor merging: decoupled gas kinematics, nuclear star-forming rings, and multi-tiered oval large-scale stellar disks. The weak emission line nucleus of NGC 3599 bears all signs of Seyfert activity, according to the line-ratio diagnostics of the gas excitation mechanism. We conclude that the transformation of these lenticular galaxies took place about 1-2 Gyr ago, through gravitational mechanisms unrelated to the hot intragroup medium of Leo II.

  20. The luminosities of backsplash galaxies in constrained simulations of the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knebe, Alexander; Libeskind, Noam I.; Knollmann, Steffen R.; Martinez-Vaquero, Luis A.; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottlöber, Stefan; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2011-03-01

    We study the differences and similarities in the luminosities of bound, infalling and the so-called backsplash galaxies of the Milky Way and M31 using a hydrodynamical simulation performed within the Constrained Local UniversE Simulation (CLUES) project. The simulation models the formation of the Local Group within a self-consistent cosmological framework. We find that even though backsplash galaxies passed through the virial radius of their host halo and hence may have lost a (significant) fraction of their mass, their stellar populations are hardly affected. This leaves us with comparable luminosity functions for infalling and backsplash galaxies and hence little hope to decipher their past (and different) formation and evolutionary histories by luminosity measurements alone. Nevertheless, due to the tidal stripping of dark matter we find that the mass-to-light ratios have changed when comparing the various populations against each other: they are highest for the infalling galaxies and lowest for the bound satellites with the backsplash galaxies in between.

  1. Young star clusters in the interacting galaxies of Hickson Compact Group 90

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miah, J. A.; Sharples, R. M.; Cho, J.

    2015-03-01

    Deep images of Hickson Compact Group 90 (HCG 90) have been obtained using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. We report results for star clusters observed in the interacting pair of galaxies NGC 7174 and NGC 7176. We present magnitude and colour distributions for the observed cluster population and find that the majority of objects show colours similar to intermediate/old age (>1 Gyr) globular clusters. However, a significant population of blue star clusters are also observed which may have formed from the tidal interaction currently occurring between the two galaxies. We find luminosity function turnover magnitudes of m^{TO}g = 25.1 ± 0.1 and m^{TO}z = 24.3 ± 0.1 for the g and z bands, respectively, implying distances of Dg = 28.8 ± 2.6 Mpc and Dz = 34.7 ± 3.1 Mpc to these galaxies, using the globular cluster luminosity function method. Lastly, we determine a total cluster population of approximately NGC ≃ 212 ± 10 over all magnitudes and a low specific frequency of SN ˜ 0.6 ± 0.1 for this pair of interacting elliptical and spiral galaxies. The small globular cluster population is likely due to tidal interactions taking place between the two galaxies which may have stripped many progenitor clusters away and formed the diffuse light observed at the core of HCG 90.

  2. Neutral hydrogen in galaxy clusters: impact of AGN feedback and implications for intensity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Planelles, Susana; Borgani, Stefano; Viel, Matteo; Rasia, Elena; Murante, Giuseppe; Dolag, Klaus; Steinborn, Lisa K.; Biffi, Veronica; Beck, Alexander M.; Ragone-Figueroa, Cinthia

    2016-03-01

    By means of zoom-in hydrodynamic simulations, we quantify the amount of neutral hydrogen (H I) hosted by groups and clusters of galaxies. Our simulations, which are based on an improved formulation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics, include radiative cooling, star formation, metal enrichment and supernova feedback, and can be split into two different groups, depending on whether feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is turned on or off. Simulations are analysed to account for H I self-shielding and the presence of molecular hydrogen. We find that the mass in neutral hydrogen of dark matter haloes monotonically increases with the halo mass and can be well described by a power law of the form M_{H I}(M,z)∝ M^{3/4}. Our results point out that AGN feedback reduces both the total halo mass and its H I mass, although it is more efficient in removing H I. We conclude that AGN feedback reduces the neutral hydrogen mass of a given halo by ˜50 per cent, with a weak dependence on halo mass and redshift. The spatial distribution of neutral hydrogen within haloes is also affected by AGN feedback, whose effect is to decrease the fraction of H I that resides in the halo inner regions. By extrapolating our results to haloes not resolved in our simulations, we derive astrophysical implications from the measurements of Ω _{H I}(z): haloes with circular velocities larger than ˜25 km s-1 are needed to host H I in order to reproduce observations. We find that only the model with AGN feedback is capable of reproducing the value of Ω _{H I}b_{H I} derived from available 21 cm intensity mapping observations.

  3. X-ray Emission from Early-Type Galaxies in Groups and Poor Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolillo, M.

    2002-04-01

    We present the study of three bright Early-Type galaxies hosted in groups or poor clusters: NGC 1399, NGC 1404 and NGC 507. We used ROSAT HRI, PSPC and, when available, higher resolution Chandra data to study the structure of the X-ray halo. The halo center of NGC 1399 and NGC 507 is dominated by a bright emission peak coincident with the position of the optical galaxy. This central peak is not explained by cooling flow models and is likely to be produced by kinetically heated stellar material. Within the effective radius, the hot gas distribution is tracing the galactic potential due to luminous matter. At larger distances the halo dynamics is dominated by dark matter extending on group and cluster scales. The NGC 1399 complex morphology further requires that the dark matter distribution has a hierarchical structure or that environmental effects are producing departures from hydrostatic equilibrium. We found significant density fluctuations in the hot gas distribution of both NGC 1399 and NGC 507, some of which are explained by the interaction of the radio-emitting plasma with the surrounding ISM. The remaining structures may be the result of galaxy-galaxy encounters, wakes produced by the motion of the galaxy through the ICM or may reflect the inhomogeneity of the cooling process invoked by many authors to explain the failure of the standard cooling-flow models. NGC 1404 represents a puzzling case since, despite its similarity with dominant cluster members, significant differences are found in the hot gas properties. These conflicting evidences can be explained by environmental effects, such as stifling of galactic winds by the ICM. Finally, we studied the population of discrete sources found in proximity of the two dominant galaxies.

  4. Implications of multiple high-redshift galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyle, Ben; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2011-05-15

    To date, 14 high-redshift (z>1.0) galaxy clusters with mass measurements have been observed, spectroscopically confirmed, and are reported in the literature. These objects should be exceedingly rare in the standard {Lambda} cold dark matter ({Lambda}CDM) model. We conservatively approximate the selection functions of these clusters' parent surveys and quantify the tension between the abundances of massive clusters as predicted by the standard {Lambda}CDM model and the observed ones. We alleviate the tension, considering non-Gaussian primordial perturbations of the local type, characterized by the parameter f{sub NL}, and derive constraints on f{sub NL} arising from the mere existence of these clusters. At the 95% confidence level, f{sub NL}>467, with cosmological parameters fixed to their most likely WMAP5 values, or f{sub NL} > or approx. 123 (at 95% confidence) if we marginalize over prior WMAP5 parameters. In combination with f{sub NL} constraints from cosmic microwave background and halo bias, this determination implies a scale dependence of f{sub NL} at {approx_equal}3{sigma}. Given the assumptions made in the analysis, we expect any future improvements to the modeling of the non-Gaussian mass function, survey volumes, or selection functions to increase the significance of f{sub NL}>0 found here. In order to reconcile these massive, high-z clusters with f{sub NL}=0, their masses would need to be systematically lowered by 1.5{sigma}, or the {sigma}{sub 8} parameter should be {approx}3{sigma} higher than cosmic microwave background (and large-scale structure) constraints. The existence of these objects is a puzzle: it either represents a challenge to the {Lambda}CDM paradigm or it is an indication that the mass estimates of clusters are dramatically more uncertain than we think.

  5. Steepened inner density profiles of group galaxies via interactions: an N-body analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobke, Benjamin M.; King, Lindsay J.; Fellhauer, Michael

    2007-06-01

    We continue to see a range of values for the Hubble constant obtained from gravitationally lensed multiple image time-delays when assuming an isothermal lens despite a robust value from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) key project (72 +/- 8 kms-1 Mpc-1). One explanation is that there is a variation in Hubble constant values due to a fundamental heterogeneity in lens galaxies present in groups, that is, central galaxies with a high dark matter surface density, and satellite galaxies with a possibly stripped halo, low dark matter surface density, and a more centrally concentrated matter distribution. Our goal is to see if a variety of group interactions between the most-massive group members can result in significant changes in the galaxy density profiles over the scale probed by strong lensing (<~15 kpc). While stripping of the outer parts of the halo can be expected, the impact on inner regions where the luminous component is important is less clear in the context of lensing, though still crucial, as a steepened density profile within this inner region allows these lens systems to be consistent with current HST/Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) estimates on H0. We employ the particle-mesh code SUPERBOX to carry out the group interaction simulations. An important advantage of using such a code is that it implements a fast, low-storage fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm allowing simulations with millions of particles on desk-top machines. We simulate interactions between group members, comparing the density profile for the satellite before and after interaction for the mass range of 1011 to 1013Msolar. Our investigations show a significant steepening of the density profile in the region of ~5-20 kpc, i.e. that which dominates strong lensing in lens galaxies. This effect is independent of the initial mass-to-light ratio. Additionally, the steepening in the inner region is transient in nature, with consecutive interactions returning the profile to an

  6. Mass of the Local Group from Proper Motions of Distant Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marel, Roeland

    2010-09-01

    The Local Group and its two dominant spirals, the Milky Way and M31, have become the benchmark for testing many aspects of cosmological and galaxy formation theories, due to many exciting new discoveries in the past decade. However, it is difficult to put results in a proper cosmological context, because our knowledge of the mass M of the Local Group remains uncertain by a factor 4. In units of 10^{12} solar masses, a spherical infall model for the zero-velocity surface gives M 1.3; the sum of estimates for the Milky Way and M31 masses gives M 2.6; and the Local Group Timing argument for the M31 orbit gives M 5.6. It is possible to discriminate between the proposed masses by calculating the orbits of galaxies at the edge of the Local Group, which requires knowledge of transverse velocity components. We therefore propose to use ACS/WFC to determine the proper motions of the 4 dwarf galaxies near the edge of the Local Group {Cetus, Leo A, Tucana, Sag DIG} for which deep first epoch data {with 5-7 year time baselines} already exist in the HST Archive. Our team has extensive expertise with HST astrometric science, and our past/ongoing work for, e.g., Omega Cen, LMC/SMC and M31 show that the necessary astrometric accuracy is within the reach of HST's demonstrated capabilities. We have developed, tested, and published a new technique that uses compact background galaxies as astrometric reference sources, and we have already reduced the first epoch data. The final predicted transverse velocity accuracy, 36 km/s when averaged over the sample, will be sufficient to discriminate between each of the proposed Local Group masses at 2-sigma significance {4-sigma between the most extreme values}. Our project will yield the most accurate Local Group mass determination to date, and only HST can achieve the required accuracy.

  7. The two-point correlation function for groups of galaxies in the Center for Astrophysics redshift survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramella, Massimo; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1990-01-01

    The large-scale distribution of groups of galaxies selected from complete slices of the CfA redshift survey extension is examined. The survey is used to reexamine the contribution of group members to the galaxy correlation function. The relationship between the correlation function for groups and those calculated for rich clusters is discussed, and the results for groups are examined as an extension of the relation between correlation function amplitude and richness. The group correlation function indicates that groups and individual galaxies are equivalent tracers of the large-scale matter distribution. The distribution of group centers is equivalent to random sampling of the galaxy distribution. The amplitude of the correlation function for groups is consistent with an extrapolation of the amplitude-richness relation for clusters. The amplitude scaled by the mean intersystem separation is also consistent with results for richer clusters.

  8. AGN Feedback in Galaxy Groups: A Joint GMRT/X-ray Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacintucci, S.; Vrtilek, J. M.; O'Sullivan, E.; Raychaudhury, S.; David, L. P.; Venturi, T.; Athreya, R.; Gitti, M.

    2009-12-01

    We present an ongoing study of 18 nearby galaxy groups, chosen for the availability of Chandra and/or XMM-Newton data and evidence for AGN/hot intragroup gas interaction. We have obtained 235 and 610 MHz observations at the GMRT for all the groups, and 327 and 150 MHz for a few. We discuss two interesting cases-NGC 5044 and AWM 4-which exhibit different kinds of AGN/hot gas interaction. With the help of these examples we show how joining low-frequency radio data (to track the history of AGN outbursts through emission from aged electron populations) with X-ray data (to determine the state of hot gas, its disturbances, heating and cooling) can provide a unique insight into the nature of the feedback mechanism in galaxy groups.

  9. Local dark energy: HST evidence from the vicinity of the M81/M82 galaxy group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Kashibadze, O. G.; Makarov, D. I.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.

    2007-10-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope observations of the nearby galaxy group M81/M82 and its vicinity indicate that the dynamics of the expansion outflow around the group is dominated by the antigravity of the dark energy background. The local density of dark energy in the area is estimated to be near the global dark energy density or perhaps exactly equal to it. This conclusion agrees well with our previous results for the Local Group vicinity and the vicinity of the Cen A/M83 group.

  10. IMAGE RELEASE: New Hydrogen Clouds in the M81 Group of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    A composite radio-optical image shows five new clouds of hydrogen gas discovered using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The spiral galaxy M81 and its satellite, M82, are seen in visible light (white); intergalactic hydrogen gas revealed by the GBT is shown in red; and additional hydrogen gas earlier detected by the Very Large Array is shown in green. The M81 Group of galaxies, 11.8 million light-years from Earth, are interacting gravitationally with each other, as shown clearly by the gas streaming among them. The newly-discovered gas clouds, each containing from 14 to 57 million times the mass of our Sun, are similar to gas clouds also found near our own Milky Way Galaxy. Astronomers analyzing these M81 Group clouds conclude that they are likely remnants of earlier interactions among the galaxies and that this indicates that their analogs near the Milky Way had a similar origin. The research team is: Katie Chynoweth, a graduate student at Vanderbilt University; Glen Langston of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO); Min Yun of the University of Massachusetts; Felix J. Lockman of NRAO; Kate Rubin of Lick Observatory; and Sarah Scoles of Cornell University. The astronomers presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Austin, Texas. Credit: Chynoweth et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF, Digital Sky Survey. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  11. GALAXY INTERACTIONS IN COMPACT GROUPS. I. THE GALACTIC WINDS OF HCG16

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Frederic P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.; Kewley, Lisa J.

    2013-05-10

    Using the WiFeS integral field spectrograph, we have undertaken a series of observations of star-forming galaxies in compact groups. In this first paper dedicated to the project, we present the analysis of the spiral galaxy NGC 838, a member of the Hickson Compact Group 16, and of its galactic wind. Our observations reveal that the wind forms an asymmetric, bipolar, rotating structure, powered by a nuclear starburst. Emission line ratio diagnostics indicate that photoionization is the dominant excitation mechanism at the base of the wind. Mixing from slow shocks (up to 20%) increases further out along the outflow axis. The asymmetry of the wind is most likely caused by one of the two lobes of the wind bubble bursting out of its H I envelope, as indicated by line ratios and radial velocity maps. The characteristics of this galactic wind suggest that it is caught early (a few Myr) in the wind evolution sequence. The wind is also quite different from the galactic wind in the partner galaxy NGC 839 which contains a symmetric, shock-excited wind. Assuming that both galaxies have similar interaction histories, the two different winds must be a consequence of the intrinsic properties of NGC 838 and NGC 839 and their starbursts.

  12. SARCS strong-lensing galaxy groups. II. Mass-concentration relation and strong-lensing bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foëx, G.; Motta, V.; Jullo, E.; Limousin, M.; Verdugo, T.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: Various studies have shown a lensing bias in the mass-concentration relation of cluster-scale structures that is the result of an alignment of the major axis and the line of sight. In this paper, we aim to study this lensing bias through the mass-concentration relation of galaxy groups, thus extending observational constraints to dark matter haloes of mass ~1013-1014 M⊙. Methods: Our work is based on the stacked weak-lensing analysis of a sample of 80 strong-lensing galaxy groups. By combining several lenses, we significantly increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the lensing signal, thus providing constraints on the mass profile that cannot be obtained for individual objects. The resulting shear profiles were fitted with various mass models, among them the Navarro-Frank-White (NFW) profile, which provides an estimate of the total mass and of the concentration of the composite galaxy groups. Results: The main results of our analysis are the following: (i) the lensing signal does not allow us to firmly distinguish between a simple singular isothermal sphere mass distribution and the expected NFW mass profile; (ii) we obtain an average concentration c200 = 8.6-1.3+2.1 that is much higher than the value expected from numerical simulations for the corresponding average mass M200 = 0.73-0.10+0.11 × 1014 M⊙; (iii) the combination of our results with those at larger mass scales gives a mass-concentration relation c(M) of more than two decades in mass, whose slope disagrees with predictions from numerical simulations using unbiased populations of dark matter haloes; (iv) our combined c(M) relation matches results from simulations that only used haloes with a large strong-lensing cross-section, that is, elongated with a major axis close to the line of sight; (v) for the simplest case of prolate haloes, we estimate a lower limit on the minor-to-major axis ratio a/c = 0.5 for the average SARCS galaxy group with a toy model. Conclusions: Our analysis based on galaxy

  13. The redshift-space neighborhoods of 36 loose groups of galaxies. 1: The data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramella, Massimo; Geller, Margaret J.; Hurchra, John P.; Thorstensen, John R.

    1995-01-01

    We have selected 36 loose groups of galaxies (RGH89) with at least five members, and with mean redshift average value of CZ is greater than 3200 km/s. These groups all lie within the first two slices of the CfA redshift survey 8(sup h) less than or equal to alpha less than or equal to 17(sup h) and 26.5 deg less than or equal to delta less than or equal to 38.5 deg). For each of these groups, we define the redshift-space neighborhood as a region centered on the group coordinates and delimited by a circle of projected radius R(sub cir) = 1.5/h Mpc on the sky, and by a velocity interval delta (sub cz) = 3000 km/s. Here we give the redshifts of 334 galaxies in these redshift-space neighborhoods. For completeness, we also give the redshifts of the 232 original members. These data include 199 new redshifts. We demonstrate that these samples of fainter galaxies significantly increase the number of members.

  14. Weak lensing calibrated M-T scaling relation of galaxy groups in the cosmos field

    SciTech Connect

    Kettula, K.; Finoguenov, A.; Massey, R.; Rhodes, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Taylor, J. E.; Spinelli, P. F.; Tanaka, M.; Ilbert, O.; Capak, P.; McCracken, H. J.; Koekemoer, A.

    2013-11-20

    The scaling between X-ray observables and mass for galaxy clusters and groups is instrumental for cluster-based cosmology and an important probe for the thermodynamics of the intracluster gas. We calibrate a scaling relation between the weak lensing mass and X-ray spectroscopic temperature for 10 galaxy groups in the COSMOS field, combined with 55 higher-mass clusters from the literature. The COSMOS data includes Hubble Space Telescope imaging and redshift measurements of 46 source galaxies per arcminute{sup 2}, enabling us to perform unique weak lensing measurements of low-mass systems. Our sample extends the mass range of the lensing calibrated M-T relation an order of magnitude lower than any previous study, resulting in a power-law slope of 1.48{sub −0.09}{sup +0.13}. The slope is consistent with the self-similar model, predictions from simulations, and observations of clusters. However, X-ray observations relying on mass measurements derived under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium have indicated that masses at group scales are lower than expected. Both simulations and observations suggest that hydrostatic mass measurements can be biased low. Our external weak lensing masses provide the first observational support for hydrostatic mass bias at group level, showing an increasing bias with decreasing temperature and reaching a level of 30%-50% at 1 keV.

  15. How the extinction of extragalactic background light affects surface photometry of galaxies, groups and clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zackrisson, E.; Micheva, G.; Östlin, G.

    2009-08-01

    The faint regions of galaxies, groups and clusters hold important clues about how these objects formed, and surface photometry at optical and near-infrared wavelengths represents a powerful tool for studying such structures. Here, we identify a hitherto unrecognized problem with this technique, related to how the night sky flux is typically measured and subtracted from astronomical images. While most of the sky flux comes from regions between the observer and the target object, a small fraction - the extragalactic background light (EBL) - comes from behind. We argue that since this part of the sky flux can be subjected to extinction by dust present in the galaxy/group/cluster studied, standard reduction procedures may lead to a systematic oversubtraction of the EBL. Even very small amounts of extinction can lead to spurious features in radial surface brightness profiles and colour maps of extended objects. We assess the likely impact of this effect on a number of topics in extragalactic astronomy where very deep surface photometry is currently attempted, including studies of stellar haloes, starburst host galaxies, disc truncations and diffuse intragroup/intracluster light. We argue that EBL extinction may provide at least a partial explanation for the anomalously red colours reported for the haloes of disc galaxies and for the hosts of local starburst galaxies. EBL extinction effects also mimic truncations in discs with unusually high dust opacities, but are unlikely to be the cause of such features in general. Failure to account for EBL extinction can also give rise to a non-negligible underestimate of intragroup and intracluster light at the faintest surface brightness levels currently probed. Finally, we discuss how EBL extinction effects may be exploited to provide an independent constraint on the surface brightness of the EBL, using a combination of surface photometry and direct star counts.

  16. Ram-pressure stripping and ICM physics in an infalling galaxy group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Dominique

    2014-09-01

    Ram-pressure stripped tails have been observed in a handful of individual interacting galaxies and are direct signatures of structure formation processes. We discovered a spectacular tail (>600 kpc long) of hot gas trailing behind an accreting group. This tail is the first in a galaxy group and it is longer than any known similar feature by a factor of 5. Because of its long survival (>700 Myr) and irregular morphology, this structure also provides us with a unique laboratory for the study of ICM physics. We propose a 200 ks observation of this accreting substructure with Chandra with the following aims: 1) characterize precisely its morphology; 2) determine the infall velocity and study the stripping processes; 3) provide constraints on transport processes and turbulence in the local ICM.

  17. X-ray-selected galaxy groups in Boötes

    SciTech Connect

    Vajgel, Bruna; Lopes, Paulo A. A.; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Murray, Stephen S.; Goulding, Andrew; Andrade-Santos, Felipe

    2014-10-10

    We present the X-ray and optical properties of the galaxy groups selected in the Chandra X-Boötes survey. We used follow-up Chandra observations to better define the group sample and their X-ray properties. Group redshifts were measured from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey spectroscopic data. We used photometric data from the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey to estimate the group richness (N {sub gals}) and the optical luminosity (L {sub opt}). Our final sample comprises 32 systems at z < 1.75 with 14 below z = 0.35. For these 14 systems, we estimate velocity dispersions (σ {sub gr}) and perform a virial analysis to obtain the radii (R {sub 200} and R {sub 500}) and total masses (M {sub 200} and M {sub 500}) for groups with at least 5 galaxy members. We use the Chandra X-ray observations to derive the X-ray luminosity (L{sub X} ). We examine the performance of the group properties σ{sub gr}, L {sub opt}, and L{sub X} , as proxies for the group mass. Understanding how well these observables measure the total mass is important to estimate how precisely the cluster/group mass function is determined. Exploring the scaling relations built with the X-Boötes sample and comparing these with samples from the literature, we find a break in the L{sub X} -M {sub 500} relation at approximately M {sub 500} = 5 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉} (for M {sub 500} > 5 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}, M{sub 500}∝L{sub X}{sup 0.61±0.02}, while for M {sub 500} ≤ 5 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}, M{sub 500}∝L{sub X}{sup 0.44±0.05}). Thus, the mass-luminosity relation for galaxy groups cannot be described by the same power law as galaxy clusters. A possible explanation for this break is the dynamical friction, tidal interactions, and projection effects that reduce the velocity dispersion values of the galaxy groups. By extending the cluster luminosity function to the group regime, we predict the number of groups that new X-ray surveys, particularly eROSITA, will detect. Based on our cluster/group

  18. A Compact Group of Galaxies at z = 2.48 Hosting an AGN-driven Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2015-12-01

    We present observations of a remarkable compact group of galaxies at z = 2.48. Four galaxies, all within 40 kpc of each other, surround a powerful high-redshift radio source. This group comprises two compact red passive galaxies and a pair of merging galaxies. One of the red galaxies, with an apparent stellar mass of 3.6 × 1011M⊙ and an effective radius of 470 pc, is one of the most extreme examples of a massive quiescent compact galaxy found so far. One of the pair of merging galaxies hosts the active galactic nucleus (AGN) producing the large powerful radio structure. The merger is massive and enriched, consistent with the mass-metallicity relation expected at this redshift. Close to the merging nuclei, the emission lines exhibit broad and asymmetric profiles that suggest outflows powered either by a very young expanding radio jet or by AGN radiation. At ≳50 kpc from the system, we found a fainter extended-emission region that may be a part of a radio-jet-driven outflow. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The work is also based, in part, on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  19. Project Galaxy - Sustianable Resource Supply and Environmental Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, Mark; Wimmer, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Understanding what it takes to move from a corn-based liquid fuels industry to one that is cellulosic-based requires a complex transition over time. This transition implies, among other things, a shift from annual cropping systems considered under United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) policy as commodity crops, to perennial lignocellulosic crops that are herbaceous and wood-based. Because of changes in land use as well as biomass and other crop supplies, land-based environmental amenities such as water quality, soil health and tilth, air quality, and animal and avian species populations and their diversity change also. Environmental effects are measured as magnitudes (how much they are impacted), and direction of the impact (either positive or negative). By developing a series of quantitative and qualitative metrics, the larger issue of defining relative sustainability may be addressed, and this can be done at a finer detail of regional (scale) and environmental amenity-specific impacts. Although much literature exists about research relevant to specific environmental variables, there is no published, documented, nor research literature on direct application of environmental over-compliance with regards a 'biorefinery.' Our three goals were to (1) understand and quantify bioenergy sustainability and some key environmental effects in a generic set of examples; (2) explain the effort and means to define and quantify specific qualitative environmental measures, and to determine a way to understand changes in these measures over time and what their implications might be; and (3) use these outcomes to evaluate potential sites in any geographic area. This would permit assessment of candidate locations, combined with an understanding of co-production of fuels, chemicals, and electric power, to interpret sustainability measures and the relationship between environmental sustainability and economic sustainability. The process of determining environmental

  20. Implication-based fuzzy semiautomaton of a finite group and its properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selva Rathi, M.; Michael Anna Spinneli, J.

    2016-06-01

    Implication-based fuzzy semiautomaton (IBFSA) of a finite group is defined. The ideas of an implication-based fuzzy kernel and implication-based fuzzy subsemiautomaton of an IBFSA over a finite group are developed using the concept of implication-based fuzzy subgroup and implication-based fuzzy normal subgroup. The necessary and sufficient condition for the implication-based fuzzy kernel and implication-based fuzzy subsemiautomaton of an IBFSA and few other results are proved in this paper.

  1. The luminosities of the brightest cluster galaxies and brightest satellites in SDSS groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2012-06-01

    We show that the distribution of luminosities of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in a Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-based group catalogue suggests that BCG luminosities are just the statistical extremes of the group galaxy luminosity function. The latter happens to be very well approximated by the all-galaxy luminosity function (restricted to Mr < -19.9), provided one uses a parametrization of this function that is accurate at the bright end. A similar analysis of the luminosity distribution of the brightest satellite galaxies (BSGs) suggests that they are best thought of as being the second brightest pick from the same luminosity distribution of which BCGs are the brightest. That is, BSGs are not the brightest of some universal satellite luminosity functions, in contrast to what halo model analyses of the luminosity dependence of clustering suggest. However, we then use mark correlations to provide a novel test of these order statistics, showing that the hypothesis of a universal luminosity function (i.e. no halo mass dependence) from which the BCGs and BSGs are drawn is incompatible with the data, despite the fact that there was no hint of this in the BCG and BSG luminosity distributions themselves. We also discuss why, since extreme value statistics are explicitly a function of the number of draws, the consistency of BCG luminosities with extreme value statistics is most clearly seen if one is careful to perform the test at fixed group richness N. Tests at e.g. fixed total group luminosity Ltot will generally be biased and may lead to erroneous conclusions.

  2. Suzaku observations of metal distribution out to 0.5 r180 in the intracluster medium of four galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Toru; Matsushita, Kyoko; Sato, Kosuke

    We studied the distributions of metal abundances and metal-mass-to-light ratios in the intracluster medium of four galaxy groups, MKW 4, HCG 62, the NGC 1550 group, and the NGC 5044 group, out to ˜ 0.5 r_{180} observed with Suzaku.The Fe abundance decreases with radius, and about 0.2-0.4 solar beyond 0.1 r _{180}. At a given radius in units of r_{180}, the Fe abundance in the ICM of the four galaxy groups were consistent or smaller than those of clusters of galaxies. The Mg/Fe and Si/Fe ratios in the ICM are nearly constant at the solar ratio out to 0.5 r_{180}. Since the metals have been synthesized in galaxies, we collected K-band luminosities of galaxies from Two Micron All Sky Survey catalogue and calculated the integrated iron-mass-to-light-ratios (IMLR), or the ratios of the iron mass in the ICM to light from stars in galaxies. The groups with smaller gas mass to light ratios have smaller IMLR values and the IMLR inversely correlated with the entropy excess. Based on these abundance features, we discussed the past history of metal enrichment process in groups of galaxies. These results and discussions were shown in Sasaki et al. 2014,ApJ,781,36.

  3. Metal Distributions out to 0.5 r 180 in the Intracluster Medium of Four Galaxy Groups Observed with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Toru; Matsushita, Kyoko; Sato, Kosuke

    2014-01-01

    We studied the distributions of metal abundances and metal-mass-to-light ratios in the intracluster medium (ICM) of four galaxy groups, MKW 4, HCG 62, the NGC 1550 group, and the NGC 5044 group, out to ~0.5 r 180 observed with Suzaku. The iron abundance decreases with radius and is about 0.2-0.4 solar beyond 0.1 r 180. At a given radius in units of r 180, the iron abundance in the ICM of the four galaxy groups was consistent with or smaller than those of clusters of galaxies. The Mg/Fe and Si/Fe ratios in the ICM are nearly constant at the solar ratio out to 0.5 r 180. We also studied systematic uncertainties in the derived metal abundances, comparing the results from two versions of atomic data for astrophysicists (ATOMDB) and single- and two-temperature model fits. Since the metals have been synthesized in galaxies, we collected K-band luminosities of galaxies from the Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog and calculated the integrated iron-mass-to-light-ratios (IMLR), or the ratios of the iron mass in the ICM to light from stars in galaxies. The groups with smaller gas-mass-to-light ratios have smaller IMLR values and the IMLR is inversely correlated with the entropy excess. Based on these abundance features, we discussed the past history of metal enrichment processes in groups of galaxies.

  4. A comprehensive HST BVI catalogue of star clusters in five Hickson compact groups of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, K.; Gallagher, S. C.; Durrell, P. R.; Bastian, N.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Charlton, J.; Johnson, K. E.; Chandar, R.

    2015-05-01

    We present a photometric catalogue of star cluster candidates in Hickson compact groups (HCGs) 7, 31, 42, 59, and 92, based on observations with the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope. The catalogue contains precise cluster positions (right ascension and declination), magnitudes, and colours in the BVI filters. The number of detected sources ranges from 2200 to 5600 per group, from which we construct the high-confidence sample by applying a number of criteria designed to reduce foreground and background contaminants. Furthermore, the high-confidence cluster candidates for each of the 16 galaxies in our sample are split into two subpopulations: one that may contain young star clusters and one that is dominated by globular older clusters. The ratio of young star cluster to globular cluster candidates varies from group to group, from equal numbers to the extreme of HCG 31 which has a ratio of 8 to 1, due to a recent starburst induced by interactions in the group. We find that the number of blue clusters with MV < -9 correlates well with the current star formation rate in an individual galaxy, while the number of globular cluster candidates with MV < -7.8 correlates well (though with large scatter) with the stellar mass. Analyses of the high-confidence sample presented in this paper show that star clusters can be successfully used to infer the gross star formation history of the host groups and therefore determine their placement in a proposed evolutionary sequence for compact galaxy groups.

  5. EVOLUTION IN THE H I GAS CONTENT OF GALAXY GROUPS: PRE-PROCESSING AND MASS ASSEMBLY IN THE CURRENT EPOCH

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Kelley M.; Wilcots, Eric M. E-mail: ewilcots@astro.wisc.edu

    2013-11-01

    We present an analysis of the neutral hydrogen (H I) content and distribution of galaxies in groups as a function of their parent dark matter halo mass. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey α.40 data release allows us, for the first time, to study the H I properties of over 740 galaxy groups in the volume of sky common to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and ALFALFA surveys. We assigned ALFALFA H I detections a group membership based on an existing magnitude/volume-limited SDSS Data Release 7 group/cluster catalog. Additionally, we assigned group ''proximity' membership to H I detected objects whose optical counterpart falls below the limiting optical magnitude—thereby not contributing substantially to the estimate of the group stellar mass, but significantly to the total group H I mass. We find that only 25% of the H I detected galaxies reside in groups or clusters, in contrast to approximately half of all optically detected galaxies. Further, we plot the relative positions of optical and H I detections in groups as a function of parent dark matter halo mass to reveal strong evidence that H I is being processed in galaxies as a result of the group environment: as optical membership increases, groups become increasingly deficient of H I rich galaxies at their center and the H I distribution of galaxies in the most massive groups starts to resemble the distribution observed in comparatively more extreme cluster environments. We find that the lowest H I mass objects lose their gas first as they are processed in the group environment, and it is evident that the infall of gas rich objects is important to the continuing growth of large scale structure at the present epoch, replenishing the neutral gas supply of groups. Finally, we compare our results to those of cosmological simulations and find that current models cannot simultaneously predict the H I selected halo occupation distribution for both low and high mass halos.

  6. Star Formation as a Function of Neutral Hydrogen Gas Density in Local Group Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Erika K.; Madore, Barry F.; Freedman, Wendy L.

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of the efficiency and timescales of star formation as a function of local neutral hydrogen gas density in four Local Group galaxies: M33, NGC 6822, the LMC, and the SMC. In this work, we conceptualize the process of star formation as a cycle of two major phases – (1) a gas dynamics phase in which neutral hydrogen gas coalesces into clouds, and (2) a stellar phase in which stars have formed and interrupt further gas coalescence during their active lifetimes. By examining the spatial distribution and number densities of stars on maps of neutral hydrogen, we estimate the timescale of the gas coalescence phase relative to the timescale of the stellar phase and infer an efficiency of star formation as a function of neutral hydrogen gas density. From these timescales and efficiencies, we will calculate star formation rates as a function of neutral hydrogen gas density in these galaxies.

  7. THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON MILKY-WAY-MASS GALAXIES IN A CONSTRAINED SIMULATION OF THE LOCAL GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Creasey, Peter; Scannapieco, Cecilia; Nuza, Sebastián E.; Gottlöber, Stefan; Steinmetz, Matthias; Yepes, Gustavo

    2015-02-10

    In this Letter, we present, for the first time, a study of star formation rate (SFR), gas fraction, and galaxy morphology of a constrained simulation of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) galaxies compared to other MW-mass galaxies. By combining with unconstrained simulations, we cover a sufficient volume to compare these galaxies’ environmental densities ranging from the field to that of the Local Group (LG). This is particularly relevant as it has been shown that, quite generally, galaxy properties depend intimately upon their environment, most prominently when galaxies in clusters are compared to those in the field. For galaxies in loose groups such as the LG, however, environmental effects have been less clear. We consider the galaxy’s environmental density in spheres of 1200 kpc (comoving) and find that while environment does not appear to directly affect morphology, there is a positive trend with SFRs. This enhancement in star formation occurs systematically for galaxies in higher density environments, regardless whether they are part of the LG or in filaments. Our simulations suggest that the richer environment at megaparsec scales may help replenish the star-forming gas, allowing higher specific SFRs in galaxies such as the MW.

  8. Probing the dusty inhabitants of the Local Group Galaxies: JWST/MIRI colors of infrared stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Olivia; Meixner, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The assembly of galaxies involves the life cycle of mass, metal enrichment and dust that JWST will probe. Detailed studies of nearby galaxies provides guidance for interpreting the more distant forming galaxies. JWST/MIRI will enable stellar population studies akin to work done with HST on the Local Group galaxies but over a new wavelength range. MIRI's imaging capability over nine photometric bands from 5 to 28 microns is particularly suited to survey stars with an infrared excess and to detangle the extinction or thermal emission from various species of dust. These dusty stellar populations include young stellar objects, evolved stars and supernovae that are bright in the infrared. Using the rich Spitzer-IRS spectroscopic dataset and spectral classifications from the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE)-Spectroscopic survey of over a thousand objects in the Magellanic Clouds, we calculate the expected flux -densities and colors in the MIRI broadband filters for these prominent infrared sources. We uses these fluxes to illustrate what JWST will see in stellar population studies for other Local Group galaxies. JWST/MIRI observations of infrared sources in Local Group Galaxies will constrain the life cycle of galaxies through their dust emission. For example, how much of the interstellar dust is supplied by dying stars? Do the number of young stellar objects agree with star formation diagnostic for the galaxy? We discuss the locations of the post- and pre-main-sequence populations in MIRI color-color and color-magnitude space and examine which filters are best for identifying populations of sources. We connect these results to existing galaxies with HST data for instance Andromeda and M33.

  9. The Early Chemical Enrichment Histories of Two Sculptor Group Dwarf Galaxies as Revealed by RR Lyrae Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Soung-Chul; Wagner-Kaiser, Rachel; Sarajedini, Ata; Kim, Sang Chul; Kyeong, Jaemann

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of our analysis of the RR Lyrae (RRL) variable stars detected in two transition-type dwarf galaxies (dTrans), ESO294-G010 and ESO410-G005 in the Sculptor group, which is known to be one of the closest neighboring galaxy groups to our Local Group. Using deep archival images from the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have identified a sample of RRL candidates in both dTrans galaxies (219 RRab (RR0) and 13 RRc (RR1) variables in ESO294-G010; 225 RRab and 44 RRc stars in ESO410-G005). The metallicities of the individual RRab stars are calculated via the period-amplitude-[Fe/H] relation derived by Alcock et al. This yields mean metallicities of lang[Fe/H]rangESO294 = -1.77 ± 0.03 and lang[Fe/H]rangESO410 = -1.64 ± 0.03. The RRL metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) are investigated further via simple chemical evolution models; these reveal the relics of the early chemical enrichment processes for these two dTrans galaxies. In the case of both galaxies, the shapes of the RRL MDFs are well described by pre-enrichment models. This suggests two possible channels for the early chemical evolution for these Sculptor group dTrans galaxies: (1) the ancient stellar populations of our target dwarf galaxies might have formed from the star forming gas which was already enriched through "prompt initial enrichment" or an "initial nucleosynthetic spike" from the very first massive stars, or (2) this pre-enrichment state might have been achieved by the end products from more evolved systems of their nearest neighbor, NGC 55. We also study the environmental effects of the formation and evolution of our target dTrans galaxies by comparing their properties with those of 79 volume limited (D ⊙ < 2 Mpc) dwarf galaxy samples in terms of the luminosity-metallicity relation and the H I gas content. The presence of these RRL stars strongly supports the idea that although the Sculptor Group galaxies have a considerably different

  10. The early chemical enrichment histories of two Sculptor group dwarf galaxies as revealed by RR lyrae variables

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Soung-Chul; Kim, Sang Chul; Kyeong, Jaemann; Wagner-Kaiser, Rachel; Sarajedini, Ata

    2014-03-20

    We present the results of our analysis of the RR Lyrae (RRL) variable stars detected in two transition-type dwarf galaxies (dTrans), ESO294-G010 and ESO410-G005 in the Sculptor group, which is known to be one of the closest neighboring galaxy groups to our Local Group. Using deep archival images from the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have identified a sample of RRL candidates in both dTrans galaxies (219 RRab (RR0) and 13 RRc (RR1) variables in ESO294-G010; 225 RRab and 44 RRc stars in ESO410-G005). The metallicities of the individual RRab stars are calculated via the period-amplitude-[Fe/H] relation derived by Alcock et al. This yields mean metallicities of ([Fe/H]){sub ESO294} = –1.77 ± 0.03 and ([Fe/H]){sub ESO410} = –1.64 ± 0.03. The RRL metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) are investigated further via simple chemical evolution models; these reveal the relics of the early chemical enrichment processes for these two dTrans galaxies. In the case of both galaxies, the shapes of the RRL MDFs are well described by pre-enrichment models. This suggests two possible channels for the early chemical evolution for these Sculptor group dTrans galaxies: (1) the ancient stellar populations of our target dwarf galaxies might have formed from the star forming gas which was already enriched through 'prompt initial enrichment' or an 'initial nucleosynthetic spike' from the very first massive stars, or (2) this pre-enrichment state might have been achieved by the end products from more evolved systems of their nearest neighbor, NGC 55. We also study the environmental effects of the formation and evolution of our target dTrans galaxies by comparing their properties with those of 79 volume limited (D {sub ☉} < 2 Mpc) dwarf galaxy samples in terms of the luminosity-metallicity relation and the H I gas content. The presence of these RRL stars strongly supports the idea that although the Sculptor Group galaxies have a considerably

  11. Dark energy in the two-body problem: The local group of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelyanov, N. V.; Kovalyov, M. Yu.; Chernin, A. D.

    2015-06-01

    The two-body problem of classical mechanics can be extended in a natural way by introducing a universal dark-energy background, which acts as a third dynamical factor. For real systems of galaxies, the corresponding additional acceleration is described by general relativity in the Newtonian limit, in which deviations from the Minkowski metric are very small. It is shown that this acceleration has the same form in different inertial and non-inertial reference frames. The invariance of the acceleration produced by dark energy reflects the fact that, according to its mechanical properties, dark energy is a vacuum that is comoving with any motion. In this generalized formulation, as in the classical case, the two-body problem with a dark-energy background reduces to the motion of a single body in a central field. Two problems of this kind are considered for the Local Group of galaxies. The first, "internal," problem concerns the binary system formed by the main bodies of the Local Group: our galaxy and M31. The subject of the second, "external," problem is the binary system formed by the Local Group as a whole and its closest neighbor, the Virgo Cluster. In the internal problem, the effect of the dark energy is that the binary system is not bound if its mass does not exceed 3 × 1012 M⊙, which is allowed by the observational data. The external problem demonstrates the possibility of an evolutionary scenario in which a group could initially be located in the volume of a cluster, but then leave it and, moving away with an acceleration created by dark energy, arrive at the observed distance from the cluster.

  12. Galaxy interactions in compact groups - II. Abundance and kinematic anomalies in HCG 91c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Heckman, Timothy M.; Yun, Min S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.

    2015-07-01

    Galaxies in Hickson Compact Group 91 (HCG 91) were observed with the WiFeS integral field spectrograph as part of our ongoing campaign targeting the ionized gas physics and kinematics inside star-forming members of compact groups. Here, we report the discovery of H II regions with abundance and kinematic offsets in the otherwise unremarkable star-forming spiral HCG 91c. The optical emission line analysis of this galaxy reveals that at least three H II regions harbour an oxygen abundance ˜0.15 dex lower than expected from their immediate surroundings and from the abundance gradient present in the inner regions of HCG 91c. The same star-forming regions are also associated with a small kinematic offset in the form of a lag of 5-10 km s-1 with respect to the local circular rotation of the gas. H I observations of HCG 91 from the Very Large Array and broad-band optical images from Pan-STARRS (Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System) suggest that HCG 91c is caught early in its interaction with the other members of HCG 91. We discuss different scenarios to explain the origin of the peculiar star-forming regions detected with WiFeS, and show that evidence points towards infalling and collapsing extraplanar gas clouds at the disc-halo interface, possibly as a consequence of long-range gravitational perturbations of HCG 91c from the other group members. As such, HCG 91c provides evidence that some of the perturbations possibly associated with the early phase of galaxy evolution in compact groups impact the star-forming disc locally, and on sub-kpc scales.

  13. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. II. Searching for signatures of reionization

    SciTech Connect

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2014-07-10

    We search for signatures of reionization in the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies (10{sup 4} < M{sub *} < 10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}). The SFHs are derived from color-magnitude diagrams using archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. Only five quenched galaxies (And V, And VI, And XIII, Leo IV, and Hercules) are consistent with forming the bulk of their stars before reionization, when full uncertainties are considered. Observations of 13 of the predicted 'true fossils' identified by Bovill and Ricotti show that only two (Hercules and Leo IV) indicate star formation quenched by reionization. However, both are within the virial radius of the Milky Way and evidence of tidal disturbance complicates this interpretation. We argue that the late-time gas capture scenario posited by Ricotti for the low mass, gas-rich, and star-forming fossil candidate Leo T is observationally indistinguishable from simple gas retention. Given the ambiguity between environmental effects and reionization, the best reionization fossil candidates are quenched low mass field galaxies (e.g., KKR 25).

  14. Ionized gas in the circumgalactic vicinity of the M81 galaxy group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Najm, M. N.; Polikarpova, O. L.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of the dust and gas in the tidal region of the M81 galaxy group have been analyzed, and the drift of the dust relative to the gas has been estimated, including the drift due to the action of radiation pressure from stars in M81. It is concluded that a large fraction of the gas in the tidal region is in the form of ionized hydrogen HII that shields the observedHI gas from the extragalactic Lyman continuum: the observed atomic gas could be only 10% of the total mass of gas. Only then it is possible to satisfactorily explain the excess dust abundance, which exceeds the Galactic value by a factor of six. By analogy, extended HI disks in galaxies with sizes appreciably larger than the stellar disks could be surrounded by HII envelopes with a comparable or greater mass. Such disks could play an important role in supporting prolonged star formation in galaxies with extended HI disks. Associated observational manifestations are discussed. Such HII envelopes outside HI disks could be detectable in absorption in Ly α and lines of ions of heavy elements.

  15. The masses of satellites in GAMA galaxy groups from 100 square degrees of KiDS weak lensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sifón, Cristóbal; Cacciato, Marcello; Hoekstra, Henk; Brouwer, Margot; van Uitert, Edo; Viola, Massimo; Baldry, Ivan; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael J. I.; Choi, Ami; Driver, Simon P.; Erben, Thomas; Grado, Aniello; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Joachimi, Benjamin; de Jong, Jelte T. A.; Kuijken, Konrad; McFarland, John; Miller, Lance; Nakajima, Reiko; Napolitano, Nicola; Norberg, Peder; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Schneider, Peter; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes

    2015-12-01

    We use the first 100 deg2 of overlap between the Kilo-Degree Survey and the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey to determine the average galaxy halo mass of ˜10 000 spectroscopically confirmed satellite galaxies in massive (M > 1013 h-1 M⊙) galaxy groups. Separating the sample as a function of projected distance to the group centre, we jointly model the satellites and their host groups with Navarro-Frenk-White density profiles, fully accounting for the data covariance. The probed satellite galaxies in these groups have total masses log ≈ 11.7-12.2 consistent across group-centric distance within the errorbars. Given their typical stellar masses, log ˜ 10.5, such total masses imply stellar mass fractions of / ≈ 0.04 h-1. The average subhalo hosting these satellite galaxies has a mass Msub ˜ 0.015Mhost independent of host halo mass, in broad agreement with the expectations of structure formation in a Λ cold dark matter universe.

  16. H I Studies of the Sculptor Group Galaxies. III - NGC 55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puche, Daniel; Carignan, Claude; Wainscoat, Richard J.

    1995-07-01

    A VLA HI map was made of NGC 55. In this study, there is a continuum map (ngc0055.con), an HI data cube (ngc0055.cub), and moment maps (ngc0055.m0 = total HI, ngc0055.m1 = velocity field, and ngc0055.m2 = second moment). These maps have been used in an extensive dynamical and kinematical study of the Sculptor Group galaxies. The images and related TeX file come from the NRAO CDROM "Images From the Radio Universe" (c. 1992 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, used with permission).

  17. Mass-to-Light-Ratios of the galaxy clusters and groups observed with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, T.; Matsushita, K.; Sato, K.; Abe, Y.; Akamatsu, H.; Fujita, Y.; Kanno, Y.; Simionescu, A.; Tamura, T.; Werner, N.

    2016-06-01

    We analyzed 15 nearby (z < 0.06 ) clusters and groups observed with Suzaku out to ˜ 2 r_{500}. We derived Fe abundance profiles in the ICM, electron density, cumulative gas mass and Fe mass. We also collected K-band luminosities of galaxies and calculated the ratio of the cumulative gas mass and Fe mass in the ICM to the K-band luminosity (gas-mass-to-light ratio and iron-mass-to-light ratio, respectively). The Coma, Perseus, and medium systems have relatively flat radial profiles of the metal abundances at 0.3 solar within 0.5-1 r_{500}, and ˜ 0.2 solar beyond r_{500}. The gas-mass-to-light-ratios and iron-mass-to-light-ratios ratios increase with radius out to r_{500} and become flatter beyond the radius. The weighted average of the iron-mass-to-light ratios of the clusters at 1.6 r_{500} agrees with the expectation with the Salpeter initial-mass-function of stars, and we do not need a top-heavy slope. In contrast, groups and poor clusters have lower gas-mass-to-light ratios and lower iron-mass-to-light ratios than that of rich systems, with the higher entropy excess. Above these results, we discuss an early metal enrichment in galaxy clusters and groups.

  18. First-Ever Census of Variable Mira-Type Stars in Galaxy Outside the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    First-Ever Census of Variable Mira-Type Stars in Galaxy Outsidethe Local Group Summary An international team led by ESO astronomer Marina Rejkuba [1] has discovered more than 1000 luminous red variable stars in the nearby elliptical galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128) . Brightness changes and periods of these stars were measured accurately and reveal that they are mostly cool long-period variable stars of the so-called "Mira-type" . The observed variability is caused by stellar pulsation. This is the first time a detailed census of variable stars has been accomplished for a galaxy outside the Local Group of Galaxies (of which the Milky Way galaxy in which we live is a member). It also opens an entirely new window towards the detailed study of stellar content and evolution of giant elliptical galaxies . These massive objects are presumed to play a major role in the gravitational assembly of galaxy clusters in the Universe (especially during the early phases). This unprecedented research project is based on near-infrared observations obtained over more than three years with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory . PR Photo 14a/03 : Colour image of the peculiar galaxy Centaurus A . PR Photo 14b/03 : Location of the fields in Centaurus A, now studied. PR Photo 14c/03 : "Field 1" in Centaurus A (visual light; FORS1). PR Photo 14d/03 : "Field 2" in Centaurus A (visual light; FORS1). PR Photo 14e/03 : "Field 1" in Centaurus A (near-infrared; ISAAC). PR Photo 14f/03 : "Field 2" in Centaurus A (near-infrared; ISAAC). PR Photo 14g/03 : Light variation of six variable stars in Centaurus A PR Photo 14h/03 : Light variation of stars in Centaurus A (Animated GIF) PR Photo 14i/03 : Light curves of four variable stars in Centaurus A. Mira-type variable stars Among the stars that are visible in the sky to the unaided eye, roughly one out of three hundred (0.3%) displays brightness variations and is referred to by astronomers as a

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: GEEC2 spectroscopic survey of Galaxy groups (Balogh+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, M. L.; McGee, S. L.; Mok, A.; Wilman, D. J.; Finoguenov, A.; Bower, R. G.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Parker, L. C.; Tanaka, M.

    2015-04-01

    GEEC2 is a spectroscopic survey of galaxies in 11 groups, one of which was serendipitously discovered in the background of the target, within the COSMOS field. The spectroscopy was obtained with GMOS-South over two semesters (2010A and 2011A). The original goal of the survey was to observe ~20 groups, with 3-4 spectroscopic masks each, to allow an investigation of the intrinsic scatter within group populations. However, repeated attempts to complete the programme have been thwarted by bad weather, scheduling conflicts at Gemini, and variance in ranking from semester to semester. Following the lack of any time awarded in 2012B, attempts to extend the sample have been abandoned for the moment. Details of the target selection and spectroscopic observations have been presented in Papers I-III. (4 data files).

  20. Galaxy evolution in nearby loose groups - II. Photometric and kinematic characterization of USGC U268 and USGC U376 group members in the Leo cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, A.; Plana, H.; Rampazzo, R.; Bianchi, L.; Rosado, M.; Bettoni, D.; Galletta, G.; Mazzei, P.; Buson, L.; Ambrocio-Cruz, P.; Gabbasov, R. F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the second of a series of papers in which we are exploring the coevolution of galaxies and groups in the local Universe, by adopting a multiwavelength approach. Here, we present the photometric and kinematic characterization of two groups, USGC U268 and USGC U376 (U268 and U376 hereafter), which are located in different regions of the Leo cloud. We revisit the group membership, using results from recent redshift surveys, and we investigate their substructures. U268, which is composed of 10 catalogued members and 11 new added members, has a small fraction (≈24 per cent) of early-type galaxies (ETGs). U376 has 16 catalogued members plus eight new added members, with ≈38 per cent of ETGs. We find that there are significant substructures in both groups, which suggests that they are likely to be accreting galaxies. U268 is located in a more loose environment than U376. For each member galaxy, broad-band integrated and surface photometry have been obtained in far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), and in the u, g, r, i and z (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) bands. Hα imaging and two-dimensional high-resolution kinematical data have been obtained using the scanning Fabry-Pérot interferometer (PUMA) at the 2.12-m telescope at San Pedro Mártir (Baja California, Mexico). We have improved the galaxy classification and we have detected morphological and kinematical distortions that might be connected either to ongoing and/or past interaction/accretion events or to environmental-induced secular evolution. U268 appears to be more active than U376, with a large fraction of galaxies showing interaction signatures (60 per cent versus 13 per cent). The presence of bars among late-type galaxies is ≈10 per cent in U268 and ≈29 per cent in U376. The cumulative distribution of the FUV-NUV colours of galaxies in U268 is significantly different from that in U376, with galaxies in U268 being bluer than those in U376

  1. Star formation history and evolution of gas-rich dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, M.; Disney, M. J.; Pritzl, B. J.; Knezek, P. M.; Gallagher, J. S.; Minchin, R. F.; Freeman, K. C.

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the properties of three unusual dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A group discovered with the HIPASS survey. From their optical morphology, they appear to be low surface brightness dwarf spheroidals, yet they are gas rich (MHI/LB > 1) with gas-mass-to-stellar light ratios larger than typical dwarf irregular galaxies. Therefore these systems appear different from any dwarfs of the Local Group. They should be favoured hosts for starburst, whereas we find a faint star formation region in only one object. We have obtained 21-cm data and Hubble Space Telescope photometry in V and I bands, and have constructed colour magnitude diagrams (CMDs) to investigate their stellar populations and to set a constraint on their age. From the comparison of the observed and model CMDs, we infer that all three galaxies are at least older than 2 Gyr (possibly even as old as 10 Gyr) and remain gas rich because their star formation rates have been very low (<~10-3Msolaryr-1) throughout. In such systems, star formation appears to have been sporadic and local, though one object (HIPASS J1321-31) has a peculiar red plume in its CMD suggesting that many of its stars were formed in a `miniburst' 300-500 Myr ago. The question of why there are no similar dwarf galaxies in the Local Group remains open. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Associations of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555; the Australia Telescope Compact Array which is part of the Australia Telescope, funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO. E-mail: marco.grossi@roma 1.infn.it ‡ Visiting Astronomer, Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories, which is operated by the Association of Unicersities for for Reasearch in Astronomy. Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National

  2. Mergers in galaxy groups. I. Structure and properties of elliptical remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Taranu, Dan S.; Dubinski, John; Yee, H. K. C.

    2013-11-20

    We present collisionless simulations of dry mergers in groups of 3 to 25 galaxies to test the hypothesis that elliptical galaxies form at the centers of such groups. Mock observations of the central remnants confirm their similarity to ellipticals, despite having no dissipational component. We vary the profile of the original spiral's bulge and find that ellipticals formed from spirals with exponential bulges have too low Sersic indices. Mergers of spirals with de Vaucouleurs (classical) bulges produce remnants with larger Sersic indices correlated with luminosity, as with Sloan Digital Sky Survey ellipticals. Exponential bulge mergers are better fits to faint ellipticals, whereas classical bulge mergers better match luminous ellipticals. Similarly, luminous ellipticals are better reproduced by remnants undergoing many (>5) mergers, and fainter ellipticals by those with fewer mergers. The remnants follow tight size-luminosity and velocity dispersion-luminosity (Faber-Jackson) relations (<0.12 dex scatter), demonstrating that stochastic merging can produce tight scaling relations if the merging galaxies also follow tight scaling relations. The slopes of the size-luminosity and Faber-Jackson relations are close to observations but slightly shallower in the former case. Both relations' intercepts are offset—remnants are too large but have too low dispersions at fixed luminosity. Some remnants show substantial (v/σ > 0.1) rotational support, although most are slow rotators and few are very fast rotators (v/σ > 0.5). These findings contrast with previous studies concluding that dissipation is necessary to produce ellipticals from binary mergers of spirals. Multiple, mostly minor and dry mergers can produce bright ellipticals, whereas significant dissipation could be required to produce faint, rapidly rotating ellipticals.

  3. Brightest group galaxies: stellar mass and star formation rate (paper I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozaliasl, Ghassem; Finoguenov, Alexis; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Mirkazemi, Mohammad; Erfanianfar, Ghazaleh; Tanaka, Masayuki

    2016-05-01

    We study the distribution and evolution of the stellar mass and the star formation rate (SFR) of the brightest group galaxies (BGGs) over 0.04 < z < 1.3 using a large sample of 407 X-ray galaxy groups selected from the COSMOS, AEGIS, and XMM-LSS fields. We compare our results with predictions from the semi-analytic models based on the Millennium simulation. In contrast to model predictions, we find that, as the Universe evolves, the stellar mass distribution evolves towards a normal distribution. This distribution tends to skew to low-mass BGGs at all redshifts implying the presence of a star-forming population of the BGGs with MS ˜ 1010.5 M⊙ which results in the shape of the stellar mass distribution deviating from a normal distribution. In agreement with the models and previous studies, we find that the mean stellar mass of BGGs grows with time by a factor of ˜2 between z = 1.3 and z = 0.1, however, the significant growth occurs above z = 0.4. The BGGs are not entirely a dormant population of galaxies, as low-mass BGGs in low-mass haloes are more active in forming stars than the BGGs in more massive haloes, over the same redshift range. We find that the average SFR of the BGGs evolves steeply with redshift and fraction of the passive BGGs increases as a function of increasing stellar mass and halo mass. Finally, we show that the specific SFR of the BGGs within haloes with M200 ≤ 1013.4 M⊙ decreases with increasing halo mass at z < 0.4.

  4. Galaxy evolution through resolved stellar populations in the nearby Centaurus A group .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crnojević, D.; Grebel, E. K.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Koch, A.; Rejkuba, M.; Da Costa, G.; Jerjen, H.; Irwin, M. J.; Bernard, E. J.; Arimoto, N.; Jablonka, P.; Kobayashi, C.

    The CenA group is a nearby dense complex (˜4 Mpc) dominated by an active elliptical galaxy, hosting more than 60 dwarf companions with a variety of morphological types and stellar contents. We study the resolved stellar populations of a sample of dwarfs using optical and near-infrared data from ACS/HST and ISAAC/VLT. We characterize their recent star formation histories and metallicity content, and compare them to what is known for Local Group dwarfs, underlining similarities and differences. Our results probe the fu ndamental interplay between nature and nurture in the evolution of dwarfs in such a dense environment. We further present the results of the first deep survey of resolved stellar populations in the remote outer halo of our nearest giant elliptical, CenA (VIMOS/VLT optical data). Tracing its halo structure (radial profile, extent and metallicity) out to a remarkable ˜85 kpc and comparing the halo stellar populations to those of CenA's dwarf companions enables us to constrain the mechanisms that contributed to the build-up of CenA in the context of cosmological galaxy formation models.

  5. A Dynamically Driven, Universal Thermal Profile of Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Ido; Keshet, Uri

    2015-09-01

    Large scale structures such as groups and clusters of galaxies show a universal, nearly linear entropy radial profile K(r). Using deprojected 16 clusters and 12 groups from the literature, we find that K\\propto {r}0.96+/- 0.01, consistent with the mean power-law index (0.9–1.1) of previous studies. A similarly good fit is given by a τ \\propto {r}0.72+/- 0.01 ratio between cooling and free-fall times. Both profiles slightly flatten at small radii, as τ becomes of order unity. The entropy profile is usually attributed to self-similar shock accretion (shown to be inconsistent with the data), to non-standard heat conduction, or to turbulent heating. We argue that a dynamical mechanism is needed to sustain such a universal profile, oblivious to the temperature peak at the edge of the core and to the virial shock at the outskirts, and robust to the presence of ongoing cooling, merger, and active galactic nucleus activity. In particular, we show that such a profile can be naturally obtained in a spiral flow, which is likely to underlie most galaxy aggregates according to the ubiquitous spiral patterns and cold fronts observed. Generalizing a two-phase spiral flow model out to the virial radius surprisingly reproduces the thermal profile. A generalized Schwarzschild criterion indicates that observed spiral patterns must involve a convective layer, which may regulate the thermal profile.

  6. AGN Feedback in Galaxy Groups: The Two Interesting Cases of AWM 4 and NGC 5044

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastaldello, Fabio; Buote, David A.; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.; Temi, Pasquale; Ettori, Stefano

    2009-12-01

    We present AGN feedback in the interesting cases of two groups: AWM 4 and NGC 5044. AWM 4 is characterized by a combination of properties which seems to defy the paradigm for AGN heating in cluster cores: a flat inner temperature profile indicative of a past, major heating episode which completely erased the cool core, as testified by the high central cooling time (>3 Gyrs) and by the high central entropy level (~50 keV cm2), and yet an active central radio galaxy with extended radio lobes out to 100 kpc, revealing recent feeding of the central massive black hole. A recent Chandra observation has revealed the presence of a compact cool corona associated with the BCG, solving the puzzle of the apparent lack of low entropy gas surrounding a bright radio source, but opening the question of its origin. NGC 5044 shows in the inner 10 kpc a pair of cavities together with a set of bright filaments. The cavities are consistent with a recent AGN outburst as also indicated by the extent of dust and Hα emission even though the absence of extended 1.4 GHz emission remains to be explained. The soft X-ray filaments coincident with Hα and dust emission are cooler than those which do not correlate with optical and infrared emission, suggesting that dust-aided cooling can contribute to the overall cooling. For the first time sloshing cold fronts at the scale of a galaxy group have been observed in this object.

  7. Cosmic ray electrons, positrons and the synchrotron emission of the Galaxy: consistent analysis and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bernardo, Giuseppe; Evoli, Carmelo; Gaggero, Daniele; Grasso, Dario; Maccione, Luca

    2013-03-01

    A multichannel analysis of cosmic ray electron and positron spectra and of the diffuse synchrotron emission of the Galaxy is performed by using the DRAGON code. This study is aimed at probing the interstellar electron source spectrum down to E lesssim 1GeV and at constraining several propagation parameters. We find that above 4GeV the e- source spectrum is compatible with a power-law of index ~ 2.5. Below 4GeV instead it must be significantly suppressed and the total lepton spectrum is dominated by secondary particles. The positron spectrum and fraction measured below a few GeV are consistently reproduced only within low reacceleration models. We also constrain the scale-height zt of the cosmic-ray distribution using three independent (and, in two cases, original) arguments, showing that values of zt lesssim 2kpc are excluded. This result may have strong implications for particle dark matter searches.

  8. Chemo-dynamical evolution of the Local Group dwarf galaxies: The origin of r-process elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Y.; Ishimaru, Y.; Saitoh, T. R.; Fujii, M. S.; Hidaka, J.; Kajino, T.

    2016-06-01

    The r-process elements such as Au, Eu, and U are observed in the extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way halo and the Local Group dwarf galaxies. However, the origin of r-process elements has not yet been identified. The abundance of r-process elements of stars in the Local Group galaxies provides clues to clarify early evolutionary history of galaxies. It is important to understand the chemical evolution of the Local Group dwarf galaxies which would be building blocks of the Milky Way. In this study, we perform a series of N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of dwarf galaxies. We show that neutron star mergers can reproduce the observation of r-process elements. We find that the effects of gas mixing processes including metals in the star-forming region of a typical scale of giant molecular clouds ¥sim 10-100 pc play significant roles in the early chemical enrichment of dwarf galaxies. We also find that the star formation rate of ˜ 10^{-3} M_{⊙}yr^{-1} in early epoch (<1 Gyr) of galactic halo evolution is necessary for these results. Our results suggest that neutron star mergers are a major site of r-process.

  9. First-Ever Census of Variable Mira-Type Stars in Galaxy Outside the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    First-Ever Census of Variable Mira-Type Stars in Galaxy Outsidethe Local Group Summary An international team led by ESO astronomer Marina Rejkuba [1] has discovered more than 1000 luminous red variable stars in the nearby elliptical galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128) . Brightness changes and periods of these stars were measured accurately and reveal that they are mostly cool long-period variable stars of the so-called "Mira-type" . The observed variability is caused by stellar pulsation. This is the first time a detailed census of variable stars has been accomplished for a galaxy outside the Local Group of Galaxies (of which the Milky Way galaxy in which we live is a member). It also opens an entirely new window towards the detailed study of stellar content and evolution of giant elliptical galaxies . These massive objects are presumed to play a major role in the gravitational assembly of galaxy clusters in the Universe (especially during the early phases). This unprecedented research project is based on near-infrared observations obtained over more than three years with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory . PR Photo 14a/03 : Colour image of the peculiar galaxy Centaurus A . PR Photo 14b/03 : Location of the fields in Centaurus A, now studied. PR Photo 14c/03 : "Field 1" in Centaurus A (visual light; FORS1). PR Photo 14d/03 : "Field 2" in Centaurus A (visual light; FORS1). PR Photo 14e/03 : "Field 1" in Centaurus A (near-infrared; ISAAC). PR Photo 14f/03 : "Field 2" in Centaurus A (near-infrared; ISAAC). PR Photo 14g/03 : Light variation of six variable stars in Centaurus A PR Photo 14h/03 : Light variation of stars in Centaurus A (Animated GIF) PR Photo 14i/03 : Light curves of four variable stars in Centaurus A. Mira-type variable stars Among the stars that are visible in the sky to the unaided eye, roughly one out of three hundred (0.3%) displays brightness variations and is referred to by astronomers as a

  10. From Individuals to Groups and Back: The Evolutionary Implications of Group Phenotypic Composition

    PubMed Central

    Farine, Damien R.; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Spiegel, Orr

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in understanding the processes that maintain phenotypic variation in groups, populations, or communities. Recent studies have investigated how the phenotypic composition of groups or aggregations (e.g., its average phenotype or phenotypic variance) affects ecological and social processes, and how multi-level selection can drive phenotypic covariance among interacting individuals. However, we argue that these questions are rarely studied together. We present a unified framework to address this gap, and discuss how group phenotypic composition (GPC) can impact on processes ranging from individual fitness to population demography. By emphasising the breadth of topics affected, we hope to motivate more integrated empirical studies of the ecological and evolutionary implications of GPC. PMID:26411618

  11. Weak Lensing Calibrated M-T Scaling Relation of Galaxy Groups in the COSMOS Fieldsstarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettula, K.; Finoguenov, A.; Massey, R.; Rhodes, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Taylor, J. E.; Spinelli, P. F.; Tanaka, M.; Ilbert, O.; Capak, P.; McCracken, H. J.; Koekemoer, A.

    2013-11-01

    The scaling between X-ray observables and mass for galaxy clusters and groups is instrumental for cluster-based cosmology and an important probe for the thermodynamics of the intracluster gas. We calibrate a scaling relation between the weak lensing mass and X-ray spectroscopic temperature for 10 galaxy groups in the COSMOS field, combined with 55 higher-mass clusters from the literature. The COSMOS data includes Hubble Space Telescope imaging and redshift measurements of 46 source galaxies per arcminute2, enabling us to perform unique weak lensing measurements of low-mass systems. Our sample extends the mass range of the lensing calibrated M-T relation an order of magnitude lower than any previous study, resulting in a power-law slope of 1.48^{+0.13}_{-0.09}. The slope is consistent with the self-similar model, predictions from simulations, and observations of clusters. However, X-ray observations relying on mass measurements derived under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium have indicated that masses at group scales are lower than expected. Both simulations and observations suggest that hydrostatic mass measurements can be biased low. Our external weak lensing masses provide the first observational support for hydrostatic mass bias at group level, showing an increasing bias with decreasing temperature and reaching a level of 30%-50% at 1 keV. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Also based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA; the European Southern Observatory under Large Program 175.A-0839, Chile; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which

  12. XMM-Newton and Gemini Observations of Eight RASSCALS Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavi, Andisheh; Finoguenov, Alexis; Böhringer, Hans; Geller, Margaret J.; Henry, J. Patrick

    2005-03-01

    We study the distribution of gas pressure and entropy in eight groups of galaxies belonging to the ROSAT All-Sky Survey/Center for Astrophysics Loose Systems (RASSCALS). We use archival and proprietary XMM-Newton observations, supplementing the X-ray data with redshifts derived from the literature; we also list 127 new redshifts measured with the Gemini North telescope. The groups are morphologically heterogeneous in both the optical and the X-ray, and several suffer from superpositions with background galaxies or clusters of galaxies. Nevertheless, they show remarkable self-similarity in their azimuthally averaged entropy and temperature profiles. The entropy increases with radius; the behavior of the entropy profiles is consistent with an increasing broken power law with inner and outer slope 0.92+0.04-0.05 and 0.42+0.05-0.04 (68% confidence), respectively. There is no evidence of a central, isentropic core, and the entropy distribution in most of the groups is flatter at large radii than in the inner region, challenging earlier reports, as well as theoretical models predicting large isentropic cores or asymptotic slopes of 1.1 as r-->∞. The pressure profiles are consistent with a self-similar decreasing broken power law in radius; the inner and outer slopes are -0.78+0.04-0.03 and -1.7+0.1-0.3, respectively. The results suggest that the larger scatter in the entropy distribution reflects the varied gasdynamical histories of the groups; the regularity and self-similarity of the pressure profiles is a sign of a similarity in the underlying dark matter distributions. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the US (NASA). The XMM-Newton project is supported by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung/Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (BMFT/DLR), the Max-Planck Society, and the Heidenhain-Stiftung, and also by PPARC, CEA, CNES, and ASI. Also

  13. Probing the Dark Matter Content of Local Group Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies with FLAMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Mark I.; Kleyna, Jan T.; Gilmore, Gerard F.; Evans, N. Wyn; Koch, Andreas; Grebel, Eva K.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Harbeck, Daniel R.

    2006-06-01

    We present preliminary kinematic results from our VLT programme of spectroscopic observations in the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy using the FLAMES multi-object spectrograph. These new data suggest that the dark matter halo of this galaxy has a uniform density core. The implications for our understanding of the nature of the dark matter are discussed. Z% Aaronson M. 1983, ApJ 266, L11 Belokurov V. et al. 2006, ApJL, submitted, astro-ph/0604355 Goerdt T. et al. 2006, MNNRAS 368, 1073 Harbeck D. et al. 2001, AJ 122, 3092 Kleyna J. T. et al. 2001, ApJ 564, L115 Kleyna J. T. et al. 2003, ApJ 588, L21 Koch A. et al. 2006a, The Messenger 123, 38 Koch A. et al. 2006b, AJ 131, 895 Majewski S. R. et al. 2005, AJ 130, 2677 Martin N. et al. 2006, MNRAS 367, L69 Mateo M. et al. 1993, AJ 105, 510 Mateo M. 1997, ASP Conf. Ser. 116, 259 Mateo M. et al. 1998, AJ 116, 2315 Monelli M. et al. 2003, AJ 126, 218 Munoz R. R. et al. 2005, ApJ 631, L137 Shetrone M. D. et al. 2001, ApJ 548, 592 Tolstoy E. et al. 2006, The Messenger 123, 33 Wilkinson M. I. et al. 2002, MNRAS 330, 778 Wilkinson M. I. et al. 2004, MNRAS 611, L21 Wilkinson M. I. et al. 2006, in proceedings of XXIst IAP meeting, EDP sciences, astro-ph/0602186 Willman B. et al. 2005, ApJ 626, L85 Wyse R. F. G. et al. 2006, ApJ 639, L13 Zucker D. B. et al. 2006, ApJ 643, L103

  14. HST Imaging of the Local Volume Dwarf Galaxies Pisces A and B: Prototypes for Local Group Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollerud, Erik J.; Geha, Marla C.; Grcevich, Jana; Putman, Mary E.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2016-08-01

    We present observations of the Pisces A and B galaxies with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. Photometry from these images clearly resolves a red giant branch (RGB) for both objects, demonstrating that they are nearby dwarf galaxies. We describe a Bayesian inferential approach to determining the distance to these galaxies using the magnitude of the tip of the RGB, and then apply this approach to these galaxies. This reveals the distance to these galaxies as {5.64}-0.15+0.13 {{Mpc}} and {8.89}-0.85+0.75 {{Mpc}} for Pisces A and B, respectively, placing both within the Local Volume but not the Local Group (LG). We estimate the star formation histories of these galaxies, which suggests that they have recently undergone an increase in their star formation rates. Together these yield luminosities for Pisces A and B of {M}V=-{11.57}-0.05+0.06 and ‑12.9 ± 0.2, respectively, and estimated stellar masses of {log}({M}* /{M}ȯ )={7.0}-1.7+0.4 and {7.5}-1.8+0.3. We further show that these galaxies are likely at the boundary between nearby voids and higher-density filamentary structure. This suggests that they are entering a higher-density region from voids, where they would have experienced delayed evolution, consistent with their recent increased star formation rates. If this is indeed the case, they are useful for study as proxies of the galaxies that later evolved into typical LG satellite galaxies.

  15. Hot versus Cold: the Dichotomy in Spherical Accretion of Cooling Flows onto Supermassive Black Holes in Elliptical Galaxies, Galaxy Groups, and Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Feedback heating from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has been commonly invoked to suppress cooling flows predicted in hot gas in elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, and clusters. Previous studies have focused on if and how AGN feedback heats the gas but have little paid attention to its triggering mechanism. Using spherically symmetric simulations, we investigate how large-scale cooling flows are accreted by central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in eight well-observed systems and find an interesting dichotomy. In massive clusters, the gas develops a central cooling catastrophe within about the cooling time (typically ~100-300 Myr), resulting in cold-mode accretion onto SMBHs. However, in our four simulated systems on group and galaxy scales at a low metallicity Z = 0.3 Z ⊙, the gas quickly settles into a long-term state that has a cuspy central temperature profile extending to several tens to about 100 pc. At the more realistic solar metallicity, two groups (with R e ~ 4 kpc) still host the long-term, hot-mode accretion. Both accretion modes naturally appear in our idealized calculations where only cooling, gas inflow, and compressional heating are considered. The long-term, hot-mode accretion is maintained by the quickly established closeness between the timescales of these processes, preferably in systems with low gas densities, low gas metallicities, and importantly, compact central galaxies, which result in strong gravitational acceleration and compressional heating at the intermediate radii. Our calculations predict that central cuspy temperature profiles appear more often in smaller systems than galaxy clusters, which instead often host significant cold gas and star formation.

  16. Hot versus cold: The dichotomy in spherical accretion of cooling flows onto supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, and clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2014-01-10

    Feedback heating from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has been commonly invoked to suppress cooling flows predicted in hot gas in elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, and clusters. Previous studies have focused on if and how AGN feedback heats the gas but have little paid attention to its triggering mechanism. Using spherically symmetric simulations, we investigate how large-scale cooling flows are accreted by central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in eight well-observed systems and find an interesting dichotomy. In massive clusters, the gas develops a central cooling catastrophe within about the cooling time (typically ∼100-300 Myr), resulting in cold-mode accretion onto SMBHs. However, in our four simulated systems on group and galaxy scales at a low metallicity Z = 0.3 Z {sub ☉}, the gas quickly settles into a long-term state that has a cuspy central temperature profile extending to several tens to about 100 pc. At the more realistic solar metallicity, two groups (with R {sub e} ∼ 4 kpc) still host the long-term, hot-mode accretion. Both accretion modes naturally appear in our idealized calculations where only cooling, gas inflow, and compressional heating are considered. The long-term, hot-mode accretion is maintained by the quickly established closeness between the timescales of these processes, preferably in systems with low gas densities, low gas metallicities, and importantly, compact central galaxies, which result in strong gravitational acceleration and compressional heating at the intermediate radii. Our calculations predict that central cuspy temperature profiles appear more often in smaller systems than galaxy clusters, which instead often host significant cold gas and star formation.

  17. A CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF THE NEARBY SCULPTOR GROUP Sd GALAXY NGC 7793

    SciTech Connect

    Pannuti, Thomas G.; Staggs, Wayne D.; Schlegel, Eric M.; Filipovic, Miroslav D.; Payne, Jeffrey L.; Petre, Robert

    2011-07-15

    We conducted a Chandra ACIS observation of the nearby Sculptor Group Sd galaxy NGC 7793 as part of a multiwavelength study of supernova remnants (SNRs) in nearby galaxies. At the assumed distance to NGC 7793 of 3.91 Mpc, the limiting unabsorbed luminosity of the detected discrete X-ray sources is L{sub X} (0.2-10.0 keV) {approx}3x10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}. A total of 22 discrete sources were detected at the {approx}3{sigma} level or greater including one ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX). Based on multiwavelength comparisons, we identify X-ray sources coincident with one SNR, the candidate microquasar N7793-S26, one H II region, and two foreground Galactic stars. We also find that the X-ray counterpart to the candidate radio SNR R3 is time variable in its X-ray emission: we therefore rule out the possibility that this source is a single SNR. A marked asymmetry is seen in the distribution of the discrete sources with the majority lying in the eastern half of this galaxy. All of the sources were analyzed using quantiles to estimate spectral properties and spectra of the four brightest sources (including the ULX) were extracted and analyzed. We searched for time variability in the X-ray emission of the detected discrete sources using our measured fluxes along with fluxes measured from prior Einstein and Roentgensatellit observations. From this study, three discrete X-ray sources are established to be significantly variable. A spectral analysis of the galaxy's diffuse emission is characterized by a temperature of kT = 0.19-0.25 keV. The luminosity function of the discrete sources shows a slope with an absolute value of {Gamma} = -0.65 {+-} 0.11 if we exclude the ULX. If the ULX is included, the luminosity function has a long tail to high L{sub X} with a poor-fitting slope of {Gamma} = -0.62 {+-} 0.2. The ULX-less slope is comparable to the slopes measured for the distributions of NGC 6946 and NGC 2403 but much shallower than the slopes measured for the distributions of

  18. X-ray emission from clusters and groups of galaxies

    PubMed Central

    Mushotzky, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Recent major advances in x-ray imaging and spectroscopy of clusters have allowed the determination of their mass and mass profile out to ≈1/2 the virial radius. In rich clusters, most of the baryonic mass is in the gas phase, and the ratio of mass in gas/stars varies by a factor of 2–4. The baryonic fractions vary by a factor of ≈3 from cluster to cluster and almost always exceed 0.09 h50−[3/2] and thus are in fundamental conflict with the assumption of Ω = 1 and the results of big bang nucleosynthesis. The derived Fe abundances are 0.2–0.45 solar, and the abundances of O and Si for low redshift systems are 0.6–1.0 solar. This distribution is consistent with an origin in pure type II supernova. The amount of light and energy produced by these supernovae is very large, indicating their importance in influencing the formation of clusters and galaxies. The lack of evolution of Fe to a redshift of z ≈ 0.4 argues for very early enrichment of the cluster gas. Groups show a wide range of abundances, 0.1–0.5 solar. The results of an x-ray survey indicate that the contribution of groups to the mass density of the universe is likely to be larger than 0.1 h50−2. Many of the very poor groups have large x-ray halos and are filled with small galaxies whose velocity dispersion is a good match to the x-ray temperatures. PMID:9419327

  19. WISE Discovery of Hyper Luminous Galaxies at z=2-4 and Their Implications for Galaxy and AGN Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Chao Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Wu, Jingwen; Bridge, Carrie; Assef, Roberto; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Robert L.; Jarrett, Thomas; Lonsdale, Carol; Petty, Sara; Sayers, Jack; Stanford, Adam; Stern, Daniel; Wright, Edward L.; Yan, Lin

    2014-01-01

    On behalf of the WISE Science team, we present the discovery of a class of distant dust-enshrouded galaxies with extremely high luminosity. These galaxies are selected to have extreme red colors in the mid-IR using NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). They are faint in the optical and near-IR, predominantly at zeta = 2-4, and with IR luminosity > 10(exp 13) Solar Luminosity, making them Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (HyLIRGs). SEDs incorporating the WISE, Spitzer, and Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometry indicate hot dust dominates the bolometric luminosity, presumably powered by AGN. Preliminary multi-wavelength follow-up suggests that they are different from normal populations in the local M-sigma relation. Their low source density implies that these objects are either intrinsically rare, or a short-lived phase in a more numerous population. If the latter is the case, these hot, dust-enshrouded galaxies may be an early stage in the interplay between AGN and galaxies.

  20. Galaxies in x-ray selected clusters and groups in Dark Energy Survey data. I. Stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies since z ~ 1.2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, C.; McKay, T.; Rooney, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Romer, A. K.; R. Perfecto; Song, J.; Desai, S.; Mohr, J.; et al

    2016-01-14

    Here, using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z ~ 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift.

  1. Evolution of neutral gas at high redshift: implications for the epoch of galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.; McMahon, R. G.; Irwin, M. J.

    1996-12-01

    Although observationally rare, damped Lyalpha absorption systems dominate the mass density of neutral gas in the Universe. 11 high-redshift damped Lyalpha systems covering 2.8<=z<=4.4 were discovered in 26 QSOs from the APMz<~4 QSO survey, extending these absorption system surveys to the highest redshifts currently possible. Combining our new data set with previous surveys, we find that the cosmological mass density in neutral gas, Omega_g, does not rise as steeply prior to z~2 as indicated by previous studies. There is evidence in the observed Omega_g for a flattening at z~2 and a possible turnover at z~3. When combined with the decline at z<~3.5 in number density per unit redshift of damped systems with column densities log N_HI>=21 atom cm^-2, these results point to an epoch at z>~3 prior to which the highest column density damped systems are still forming. We find that, over the redshift range 2galaxies. However, if one considers the total mass visible in stellar discs alone, i.e. excluding galactic bulges, the two values are comparable. We are observing a mass of neutral gas that is comparable to the mass of visible disc stars. Lanzetta, Wolfe & Turnshek found that Omega(z~=3.5) was twice Omega(z~=2), implying that a much larger amount of star formation must have taken place between z=3.5 and 2 than is indicated by metallicity studies. This created a `cosmic G-dwarf problem'. The more gradual evolution of Omega_g that we find alleviates this. These results have profound implications for theories of galaxy formation.

  2. DEMOGRAPHICS OF BULGE TYPES WITHIN 11 Mpc AND IMPLICATIONS FOR GALAXY EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, David B.; Drory, Niv

    2011-06-01

    We present an inventory of galaxy bulge types (elliptical galaxy, classical bulge, pseudobulge, and bulgeless galaxy) in a volume-limited sample within the local 11 Mpc sphere using Spitzer 3.6 {mu}m and Hubble Space Telescope data. We find that whether counting by number, star formation rate, or stellar mass, the dominant galaxy type in the local universe has pure disk characteristics (either hosting a pseudobulge or being bulgeless). Galaxies that contain either a pseudobulge or no bulge combine to account for over 80% of the number of galaxies above a stellar mass of 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}. Classical bulges and elliptical galaxies account for {approx}1/4, and disks for {approx}3/4 of the stellar mass in the local 11 Mpc. About 2/3 of all star formation in the local volume takes place in galaxies with pseudobulges. Looking at the fraction of galaxies with different bulge types as a function of stellar mass, we find that the frequency of classical bulges strongly increases with stellar mass, and comes to dominate above 10{sup 10.5} M{sub sun}. Galaxies with pseudobulges dominate at 10{sup 9.5}-10{sup 10.5} M{sub sun}. Yet lower-mass galaxies are most likely to be bulgeless. If pseudobulges are not a product of mergers, then the frequency of pseudobulges in the local universe poses a challenge for galaxy evolution models.

  3. Going out with a bang or a whimper? Star formation and quenching in the Local Group's satellite galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    HST observations of the Milky Way and M31's satellite galaxies show that those galaxies have an incredible diversity of star-formation histories, yet with the exception of the Magellanic Clouds, NGC205, and NGC185, none have active star formation or cold gas at the present. What accounts for the variation in star-formation histories, and what turns off star formation? We propose to use the publicly available Galacticus semi-analytic modeling code to explore the mechanisms for star formation and quenching of Local Group dwarf galaxies, comparing the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way and M31 with the star-forming "field" galaxies of the Local Group. We will create new modules for Galacticus to incorporate physical processes necessary to follow star formation and quenching {e.g., ram- pressure and tidal stripping and compression of gas}, and perform a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of the HST-derived star-formation histories to determine the best-fit physical model and degeneracies of parameters for star formation in the Local Group. These new modules and the Markov chains will be publicly released via the Galacticus web server. With this study, we can determine to what extent the star-formation histories and quenching of Local Group dwarfs are governed by physical processes that depend on properties of the Milky Way and M31's dark and gas halos versus other "external" {e.g., reionization-induced photoionization} or "internal" {e.g., supernova feedback} processes. This study will be a window into the broader question of star formation in dwarf galaxies.

  4. Chandra Observations of the Galaxy Group AWM 5: Cool Core Reheating and Thermal Conduction Suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, A.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Nulsen, P.; David, L.; Kraft, R.; Simionescu, A.

    2009-03-01

    We present an analysis of a 40 ks Chandra observation of the galaxy group AWM 5. It has a small (~8 kpc) dense cool core with a temperature of ~1.2 keV and the temperature profile decreases at larger radii, from ~3.5 keV just outside the core to ~2 keV at ~300 kpc from the center. The abundance distribution shows a "hole" in the central ~10 kpc, where the temperature declines sharply. An abundance of at least a few times solar is observed ~15-20 kpc from the center. The deprojected electron density profile shows a break in slope at ~13 kpc and can be fit by two β models, with β = 0.72+0.16 -0.11 and rc = 5.7+1.8 -1.5 kpc, for the inner part, and β = 0.34 ± 0.01 and rc = 31.3+5.8 -5.5 kpc, for the outer part. The mass fraction of hot gas is fairly flat in the center and increases for r > 30 kpc up to a maximum of ~6.5% at r ~ 380 kpc. The gas cooling time within the central 30 kpc is smaller than a Hubble time, although the temperature only declines in the central ~8 kpc region. This discrepancy suggests that an existing cooling core has been partially reheated. In particular, thermal conduction could have been a significant source of reheating. In order for heating due to conduction to balance cooling due to emission of X-rays, conductivity must be suppressed by a large factor (at least ~100). Past active galactic nuclei activity (still visible as a radio source in the center of the group) is, however, the most likely source that reheated the central regions of AWM 5. We also studied the properties of the ram pressure stripped tail in the group member NGC 6265. This galaxy is moving at M ≈ 3.4+0.5 -0.6 (v ~ 2300 km s-1) through the hot group gas. The physical length of the tail is ~42 kpc and its mass is 2.1 ± 0.2 × 109 M sun.

  5. MODELING OF THE HERMES SUBMILLIMETER SOURCE LENSED BY A DARK MATTER DOMINATED FOREGROUND GROUP OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Gavazzi, R.; Cooray, A.; Conley, A.; Aguirre, J. E.; Amblard, A.; Auld, R.; Beelen, A.; Blain, A.; Bock, J.; Bradford, C. M.; Bridge, C.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Blundell, R.; Brisbin, D.; Burgarella, D.; Chanial, P.; Christopher, N.; Clements, D. L.; Cox, P.

    2011-09-10

    We present the results of a gravitational lensing analysis of the bright z{sub s} = 2.957 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) HERMES found in the Herschel/SPIRE science demonstration phase data from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) project. The high-resolution imaging available in optical and near-IR channels, along with CO emission obtained with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer, allows us to precisely estimate the intrinsic source extension and hence estimate the total lensing magnification to be {mu} = 10.9 {+-} 0.7. We measure the half-light radius R{sub eff} of the source in the rest-frame near-UV and V bands that characterize the unobscured light coming from stars and find R{sub eff,*} = [2.0 {+-} 0.1] kpc, in good agreement with recent studies on the SMG population. This lens model is also used to estimate the size of the gas distribution (R{sub eff,gas} = [1.1 {+-} 0.5] kpc) by mapping back in the source plane the CO (J = 5 {yields} 4) transition line emission. The lens modeling yields a relatively large Einstein radius R{sub Ein} = 4.''10 {+-} 0.''02, corresponding to a deflector velocity dispersion of [483 {+-} 16] km s{sup -1}. This shows that HERMES is lensed by a galaxy group-size dark matter halo at redshift z{sub l} {approx} 0.6. The projected dark matter contribution largely dominates the mass budget within the Einstein radius with f{sub dm}(< R{sub Ein}) {approx} 80%. This fraction reduces to f{sub dm}(< R{sub eff,G1} {approx_equal} 4.5 kpc) {approx} 47% within the effective radius of the main deflecting galaxy of stellar mass M{sub *,G1} = [8.5 {+-} 1.6] x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}. At this smaller scale the dark matter fraction is consistent with results already found for massive lensing ellipticals at z {approx} 0.2 from the Sloan Lens ACS Survey.

  6. Evolved stars in the Local Group galaxies. I. AGB evolution and dust production in IC 1613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agli, F.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Boyer, M. L.; García-Hernández, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We used models of thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, that also describe the dust-formation process in the wind, to interpret the combination of near- and mid-infrared photometric data of the dwarf galaxy IC 1613. This is the first time that this approach is extended to an environment different from the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). Our analysis, based on synthetic population techniques, shows a nice agreement between the observations and the expected distribution of stars in the colour-magnitude diagrams obtained with JHK and Spitzer bands. This allows a characterization of the individual stars in the AGB sample in terms of mass, chemical composition, and formation epoch of the progenitors. We identify the stars exhibiting the largest degree of obscuration as carbon stars evolving through the final AGB phases, descending from 1 - 1.25M⊙ objects of metallicity Z = 10-3 and from 1.5 - 2.5M⊙ stars with Z = 2 × 10-3. Oxygen-rich stars constitute the majority of the sample (˜65%), mainly low mass stars (<2M⊙) that produce a negligible amount of dust (≤10-7M⊙/yr). We predict the overall dust-production rate from IC 1613, mostly determined by carbon stars, to be ˜6 × 10-7M⊙/yr with an uncertainty of 30%. The capability of the current generation of models to interpret the AGB population in an environment different from the MCs opens the possibility to extend this kind of analysis to other Local Group galaxies.

  7. Evolved stars in the Local Group galaxies - I. AGB evolution and dust production in IC 1613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agli, F.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Boyer, M. L.; García-Hernández, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    We used models of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, which also describe the dust-formation process in the wind, to interpret the combination of near- and mid-infrared photometric data of the dwarf galaxy IC 1613. This is the first time that this approach is extended to an environment different from the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). Our analysis, based on synthetic population techniques, shows nice agreement between the observations and the expected distribution of stars in the colour-magnitude diagrams obtained with JHK and Spitzer bands. This allows a characterization of the individual stars in the AGB sample in terms of mass, chemical composition and formation epoch of the progenitors. We identify the stars exhibiting the largest degree of obscuration as carbon stars evolving through the final AGB phases, descending from 1-1.25 M⊙ objects of metallicity Z = 10-3 and from 1.5-2.5 M⊙ stars with Z = 2 × 10-3. Oxygen-rich stars constitute the majority of the sample (˜65 per cent), mainly low-mass stars (<2 M⊙) that produce a negligible amount of dust (≤10-7 M⊙ yr-1). We predict the overall dust-production rate from IC 1613, mostly determined by carbon stars, to be ˜6 × 10-7 M⊙ yr-1 with an uncertainty of 30 per cent. The capability of the current generation of models to interpret the AGB population in an environment different from the MCs opens the possibility to extend this kind of analysis to other Local Group galaxies.

  8. Evolved stars in the Local Group galaxies - I. AGB evolution and dust production in IC 1613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agli, F.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Boyer, M. L.; García-Hernández, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    We used models of thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, that also describe the dust-formation process in the wind, to interpret the combination of near- and mid-infrared photometric data of the dwarf galaxy IC 1613. This is the first time that this approach is extended to an environment different from the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). Our analysis, based on synthetic population techniques, shows a nice agreement between the observations and the expected distribution of stars in the colour-magnitude diagrams obtained with JHK and Spitzer bands. This allows a characterization of the individual stars in the AGB sample in terms of mass, chemical composition, and formation epoch of the progenitors. We identify the stars exhibiting the largest degree of obscuration as carbon stars evolving through the final AGB phases, descending from 1-1.25Msun objects of metallicity Z=0.001 and from 1.5-2.5Msun stars with Z=0.002. Oxygen-rich stars constitute the majority of the sample (65%), mainly low mass stars (<2Msun) that produce a negligible amount of dust (<10^{-7}Msun/yr). We predict the overall dust-production rate from IC 1613, mostly determined by carbon stars, to be 6x10^{-7}Msun/yr with an uncertainty of 30%. The capability of the current generation of models to interpret the AGB population in an environment different from the MCs opens the possibility to extend this kind of analysis to other Local Group galaxies.

  9. The Local Group Galaxy IC 1613 and its asymptotic giant branch variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzies, John W.; Whitelock, Patricia A.; Feast, Michael W.

    2015-09-01

    JHKS photometry is presented from a 3-yr survey of the central regions of the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613. The morphologies of the colour-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams are discussed with particular reference to the supergiants and M- and C-type asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Mean JHKS magnitudes, amplitudes and periods are given for five O-rich and nine C-rich Mira variables for which bolometric magnitudes are also estimated. A distance of 750 kpc ((m - M)0 = 24.37 ± 0.08 mag) is derived for IC 1613 by fitting a period-luminosity (PL) relation to the C-rich Miras. This is in agreement with values from the literature. The AGB stars exhibit a range of ages. A comparison with theoretical isochrones suggests that four luminous O-rich Miras are as young as 2 × 108 yr. One of these has a lithium absorption line in its spectrum, demonstrating that it is undergoing hot bottom burning (HBB). This supports the idea that HBB is the cause of the high luminosity of these AGB stars, which puts them above the fundamental PL relation. Further studies of similar stars, selected from their positions in the PL diagram, could provide insight into HBB. A much fainter, presumed O-rich, Mira is similar to those found in Galactic globular clusters. The C Miras are of intermediate age. The O-rich variables are not all recognized as O-rich, or even as AGB stars, on the basis of their J - KS colour. It is important to appreciate this when using near-infrared surveys to classify AGB stars in more distant galaxies.

  10. A derivation of masses and total luminosities of galaxy groups and clusters in the maxBCG catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Robert N.; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; Azanha, Luiz; Dupke, Renato; Overzier, Roderik

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of a multiwaveband analysis of the masses and luminosities of ˜600 galaxy groups and clusters identified in the maxBCG catalogue. These data are intended to form the basis of future work on the formation of the `m12 gap' in galaxy groups and clusters. We use SDSS spectroscopy and g-, r- and i-band photometry to estimate galaxy group/cluster virial radii, masses and total luminosities. In order to establish the robustness of our results, we compare them with literature studies that utilize a variety of mass determinations techniques (dynamical, X-ray and weak lensing) and total luminosities estimated in the B, r, i and K wavebands. We also compare our results to predictions derived from the Millennium Simulation. We find that, once selection effects are properly accounted for, excellent agreement exists between our results and the literature with the exception of a single observational study. We also find that the Millennium Simulation does an excellent job of predicting the effects of our selection criteria. Our results show that, over the mass range ˜1013-1015 M⊙, variations in the slope of the mass-luminosity scaling relation with mass detected in this and many other literature studies is in part the result of selection effects. We show that this can have serious ramifications on attempts to determine how the mass-to-light ratio of galaxy groups and cluster varies with mass.

  11. Stellar Populations in Compact Galaxy Groups: a Multi-wavelength Study of HCGs 16, 22, and 42, Their Star Clusters, and Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Maybhate, A.; Charlton, J. C.; Fedotov, K.; Durrell, P. R.; Mulchaey, J. S.; English, J.; Desjardins, T. D.; Gallagher, S. C.; Walker, L. M.; Johnson, K. E.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Gronwall, C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of three compact galaxy groups, Hickson compact groups (HCGs) 16, 22, and 42, which describe a sequence in terms of gas richness, from space- (Swift, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Spitzer) and ground-based (Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) imaging and spectroscopy.We study various signs of past interactions including a faint, dusty tidal feature about HCG 16A, which we tentatively age-date at <1 Gyr. This represents the possible detection of a tidal feature at the end of its phase of optical observability. Our HST images also resolve what were thought to be double nuclei in HCG 16C and D into multiple, distinct sources, likely to be star clusters. Beyond our phenomenological treatment, we focus primarily on contrasting the stellar populations across these three groups. The star clusters show a remarkable intermediate-age population in HCG 22, and identify the time at which star formation was quenched in HCG 42. We also search for dwarf galaxies at accordant redshifts. The inclusion of 33 members and 27 "associates" (possible members) radically changes group dynamical masses, which in turn may affect previous evolutionary classifications. The extended membership paints a picture of relative isolation in HCGs 16 and 22, but shows HCG 42 to be part of a larger structure, following a dichotomy expected from recent studies. We conclude that (1) star cluster populations provide an excellent metric of evolutionary state, as they can age-date the past epochs of star formation; and (2) the extended dwarf galaxy population must be considered in assessing the dynamical state of a compact group.

  12. STELLAR POPULATIONS IN COMPACT GALAXY GROUPS: A MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF HCGs 16, 22, AND 42, THEIR STAR CLUSTERS, AND DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Maybhate, A.; Charlton, J. C.; Gronwall, C.; Fedotov, K.; Desjardins, T. D.; Gallagher, S. C.; Durrell, P. R.; Mulchaey, J. S.; English, J.; Walker, L. M.; Johnson, K. E.; Tzanavaris, P.

    2013-06-20

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of three compact galaxy groups, Hickson compact groups (HCGs) 16, 22, and 42, which describe a sequence in terms of gas richness, from space- (Swift, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Spitzer) and ground-based (Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) imaging and spectroscopy. We study various signs of past interactions including a faint, dusty tidal feature about HCG 16A, which we tentatively age-date at <1 Gyr. This represents the possible detection of a tidal feature at the end of its phase of optical observability. Our HST images also resolve what were thought to be double nuclei in HCG 16C and D into multiple, distinct sources, likely to be star clusters. Beyond our phenomenological treatment, we focus primarily on contrasting the stellar populations across these three groups. The star clusters show a remarkable intermediate-age population in HCG 22, and identify the time at which star formation was quenched in HCG 42. We also search for dwarf galaxies at accordant redshifts. The inclusion of 33 members and 27 ''associates'' (possible members) radically changes group dynamical masses, which in turn may affect previous evolutionary classifications. The extended membership paints a picture of relative isolation in HCGs 16 and 22, but shows HCG 42 to be part of a larger structure, following a dichotomy expected from recent studies. We conclude that (1) star cluster populations provide an excellent metric of evolutionary state, as they can age-date the past epochs of star formation; and (2) the extended dwarf galaxy population must be considered in assessing the dynamical state of a compact group.

  13. Stellar Populations in Compact Galaxy Groups: A Multi-wavelength Study of HCGs 16, 22, and 42, their Star Clusters, and Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Maybhate, A.; Charlton, J. C.; Fedotov, K.; Durrell, P. R.; Mulchaey, J. S.; English, J.; Desjardins, T. D.; Gallagher, S. C.; Walker, L. M.; Johnson, K. E.; Tzanavaris, P.; Gronwall, C.

    2013-06-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of three compact galaxy groups, Hickson compact groups (HCGs) 16, 22, and 42, which describe a sequence in terms of gas richness, from space- (Swift, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Spitzer) and ground-based (Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) imaging and spectroscopy. We study various signs of past interactions including a faint, dusty tidal feature about HCG 16A, which we tentatively age-date at <1 Gyr. This represents the possible detection of a tidal feature at the end of its phase of optical observability. Our HST images also resolve what were thought to be double nuclei in HCG 16C and D into multiple, distinct sources, likely to be star clusters. Beyond our phenomenological treatment, we focus primarily on contrasting the stellar populations across these three groups. The star clusters show a remarkable intermediate-age population in HCG 22, and identify the time at which star formation was quenched in HCG 42. We also search for dwarf galaxies at accordant redshifts. The inclusion of 33 members and 27 "associates" (possible members) radically changes group dynamical masses, which in turn may affect previous evolutionary classifications. The extended membership paints a picture of relative isolation in HCGs 16 and 22, but shows HCG 42 to be part of a larger structure, following a dichotomy expected from recent studies. We conclude that (1) star cluster populations provide an excellent metric of evolutionary state, as they can age-date the past epochs of star formation; and (2) the extended dwarf galaxy population must be considered in assessing the dynamical state of a compact group.

  14. Cosmic ray electrons, positrons and the synchrotron emission of the Galaxy: consistent analysis and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardo, Giuseppe Di; Evoli, Carmelo; Gaggero, Daniele; Grasso, Dario; Maccione, Luca E-mail: carmelo.evoli@desy.de E-mail: dario.grasso@pi.infn.it

    2013-03-01

    A multichannel analysis of cosmic ray electron and positron spectra and of the diffuse synchrotron emission of the Galaxy is performed by using the DRAGON code. This study is aimed at probing the interstellar electron source spectrum down to E ∼< 1GeV and at constraining several propagation parameters. We find that above 4GeV the e{sup −} source spectrum is compatible with a power-law of index ∼ 2.5. Below 4GeV instead it must be significantly suppressed and the total lepton spectrum is dominated by secondary particles. The positron spectrum and fraction measured below a few GeV are consistently reproduced only within low reacceleration models. We also constrain the scale-height z{sub t} of the cosmic-ray distribution using three independent (and, in two cases, original) arguments, showing that values of z{sub t} ∼< 2kpc are excluded. This result may have strong implications for particle dark matter searches.

  15. CAN AGN FEEDBACK BREAK THE SELF-SIMILARITY OF GALAXIES, GROUPS, AND CLUSTERS?

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspari, M.; Brighenti, F.; Temi, P.

    2014-03-01

    It is commonly thought that active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback can break the self-similar scaling relations of galaxies, groups, and clusters. Using high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we isolate the impact of AGN feedback on the L {sub x}-T {sub x} relation, testing the two archetypal and common regimes, self-regulated mechanical feedback and a quasar thermal blast. We find that AGN feedback has severe difficulty in breaking the relation in a consistent way. The similarity breaking is directly linked to the gas evacuation within R {sub 500}, while the central cooling times are inversely proportional to the core density. Breaking self-similarity thus implies breaking the cool core, morphing all systems to non-cool-core objects, which is in clear contradiction with the observed data populated by several cool-core systems. Self-regulated feedback, which quenches cooling flows and preserves cool cores, prevents dramatic evacuation and similarity breaking at any scale; the relation scatter is also limited. The impulsive thermal blast can break the core-included L {sub x}-T {sub x} at T {sub 500} ≲ 1 keV, but substantially empties and overheats the halo, generating a perennial non-cool-core group, as experienced by cosmological simulations. Even with partial evacuation, massive systems remain overheated. We show that the action of purely AGN feedback is to lower the luminosity and heat the gas, perpendicular to the fit.

  16. Fossil group origins - VI. Global X-ray scaling relations of fossil galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundert, A.; Gastaldello, F.; D'Onghia, E.; Girardi, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Barrena, R.; Corsini, E. M.; De Grandi, S.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Lozada-Muñoz, M.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Wilcots, E.; Zarattini, S.

    2015-11-01

    We present the first pointed X-ray observations of 10 candidate fossil galaxy groups and clusters. With these Suzaku observations, we determine global temperatures and bolometric X-ray luminosities of the intracluster medium (ICM) out to r500 for six systems in our sample. The remaining four systems show signs of significant contamination from non-ICM sources. For the six objects with successfully determined r500 properties, we measure global temperatures in the range 2.8 ≤ TX ≤ 5.3 keV, bolometric X-ray luminosities of 0.8 × 1044 ≤ LX, bol ≤ 7.7 × 1044 erg s-1, and estimate masses, as derived from TX, of M500 ≳ 1014 M⊙. Fossil cluster scaling relations are constructed for a sample that combines our Suzaku observed fossils with fossils in the literature. Using measurements of global X-ray luminosity, temperature, optical luminosity, and velocity dispersion, scaling relations for the fossil sample are then compared with a control sample of non-fossil systems. We find the fits of our fossil cluster scaling relations are consistent with the relations for normal groups and clusters, indicating fossil clusters have global ICM X-ray properties similar to those of comparable mass non-fossil systems.

  17. Observations of Environmental Quenching in Groups in the 11 GYR Since z = 2.5: Different Quenching For Central and Satellite Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tal, Tomer; Dekel, Avishai; Marchesini, Danilo; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Patel, Shannon G.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Wake, David A.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Oesch, Pascal; Muzzin, Adam; Brammer, Gabriel B.; vanDokkum, Peter G.; Franx, Marijn; Illingworth, Garth D.; Leja, Joel; Magee, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We present direct observational evidence for star formation quenching in galaxy groups in the redshift range 0 less than z less than 2.5. We utilize a large sample of nearly 6000 groups, selected by fixed cumulative number density from three photometric catalogs, to follow the evolving quiescent fractions of central and satellite galaxies over roughly 11 Gyr. At z approximately 0, central galaxies in our sample range in stellar mass from Milky Way/M31 analogs (M=6.5x10(exp 10) M/solar mass) to nearby massive ellipticals (M=1.5x10(exp 11) M/solar mass). Satellite galaxies in the same groups reach masses as low as twice that of the Large Magellanic Cloud (M=6.5x10(exp 9) M/solar mass). Using statistical background subtraction, we measure the average rest-frame colors of galaxies in our groups and calculate the evolving quiescent fractions of centrals and satellites over seven redshift bins. Our analysis shows clear evidence for star formation quenching in group halos, with a different quenching onset for centrals and their satellite galaxies. Using halo mass estimates for our central galaxies, we find that star formation shuts off in centrals when typical halo masses reach between 10(exp 12) and 10(exp 13) M/solar mass, consistent with predictions from the halo quenching model. In contrast, satellite galaxies in the same groups most likely undergo quenching by environmental processes, whose onset is delayed with respect to their central galaxy. Although star formation is suppressed in all galaxies over time, the processes that govern quenching are different for centrals and satellites. While mass plays an important role in determining the star formation activity of central galaxies, quenching in satellite galaxies is dominated by the environment in which they reside.

  18. Observations of environmental quenching in groups in the 11 Gyr since z = 2.5: Different quenching for central and satellite galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, Tomer; Illingworth, Garth D.; Magee, Daniel; Oesch, Pascal; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Leja, Joel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Marchesini, Danilo; Patel, Shannon G.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Wake, David A.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2014-07-10

    We present direct observational evidence for star formation quenching in galaxy groups in the redshift range 0 < z < 2.5. We utilize a large sample of nearly 6000 groups, selected by fixed cumulative number density from three photometric catalogs, to follow the evolving quiescent fractions of central and satellite galaxies over roughly 11 Gyr. At z ∼ 0, central galaxies in our sample range in stellar mass from Milky Way/M31 analogs (M{sub *}/M{sub ☉} = 6.5 × 10{sup 10}) to nearby massive ellipticals (M{sub *}/M{sub ☉} = 1.5 × 10{sup 11}). Satellite galaxies in the same groups reach masses as low as twice that of the Large Magellanic Cloud (M{sub *}/M{sub ☉} = 6.5 × 10{sup 9}). Using statistical background subtraction, we measure the average rest-frame colors of galaxies in our groups and calculate the evolving quiescent fractions of centrals and satellites over seven redshift bins. Our analysis shows clear evidence for star formation quenching in group halos, with a different quenching onset for centrals and their satellite galaxies. Using halo mass estimates for our central galaxies, we find that star formation shuts off in centrals when typical halo masses reach between 10{sup 12} and 10{sup 13} M{sub ☉}, consistent with predictions from the halo quenching model. In contrast, satellite galaxies in the same groups most likely undergo quenching by environmental processes, whose onset is delayed with respect to their central galaxy. Although star formation is suppressed in all galaxies over time, the processes that govern quenching are different for centrals and satellites. While mass plays an important role in determining the star formation activity of central galaxies, quenching in satellite galaxies is dominated by the environment in which they reside.

  19. Studying the evolution of galaxies in compact groups over the past 3 Gyr - II. The importance of environment in the suppression of star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsakis, T.; Dultzin, D.; Ciesla, L.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Appleton, P. N.; Charmandaris, V.; Krongold, Y.; Guillard, P.; Alatalo, K.; Zezas, A.; González, J.; Lanz, L.

    2016-06-01

    We present an in depth study on the evolution of galaxy properties in compact groups over the past 3 Gyr. We are using the largest multiwavelength sample to-date, comprised 1770 groups (containing 7417 galaxies), in the redshift range of 0.01 < z < 0.23. To derive the physical properties of the galaxies, we rely on ultraviolet (UV)-to-infrared spectral energy distribution modelling, using CIGALE. Our results suggest that during the 3 Gyr period covered by our sample, the star formation activity of galaxies in our groups has been substantially reduced (3 to 10 times). Moreover, their star formation histories as well as their UV-optical and mid-infrared colours are significantly different from those of field and cluster galaxies, indicating that compact group galaxies spend more time transitioning through the green valley. The morphological transformation from late-type spirals to early-type galaxies occurs in the mid-infrared transition zone rather than in the UV-optical green valley. We find evidence of shocks in the emission line ratios and gas velocity dispersions of the late-type galaxies located below the star forming main sequence. Our results suggest that in addition to gas stripping, turbulence and shocks might play an important role in suppressing the star formation in compact group galaxies.

  20. Some Like It Hot: Linking Diffuse X-ray Luminosity, Baryonic Mass, and Star Formation Rate in Compact Groups of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Tyler D.; Gallagher, S.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Walker, L.; Brandt, W. N.; Charlton, J. C.; Johnson, K. E.; Tzanavaris, P.

    2014-01-01

    Compact groups of galaxies (CGs) are ideal laboratories in which to study the effects of environmentally-driven galaxy evolution due to their high galaxy number densities and low velocity dispersions, which cause frequent and prolonged galaxy-galaxy interactions. In our study to better understand the origin and properties of hot gas in poor systems of galaxies, we present an analysis of the diffuse X-ray emission in a sample of 19 CGs observed with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Our analysis shows that the hottest, most X-ray luminous CGs agree well with the galaxy cluster X-ray scaling relations, even in CGs where the hot gas is clearly associated with the brightest galaxy. Using Spitzer photometry, we compute stellar masses and combine them with HI masses from the literature to find that high-baryonic-mass CGs are often X-ray luminous, while lower-mass CGs only sometimes exhibit faint X-ray emission attributed to star formation. We also use a new physically motivated definition of fossil groups (evolved galaxy groups where most of the mass is concentrated within a single galaxy) to investigate the hot gas properties of three compact fossil systems in our sample. In addition, we find that the most X-ray luminous CGs have the lowest star formation rates, likely because the cold gas has been exhausted in star formation, heated to X-ray temperatures, or removed from the galaxies by ram-pressure stripping. Finally, the optical colors that trace the recent star formation histories of the most massive group galaxies do not correlate with the X-ray luminosities of the CGs, indicating that perhaps the current state of the X-ray halos is not dependent on the recent assembly of stellar mass in the most massive galaxies. This work has been supported by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Ontario Early Researcher Award Program, and NASA.

  1. Ram pressure stripping of hot coronal gas from group and cluster galaxies and the detectability of surviving X-ray coronae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, Rukmani; Ricker, Paul M.

    2015-05-01

    Ram pressure stripping can remove hot and cold gas from galaxies in the intracluster medium, as shown by observations of X-ray and H I galaxy wakes in nearby clusters of galaxies. However, ram pressure stripping, including pre-processing in group environments, does not remove all the hot coronal gas from cluster galaxies. Recent high-resolution Chandra observations have shown that ˜1-4 kpc extended, hot galactic coronae are ubiquitous in group and cluster galaxies. To better understand this result, we simulate ram pressure stripping of a cosmologically motivated population of galaxies in isolated group and cluster environments. The galaxies and the host group and cluster are composed of collisionless dark matter and hot gas initially in hydrostatic equilibrium with the galaxy and host potentials. We show that the rate at which gas is lost depends on the galactic and host halo mass. Using synthetic X-ray observations, we evaluate the detectability of stripped galactic coronae in real observations by stacking images on the known galaxy centres. We find that coronal emission should be detected within ˜10 arcsec, or ˜5 kpc up to ˜2.3 Gyr in the lowest (0.1-1.2 keV) energy band. Thus, the presence of observed coronae in cluster galaxies significantly smaller than the hot X-ray haloes of field galaxies indicates that at least some gas removal occurs within cluster environments for recently accreted galaxies. Finally, we evaluate the possibility that existing and future X-ray cluster catalogues can be used in combination with optical galaxy positions to detect galactic coronal emission via stacking analysis. We briefly discuss the effects of additional physical processes on coronal survival, and will address them in detail in future papers in this series.

  2. Development of a hot intergalactic medium in spiral-rich galaxy groups: the example of HCG 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtilek, Jan M.; O'Sullivan, Ewan; David, Laurence P.; Giacintucci, Simona; Zezas, Andreas; Mamon, Gary; Ponman, Trevor J; Raychaudhury, Somak

    2014-08-01

    Galaxy groups provide the environment in which the majority of galaxies evolve, with low velocity dispersions and small galaxy separations that are conducive to tidal interactions and mergers between group members. X-ray observations reveal the frequent presence of hot gas in groups, with larger quantities linked to early-type galaxies, whereas cold gas is common in spiral-dominated groups. Clarification of the origin and role of the hot medium is central to the understanding of the evolution of the galaxy population and of all phases of the IGM.We here report on the nuclear activity, star formation and the high luminosity X-ray binary populations of the spiral-dominated, likely not yet virialized, group HCG 16, as well as on its intra-group medium, based principally on deep (150 ks) Chandra X-ray observations of the group, as well as new Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) 610 MHz radio data. We confirm the presence of obscured active nuclei in NGC 833 and NGC 835, and identify what may be a previously unrecognized nuclear source in NGC 838; all are variable. NGC 838 and NGC 839 are both starburst-dominated systems, with galactic superwinds that show X-ray and radio evidence of IGM interaction, but only weak nuclear activity; NGC 848 is also dominated by emission from its starburst.We confirm the existence of a faint, extended low-temperature (0.3 keV) intra-group medium, a subject of some uncertainty in earlier studies. The diffuse emission is strongest in a ridge linking the four principal galaxies, and is at least partly coincident with a large-scale HI tidal filament, indicating that the IGM in the inner part of the group is highly multi-phase. We conclude that starburst winds and shock-heating of stripped HI may play an important role in the early stages of IGM formation, with galactic winds contributing 20-40% of the observed hot gas in the system.

  3. Chemical history of isolated dwarf galaxies of the Local Group - I. dSphs: Cetus and Tucana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila-Vergara, N.; Carigi, L.; Hidalgo, S. L.; Durazo, R.

    2016-04-01

    For the first time, we obtain chemical evolution models (CEMs) for Tucana and Cetus, two isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group. The CEMs have been built from the star formation histories (SFHs) and the metallicity histories, both obtained independently by the Local Cosmology from Isolated Dwarfs (LCID) project from deep colour-magnitude diagrams. Based on our models, we find that the chemical histories were complex and can be divided into different epochs and scenarios. In particular, during 75 per cent of the SFH, the galaxies behaved as closed boxes and, during the remaining 25 per cent, either received a lot of primordial gas by accretion or they lost metals through metal-rich winds. In order to discriminate between these two scenarios, abundances ratios in old stars are needed. At t ˜ 4.5 Gyr, the galaxies lost most of their gas due to a short-strong, well-mixed wind. We obtain very similar CEMs for both galaxies, although Cetus is twice as massive as Tucana. We conclude that the star formation in both galaxies began with only 1.5 per cent of the baryonic mass fraction predicted by Λ cold dark matter.

  4. An investigation of satellite galaxy dynamics and evolution in the M31 sub-group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Philip Ilho

    We investigate the interaction history of the M31 sub- group by comparing surface photometry of two of its satellites, M32 and NGC 205, with N-body simulations of satellite destruction. The observational component of this study is based on 1.7° × 5° B- and I-band CCD mosaic images centered on M31 and covering both satellites. We model and remove M31 disk light and perform surface photometry on the satellites to limiting brightness levels of [μB, μI] = [27, 25] mag arcsec-2 corresponding to isophotal semi-major axis lengths of rM32lim = 420' (1.6 kpc) and rNGC205lim = 720' (2.7 kpc). The simulation component of this project is based on the analysis of single-component, spherical satellites being tidally disrupted through interactions with their parent galaxy. Generic features of the simulations include an excess in the surface brightness profile at large radii, a depletion zone at intermediate radii, and isophotal elongation and twists coincident with breaks in the brightness profile. These features are displayed by M32 and NGC 205, consistently across the B and I bands, strongly suggestive of tidal interaction and probable stripping by M31. The simulations reveal observable trends with orbital phase and eccentricity, indicating that loose constraints can be placed on the tidal radius, mass loss rate, orbital type and phase of the satellite, and nature of breaks using photometric data alone. Applying these findings to the observed satellites reveal that M32 is on a highly eccentric orbit, away from pericenter. In addition, investigating M32's unusual combination of high surface brightness and low luminosity (the hallmark of compact ellipticals, cEs), we make empirical estimates of its intrinsic properties and find that it is unlikely to be the residual core of a tidally-stripped normal elliptical as has been suggested, but rather that its precursor must have been intrinsically compact. Finally, relying on high resolution HST imaging for object classification

  5. QUENCHING DEPENDS ON MORPHOLOGIES: IMPLICATIONS FROM THE ULTRAVIOLET-OPTICAL RADIAL COLOR DISTRIBUTIONS IN GREEN VALLEY GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Zhizheng; Lin, Weipeng; Li, Jinrong; Kong, Xu; Wang, Jing E-mail: linwp@shao.ac.cn

    2014-09-01

    In this Letter, we analyze the radial ultraviolet-optical color distributions in a sample of low redshift green valley galaxies, with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX)+Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images, to investigate how the residual recent star formation is distributed in these galaxies. We find that the dust-corrected u – r colors of early-type galaxies (ETGs) are flat out to R {sub 90}, while the colors monotonously turn blue when r > 0.5 R {sub 50} for late-type galaxies (LTGs). More than half of the ETGs are blue-cored and have remarkable positive NUV – r color gradients, suggesting that their star formations are centrally concentrated. The rest have flat color distributions out to R {sub 90}. The centrally concentrated star formation activity in a large portion of ETGs is confirmed by the SDSS spectroscopy, showing that ∼50% of the ETGs have EW(Hα) >6.0 Å. Of the LTGs, 95% show uniform radial color profiles, which can be interpreted as a red bulge plus an extended blue disk. The links between the two kinds of ETGs, e.g., those objects having remarkable ''blue-cores'' and those having flat color gradients, are less known and require future investigations. It is suggested that the LTGs follow a general model by which quenching first occurs in the core regions, and then finally extend to the rest of the galaxy. Our results can be re-examined and have important implications for the IFU surveys, such as MaNGA and SAMI.

  6. Quenching Depends on Morphologies: Implications from the Ultraviolet-Optical Radial Color Distributions in Green Valley Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhizheng; Li, Jinrong; Lin, Weipeng; Wang, Jing; Kong, Xu

    2014-09-01

    In this Letter, we analyze the radial ultraviolet-optical color distributions in a sample of low redshift green valley galaxies, with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX)+Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images, to investigate how the residual recent star formation is distributed in these galaxies. We find that the dust-corrected u - r colors of early-type galaxies (ETGs) are flat out to R 90, while the colors monotonously turn blue when r > 0.5 R 50 for late-type galaxies (LTGs). More than half of the ETGs are blue-cored and have remarkable positive NUV - r color gradients, suggesting that their star formations are centrally concentrated. The rest have flat color distributions out to R 90. The centrally concentrated star formation activity in a large portion of ETGs is confirmed by the SDSS spectroscopy, showing that ~50% of the ETGs have EW(Hα) >6.0 Å. Of the LTGs, 95% show uniform radial color profiles, which can be interpreted as a red bulge plus an extended blue disk. The links between the two kinds of ETGs, e.g., those objects having remarkable "blue-cores" and those having flat color gradients, are less known and require future investigations. It is suggested that the LTGs follow a general model by which quenching first occurs in the core regions, and then finally extend to the rest of the galaxy. Our results can be re-examined and have important implications for the IFU surveys, such as MaNGA and SAMI.

  7. The XXL Survey. X. K-band luminosity - weak-lensing mass relation for groups and clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziparo, F.; Smith, G. P.; Mulroy, S. L.; Lieu, M.; Willis, J. P.; Hudelot, P.; McGee, S. L.; Fotopoulou, S.; Lidman, C.; Lavoie, S.; Pierre, M.; Adami, C.; Chiappetti, L.; Clerc, N.; Giles, P.; Maughan, B.; Pacaud, F.; Sadibekova, T.

    2016-06-01

    Galaxy clusters and groups are important cosmological probes and giant cosmic laboratories for studying galaxy evolution. Much effort has been devoted to understanding how and when baryonic matter cools at the centre of potential wells. However, a clear picture of the efficiency with which baryons are converted into stars is still missing. We present the K-band luminosity-halo mass relation, LK,500-M500,WL, for a subsample of 20 of the 100 brightest clusters in the XXL Survey observed with WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). For the first time, we have measured this relation via weak-lensing analysis down to M500,WL = 3.5 × 1013 M⊙. This allows us to investigate whether the slope of the LK-M relation is different for groups and clusters, as seen in other works. The clusters in our sample span a wide range in mass, M500,WL = 0.35-12.10 × 1014 M⊙, at 0 < z < 0.6. The K-band luminosity scales as log 10(LK,500/ 1012 L⊙) ∝ βlog 10(M500,WL/ 1014 M⊙) with β = 0.85+0.35-0.27 and an intrinsic scatter of σlnLK|M = 0.37+0.19-0.17. Combining our sample with some clusters in the Local Cluster Substructure Survey (LoCuSS) present in the literature, we obtain a slope of 1.05+0.16-0.14 and an intrinsic scatter of 0.14+0.09-0.07. The flattening in the LK-M seen in previous works is not seen here and might be a result of a bias in the mass measurement due to assumptions on the dynamical state of the systems. We also study the richness-mass relation and find that group-sized halos have more galaxies per unit halo mass than massive clusters. However, the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in low-mass systems contributes a greater fraction to the total cluster light than BCGs do in massive clusters; the luminosity gap between the two brightest galaxies is more prominent for group-sized halos. This result is a natural outcome of the hierarchical growth of structures, where massive galaxies form and gain mass within low-mass groups and are ultimately accreted

  8. Populations of High-Luminosity Density-Bounded HII Regions in Spiral Galaxies? Evidence and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, J. E.; Rozas, M.; Zurita, A.; Watson, R. A.; Knapen, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present evidence that the H II regions of high luminosity in disk galaxies may be density bounded, so that a significant fraction of the ionizing photons emitted by their exciting OB stars escape from the regions. The key piece of evidence is the presence, in the Ha luminosity functions (LFs) of the populations of H iI regions, of glitches, local sharp peaks at an apparently invariant luminosity, defined as the Stromgren luminosity Lstr), LH(sub alpha) = Lstr = 10(sup 38.6) (+/- 10(sup 0.1)) erg/ s (no other peaks are found in any of the LFs) accompanying a steepening of slope for LH(sub alpha) greater than Lstr This behavior is readily explicable via a physical model whose basic premises are: (a) the transition at LH(sub alpha) = Lstr marks a change from essentially ionization bounding at low luminosities to density bounding at higher values, (b) for this to occur the law relating stellar mass in massive star-forming clouds to the mass of the placental cloud must be such that the ionizing photon flux produced within the cloud is a function which rises more steeply than the mass of the cloud. Supporting evidence for the hypothesis of this transition is also presented: measurements of the central surface brightnesses of H II regions for LH(sub alpha) less than Lstr are proportional to L(sup 1/3, sub H(sub alpha)), expected for ionization bounding, but show a sharp trend to a steeper dependence for LH(sub alpha) greater than Lstr, and the observed relation between the internal turbulence velocity parameter, sigma, and the luminosity, L, at high luminosities, can be well explained if these regions are density bounded. If confirmed, the density-bounding hypothesis would have a number of interesting implications. It would imply that the density-bounded regions were the main sources of the photons which ionize the diffuse gas in disk galaxies. Our estimates, based on the hypothesis, indicate that these regions emit sufficient Lyman continuum not only to

  9. Intrinsic alignment of simulated galaxies in the cosmic web: implications for weak lensing surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codis, S.; Gavazzi, R.; Dubois, Y.; Pichon, C.; Benabed, K.; Desjacques, V.; Pogosyan, D.; Devriendt, J.; Slyz, A.

    2015-04-01

    The intrinsic alignment of galaxy shapes (by means of their angular momentum) and their cross-correlation with the surrounding dark matter tidal field are investigated using the 160 000, z = 1.2 synthetic galaxies extracted from the high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulation HORIZON-AGN. One- and two-point statistics of the spin of the stellar component are measured as a function of mass and colour. For the low-mass galaxies, this spin is locally aligned with the tidal field `filamentary' direction while, for the high-mass galaxies, it is perpendicular to both filaments and walls. The bluest galaxies of our synthetic catalogue are more strongly correlated with the surrounding tidal field than the reddest galaxies, and this correlation extends up to ˜10 h- 1 Mpc comoving distance. We also report a correlation of the projected ellipticities of blue, intermediate-mass galaxies on a similar scale at a level of 10-4 which could be a concern for cosmic shear measurements. We do not report any measurable intrinsic alignments of the reddest galaxies of our sample. This work is a first step towards the use of very realistic catalogue of synthetic galaxies to evaluate the contamination of weak lensing measurement by the intrinsic galactic alignments.

  10. Lymanα Emission from a Luminous z = 8.68 Galaxy: Implications for Galaxies as Tracers of Cosmic Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitrin, Adi; Labbé, Ivo; Belli, Sirio; Bouwens, Rychard; Ellis, Richard S.; Roberts-Borsani, Guido; Stark, Daniel P.; Oesch, Pascal A.; Smit, Renske

    2015-09-01

    We report the discovery of Lyman-alpha emission (Lyα) in the bright galaxy EGSY-2008532660 (hereafter EGSY8p7) using the Multi-Object Spectrometer For Infra-Red Exploration spectrograph at the Keck Observatory. First reported by Roberts-Borsani et al., this galaxy was selected for spectroscopic observations because of its photometric redshift ({z}{phot}={8.57}-0.43+0.22), apparent brightness (H{}160=25.26+/- 0.09), and red Spitzer/IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] color indicative of contamination by strong oxygen emission in the [4.5] band. With a total integration of ˜4.3 hr, our data reveal an emission line at ≃11776 Å that we argue is likely Lyα at a redshift of {z}{spec}={8.683}-0.004+0.001, in good agreement with the photometric estimate. The line was detected independently on two nights using different slit orientations and its detection significance is ˜ 7.5σ . An overlapping skyline contributes significantly to the uncertainty on the total line flux, although the significance of the detected line is robust to a variety of skyline-masking procedures. By direct addition and a Gaussian fit, we estimate a 95% confidence range of 1.0-2.5 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2, corresponding to a rest-frame equivalent width of 17-42 Å. EGSY8p7 is the most distant spectroscopically confirmed galaxy to date, and the third luminous source in the EGS field beyond {z}{phot}≳ 7.5 with detectable Lyα emission, viewed at a time when the intergalactic medium is believed to be fairly neutral. Although the reionization process was probably patchy, we discuss whether luminous sources with prominent IRAC color excesses may harbor harder ionizing spectra than the dominant fainter population, thereby creating earlier ionized bubbles. Further spectroscopic follow-up of such bright sources promises important insights into the early formation of galaxies.

  11. The large scale structure of the Universe revealed with high redshift emission-line galaxies: implications for future surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonino Orsi, Alvaro

    2015-08-01

    Nebular emission in galaxies trace their star-formation activity within the last 10 Myr or so. Hence, these objects are typically found in the outskirts of massive clusters, where otherwise environmental effects can effectively stop the star formation process. In this talk I discuss the nature of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) and its implications for their clustering properties. To account for the relevant physical ingredients that produce nebular emission, I combine semi-analytical models of galaxy formation with a radiative transfer code of Ly-alpha photons, and the photoionzation and shock code MAPPINGS-III. As a result, the clustering strength of ELGs is found to correlate weakly with the line luminosities. Also, their 2-d clustering displays a weak finger-of-god effect, and the clustering in linear scales is affected by assembly bias. I review the impact of the nature of this galaxy population for future spectroscopic large surveys targeting ELGs to extract cosmological results. In particular, I present forecasts for the ELG population in J-PAS, an 8000 deg^2 survey with 54 narrow-band filters covering the optical range, expected to start in 2016.

  12. The large-scale distribution of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Margaret J.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial distribution of galaxies in the universe is characterized on the basis of the six completed strips of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics redshift-survey extension. The design of the survey is briefly reviewed, and the results are presented graphically. Vast low-density voids similar to the void in Bootes are found, almost completely surrounded by thin sheets of galaxies. Also discussed are the implications of the results for the survey sampling problem, the two-point correlation function of the galaxy distribution, the possibility of detecting large-scale coherent flows, theoretical models of large-scale structure, and the identification of groups and clusters of galaxies.

  13. Gas Sloshing and Radio Galaxy Dynamics in the Core of the 3C 449 Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, Dharam V.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Randall, Scott W.; Forman, William R.; Nulsen, Paul E.; Roediger, Elke; ZuHone, John A.; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Jones, Christine; Croston, Judith H.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a 140 ks Chandra/ACIS-S observation of the hot gas around the canonical FR I radio galaxy 3C 449. An earlier, shorter 30 ks Chandra observation of the group gas showed an unusual entropy distribution and a surface brightness edge in the gas that could be a strong shock around the inner radio lobes. In our deeper data we find no evidence for a temperature increase inside of the brightness edge, but a temperature decrease across part of the edge. This suggests that the edge is a "sloshing" cold front due to a merger within the last 1.3-1.6 Gyr. Both the northern and southern inner jets are bent slightly to the west in projection as they enter their respective lobes, suggesting that the sloshing core is moving to the east. The straight inner jet flares at approximately the position where it crosses the contact edge, suggesting that the jet is entraining and thermalizing some of the hot gas as it crosses the edge.We also detect filaments of X-ray emission around the southern inner radio jet and lobe which we attribute to low entropy entrained gas. The lobe flaring and gas entrainment were originally predicted in simulations of Loken et al. and are confirmed in our deep observation.

  14. GAS SLOSHING AND RADIO GALAXY DYNAMICS IN THE CORE OF THE 3C 449 GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Lal, Dharam V.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Randall, Scott W.; Forman, William R.; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Jones, Christine; Roediger, Elke; ZuHone, John A.; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Croston, Judith H.

    2013-02-10

    We present results from a 140 ks Chandra/ACIS-S observation of the hot gas around the canonical FR I radio galaxy 3C 449. An earlier, shorter 30 ks Chandra observation of the group gas showed an unusual entropy distribution and a surface brightness edge in the gas that could be a strong shock around the inner radio lobes. In our deeper data we find no evidence for a temperature increase inside of the brightness edge, but a temperature decrease across part of the edge. This suggests that the edge is a 'sloshing' cold front due to a merger within the last {approx}<1.3-1.6 Gyr. Both the northern and southern inner jets are bent slightly to the west in projection as they enter their respective lobes, suggesting that the sloshing core is moving to the east. The straight inner jet flares at approximately the position where it crosses the contact edge, suggesting that the jet is entraining and thermalizing some of the hot gas as it crosses the edge. We also detect filaments of X-ray emission around the southern inner radio jet and lobe which we attribute to low entropy entrained gas. The lobe flaring and gas entrainment were originally predicted in simulations of Loken et al. and are confirmed in our deep observation.

  15. Promotional Perspectives of Reference Group Influence: Advertising Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessig, V. Parker; Park, C. Whan

    1978-01-01

    Examines the role of reference groups and promotional appeals in satisfying consumer motivations. Emphasizes three motivational reference group functions: informational, utilitarian, and value-expressive. (RL)

  16. Chemical analysis of carbon stars in the Local Group. II. The Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abia, C.; de Laverny, P.; Wahlin, R.

    2008-04-01

    Aims:We present new results of our ongoing chemical study of carbon stars in Local Group galaxies to test the critical dependence of s-process nucleosynthesis on the stellar metallicity. Methods: We collected optical spectra with the VLT/UVES instrument of two carbon stars found in the Carina Dwarf Spheroidal (dSph) galaxy, namely ALW-C6 and ALW-C7. We performed a full chemical analysis using the new generation of hydrostatic, spherically symmetric carbon-rich model atmospheres and the spectral synthesis method in LTE. Results: The luminosities, atmosphere parameters and chemical composition of ALW-C6 and ALW-C7 are compatible with these stars being in the TP-AGB phase undergoing third dredge-up episodes, although their extrinsic nature (external pollution in a binary stellar system) cannot be definitively excluded. Our chemical analysis shows that the metallicity of both stars agree with the average metallicity ([Fe/H] -1.8 dex) previously derived for this satellite galaxy from the analysis of both low resolution spectra of RGB stars and the observed colour magnitude diagrams. ALW-C6 and ALW-C7 present strong s-element enhancements, [ s/Fe] = +1.6, +1.5, respectively. These enhancements and the derived s-process indexes [ ls/Fe] , [ hs/Fe] and [ hs/ls] are compatible with theoretical s-process nucleosynthesis predictions in low mass AGB stars ( 1.5 M_⊙) on the basis that the 13C(α,n)16O is the main source of neutrons. Furthermore, the analysis of C2 and CN bands reveals a large carbon enhancement (C/O 7 and 5, respectively), much larger than the values typically found in galactic AGB carbon stars (C/O 1{-}2). This is also in agreement with the theoretical prediction that AGB carbon stars are formed more easily through third dredge-up episodes as the initial stellar metallicity drops. However, theoretical low-mass AGB models apparently fail to simultaneously fit the observed s-element and carbon enhancements. On the other hand, Zr is found to be less enhanced in

  17. Counts and Sizes of Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field South: Implications for the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; Satyapal, Shobita

    2000-06-01

    Science objectives for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) include a large component of galaxy surveys, both imaging and spectroscopy. The Hubble Deep Field data sets include the deepest observations ever made in the ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared, reaching depths comparable to that expected for NGST spectroscopy. We present the source counts, galaxy sizes, and isophotal filling factors of the Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) images. The observed integrated galaxy counts reach over 500 galaxies per square arcminute at magnitudes AB < 30. We extend these counts to fainter levels and further into the infrared using galaxy-count models. It was determined from the HDF (North) and other deep Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging that fainter galaxies are smaller. This trend continues to AB=29 in the high-resolution HDF-S Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) image, where galaxies have a typical half-light radius of 0.1". We have run extensive Monte Carlo simulations of the galaxy detection in the HDF-S, and we show that the small measured sizes are not due to selection effects until AB > 29. We compare observed sizes in the optical and near-infrared using the HDF-S Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer image, showing that after taking into account the different point-spread functions and pixel sizes of the images, galaxies are smaller in the near-infrared than they are in the optical. We analyze the isophotal filling factor of the HDF-S STIS image and show that this image is mostly empty sky even at the limits of galaxy detection, a conclusion we expect to hold true for NGST spectroscopy. At the surface brightness limits expected for NGST imaging, however, about a quarter of the sky is occupied by the outer isophotes of AB < 30 galaxies, requiring deblending to detect the faintest objects. We discuss the implications of these data on several design concepts for the NGST near-infrared spectrography. We compare the effects of resolution

  18. Chemical abundances in low surface brightness galaxies: Implications for their evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaugh, S. S.; Bothun, G. D.

    1993-01-01

    Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies are an important but often neglected part of the galaxy content of the universe. Their importance stems both from the selection effects which cause them to be under-represented in galaxy catalogs, and from what they can tell us about the physical processes of galaxy evolution that has resulted in something other than the traditional Hubble sequence of spirals. An important constraint for any evolutionary model is the present day chemical abundances of LSB disks. Towards this end, spectra for a sample of 75 H 2 regions distributed in 20 LSB disks galaxies were obtained. Structurally, this sample is defined as having B(0) fainter than 23.0 mag arcsec(sup -2) and scale lengths that cluster either around 3 kpc or 10 kpc. In fact, structurally, these galaxies are very similar to the high surface brightness spirals which define the Hubble sequence. Thus, our sample galaxies are not dwarf galaxies but instead have masses comparable to or in excess of the Milky Way. The basic results from these observations are summarized.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Dwarf galaxy planes in Local Group (Pawlowski+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlowski, M. S.; Kroupa, P.; Jerjen, H.

    2014-09-01

    The analysis presented in the following is based on the catalogue of nearby galaxies as compiled by McConnachie (2012AJ....144....4M, Cat. J/AJ/144/4) (see also Mateo, 1998ARA&A..36..435M). It includes information on all known galaxies within 3Mpc from the Sun, which have distance estimates based on resolved stellar populations. We use the galaxy positions, radial distances and line-of-sight velocities of the LG galaxies as provided by the most recent online version of the tables by McConnachie (2012AJ....144....4M, https://www.astrosci.ca/users/alan/NearbyDwarfsDatabase.html, Version 2013/Jun/17). To this we add the recently published line-of-sight velocity for Andromeda XXIX (Tollerud et al., 2013ApJ...768...50T) for which no velocities are provided in the catalogue yet. (1 data file).

  20. A Sharper Picture of X-ray Bright Galaxy Groups: Chandra Imaging and Spectroscopy of HCG 62 and NGC 741

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtilek, J. M.; Grego, L.; David, L. P.; Ponman, T. J.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Harris, D. E.

    2002-04-01

    Groups and poor clusters are the locus of most galaxies in the present-day Universe and the building blocks from which clusters form. They accordingly occupy a significant place in the continuum of structure between isolated galaxies and rich clusters. Owing to the lower temperature of their intracluster gas, X-ray emission from groups produces strong lines from a broader range of elements than do hotter clusters. Here, we employ Chandra images of the X-ray bright groups HCG 62 and NGC 741 to determine spatial variations of abundance and temperature, study the origin and enrichment of intragroup gas, and examine the interactions between gas and radio sources. Of particular note are the two X-ray "cavities" in HCG 62. With extents of about 10 kpc and nearly symmetrically placed on opposite sides of the X-ray peak, these cavities most likely result from interaction between relativistic plasma produced by a recently-active nucleus in the central elliptical galaxy and the intragroup gas. This observation extends to groups the phenomenon of X-ray cavities found in Chandra data of a number of clusters. This work was supported in part by NASA grants GO0-1037X and GO1-2138X and contract NAS8-39073.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ZENS: galaxies in groups along the cosmic web. I. (Carollo+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carollo, C. M.; Cibinel, A.; Lilly, S. J.; Miniati, F.; Norberg, P.; Silverman, J. D.; van Gorkom, J.; Cameron, E.; Finoguenov, A.; Peng, Y.; Pipino, A.; Rudick, C. S.

    2015-03-01

    The entire ZENS sample of 141 galaxy groups was selected from the 2PIGG catalog (Eke et al. 2004, J/MNRAS/348/866), which is based on a friends-of-friends (FOF; Huchra & Geller 1982, VII/86) percolation algorithm thoroughly tested on realistic mock galaxy catalogs generated from cosmological N-body simulations. The 2PIGG catalog covers 1500deg2 of the 2dFGRS (Colless+, 2001, VII/250). The data were taken in several observing runs over the period 2005-2009. Following a pilot-project time allocation in 2005, most of the observations were carried out as service-mode observations in the context of the ESO Large Program 177.A-0680. Paper II (Cibinel+, 2013ApJ...776...72C) provides details of the observing runs, the raw data properties, the data reduction procedures, and the photometric calibration for WFI data of the ZENS groups. (2 data files).

  2. Self-Help Groups--Implications for the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Morton A.; McCall, Mary E.

    A recent review of published and unpublished data suggests that the elderly are underrepresented in most self-help groups. Some national groups, such as Alcoholics Anonymous do serve the aged but many others such as widow groups do not. A recent national survey of over 3,000 households conducted by Mellinger and Balter examined the use of…

  3. Focus Group Evidence: Implications for Design and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Katherine E.; Gandha, Tysza; Culbertson, Michael J.; Carlson, Crystal

    2014-01-01

    In evaluation and applied social research, focus groups may be used to gather different kinds of evidence (e.g., opinion, tacit knowledge). In this article, we argue that making focus group design choices explicitly in relation to the type of evidence required would enhance the empirical value and rigor associated with focus group utilization. We…

  4. Radio continuum emission and HI gas accretion in the NGC 5903/5898 compact group of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiita, Paul; Gopal-Krishna; Mhaskey, Mukul

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the nature of the multi-component radio continuum and HI emission associated with the nearby galaxy group comprised of two dominant ellipticals, NGC 5898 and NGC 5903 and a dwarf lenticular ESO514-G003. Striking new details of radio emission come from the ongoing TIFR.GMRT.SKY.SURVEY (TGSS) which provides images with a resolution of ˜24^'' x18^'' and rms noise of 5 mJy at 150 MHz. Previous observations of this compact triplet include images at higher frequencies of the radio continuum as well as huge HI trails originating from the vicinity of NGC 5903. The TGSS 150 MHz image has revealed a large asymmetric radio halo around NGC 5903 and also established that the dwarf SO galaxy ESO514-G003 is the host to a previously known bright double radio source. The radio emission from NGC 5903 is found to have a very steep radio spectrum (α˜-1.5) and to envelope a network of radio continuum filaments bearing a spatial relationship to the HI trails. Both its radio loud members are also the only galaxies that are seen to be connected to an HI filament. This correlation is consistent with the premise that cold gas accretion is of prime importance for triggering powerful jet activity in the nuclei of early-type galaxies.

  5. On the spin bias of satellite galaxies in the local group-like environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jounghun; Lemson, Gerard E-mail: lemson@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2013-05-01

    We utilize the Millennium-II simulation databases to study the spin bias of dark subhalos in the Local Group-like systems which have two prominent satellites with comparable masses. Selecting the group-size halos with total mass similar to that of the Local Group (LG) from the friends-of-friends halo catalog and locating their subhalos from the substructure catalog, we determine the most massive (main) and second to the most massive (submain) ones among the subhalos hosted by each selected halo. When the dimensionless spin parameter (λ) of each subhalo is derived from its specific angular momentum and circular velocity at virial radius, a signal of correlation is detected between the spin parameters of the subhalos and the main-to-submain mass ratios of their host halos at z = 0: the higher main-to-submain mass ratio a host halo has, the higher mean spin parameter its subhalos have. It is also found that the correlations exist even for the subhalo progenitors at z = 0.5 and 1. Our interpretation of this result is that the subhalo spin bias is not a transient effect but an intrinsic property of a LG-like system with higher main-to- submain mass ratio, caused by stronger anisotropic stress in the region. A cosmological implication of our result is also discussed.

  6. Dark matter halo properties of GAMA galaxy groups from 100 square degrees of KiDS weak lensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, M.; Cacciato, M.; Brouwer, M.; Kuijken, K.; Hoekstra, H.; Norberg, P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; van Uitert, E.; Alpaslan, M.; Baldry, I. K.; Choi, A.; de Jong, J. T. A.; Driver, S. P.; Erben, T.; Grado, A.; Graham, Alister W.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hopkins, A. M.; Irisarri, N.; Joachimi, B.; Loveday, J.; Miller, L.; Nakajima, R.; Schneider, P.; Sifón, C.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.

    2015-10-01

    The Kilo-Degree Survey is an optical wide-field survey designed to map the matter distribution in the Universe using weak gravitational lensing. In this paper, we use these data to measure the density profiles and masses of a sample of ˜1400 spectroscopically identified galaxy groups and clusters from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey. We detect a highly significant signal (signal-to-noise-ratio ˜120), allowing us to study the properties of dark matter haloes over one and a half order of magnitude in mass, from M ˜ 1013-1014.5 h-1 M⊙. We interpret the results for various subsamples of groups using a halo model framework which accounts for the mis-centring of the brightest cluster galaxy (used as the tracer of the group centre) with respect to the centre of the group's dark matter halo. We find that the density profiles of the haloes are well described by an NFW profile with concentrations that agree with predictions from numerical simulations. In addition, we constrain scaling relations between the mass and a number of observable group properties. We find that the mass scales with the total r-band luminosity as a power law with slope 1.16 ± 0.13 (1σ) and with the group velocity dispersion as a power law with slope 1.89 ± 0.27 (1σ). Finally, we demonstrate the potential of weak lensing studies of groups to discriminate between models of baryonic feedback at group scales by comparing our results with the predictions from the Cosmo-OverWhelmingly Large Simulations project, ruling out models without AGN feedback.

  7. Cosmological Implications from an X-Ray Flux-Limited Sample of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiprich, Thomas H.; Böhringer, Hans

    A new X-ray selected/X-ray flux-limited galaxy cluster sample of the 63 X-ray brightest clusters in the sky has been compiled from recent X-ray cluster catalogs based on the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Cluster masses have been determined homogeneously using mainly ROSAT pointed observations and mostly ASCA gas temperatures, assuming the intracluster gas to be in hydrostatic equilibrium. As the sample is statistically complete, a cluster mass function has been constructed. Integration of the mass function shows that the total gravitating mass contained within the virial radius of clusters with mass larger than 3.5 × 10^{13} h^{-1}_{50} M_⊙ (˜ Hickson group mass) is about two percent of the total mass in a critical density universe, i.e. Ω_{cluster} ≈ 0.02, and about six percent for a normalized matter density Ω_m = 0.3. This implies that by far most of the total mass in the universe resides outside virialized cluster regions. The mass fraction given by Fukugita et al., ApJ, 503, 518 (1998), based on the mass function determined by Bahcall & Cen, ApJ, 407, L49 (1993), is four times higher than the value found here at the corresponding minimum mass. The errors are currently being investigated.

  8. Metal distributions out to 0.5 r {sub 180} in the intracluster medium of four galaxy groups observed with Suzaku

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Toru; Matsushita, Kyoko; Sato, Kosuke E-mail: matusita@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2014-01-20

    We studied the distributions of metal abundances and metal-mass-to-light ratios in the intracluster medium (ICM) of four galaxy groups, MKW 4, HCG 62, the NGC 1550 group, and the NGC 5044 group, out to ∼0.5 r {sub 180} observed with Suzaku. The iron abundance decreases with radius and is about 0.2-0.4 solar beyond 0.1 r {sub 180}. At a given radius in units of r {sub 180}, the iron abundance in the ICM of the four galaxy groups was consistent with or smaller than those of clusters of galaxies. The Mg/Fe and Si/Fe ratios in the ICM are nearly constant at the solar ratio out to 0.5 r {sub 180}. We also studied systematic uncertainties in the derived metal abundances, comparing the results from two versions of atomic data for astrophysicists (ATOMDB) and single- and two-temperature model fits. Since the metals have been synthesized in galaxies, we collected K-band luminosities of galaxies from the Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog and calculated the integrated iron-mass-to-light-ratios (IMLR), or the ratios of the iron mass in the ICM to light from stars in galaxies. The groups with smaller gas-mass-to-light ratios have smaller IMLR values and the IMLR is inversely correlated with the entropy excess. Based on these abundance features, we discussed the past history of metal enrichment processes in groups of galaxies.

  9. An X-Ray Flux-Limited Sample of Galaxy Clusters: Physical Properties and Cosmological Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiprich, Thomas H.

    2001-07-01

    An X-ray selected and X-ray flux-limited sample comprising the 63 X-ray brightest galaxy clusters in the sky (excluding the galactic band, called HIFLUGCS) has been constructed based on the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. The flux limit has been set at 2x10^-11 erg/s/cm^2 in the energy band 0.1-2.4 keV. It has been shown that a high completeness is indicated by several tests. Due to the high flux limit this sample can be used for a variety of applications requiring a statistical cluster sample without any corrections to the effective survey volume. Mainly high quality pointed observations have been used to determine fluxes and physical cluster parameters. It has been shown that a tight correlation exists between the X-ray luminosity and the gravitational mass using HIFLUGCS and an extended sample of 106 galaxy clusters. The relation and its scatter have been quantified using different fitting methods. A comparison to theoretical and numerical predictions shows an overall agreement. This relation may be directly applied in large X-ray cluster surveys or dark matter simulations for conversions between X-ray luminosity and gravitating mass. Data from the performance verification phase of the recently launched X-ray satellite observatory XMM-Newton on the galaxy cluster Abell 1835 has been analyzed, in order to test the assumption of isothermality of the cluster gas in the outer parts applied throughout the work. It has been found that the measured outer temperature profile is consistent with being isothermal. In the inner regions a clear drop of the temperature by a factor of two has been found. Physical properties of the cluster sample have been studied by analyzing relations between different cluster parameters. The overall properties are well understood but in detail deviations from simple expectations have been found. It has been found that the gas mass fraction (fgas) does not vary as a function of intracluster gas temperature. For galaxy groups (kTx < 2 keV), however, a

  10. The X-Ray Zurich Environmental Study (X-ZENS). I. Chandra and XMM-Newton Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei in Galaxies in nearby Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, J. D.; Miniati, F.; Finoguenov, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Cibinel, A.; Lilly, S. J.; Schawinski, K.

    2014-01-01

    We describe X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton of 18 M group ~ 1-6 × 1013 M ⊙, z ~ 0.05 galaxy groups from the Zurich ENvironmental Study. The X-ray data aim at establishing the frequency and properties, unaffected by host galaxy dilution and obscuration, of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in central and satellite galaxies, also as a function of halo-centric distance. X-ray point-source detections are reported for 22 of the 177 galaxies, down to a sensitivity level of f 0.5 - 8 keV ~ 5 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1, corresponding to a limiting luminosity of L 0.5 - 8 keV ~ 3 × 1040 erg s-1. With the majority of the X-ray sources attributed to AGNs of low-to-moderate levels (L/L Edd >~ 10-4), we discuss the detection rate in the context of the occupation of AGNs to halos of this mass scale and redshift and compare the structural and morphological properties between AGN-active and non-active galaxies. At galaxy mass scales <1011 M ⊙, central galaxies appear to be a factor of ~4 more likely to host AGNs than satellite galaxies of similar mass. This effect, coupled with the tendency for AGNs to be hosted by massive galaxies, explains the (weak) trend for AGNs to be preferentially found in the inner parts of group halos, with no detectable trend with halo-centric distance in the frequency of AGNs within the satellite population. Finally, our data indicate that the rate of decline with redshift of AGN activity in galaxy groups matches that of the global AGN population, indicating that either AGN activity occurs preferentially in group halos or that the evolution rate is independent of halo mass.

  11. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    SciTech Connect

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2014-07-10

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉} to 30% for galaxies with M > 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  12. Planetary nebulae: the universal mass-metallicity relation for Local Group dwarf galaxies and the chemistry of NGC 205

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Denise R.; Magrini, Laura; Teodorescu, Ana M.; Carneiro, Carolina M.

    2014-10-01

    Here we study 16 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 205 by using Gemini Multi-Object Spectrographs (GMOS@Gemini) spectra to derive their physical and chemical parameters. The chemical patterns and evolutionary tracks for 14 of our PNe suggest that there are no type I PNe among them. These PNe have an average oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 8.08 ± 0.28 and progenitor masses of 2-2.5 M⊙ and thus were born ˜1.0-1.7 Gyr ago. Our results are in good agreement with previous PN studies of NGC 205. The present 12+log(O/H) is combined with our previous work and results in the literature to study the PN metallicity trends of Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies, in an effort to establish the PN luminosity-metallicity and mass-metallicity relations (LZR and MZR) for LG dwarf irregulars (dIrrs) and dwarf spheroidals (dSphs). Previous attempts to obtain such relations failed to provide correct conclusions because they were based on limited samples. As far as we are able to compare stellar with nebular metallicities, our MZR is in very good agreement with the slope of the MZR recently obtained for LG dwarf galaxies using spectroscopic stellar metallicities by Kirby and coauthors. In fact, we found that both dIrr and dSph galaxies follow the same MZR, at variance with the differences claimed in the past. Moreover, our MZR is also consistent with the global MZR of star-forming galaxies, which span a wider stellar mass range (˜106-1011 M⊙).

  13. On the Way to Stability: CG J1720-67.8, a Highly Evolved Compact Galaxy Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temporin, S.; Weinberger, R.; Galaz, G.

    Compact Groups of galaxies (CGs) are the ideal environment where effects of interactions on the dynamical evolution of galaxies, from morphological disturbances and star formation enhancement to the final merging into field ellipticals, can be observed. This may be the fate of CGs: recent HST observations of ULIRGs, which appear to be the result of CGs' collapses (Borne et al. 2000, ApJL 529, 77), and X-ray observations of CGs and ellipticals (e.g. Jones et al. 2000, MNRAS 312, 139) support a hierarchical galaxy formation scenario. In the present study, the recently found very compact system CG J1720-67.8, whose properties point to a highly advanced evolutionary stage (Weinberger et al. 1999, ApJL 522, 17), is analyzed in detail. In BVRIJHK images and derived optical and near-IR colors, beside appearing with a peculiar morphology dominated by an extended tidal tail, the group exhibits blue regions indicating young stellar populations particularly at the tips of the tail, and a mixture of young and old populations both in the member galaxie s and along the tail. These properties are confirmed by the emission line spectra , witnessing a remarkable star formation activity in a low metallicity environment (metal abundances ~ 0.1 - 0.2 solar, as indicated by the ([OII]λ3727 + [OIII]λ4959+5007)/Hβ ratio). Emission-line based diagnostic diagrams indicate the HII-like and/or starburst nature of all the group members . Our data are based on observations with the 3.6m telescope operated on La Silla by the European Southern Observatory.

  14. Misconceptions of Focus Groups: Implications for Health Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.

    2004-01-01

    Health educators use several different data collection techniques involving qualitative and quantitative methods. One common qualitative data collection technique is the focus group. Although a focus group, when utilized appropriately, can yield useful information, too often in health education practice it is misunderstood and thus misused. The…

  15. Facilitating Cross-Cultural Online Discussion Groups: Implications for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Saundra Wall; Watkins, Karen; Daley, Barbara; Courtenay, Bradley; Davis, Mike; Dymock, Darryl

    2001-01-01

    Discusses research that examined the issues and challenges experienced by facilitators in cross-cultural group discussions in a Web conferencing program, using action research methods of data collection and analysis. Considers questioning, participation, interpersonal and group dynamics, facilitator expectations, and student expectations.…

  16. Implications of the ISO LWS spectrum of the prototypical ultraluminous galaxy: ARP 220

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, J.; Satyapal, S.; Luhman, M. L.; Melnick, G.; Cox, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Stacey, G. J.; Smith, H. A.; Lord, S. D.; Greenhouse, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    The low resolution far infrared spectrum of the galaxy Arp 220, obtained with the low wavelength spectrometer (LWS) onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), is presented. The spectrum is dominated by the OH, H2O, CH, NH3 and O I absorption lines. The upper limits on the far infrared fine structure lines indicate a softer radiation in Arp 220 than in starburst galaxies.

  17. Extended Light in E/S0 Galaxies and Implications for Disk Rebirth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffett, Amanda J.; Kannappan, S. J.; Laine, S.; Wei, L. H.; Baker, A. J.; Impey, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery of extended ultraviolet (XUV) disks around a large fraction of late-type galaxies provides evidence for unexpectedly large-scale disk building at recent epochs. Combining GALEX UV observations with deep optical and Spitzer IR imaging, we search for XUV disks in a sample of nearby low-to-intermediate mass E/S0 galaxies to explore evidence for disk rebuilding after mergers. Preliminary visual classification yields ten XUV-disk candidates from the full sample of 30, intriguingly similar to the 30% frequency for late-type galaxies. These XUV candidates occur at a wide range of masses and on both the red and blue sequences in color vs. stellar mass, indicating a possible association with processes like gas accretion and/or galaxy interactions that would affect the galaxy population broadly. We go on to apply the quantitative Type 1 and Type 2 XUV-disk definitions to this sample and identify multiple Type 1 XUVs, i.e., galaxies with UV structure beyond the expected star formation threshold. We also find several galaxies that come close to satisfying the Type 2 definition, but that definition proves problematic to apply to this sample: the NUV-derived star formation threshold radii for our E/S0s often lie inside the 80% Ks-band light (K80) radii, violating an implicit assumption of the Type 2 definition, or lie outside but not as far as the definition requires. Nonetheless, we identify otherwise Type 2-like galaxies ("modified Type 2 XUVs") that have higher star formation rates and bluer FUV - NUV colors than Type 1 XUVs in the sample. We propose that Type 1 XUVs may reflect early or inefficient stages of star formation, while modified Type 2 XUVs perhaps reflect inside-out disk regrowth.

  18. Extended Light in E/S0 Galaxies and Implications for Disk Rebirth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffett, A. J.; Kannappan, S. J.; Laine, S.; Wei, L. H.; Baker, A. J.; Impey, C. D.

    2010-06-01

    The recent discovery of extended ultraviolet (XUV) disks around a large fraction of late-type galaxies provides evidence for unexpectedly large-scale disk building at recent epochs. Combining GALEX UV observations with deep optical and Spitzer IR imaging, we search for XUV disks in a sample of nearby low-to-intermediate mass E/S0 galaxies to explore evidence for disk rebuilding after mergers. Preliminary visual classification yields ten XUV-disk candidates from the full sample of 30, intriguingly similar to the ˜30% frequency for late-type galaxies. These XUV candidates occur at a wide range of masses and on both the red and blue sequences in color vs. stellar mass, indicating a possible association with processes like gas accretion and/or galaxy interactions that would affect the galaxy population broadly. We go on to apply the quantitative Type 1 and Type 2 XUV-disk definitions to a nine-galaxy subsample analyzed in detail. For this subsample, six of the nine are Type 1 XUVs, i.e., galaxies with UV structure beyond the expected star formation threshold. The other three come close to satisfying the Type 2 definition, but that definition proves problematic to apply to this sample: the NUV-derived star formation threshold radii for our E/S0s often lie inside the 80% Ks-band light (K80) radii, violating an implicit assumption of the Type 2 definition, or lie outside but not as far as the definition requires. Nonetheless, the three otherwise Type 2-like galaxies ("modified Type 2 XUVs") have higher star formation rates and bluer FUV - NUV colors than the Type 1 XUVs in the sample. We propose that Type 1 XUVs may reflect early or inefficient stages of star formation, while modified Type 2 XUVs perhaps reflect inside-out disk regrowth.

  19. RADIO DETECTION OF GREEN PEAS: IMPLICATIONS FOR MAGNETIC FIELDS IN YOUNG GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Yadav, Naveen; Ray, Alak; Cardamone, Carolin

    2012-02-10

    Green Peas are a new class of young, emission line galaxies that were discovered by citizen volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their low stellar mass, low metallicity, and very high star formation rates make Green Peas the nearby (z {approx} 0.2) analogs of the Lyman break galaxies which account for the bulk of the star formation in the early universe (z {approx} 2-5). They thus provide accessible laboratories in the nearby universe for understanding star formation, supernova feedback, particle acceleration, and magnetic field amplification in early galaxies. We report the first direct radio detection of Green Peas with low frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations and our stacking detection with archival Very Large Array FIRST data. We show that the radio emission implies that these extremely young galaxies already have magnetic fields ({approx}> 30 {mu}G) even larger than that of the Milky Way. This is at odds with the present understanding of magnetic field growth based on amplification of seed fields by dynamo action over a galaxy's lifetime. Our observations strongly favor models with pregalactic magnetic fields at {mu}G levels.

  20. Gas retention and accumulation in stellar clusters and galaxies: Implications for star formation and black hole accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naiman, Jill

    Star formation cannot proceed without the existence of an extensive gas reservoir. In particular, the supply of gas to form stars in dwarf galaxies and star clusters requires overcoming a variety of difficulties - namely, the effectiveness of different feedback mechanisms in removing gas from these shallow gravitational potentials. In addition, the supply of external gas to these systems is determined by the large scale galactic structure in which they reside. This thesis employs computational hydrodynamics coupled with physically realistic subgrid feedback prescriptions to resolve the interplay between the small scale feedback mechanisms and larger scale gas flows to determine the amount of gas a shallow potential can accumulate. First, we consider the flow of gas external to dwarf galaxies and star clusters into their cores as a generalized accretion process. Second, we explore the enhancement of gas accretion rates onto the compact members of young star clusters when the flow of external gas into the cluster cores is large. Third, we discuss how external gas flows initiated by the presence of a massive nuclear star cluster can enhance central massive black hole accretion rates during galaxy mergers. Fourth, we change our focus to exploring internal stellar wind retention in proto-globular clusters as a mechanism to supply gas for multiple episodes of star formation. Finally, the implications of stellar wind retention on the current gas reservoir in globular clusters is discussed.

  1. Evolution of public cooperation in a monitored society with implicated punishment and within-group enforcement

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojie; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring with implicated punishment is common in human societies to avert freeriding on common goods. But is it effective in promoting public cooperation? We show that the introduction of monitoring and implicated punishment is indeed effective, as it transforms the public goods game to a coordination game, thus rendering cooperation viable in infinite and finite well-mixed populations. We also show that the addition of within-group enforcement further promotes the evolution of public cooperation. However, although the group size in this context has nonlinear effects on collective action, an intermediate group size is least conductive to cooperative behaviour. This contradicts recent field observations, where an intermediate group size was declared optimal with the conjecture that group-size effects and within-group enforcement are responsible. Our theoretical research thus clarifies key aspects of monitoring with implicated punishment in human societies, and additionally, it reveals fundamental group-size effects that facilitate prosocial collective action. PMID:26597333

  2. Evolution of public cooperation in a monitored society with implicated punishment and within-group enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring with implicated punishment is common in human societies to avert freeriding on common goods. But is it effective in promoting public cooperation? We show that the introduction of monitoring and implicated punishment is indeed effective, as it transforms the public goods game to a coordination game, thus rendering cooperation viable in infinite and finite well-mixed populations. We also show that the addition of within-group enforcement further promotes the evolution of public cooperation. However, although the group size in this context has nonlinear effects on collective action, an intermediate group size is least conductive to cooperative behaviour. This contradicts recent field observations, where an intermediate group size was declared optimal with the conjecture that group-size effects and within-group enforcement are responsible. Our theoretical research thus clarifies key aspects of monitoring with implicated punishment in human societies, and additionally, it reveals fundamental group-size effects that facilitate prosocial collective action.

  3. X-ray Source Population Study of the Local Group Galaxy M 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiele, Holger

    2010-11-01

    This dissertation presents the analysis of a large and deep XMM-Newton survey of the second large Local Group spiral galaxy M31. The survey observations, taken between June 2006 and February 2008, together with re-analysed archival observations from June 2000 to July 2004 cover, for the first time, the whole D25 ellipse of M 31 with XMM-Newton down to a limiting luminosity of ˜10^35 erg s-1 in the 0.2-4.5 keV band. The main goal of the thesis was a study of the different source populations of M 31 that can be observed in X-rays. Therefore a catalogue was created, which contains all 1 948 sources detected in the 0.2 - 12.0 keV range. 961 of these sources were detected in X-rays for the first time. Source classification and identification was based on X-ray hardness ratios, spatial extent of the sources, and by cross correlating with catalogues in the X-ray, optical, infrared and radio wavelengths. An additional classification criterion was the long-term temporal variability of the sources in X-rays. This variability allows us to distinguish between X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei. Furthermore, supernova remnant classifications of previous studies that did not use long-term variability as a classification criterion, could be validated. Including previous Chandra and ROSAT observations in the long-term variability study allowed me to detect additional transient or at least highly variable sources, which are good candidates for being X-ray binaries. Fourteen of the 40 supersoft source (SSS) candidates correlated with optical novae and therefore can be considered the supersoft emission of the optical novae. Among them is the first nova/SSS detected in a globular cluster of M 31. Correlations with previous ROSAT and Chandra studies revealed that only three SSSs are visible for at least one decade. This result underlines the strong long-term variability found for the class of SSSs. In addition the correlations demonstrated that strict selection criteria have to

  4. Strategic groups in the biopharmaceutical industry: implications for performance.

    PubMed

    Erden, Zeynep; von Krogh, Georg; Nytorp, Cecilia; Hultberg, Marcus

    2009-08-01

    The biopharmaceutical industry is characterized by intense competition, high uncertainty, and strong dependence on scientific knowledge. We show that in order to succeed in this industry, firms need to be positioned along three strategic dimensions: the level of inter-firm R&D partnering, the level of diversification, and the size of the firm. Prior research has revealed that a firm's membership in so-called 'strategic groups' impacts strongly on its performance. This study analyzes strategic groups in the biopharmaceutical industry along the strategic dimensions listed. The performance of the groups differs significantly. The best performing groups are the ones that consist of large firms with a high level of in-house diversification across therapeutic areas and the medium-sized firms that pursue partnership with other companies. PMID:19416760

  5. ABO blood group and von Willebrand factor: biological implications.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Crestani, Silvia; Frattini, Francesco; Sissa, Cinzia; Bonfanti, Carlo

    2014-09-01

    ABO blood group antigens are complex carbohydrate molecules expressed on the surface of red blood cells and a variety of human cells and tissues. It is well known that ABO blood type exerts a profound influence on hemostasis, being a major determinant of von Willebrand factor (VWF), and consequently factor VIII, plasma levels. In this review, we will focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between ABO blood group and VWF in normal and pathological conditions. PMID:24945431

  6. First OB-stars in the iron-poor local group galaxy Sextans A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, I.; García, M.; Herrero, A.

    2015-05-01

    Massive stars are crucial to understand the chemical and dynamical evolution of the Universe. Our knowledge of their physics at sub-SMC metallicities, dominant in the early Universe, is still in its infancy, due to the lack of proper observations and analyses. We have started a programme to observe stars in nearby galaxies with metallicities below that of the SMC. For this purpose, we have developed photometric criteria which allowed us to set a list of blue massive candidates in Sextans A, a galaxy with a metallicity of [Fe/H]= -1.85. We have secured OSIRIS@GTC spectra of these candidates and have discovered six O-type and seven early-B stars, which constitutes the first atlas of blue massive stars in this galaxy. Using FASTWIND model atmospheres, we have obtained the main physical parameters of the O-type stars (effective temperature, gravity, wind strength and He content).This is the lowest metallicity for which an observational temperature scale of O-stars has been stablished. This work is part of the PhD of I. Camacho aimed at the identification, classification and analysis of massive OB stars in low metallicity galaxies.

  7. Dust In Hell: Discovery Of Dust In Hot Gas Around Group-Centered Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temi, Pasquale; Brighenti, F.; Mathews, W. G.

    2007-05-01

    Observations with the Spitzer infrared telescope reveal extended internally produced dust in the hot gas (KT 1 KeV) atmospheres surrounding two optically normal galaxies, NGC 5044 and NGC 4636. We interpret this as a dusty buoyant outflow resulting from energy released by gas accretion onto supermassive black holes in the galaxy cores. Both galaxies have highly disturbed, transient activities in the hot gas and contain strong dust emission at 70 and 160 microns in excess of what expected from normal stellar mass loss. The 70 micron image is clearly extended. The lifetime of dust in hot (KT=1KeV) interstellar gas to destruction by sputtering (ion impacts), 10 million years, establishes the time when the dust first entered the hot gas. Remarkably, in NGC 5044 we observe interstellar PAH dust-molecular emission at 8 microns out to about 5 Kpc that is spatially coincident with extended Halpha+[NII] emission from warm gas. We propose that this dust comes from the destruction and heating of dusty disks in the nuclei of these galaxies, followed by buoyant transport. A simple calculation shows that dust-assisted cooling in outflowing buoyant gas in NGC 5044 can cool the gas within a few Kpc in about 10 million years, explaining the optical line emission observed.

  8. A LARGE POPULATION OF MASSIVE COMPACT POST-STARBURST GALAXIES AT z > 1: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE SIZE EVOLUTION AND QUENCHING MECHANISM OF QUIESCENT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, Katherine E.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Bezanson, Rachel; Kriek, Mariska; Brammer, Gabriel; Franx, Marijn; Labbe, Ivo

    2012-02-01

    We study the growth of the red sequence through the number density and structural evolution of a sample of young and old quiescent galaxies at 0 < z < 2. The galaxies are selected from the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey in the Cosmic Evolution Survey field. We find a large population of massive young recently quenched ({sup p}ost-starburst{sup )} galaxies at z > 1 that are almost non-existent at z < 1; their number density is 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Mpc{sup -3} at z = 2, whereas it is a factor of 10 less at z = 0.5. The observed number densities of young and old quiescent galaxies at z > 1 are consistent with a simple model in which all old quiescent galaxies were once identified as post-starburst galaxies. We find that the overall population of quiescent galaxies have smaller sizes and slightly more elongated shapes at higher redshift, in agreement with other recent studies. Interestingly, the most recently quenched galaxies at 1 < z < 2 are not larger, and possibly even smaller, than older galaxies at those redshifts. This result is inconsistent with the idea that the evolution of the average size of quiescent galaxies is largely driven by continuous transformations of larger, star-forming galaxies: in that case, the youngest quiescent galaxies would also be the largest. Instead, mergers or other mechanisms appear to be required to explain the size growth of quiescent galaxies from z = 2 to the present.

  9. Early-type Galaxies at z = 1.3. I. The Lynx Supercluster: Cluster and Groups at z = 1.3. Morphology and Color-Magnitude Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Simona; Stanford, S. Adam; Holden, Brad P.; Raichoor, Anand; Postman, Marc; Nakata, Fumiaki; Finoguenov, Alexis; Ford, Holland C.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Kodama, Tadayuki; Rosati, Piero; Tanaka, Masayuki; Huertas-Company, Marc; Rettura, Alessandro; Shankar, Francesco; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Demarco, Ricardo; Eisenhardt, Peter; Jee, Myungkook J.; Koyama, Yusei; White, Richard L.

    2012-08-01

    We confirm the detection of three groups in the Lynx supercluster, at z ≈ 1.3, through spectroscopic follow-up and X-ray imaging, and we give estimates for their redshifts and masses. We study the properties of the group galaxies compared to the two central clusters, RX J0849+4452 and RX J0848+4453. Using spectroscopic follow-up and multi-wavelength photometric redshifts, we select 89 galaxies in the clusters, of which 41 are spectroscopically confirmed, and 74 galaxies in the groups, of which 25 are spectroscopically confirmed. We morphologically classify galaxies by visual inspection, noting that our early-type galaxy (ETG) sample would have been contaminated at the 30%-40% level by simple automated classification methods (e.g., based on Sérsic index). In luminosity-selected samples, both clusters and groups show high fractions of bulge-dominated galaxies with a diffuse component that we visually identified as a disk and which we classified as bulge-dominated spirals, e.g., Sas. The ETG fractions never rise above ≈50% in the clusters, which is low compared to the fractions observed in other massive clusters at z ≈ 1. In the groups, ETG fractions never exceed ≈25%. However, overall bulge-dominated galaxy fractions (ETG plus Sas) are similar to those observed for ETGs in clusters at z ~ 1. Bulge-dominated galaxies visually classified as spirals might also be ETGs with tidal features or merger remnants. They are mainly red and passive, and span a large range in luminosity. Their star formation seems to have been quenched before experiencing a morphological transformation. Because their fraction is smaller at lower redshifts, they might be the spiral population that evolves into ETGs. For mass-selected samples of galaxies with masses M > 1010.6 M ⊙ within Σ > 500 Mpc-2, the ETG and overall bulge-dominated galaxy fractions show no significant evolution with respect to local clusters, suggesting that morphological transformations might occur at lower masses

  10. Cosmological implications of a stellar initial mass function that varies with the Jeans mass in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Desika; Davé, Romeel

    2012-07-01

    Observations of star-forming galaxies at high z have suggested discrepancies in the inferred star formation rates (SFRs) either between data and models or between complementary measures of the SFR. These putative discrepancies could all be alleviated if the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is systematically weighted towards more high-mass star formation in rapidly star-forming galaxies. Here, we explore how the IMF might vary under the central assumption that the turnover mass in the IMF, ?, scales with the Jeans mass in giant molecular clouds (GMCs), ?. We employ hydrodynamic simulations of galaxies coupled with radiative transfer models to predict how the typical GMC Jeans mass, and hence the IMF, varies with galaxy properties. We then study the impact of such an IMF on the star formation law, the SFR-M* relation, sub-millimetre galaxies (SMGs) and the cosmic SFR density. Our main results are: the H2 mass-weighted Jeans mass in a galaxy scales well with the SFR when the SFR is greater than a few M⊙ yr-1. Stellar population synthesis modelling shows that this results in a non-linear relation between SFR and Lbol, such that SFR ?. Using this model relation, the inferred SFR of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies decreases by a factor of ˜2, and that of high-z SMGs decreases by a factor of ˜3-5. At z˜ 2, this results in a lowered normalization of the SFR-M* relation in better agreement with models, a reduced discrepancy between the observed cosmic SFR density and stellar mass density evolution, and SMG SFRs that are easier to accommodate in current hierarchical structure formation models. It further results in a Kennicutt-Schmidt star formation law with a slope of ˜1.6 when utilizing a physically motivated form for the CO-H2 conversion factor that varies with galaxy physical property. While each of the discrepancies considered here could be alleviated without appealing to a varying IMF, the modest variation implied by assuming ? is a plausible solution

  11. Other-Regulation in Collaborative Groups: Implications for Regulation Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogat, Toni Kempler; Adams-Wiggins, Karlyn R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines variation in other-regulation, conceptualized as efforts by one student to regulate their group's work. This study extends research which has conceptualized other-regulation as temporarily guiding others' conceptual understanding and skill development by broadening the spectrum of other-regulation to include…

  12. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Keystones of galaxy evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility, but potentially very significant in terms of their role in the formation and evolution of much more luminous galaxies. We discuss the present observational data and their implications for theories of the formation and evolution of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The putative dark-matter content of these low-surface-brightness systems is of particular interest, as is their chemical evolution. Surveys for new dwarf spheroidals hidden behind the stars of our Galaxy and those which are not bound to giant galaxies may give new clues as to the origins of this unique class of galaxy.

  13. Spitzer observations of red galaxies: Implication for high-redshift star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papovich, Casey

    2006-03-01

    My colleagues and I identified distant red galaxies (DRGs) with J - Ks > 2.3 in the southern Great Observatories Origins Deep Surveys (GOODS-S) field. These galaxies reside at z ˜ 1-3.5, (< z> ≃ 2.2) and based on their ACS (0.4-1 μm), ISAAC (1-2.2 μm), and IRAC (3-8 μm) photometry, they typically have stellar masses M ⩾ 10 11 M⊙. Interestingly, more than 50% of these objects have 24 μm flux densities ⩾50 μJy. Attributing the IR emission to star-formation implies star-formation rates (SFRs) of ≃100-1000 M⊙ yr -1. As a result, galaxies with M ⩾ 10 11 M⊙ have specific SFRs equal to or exceeding the global value at z ˜ 1.5-3. In contrast, galaxies with M ⩾ 10 11 M⊙ at z ˜ 0.3-0.75 have specific SFRs less than the global average, and more than an order of magnitude lower than that for massive DRGs at z ˜ 1.5-3. Thus, the bulk of star formation in massive galaxies is largely complete by z ˜ 1.5. The red colors and large inferred stellar masses in the DRGs suggest that much of the star formation in these galaxies occurred at redshifts z ≳ 5-6. Using model star-formation histories that match the DRG colors and stellar masses at z ˜ 2-3, and measurements of the UV luminosity density at z ≳ 5-6, we consider what constraints exist on the stellar initial mass function in the progenitors of the massive DRGs at z ˜ 2-3.

  14. The role of dwarf galaxy interactions in shaping the Magellanic System and implications for Magellanic Irregulars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besla, Gurtina; Kallivayalil, Nitya; Hernquist, Lars; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Cox, T. J.; Kereš, Dušan

    2012-04-01

    We present a novel pair of numerical models of the interaction history between the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively) and our Milky Way (MW) in light of recent high-precision proper motions from the Hubble Space Telescope. Given the updated velocities, cosmological simulations of hierarchical structure formation favour a scenario where the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) are currently on their first infall towards ourGalaxy. We illustrate here that the observed irregular morphology and internal kinematics of the Magellanic System (in gas and stars) are naturally explained by interactions between the LMC and SMC, rather than gravitational interactions with the MW. These conclusions provide further support that the MCs are completing their first infall to our system. In particular, we demonstrate that the Magellanic Stream, a band of H I gas trailing behind the Clouds 150° across the sky, can be accounted for by the action of LMC tides on the SMC before the system was accreted by the MW. We further demonstrate that the off-centre, warped stellar bar of the LMC, and its one-armed spiral can be naturally explained by a recent direct collision with its lower mass companion, the SMC. Such structures are key morphological characteristics of a class of galaxies referred to as Magellanic Irregulars, the majority of which are not associated with massive spiral galaxies. We infer that dwarf-dwarf galaxy interactions are important drivers for the morphological evolution of Magellanic Irregulars and can dramatically affect the efficiency of baryon removal from dwarf galaxies via the formation of extended tidal bridges and tails. Such interactions are not only important for the evolution of dwarf galaxies but also have direct consequences for the build-up of baryons in our own MW, as LMC-mass systems are believed to be the dominant building blocks of MW-type haloes.

  15. A Bound Violation on the Galaxy Group Scale: The Turn-around Radius of NGC 5353/4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jounghun; Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang

    2015-12-01

    The first observational evidence for the violation of the maximum turn-around radius on the galaxy group scale is presented. The NGC 5353/4 group is chosen as an ideal target for our investigation of the bound-violation because of its proximity, low-density environment, optimal mass scale, and the existence of a nearby thin straight filament. Using the observational data on the line-of-sight velocities and three-dimensional distances of the filament galaxies located in the bound zone of the NGC 5353/4 group, we construct their radial velocity profile as a function of separation distance from the group center and then compare it to the analytic formula obtained empirically by Falco et al. to find the best-fit value of an adjustable parameter with the help of the maximum likelihood method. The turn-around radius of NGC 5353/4 is determined to be the separation distance where the adjusted analytic formula for the radial velocity profile yields zero. The estimated turn-around radius of NGC 5353/4 turned out to substantially exceed the upper limit predicted by the spherical model based on the ΛCDM cosmology. Even when the restrictive condition of spherical symmetry is released, the estimated value is found to be only marginally consistent with the ΛCDM expectation.

  16. Chemo-dynamical evolution model: Enrichment of r-process elements in the Local Group dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Yutaka; Ishimaru, Yuhri; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Fujii, Michiko S.; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2016-08-01

    Neutron star mergers are one of the candidate astrophysical site(s) of r-process. Several chemical evolution studies however pointed out that the observed abundance of r-process is difficult to reproduce by neutron star mergers. In this study, we aim to clarify the enrichment of r-process elements in the Local Group dwarf galaxies. We carry out numerical simulations of galactic chemo-dynamical evolution using an N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, ASURA. We construct a chemo-dynamical evolution model for dwarf galaxies assuming that neutron star mergers are the major source of r-process elements. Our models reproduce the observed dispersion in [Eu/Fe] as a function of [Fe/H] with neutron star mergers with a merger time of 100 Myr. We find that star formation efficiency and metal mixing processes during the first <~ 300 Myr of galaxy evolution are important to reproduce the observations. This study supports that neutron star mergers are a major site of r-process.

  17. Theoretical Predictions for Surface Brightness Fluctuations and Implications for Stellar Populations of Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Michael C.; Charlot, Stéphane; Graham, James R.

    2000-11-01

    We compute theoretical predictions for surface brightness fluctuations (SBFs) of single-burst stellar populations (SSPs) using models optimized for this purpose. We present results over a wide range of ages (from 1 to 17 Gyr) and metallicities (from 1/200 to 2.5 times solar) and for a comprehensive set of ground-based and space-based optical and infrared bandpasses. Our models agree well with existing SBF observations of Milky Way globular clusters and elliptical galaxies. Our results also provide refined theoretical calibrations and k-corrections that are needed to use SBFs as standard candles. We suggest that SBF distance measurements can be improved by (1) using a filter around 1 μm to minimize the influence of stellar population variations, and (2) using the integrated V-K galaxy color instead of V-Ic to calibrate I-band SBF distances. In addition, we show that available SBF observations set useful constraints on current population synthesis models, and we suggest SBF-based tests for future models. The existing SBF data favor particular choices of stellar evolutionary tracks and spectral libraries among the several choices allowed by comparisons based on only the integrated properties of galaxies. Also, the tightness of the empirical I-band SBF calibration as a function of V-Ic galaxy color is a useful constraint. It suggests that the model uncertainties in the lifetimes of the post-main-sequence evolutionary phases are probably less than +/-50% and that the initial mass function in elliptical galaxies is probably not much steeper than that in the solar neighborhood. Finally, we analyze the potential of SBFs for probing unresolved stellar populations in elliptical galaxies. Since SBFs depend on the second moment of the stellar luminosity function, they are sensitive to the brightest giant stars and provide complementary information to commonly used integrated light and spectra. In particular, we find that optical/near-infrared SBFs are much more sensitive to

  18. Bimodel Galaxy Formation Through Hierarchical Clustering --- Implications from Skeleton Tree Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanami, Hitoshi

    2004-02-01

    The formation and evolution of elliptical galaxies remain a hot topic of debate. The small scatter in the color-magnitude relation for cluster E galaxies at low and high redshifts strongly supports that their stars already formed at high redshifts. Recent observed SCUBA sources are probably these starbursting E galaxies at high redshifts. This picture seems to contradict naive hierarchical clustering scenarios in which large E galaxies were formed through starburst phase induced with merging of small spirals. The extended Press-Schechter formalism, frequently used in semi-analytic modelings, cannot distinguish the episodic merging from the continuous accretion in the mass growth processes. In order to study the correct mass growth history of the halos with the distinction between merger and accretion, we formulated the skeleton tree formalism, which can reproduce the results of N-body simulations; the violent merger forms the central part of the bound halos and the late accretion produces their envelope. This mass assembly also explains the correlation between the mass of a halo and its characteristic density remarked by Navaro, Frenk, & White (1997). In ΛCDM model, we found that the merger halo formation is stopped around z=3 and the accretion growth dominates after that at the galactic mass scale. With bimodal star formation picture of intense starburst at early merger and mild star formation at late accretion, the mass growth history can explain the observed properties of E galaxies as 1) the early merger produces the old and dense homogeneous stellar component appeared in the FP and the CM relation, and 2) the late accretion produces the extended halo observed from X-ray luminous emission which is not correlated with their starlight. Furthermore, it predicts 3) the stellar disk grows at late accretion phase, and 4) the two modes of star formation were switched around z=2-3 in Λ CDM cosmology. This bimodal galaxy formation related to bimodal mass growth should

  19. Non-parametric star formation histories for four dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, X.; Gilmore, Gerard; Valls-Gabaud, David

    2000-10-01

    We use recent Hubble Space Telescope colour-magnitude diagrams of the resolved stellar populations of a sample of local dSph galaxies (Carina, Leo I, Leo II and Ursa Minor) to infer the star formation histories of these systems, SFR(t). Applying a new variational calculus maximum likelihood method, which includes a full Bayesian analysis and allows a non-parametric estimate of the function one is solving for, we infer the star formation histories of the systems studied. This method has the advantage of yielding an objective answer, as one need not assume a priori the form of the function one is trying to recover. The results are checked independently using Saha's W statistic. The total luminosities of the systems are used to normalize the results into physical units and derive SN type II rates. We derive the luminosity-weighted mean star formation history of this sample of galaxies.

  20. The active galactic nucleus population in X-ray-selected galaxy groups at 0.5 < Z < 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Semyeong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Matsuoka, Kenta; Mulchaey, John S.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Tanaka, Masayuki; Cooper, Michael C.; Ziparo, Felicia; Bauer, Franz E.

    2014-07-20

    We use Chandra data to study the incidence and properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in 16 intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 1.1) X-ray-selected galaxy groups in the Chandra Deep Field-South. We measure an AGN fraction of f(L{sub X,H}>10{sup 42};M{sub R}<−20)=8.0{sub −2.3}{sup +3.0}% at z-bar ∼0.74, approximately a factor of two higher than the AGN fraction found for rich clusters at comparable redshift. This extends the trend found at low redshift for groups to have higher AGN fractions than clusters. Our estimate of the AGN fraction is also more than a factor of three higher than that of low redshift X-ray-selected groups. Using optical spectra from various surveys, we also constrain the properties of emission-line selected AGNs in these groups. In contrast to the large population of X-ray AGNs (N(L{sub X,{sub H}} > 10{sup 41} erg s{sup –1}) = 25), we find only four emission-line AGNs, three of which are also X-ray bright. Furthermore, most of the X-ray AGNs in our groups are optically dull (i.e., lack strong emission-lines), similar to those found in low redshift X-ray groups and clusters of galaxies. This contrasts with the AGN population found in low redshift optically selected groups which are dominated by emission-line AGNs. The differences between the optically and X-ray-selected AGNs populations in groups are consistent with a scenario where most AGNs in the densest environments are currently in a low accretion state.

  1. The Active Galactic Nucleus Population in X-Ray-selected Galaxy Groups at 0.5 < z < 1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Semyeong; Mulchaey, John S.; Woo, Jong-Hak; Finoguenov, Alexis; Tanaka, Masayuki; Cooper, Michael C.; Ziparo, Felicia; Bauer, Franz E.; Matsuoka, Kenta

    2014-07-01

    We use Chandra data to study the incidence and properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in 16 intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 1.1) X-ray-selected galaxy groups in the Chandra Deep Field-South. We measure an AGN fraction of f(LX,H \\gt 1042;MR < {-20}) = 8.0-2.3+3.0% at \\bar{z} ˜ 0.74, approximately a factor of two higher than the AGN fraction found for rich clusters at comparable redshift. This extends the trend found at low redshift for groups to have higher AGN fractions than clusters. Our estimate of the AGN fraction is also more than a factor of three higher than that of low redshift X-ray-selected groups. Using optical spectra from various surveys, we also constrain the properties of emission-line selected AGNs in these groups. In contrast to the large population of X-ray AGNs (N(L X, H > 1041 erg s-1) = 25), we find only four emission-line AGNs, three of which are also X-ray bright. Furthermore, most of the X-ray AGNs in our groups are optically dull (i.e., lack strong emission-lines), similar to those found in low redshift X-ray groups and clusters of galaxies. This contrasts with the AGN population found in low redshift optically selected groups which are dominated by emission-line AGNs. The differences between the optically and X-ray-selected AGNs populations in groups are consistent with a scenario where most AGNs in the densest environments are currently in a low accretion state.

  2. Group Leader Reflections on Their Training and Experience: Implications for Group Counselor Educators and Supervisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrt, Jonathan H.; Ener, Elizabeth; Porter, Jessica; Young, Tabitha L.

    2014-01-01

    Effective group leaders possess specialized counseling skills and abilities; however, attention to group leadership training appears to be lagging behind that of individual counseling. In this phenomenological study we explored group leaders' perceptions of their training and experience. Twenty-two professional counselors participated in…

  3. Group Decisions in Biodiversity Conservation: Implications from Game Theory

    PubMed Central

    Frank, David M.; Sarkar, Sahotra

    2010-01-01

    Background Decision analysis and game theory [1], [2] have proved useful tools in various biodiversity conservation planning and modeling contexts [3]–[5]. This paper shows how game theory may be used to inform group decisions in biodiversity conservation scenarios by modeling conflicts between stakeholders to identify Pareto–inefficient Nash equilibria. These are cases in which each agent pursuing individual self–interest leads to a worse outcome for all, relative to other feasible outcomes. Three case studies from biodiversity conservation contexts showing this feature are modeled to demonstrate how game–theoretical representation can inform group decision-making. Methodology and Principal Findings The mathematical theory of games is used to model three biodiversity conservation scenarios with Pareto–inefficient Nash equilibria: (i) a two–agent case involving wild dogs in South Africa; (ii) a three–agent raptor and grouse conservation scenario from the United Kingdom; and (iii) an n–agent fish and coral conservation scenario from the Philippines. In each case there is reason to believe that traditional mechanism–design solutions that appeal to material incentives may be inadequate, and the game–theoretical analysis recommends a resumption of further deliberation between agents and the initiation of trust—and confidence—building measures. Conclusions and Significance Game theory can and should be used as a normative tool in biodiversity conservation contexts: identifying scenarios with Pareto–inefficient Nash equilibria enables constructive action in order to achieve (closer to) optimal conservation outcomes, whether by policy solutions based on mechanism design or otherwise. However, there is mounting evidence [6] that formal mechanism–design solutions may backfire in certain cases. Such scenarios demand a return to group deliberation and the creation of reciprocal relationships of trust. PMID:20523732

  4. The masses of local group dwarf spheroidal galaxies: The death of the universal mass profile

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Michelle L. M.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Chapman, Scott C.; Irwin, Michael J.; Rich, R. M.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Bate, Nicholas F.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Peñarrubia, Jorge; Casey, Caitlin M.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Koch, Andreas; McConnachie, Alan W.; Tanvir, Nial

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the claim that all dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) reside within halos that share a common, universal mass profile as has been derived for dSphs of the galaxy. By folding in kinematic information for 25 Andromeda dSphs, more than doubling the previous sample size, we find that a singular mass profile cannot be found to fit all of the observations well. Further, the best-fit dark matter density profile measured solely for the Milky Way dSphs is marginally discrepant with that of the Andromeda dSphs (at just beyond the 1σ level), where a profile with lower maximum circular velocity, and hence mass, is preferred. The agreement is significantly better when three extreme Andromeda outliers, And XIX, XXI, and XXV, all of which have large half-light radii (≳ 600 pc) and low-velocity dispersions (σ {sub v} < 5 km s{sup –1}), are omitted from the sample. We argue that the unusual properties of these outliers are likely caused by tidal interactions with the host galaxy.

  5. Implications of poikilitic textures in LL-group chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fodor, R. V.; Keil, K.

    1975-01-01

    Five lithic fragments with poikilitic textures in five LL-group chondrites are examined by microscope and electron microprobe to determine whether the textures have resulted from processes related to impact events, such as thermal metamorphism or partial melting. The bulk and pyroxene compositions of the fragments are determined. The compositional characteristics of minerals in certain fragments are found to indicate an apparent melt origin. It is concluded that impact processes produced the poikilitic textures and that complete melting, partial melting, and solid-state recrystallization all have had some part in producing the textures.

  6. THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON THE FORMATION OF H{alpha} FILAMENTS AND COOL CORES IN GALAXY GROUPS AND CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Mushotzky, Richard E-mail: veilleux@astro.umd.edu

    2011-04-10

    We present the results of a combined X-ray and H{alpha} study of 10 galaxy groups and 17 galaxy clusters using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Maryland Magellan Tunable Filter. We find no difference in the morphology or detection frequency of H{alpha} filaments in groups versus clusters over the mass range 10{sup 13} < M{sub 500} < 10{sup 15} M{sub sun}. The detection frequency of H{alpha} emission is shown to be only weakly dependent on the total mass of the system at the 52% confidence level. In contrast, we find that the presence of H{alpha} filaments is strongly correlated with both the global (89% confidence level) and core (84%) intracluster medium (ICM) entropy, as well as the X-ray cooling rate (72%). The H{alpha} filaments are therefore an excellent proxy for the cooling ICM. The H{alpha} filaments are more strongly correlated with the cooling properties of the ICM than with the radio properties of the brightest cluster galaxy; this further supports the scenario where these filaments are directly associated with a thermally unstable, rapidly cooling ICM, rather than radio bubbles. The ICM cooling efficiency, defined as the X-ray cooling rate per unit gas mass, is shown to correlate with the total system mass, indicating that groups are more efficient at cooling than clusters. This result implies that, in systems with cool cores, active galactic nucleus feedback scales with the total mass of the system, in agreement with earlier suggestions.

  7. Identifying Implications of Tensions in a Series of Collaborative Self-Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Katheryn; Fitzgerald, Linda May; Manke, Mary P.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on 14 years of collaborative self-study group work at their university, East and Fitzgerald reviewed the data, stories and findings from that collaborative work, seeking to go beyond those original stories to identify practical implications of the tensions that emerged and played out within the various groups. Findings were shared and…

  8. Luminous and Dark Matter Profiles from Galaxies to Clusters: Bridging the Gap with Group-scale Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Andrew B.; Ellis, Richard S.; Treu, Tommaso

    2015-11-01

    Observations of strong gravitational lensing, stellar kinematics, and larger-scale tracers enable accurate measures of the distribution of dark matter (DM) and baryons in massive early-type galaxies (ETGs). While such techniques have been applied to galaxy-scale and cluster-scale lenses, the paucity of intermediate-mass systems with high-quality data has precluded a uniform analysis of mass-dependent trends. With the aim of bridging this gap, we present new observations and analyses of 10 group-scale lenses at < z> =0.36, characterized by Einstein radii {θ }{{Ein}}=2\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5-5\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 1 and a mean halo mass of {M}200={10}14.0 {M}ȯ . We measure a mean concentration c200 = 5.0 ± 0.8 consistent with unmodified cold dark matter halos. By combining our data with other lens samples, we analyze the mass structure of ETGs in 1013 {M}ȯ –1015 {M}ȯ halos using homogeneous techniques. We show that the slope of the total density profile γtot within the effective radius depends on the stellar surface density, as demonstrated previously, but also on the halo mass. We analyze these trends using halo occupation models and resolved stellar kinematics with the goal of testing the universality of the DM profile. Whereas the central galaxies of clusters require a shallow inner DM density profile, group-scale lenses are consistent with a Navarro–Frenk–White profile or one that is slightly contracted. The largest uncertainties arise from the sample size and likely radial gradients in stellar populations. We conclude that the net effect of baryons on the DM distribution may not be universal, but more likely varies with halo mass due to underlying trends in star formation efficiency and assembly history.

  9. The Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS) of Galaxies in Groups along the Cosmic Web. V. Properties and Frequency of Merging Satellites and Centrals in Different Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipino, A.; Cibinel, A.; Tacchella, S.; Carollo, C. M.; Lilly, S. J.; Miniati, F.; Silverman, J. D.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Finoguenov, A.

    2014-12-01

    We use the Zurich Environmental Study database to investigate the environmental dependence of the merger fraction Γ and merging galaxy properties in a sample of ~1300 group galaxies with M > 109.2 M ⊙ and 0.05 < z < 0.0585. In all galaxy mass bins investigated in our study, we find that Γ decreases by a factor of ~2-3 in groups with halo masses M HALO > 1013.5 M ⊙ relative to less massive systems, indicating a suppression of merger activity in large potential wells. In the fiducial case of relaxed groups only, we measure a variation of ΔΓ/Δlog (M HALO) ~ -0.07 dex-1, which is almost independent of galaxy mass and merger stage. At galaxy masses >1010.2 M ⊙, most mergers are dry accretions of quenched satellites onto quenched centrals, leading to a strong increase of Γ with decreasing group-centric distance at these mass scales. Both satellite and central galaxies in these high-mass mergers do not differ in color and structural properties from a control sample of nonmerging galaxies of equal mass and rank. At galaxy masses of <1010.2 M ⊙ where we mostly probe satellite-satellite pairs and mergers between star-forming systems close pairs (projected distance <10-20 kpc) show instead ~2 × enhanced (specific) star formation rates and ~1.5 × larger sizes than similar mass, nonmerging satellites. The increase in both size and star formation rate leads to similar surface star formation densities in the merging and control-sample satellite populations. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla Chile. Program ID 177.A-0680.

  10. THE ZURICH ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY (ZENS) OF GALAXIES IN GROUPS ALONG THE COSMIC WEB. V. PROPERTIES AND FREQUENCY OF MERGING SATELLITES AND CENTRALS IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Pipino, A.; Cibinel, A.; Tacchella, S.; Carollo, C. M.; Lilly, S. J.; Miniati, F.; Silverman, J. D.; Van Gorkom, J. H.; Finoguenov, A.

    2014-12-20

    We use the Zurich Environmental Study database to investigate the environmental dependence of the merger fraction Γ and merging galaxy properties in a sample of ∼1300 group galaxies with M > 10{sup 9.2} M {sub ☉} and 0.05 < z < 0.0585. In all galaxy mass bins investigated in our study, we find that Γ decreases by a factor of ∼2-3 in groups with halo masses M {sub HALO} > 10{sup 13.5} M {sub ☉} relative to less massive systems, indicating a suppression of merger activity in large potential wells. In the fiducial case of relaxed groups only, we measure a variation of ΔΓ/Δlog (M {sub HALO}) ∼ –0.07 dex{sup –1}, which is almost independent of galaxy mass and merger stage. At galaxy masses >10{sup 10.2} M {sub ☉}, most mergers are dry accretions of quenched satellites onto quenched centrals, leading to a strong increase of Γ with decreasing group-centric distance at these mass scales. Both satellite and central galaxies in these high-mass mergers do not differ in color and structural properties from a control sample of nonmerging galaxies of equal mass and rank. At galaxy masses of <10{sup 10.2} M {sub ☉} where we mostly probe satellite-satellite pairs and mergers between star-forming systems close pairs (projected distance <10-20 kpc) show instead ∼2 × enhanced (specific) star formation rates and ∼1.5 × larger sizes than similar mass, nonmerging satellites. The increase in both size and star formation rate leads to similar surface star formation densities in the merging and control-sample satellite populations.

  11. Radio continuum and far-infrared emission of spiral galaxies: Implications of correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengarajan, T. N.; Iyengar, K. V. K.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers present a study extending the correlation seen between radio continuum and far-infrared emissions from spiral galaxies to a lower frequency of 408 MHz and also as a function of radio spectral index. The tight correlation seen between the two luminosities is then used to constrain several parameters governing the emissions such as the changes in star formation rate and mass function, frequency of supernovae that are parents of the interstellar electrons and factors governing synchrotron radio emission.

  12. The Relation between Galaxy Structure and Spectral Type: Implications for the Buildup of the Quiescent Galaxy Population at 0.5 < z < 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Michael; Kriek, Mariska; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2016-02-01

    We present the relation between galaxy structure and spectral type, using a K-selected galaxy sample at 0.5 < z < 2.0. Based on similarities between the UV-to-NIR spectral energy distributions (SEDs), we classify galaxies into 32 spectral types. The different types span a wide range in evolutionary phases, and thus—in combination with available CANDELS/F160W imaging—are ideal to study the structural evolution of galaxies. Effective radii (Re) and Sérsic parameters (n) have been measured for 572 individual galaxies, and for each type, we determine Re at fixed stellar mass by correcting for the mass-size relation. We use the rest-frame U - V versus V - J diagram to investigate evolutionary trends. When moving into the direction perpendicular to the star-forming sequence, in which we see the Hα equivalent width and the specific star formation rate (sSFR) decrease, we find a decrease in Re and an increase in n. On the quiescent sequence we find an opposite trend, with older redder galaxies being larger. When splitting the sample into redshift bins, we find that young post-starburst galaxies are most prevalent at z > 1.5 and significantly smaller than all other galaxy types at the same redshift. This result suggests that the suppression of star formation may be associated with significant structural evolution at z > 1.5. At z < 1, galaxy types with intermediate sSFRs (10-11.5-10-10.5 yr-1) do not have post-starburst SED shapes. These galaxies have similar sizes as older quiescent galaxies, implying that they can passively evolve onto the quiescent sequence, without increasing the average size of the quiescent galaxy population.

  13. Stellar populations in local group dwarf elliptical galaxies. II - NGC 205

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mould, J.; Kristian, J.; Da Costa, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    NGC 205, a dwarf elliptical companion of M31, was studied using deep CCD photometry on the VRI system. Consideration is given to a comparison between the giant branch and the Galactic globular clusters, the degree of chemical enrichment in the outer parts of NGC 204, and the setting of constraints on the stellar population of NGC 205. Should the distance of the galaxy be that of M31, this field's stellar population is extremely old. If star formation in NGC 205 is a recurring phenomenon, it is confined to the interior of the galaxy. Should the stellar population of NGC 205 be as old as Galactic globular clusters, its distance modulus is 24.3 + or - 0.2. The giant branch location corresponds to a mean metallicity greater than or equal to -0.9 + or - 0.2, and a metallicity dispersion is determined to be sigma greater than or equal to 0.5 dex. Also noted is that the color distribution at a given luminosity appears to be positively skewed.

  14. CARBON-RICH DUST PRODUCTION IN METAL-POOR GALAXIES IN THE LOCAL GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, G. C.; Matsuura, M.; Lagadec, E.; Van Loon, J. Th.; Kraemer, K. E.; McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Wood, P. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2012-06-20

    We have observed a sample of 19 carbon stars in the Sculptor, Carina, Fornax, and Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxies with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra show significant quantities of dust around the carbon stars in Sculptor, Fornax, and Leo I, but little in Carina. Previous comparisons of carbon stars with similar pulsation properties in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds revealed no evidence that metallicity affected the production of dust by carbon stars. However, the more metal-poor stars in the current sample appear to be generating less dust. These data extend two known trends to lower metallicities. In more metal-poor samples, the SiC dust emission weakens, while the acetylene absorption strengthens. The bolometric magnitudes and infrared spectral properties of the carbon stars in Fornax are consistent with metallicities more similar to carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds than in the other dwarf spheroidals in our sample. A study of the carbon budget in these stars reinforces previous considerations that the dredge-up of sufficient quantities of carbon from the stellar cores may trigger the final superwind phase, ending a star's lifetime on the asymptotic giant branch.

  15. XMM-Newton and Chandra Observations of the Galaxy Group NGC 5044. 1; Evidence for Limited Multiphase Hot Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buote, David A.; Lewis, Aaron D.; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    2003-01-01

    Using new XMM and Chandra observations, we present an analysis of the temperature structure of the hot gas within a radius of 100 kpc of the bright nearby galaxy group NGC 5044. A spectral deprojection analysis of data extracted from circular annuli reveals that a two-temperature model (2T) of the hot gas is favored over single-phase or cooling flow (M = 4.5 +/- 0.2 solar mass/yr) models within the central approx.30 kpc. Alternatively, the data can be fitted equally well if the temperature within each spherical shell varies continuously from approx.T(sub h) to T(sub c) approx. T(sub h)/2, but no lower. The high spatial resolution of the Chandra data allows us to determine that the temperature excursion T(sub h) approaches T(sub c) required in each shell exceeds the temperature range between the boundaries of the same shell in the best-fitting single-phase model. This is strong evidence for a multiphase gas having a limited temperature range. We do not find any evidence that azimuthal temperature variations within each annulus on the sky can account for the range in temperatures within each shell. We provide a detailed investigation of the systematic errors on the derived spectral models considering the effects of calibration, plasma codes, bandwidth, variable NH, and background rate. We find that the RGS gratings and the EPIC and ACIS CCDs give fully consistent results when the same models are fitted over the same energy ranges for each instrument. The cooler component of the 2T model has a temperature (T(sub c) approx. 0.7 keV) similar to the kinetic temperature of the stars. The hot phase has a temperature (T(sub h) approx. 1.4 keV) characteristic of the virial temperature of the solar mass halo expected in the NGC 5044 group. However, in view of the morphological disturbances and X-ray holes visible in the Chandra image within R approx. equals 10 kpc, bubbles of gas heated to approx.T(sub h) in this region may be formed by intermittent AGN feedback. Some

  16. Large-scale gas dynamics in the adhesion model: implications for the two-phase massive galaxy formation scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Tenreiro, R.; Oñorbe, J.; Martínez-Serrano, F.; Serna, A.

    2011-06-01

    implications for diffuse or shocked mass elements), as well as on their possible observational implications, these patterns have been confronted with some generic properties of singular flows as described by the adhesion model (i.e. potential character of the velocity field, singular versus regular points, dressing, locality when a spectrum of perturbations is implemented). We have found that the common patterns the simulations show can be interpreted as a natural consequence of flow properties that, moreover, could explain different generic observational results from massive galaxies or their samples. We briefly discuss some of them.

  17. THE ACS LCID PROJECT. IV. DETECTION OF THE RED GIANT BRANCH BUMP IN ISOLATED GALAXIES OF THE LOCAL GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Monelli, M.; Hidalgo, S. L; Aparicio, A.; Gallart, C.; Cassisi, S.; Bernard, E. J.; Skillman, E. D. E-mail: carme@iac.e E-mail: shidalgo@iac.e E-mail: ejb@roe.ac.u

    2010-08-01

    We report the detection and analysis of the red giant branch (RGB) luminosity function bump in a sample of isolated dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. We have designed a new analysis approach comparing the observed color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with theoretical best-fit CMDs derived from precise estimates of the star formation histories of each galaxy. This analysis is based on studying the difference between the V magnitude of the RGB bump and the horizontal branch at the level of the RR Lyrae instability strip ({Delta}V {sup bump}{sub HB}) and we discuss here a technique for reliably measuring this quantity in complex stellar systems. By using this approach, we find that the difference between the observed and predicted values of {Delta}V {sup bump}{sub HB} is +0.13 {+-} 0.14 mag. This is smaller, by about a factor of 2, than the well-known discrepancy between theory and observation at low metallicity commonly derived for Galactic globular clusters (GCs). This result is confirmed by a comparison between the adopted theoretical framework and empirical estimates of the {Delta}V {sup bump}{sub HB} parameter for both a large database of Galactic GCs and for four other dwarf spheroidal galaxies for which this estimate is available in the literature. We also investigate the strength of the RGB bump feature (R{sub bump}), and find very good agreement between the observed and theoretically predicted R{sub bump} values. This agreement supports the reliability of the evolutionary lifetimes predicted by theoretical models of the evolution of low-mass stars.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Compact groups of galaxies in SDSS DR7 (Mendel+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendel, J. T.; Ellison, S. L.; Simard, L.; Patton, D. R.; McConnachie, A. W.

    2012-07-01

    In Paper III (Cat. J/MNRAS/395/255) we describe the photometric selection of CGs from the SDSS Data Release 6 (Adelman-McCarthy et al., 2008, Cat. II/282/), which included imaging of the entire SDSS-II Legacy Survey area. Since that paper, SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7; Abazajian et al., 2009ApJS..182..543A) has provided an additional ~1200deg2 of spectroscopic data, completing spectroscopic observations of the SDSS-II Legacy Survey footprint. In what follows we use galaxy catalogues drawn from SDSS DR7 and, where available, supplement the CG samples in Paper III with updated spectroscopic information. (2 data files).

  19. DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF EDGES AND BUBBLES IN THE NGC 5846 GALAXY GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Machacek, Marie E.; Jerius, Diab; Kraft, Ralph; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Randall, Scott; Giacintucci, Simona; Sun Ming

    2011-12-10

    We use a combined 120 ks Chandra exposure to analyze X-ray edges produced by non-hydrostatic gas motions (sloshing) from galaxy collisions, and cavities formed by active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. Evidence for gas sloshing is seen in the spiral morphology and multiple cold front edges in NGC 5846's X-ray surface brightness distribution, while the lack of spiral structure in the temperature map suggests that the perturbing interaction was not in the plane of the sky. Density and spectral modeling across the edges indicate that the relative motion of gas in the cold fronts is at most transonic. Evidence for AGN activity is seen in two inner bubbles at 0.6 kpc, filled with 5 GHz and 1.5 GHz radio plasma and coincident with H{alpha} emission, and in a ghost bubble at 5.2 kpc west of NGC 5846's nucleus. The outburst energy and ages for the inner (ghost) bubbles are {approx}10{sup 55} erg and {approx}2 Myr ({approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 55} erg and 12 Myr), respectively, implying an AGN duty cycle of 10 Myr. The inner bubble rims are threaded with nine knots, whose total 0.5-2 keV X-ray luminosity is 0.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}, a factor {approx}2-3 less than that of the surrounding rims, and 0.7 keV mean temperature is indistinguishable from that of the rims. We suggest that the knots may be transient clouds heated by the recent passage of a shock from the last AGN outburst. We also observe gas stripping from a cE galaxy, NGC 5846A, in a 0.5 kpc long ({approx}10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }) hot gas tail, as it falls toward NGC 5846.

  20. The X-ray Zurich environmental study (X-zens). I. Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of active galactic nuclei in galaxies in nearby groups

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, J. D.; Miniati, F.; Carollo, C. M.; Cibinel, A.; Lilly, S. J.; Schawinski, K.; Finoguenov, A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton of 18 M {sub group} ∼ 1-6 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}, z ∼ 0.05 galaxy groups from the Zurich ENvironmental Study. The X-ray data aim at establishing the frequency and properties, unaffected by host galaxy dilution and obscuration, of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in central and satellite galaxies, also as a function of halo-centric distance. X-ray point-source detections are reported for 22 of the 177 galaxies, down to a sensitivity level of f {sub 0.5} {sub –} {sub 8} {sub keV} ∼ 5 × 10{sup –15} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, corresponding to a limiting luminosity of L {sub 0.5} {sub –} {sub 8} {sub keV} ∼ 3 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}. With the majority of the X-ray sources attributed to AGNs of low-to-moderate levels (L/L {sub Edd} ≳ 10{sup –4}), we discuss the detection rate in the context of the occupation of AGNs to halos of this mass scale and redshift and compare the structural and morphological properties between AGN-active and non-active galaxies. At galaxy mass scales <10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, central galaxies appear to be a factor of ∼4 more likely to host AGNs than satellite galaxies of similar mass. This effect, coupled with the tendency for AGNs to be hosted by massive galaxies, explains the (weak) trend for AGNs to be preferentially found in the inner parts of group halos, with no detectable trend with halo-centric distance in the frequency of AGNs within the satellite population. Finally, our data indicate that the rate of decline with redshift of AGN activity in galaxy groups matches that of the global AGN population, indicating that either AGN activity occurs preferentially in group halos or that the evolution rate is independent of halo mass.

  1. Andromeda Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This image is a Galaxy Evolution Explorer observation of the large galaxy in Andromeda, Messier 31. The Andromeda galaxy is the most massive in the local group of galaxies that includes our Milky Way. Andromeda is the nearest large galaxy to our own. The image is a mosaic of 10 separate Galaxy Evolution Explorer images taken in September, 2003. The color image (with near ultraviolet shown by red and far ultraviolet shown by blue) shows blue regions of young, hot, high mass stars tracing out the spiral arms where star formation is occurring, and the central orange-white 'bulge' of old, cooler stars formed long ago. The star forming arms of Messier 31 are unusual in being quite circular rather than the usual spiral shape. Several companion galaxies can also be seen. These include Messier 32, a dwarf elliptical galaxy directly below the central bulge and just outside the spiral arms, and Messier 110 (M110), which is above and to the right of the center. M110 has an unusual far ultraviolet bright core in an otherwise 'red,' old star halo. Many other regions of star formation can be seen far outside the main body of the galaxy.

  2. Redshift Distributions of Galaxies in the DES Science Verification Shear Catalogue and Implications for Weak Lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnett, C.

    2015-07-21

    We present photometric redshift estimates for galaxies used in the weak lensing analysis of the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES SV) data. Four model- or machine learning-based photometric redshift methods { annz2, bpz calibrated against BCC-U fig simulations, skynet, and tpz { are analysed. For training, calibration, and testing of these methods, we also construct a catalogue of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies matched against DES SV data. The performance of the methods is evalu-ated against the matched spectroscopic catalogue, focusing on metrics relevant for weak lensing analyses, with additional validation against COSMOS photo-zs. From the galaxies in the DES SV shear catalogue, which have mean redshift 0.72 ±0.01 over the range 0:3 < z < 1:3, we construct three tomographic bins with means of z = {0.45; 0.67,1.00g}. These bins each have systematic uncertainties δz ≲ 0.05 in the mean of the fiducial skynet photo-z n(z). We propagate the errors in the redshift distributions through to their impact on cosmological parameters estimated with cosmic shear, and find that they cause shifts in the value of σ8 of approx. 3%. This shift is within the one sigma statistical errors on σ8 for the DES SV shear catalog. We also found that further study of the potential impact of systematic differences on the critical surface density, Σcrit, contained levels of bias safely less than the statistical power of DES SV data. We recommend a final Gaussian prior for the photo-z bias in the mean of n(z) of width 0:05 for each of the three tomographic bins, and show that this is a sufficient bias model for the corresponding cosmology analysis.

  3. The Araucaria Project: The Distance to the Local Group Galaxy IC 1613 from Near-Infrared Photometry of Cepheid Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Soszyński, Igor; Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Dall'Ora, Massimo; Storm, Jesper; Bono, Giuseppe

    2006-05-01

    We have measured accurate near-infrared magnitudes in the J and K bands of 39 Cepheid variables in the irregular Local Group galaxy IC 1613 with well-determined periods and optical VI light curves. Using the template light curve approach of Soszyński, Gieren, & Pietrzyński, accurate mean magnitudes were obtained from these data, which allowed us to determine the distance to IC 1613 relative to the LMC from a multiwavelength period-luminosity solution in the optical VI and near-IR JK bands with an unprecedented accuracy. Our result for the IC 1613 distance is (m-M)0=24.291+/-0.035 (random error) mag, with an additional systematic uncertainty smaller than 2%. From our multiwavelength approach, we find for the total (average) reddening to the IC 1613 Cepheids E(B-V)=0.090+/-0.019 mag, which is significantly higher than the foreground reddening of about 0.03 mag, showing the presence of appreciable dust extinction inside the galaxy. Our data suggest that the extinction law in IC 1613 is very similar to the Galactic one. Our distance result agrees, within the uncertainties, with two earlier infrared Cepheid studies in this galaxy, of Macri et al. (from HST data on 4 Cepheids) and McAlary et al. (from ground-based H-band photometry of 10 Cepheids), but our result has reduced the total uncertainty on the distance to IC 1613 (relative to the LMC) to less than 3%. With distances to nearby galaxies from Cepheid infrared photometry at this level of accuracy, which are currently being obtained in our Araucaria Project, it seems possible to significantly reduce the systematic uncertainty of the Hubble constant, as derived from the HST Key Project approach, by improving the calibration of the metallicity effect on PL relation zero points and by improving the distance determination to the LMC. Based on observations obtained with the New Technology Telescope (NNT) at ESO La Silla for programs 074.D-0318(B) and 074.D-0505(B).

  4. THE GALAXY-HALO/SUBHALO CONNECTION: MASS RELATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SOME SATELLITE OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Puebla, A.; Avila-Reese, V.; Drory, N.

    2013-04-10

    We infer the local stellar-to-halo/subhalo mass relations (MRs) for central and satellite galaxies separately. Our statistical method is an extension of the abundance matching, halo occupation distribution, and conditional stellar mass function formalisms. We constrain the model using several combinations of observational data, consisting of the total galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF), its decomposition into centrals and satellites, and the projected two-point correlation functions (2PCFs) measured in different stellar mass (M{sub *}) bins. In addition, we use the {Lambda}CDM halo and subhalo mass functions. The differences among the resulting MRs are within the model-fit uncertainties (which are very small, smaller than the intrinsic scatter between galaxy and halo mass), no matter what combination of data are used. This shows that matching abundances or occupational numbers is equivalent, and that the GSMFs and 2PCFs are tightly connected. We also constrain the values of the intrinsic scatter around the central-halo (CH) and satellite-subhalo (SS) MRs assuming them to be constant: {sigma}{sub c} = 0.168 {+-} 0.051 dex and {sigma}{sub s} = 0.172 {+-} 0.057 dex, respectively. The CH and SS MRs are actually different, in particular when we take the subhalo mass at the present-day epoch instead of at their accretion time. When using the MRs for studying the satellite population (e.g., in the Milky Way, MW), the SS MR should be chosen instead of the average one. Our model allows one to calculate several population statistics. We find that the central galaxy M{sub *} is not on average within the mass distribution of the most massive satellite, even for cluster-sized halos, i.e., centrals are not a mere realization of the high end of the satellite mass function; however for >3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} M{sub Sun} halos, {approx}15% of centrals could be. We also find that the probabilities of MW-sized halos of having N Magellanic Cloud (MC) sized satellites agree

  5. Galaxy NGC 55

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 55 was taken by Galaxy Evolution Explorer on September 14, 2003, during 2 orbits. This galaxy lies 5.4 million light years from our Milky Way galaxy and is a member of the 'local group' of galaxies that also includes the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the Magellanic clouds, and 40 other galaxies. The spiral disk of NGC 55 is inclined to our line of sight by approximately 80 degrees and so this galaxy looks cigar-shaped. This picture is a combination of Galaxy Evolution Explorer images taken with the far ultraviolet (colored blue) and near ultraviolet detectors, (colored red). The bright blue regions in this image are areas of active star formation detected in the ultraviolet by Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The red stars in this image are foreground stars in our own Milky Way galaxy.

  6. Writing Groups: History, Theory, and Implications: Studies in Writing and Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gere, Anne Ruggles

    Drawing on previously unpublished archival materials as well as historical accounts of American education and the self-help tradition of education in the United States, this book examines the origins, theoretical bases, and implications of writing groups. Following an introduction that points out the varied circumstances under which writing groups…

  7. Implications of Feedback Research for Group Facilitation and the Design of Experiential Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Kennard T.

    1990-01-01

    Claims, despite extensive research on the role of feedback in learning, there is little theoretical understanding of the concept of feedback, because of overly broad definitions which favor certain explanations and lines of research over others. Discusses implications of feedback research for group facilitation and design of experiential learning…

  8. Mining the gap: evolution of the magnitude gap in X-ray galaxy groups from the 3-square-degree XMM coverage of CFHTLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozaliasl, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Mirkazemi, M.; Salvato, M.; Jassur, D. M. Z.; Erfanianfar, G.; Popesso, P.; Tanaka, M.; Lerchster, M.; Kneib, J. P.; McCracken, H. J.; Mellier, Y.; Egami, E.; Pereira, M. J.; Brimioulle, F.; Erben, T.; Seitz, S.

    2014-06-01

    We present a catalog of 129 X-ray galaxy groups, covering a redshift range 0.04 galaxies of a well defined mass-selected group sample. We find that the slope of the relation between the fraction of groups and the magnitude gap steepens with redshift, indicating a larger fraction of fossil groups at lower redshifts. We find that 22.2 ± 6% of our groups at z ≤ 0.6 are fossil groups. We compare our results with the predictions of three semi-analytic models based on the Millennium simulation. The intercept of the relation between the magnitude of the brightest galaxy and the value of magnitude gap becomes brighter with increasing redshift. This trend is steeper than the model predictions which we attribute to the younger stellar age of the observed brightest cluster galaxies. This trend argues in favor of stronger evolution of the feedback from active galactic nuclei at z< 1 compared to the models. The slope of the relation between the magnitude of the brightest cluster galaxy and the value of the gap does not evolve with redshift and is well reproduced by the models, indicating that the tidal galaxy stripping, put forward as an explanation of the occurrence of the magnitude gap, is both a dominant mechanism and sufficiently well modeled. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Chandra and XMM Observations of Galaxy Groups: The Influence of Central AGN at the Low End of the Cluster Mass Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtilek, J. M.; O'Sullivan, E. J.; David, L. P.

    2007-05-01

    Groups and poor clusters are the locus of most galaxies in the present-day Universe; they shape the environment in which the bulk of galaxies evolve and constitute the building blocks from which clusters form. Hot X-ray emitting gas in galaxy groups, especially those dominated by ellipticals, is both a significant constituent of the total mass and an active participant in the group evolution. Chandra and XMM, offering between them high angular resolution, substantial collecting area, and spatially-resolved spectroscopy at good spectral resolution, have given us the means to discover hitherto unanticipated phenomena, in groups as in clusters, and to explore a new set of issues that bring us closer to understanding the evolution of groups and their constituent galaxies: the distribution of heavy elements, the presence of X-ray cavities and their relation to radio observations, the nature of cooling cores, and X-ray signatures of recent galaxy interactions. We here show Chandra and XMM data selected to illustrate recent results regarding some of these themes. Examples include: • Two 2keV poor clusters initially selected for XMM observations owing to their regular and relaxed appearance, MKW 4 and AWM 4, are revealed to be very different: MKW 4 seems quiescent and has developed a cool core, unlike AWM 4, which is disturbed in temperature and abundance distribution, a difference traceable to AGN activity at the center of AWM 4. • NGC 4636 exhibits a plume of high-abundance gas extending from the galaxy, likely the result of an AGN outburst producing significant gas mixing. • The temperature profile of NGC 3411 is that of a normal group with a cooling core except at the very center, where a sharp rise suggests recent AGN reheating.

  10. Some Like it Hot: Linking Diffuse X-Ray Luminosity, Baryonic Mass, and Star Formation Rate in Compact Groups of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, Tyler D.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Mulchaey, John S.; Walker, Lisa May; Brandt, Willian N.; Charlton, Jane C.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the diffuse X-ray emission in 19 compact groups (CGs) of galaxies observed with Chandra. The hottest, most X-ray luminous CGs agree well with the galaxy cluster X-ray scaling relations in L(x-T) and (L(x-sigma), even in CGs where the hot gas is associated with only the brightest galaxy. Using Spitzer photometry, we compute stellar masses and classify Hickson CGs 19, 22, 40, and 42, and RSCGs 32, 44, and 86 as fossil groups using a new definition for fossil systems that includes a broader range of masses. We find that CGs with total stellar and Hi masses are great than or equal to 10(sup (11.3) solar mass are often X-ray luminous, while lower-mass CGs only sometimes exhibit faint, localized X-ray emission. Additionally, we compare the diffuse X-ray luminosity against both the total UV and 24 micron star formation rates of each CG and optical colors of the most massive galaxy in each of the CGs. The most X-ray luminous CGs have the lowest star formation rates, likely because there is no cold gas available for star formation, either because the majority of the baryons in these CGs are in stars or the X-ray halo, or due togas stripping from the galaxies in CGs with hot halos. Finally, the optical colors that trace recent star formation histories of the most massive group galaxies do not correlate with the X-ray luminosities of the CGs, indicating that perhaps the current state of the X-ray halos is independent of the recent history of stellar mass assembly in the most massive galaxies.

  11. Some like it hot: Linking diffuse X-ray luminosity, baryonic mass, and star formation rate in compact groups of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, Tyler D.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Brandt, William N.; Charlton, Jane C.

    2014-08-01

    We present an analysis of the diffuse X-ray emission in 19 compact groups (CGs) of galaxies observed with Chandra. The hottest, most X-ray luminous CGs agree well with the galaxy cluster X-ray scaling relations in L{sub X} -T and L{sub X} -σ, even in CGs where the hot gas is associated with only the brightest galaxy. Using Spitzer photometry, we compute stellar masses and classify Hickson CGs 19, 22, 40, and 42, and RSCGs 32, 44, and 86 as fossil groups using a new definition for fossil systems that includes a broader range of masses. We find that CGs with total stellar and H I masses ≳ 10{sup 11.3} M{sub ☉} are often X-ray luminous, while lower-mass CGs only sometimes exhibit faint, localized X-ray emission. Additionally, we compare the diffuse X-ray luminosity against both the total UV and 24 μm star formation rates of each CG and optical colors of the most massive galaxy in each of the CGs. The most X-ray luminous CGs have the lowest star formation rates, likely because there is no cold gas available for star formation, either because the majority of the baryons in these CGs are in stars or the X-ray halo, or due to gas stripping from the galaxies in CGs with hot halos. Finally, the optical colors that trace recent star formation histories of the most massive group galaxies do not correlate with the X-ray luminosities of the CGs, indicating that perhaps the current state of the X-ray halos is independent of the recent history of stellar mass assembly in the most massive galaxies.

  12. J0454-0309: evidence of a strong lensing fossil group falling into a poor galaxy cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, M.; Suyu, S.; Schrabback, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Erben, T.; Halkola, A.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: We have discovered a strong lensing fossil group (J0454) projected near the well-studied cluster MS0451-0305. Using the large amount of available archival data, we compare J0454 to normal groups and clusters. A highly asymmetric image configuration of the strong lens enables us to study the substructure of the system. Methods: We used multicolour Subaru/Suprime-Cam and CFHT/Megaprime imaging, together with Keck spectroscopy to identify member galaxies. A VLT/FORS2 spectrum was taken to determine the redshifts of the brightest elliptical and the lensed arc. Using HST/ACS images, we determined the group's weak lensing signal and modelled the strong lens system. This is the first time that a fossil group is analysed with lensing methods. The X-ray luminosity and temperature were derived from XMM-Newton data. Results: J0454 is located at z = 0.26, with a gap of 2.5 mag between the brightest and second brightest galaxies within half the virial radius. Outside a radius of 1.5 Mpc, we find two filaments extending over 4 Mpc, and within we identify 31 members spectroscopically and 33 via the red sequence with i < 22 mag. They segregate into spirals (σ_v = 590 km s-1) and a central concentration of ellipticals (σ_v = 480 km s-1), establishing a morphology-density relation. Weak lensing and cluster richness relations yield consistent values of r200 = 810-850 kpc and M200 = (0.75-0.90) × 1014 M_⊙. The brightest group galaxy (BGG) is inconsistent with the dynamic centre of J0454. It strongly lenses a galaxy at z = 2.1 ± 0.3, and we model the lens with a pseudo-isothermal elliptical mass distribution. A high external shear, and a discrepancy between the Einstein radius and the weak lensing velocity dispersion requires that the BGG must be offset from J0454's dark halo centre by at least 90-130 kpc. The X-ray halo is offset by 24 ± 16 kpc from the BGG, shows no signs of a cooling flow and can be fit by a single β-model. With LX = (1.4 ± 0.2) × 1043 erg s-1 J0454

  13. RR LYRAE VARIABLES IN THE LOCAL GROUP DWARF GALAXY NGC 147

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S-C.; Sarajedini, Ata E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.ed

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the RR Lyrae (RRL) population in NGC 147, a dwarf satellite galaxy of M31 (Andromeda). We used both Thuan-Gunn g-band ground-based photometry from the literature and Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 archival data in the F555W and F814W passbands to investigate the pulsation properties of RRL variable candidates in NGC 147. These data sets represent the two extreme cases often found in RRL studies with respect to the phase coverage of the observations and the quality of the photometric measurements. Extensive artificial variable star tests for both cases were performed. We conclude that neither data set is sufficient to confidently determine the pulsation properties of the NGC 147 RRLs. Thus, while we can assert that NGC 147 contains RRL variables, and therefore a population older than approx10 Gyr, it is not possible at this time to use the pulsation properties of these RRLs to study other aspects of this old population. Our results provide a good reference for gauging the completeness of RRL variable detection in future studies.

  14. Variable stars in Local Group Galaxies - II. Sculptor dSph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Stetson, P. B.; Monelli, M.; Bernard, E. J.; Fiorentino, G.; Gallart, C.; Bono, G.; Cassisi, S.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    We present the identification of 634 variable stars in the Milky Way dSph satellite Sculptor based on archival ground-based optical observations spanning ˜24 years and covering ˜ 2.5 deg2. We employed the same methodologies as the "Homogeneous Photometry" series published by Stetson. In particular, we have identified and characterized the largest (536) RR Lyrae sample so far in a Milky Way dSph satellite. We have also detected four Anomalous Cepheids, 23 SX Phoenicis stars, five eclipsing binaries, three field variable stars, three peculiar variable stars located above the horizontal branch - near to the locus of BL Herculis - that we are unable to classify properly. Additionally we identify 37 Long Period Variables plus 23 probable variable stars, for which the current data do not allow us to determine the period. We report positions and finding charts for all the variable stars, and basic properties (period, amplitude, mean magnitude) and light curves for 574 of them. We discuss the properties of the RR Lyrae stars in the Bailey diagram, which supports the coexistence of subpopulations with different chemical compositions. We estimate the mean mass of Anomalous Cepheids (˜1.5M⊙) and SX Phoenicis stars (˜1M⊙). We discuss in detail the nature of the former. The connections between the properties of the different families of variable stars are discussed in the context of the star formation history of the Sculptor dSph galaxy.

  15. Hot Gaseous Atmospheres in Galaxy Groups and Clusters Are Both Heated and Cooled by X-Ray Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.; Temi, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    Expanding X-ray cavities observed in hot gas atmospheres of many galaxy groups and clusters generate shock waves and turbulence that are primary heating mechanisms required to avoid uninhibited radiatively cooling flows which are not observed. However, we show here that the evolution of buoyant cavities also stimulates radiative cooling of observable masses of low-temperature gas. During their early evolution, radiative cooling occurs in the wakes of buoyant cavities in two locations: in thin radial filaments parallel to the buoyant velocity and more broadly in gas compressed beneath rising cavities. Radiation from these sustained compressions removes entropy from the hot gas. Gas experiencing the largest entropy loss cools first, followed by gas with progressively less entropy loss. Most cooling occurs at late times, ˜ 108-109 yr, long after the X-ray cavities have disrupted and are impossible to detect. During these late times, slightly denser low entropy gas sinks slowly toward the centers of the hot atmospheres where it cools intermittently, forming clouds near the cluster center. Single cavities of energy 1057-1058 ergs in the atmosphere of the NGC 5044 group create 108-109 M⊙ of cooled gas, exceeding the mass of extended molecular gas currently observed in that group. The cooled gas clouds we compute share many attributes with molecular clouds recently observed in NGC 5044 with ALMA: self-gravitationally unbound, dust-free, quasi-randomly distributed within a few kiloparsecs around the group center.

  16. Discrete dynamical classes for galaxy discs and the implication of a second generation of Tully-Fisher methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscoe, D. F.

    2002-04-01

    In Roscoe (\\cite{RoscoeA}), it was described how the modelling of a small sample of optical rotation curves (ORCs) given by Rubin et al. (\\cite{Rubin}) with the power-law Vrot=ARα, where where the parameters (A,alpha ) vary between galaxies, raised the hypothesis that the parameter A (considered in the form ln A) had a preference for certain discrete values. This specific hypothesis was tested in that paper against a sample of 900 spiral galaxy rotation curves measured by Mathewson et al. (\\cite{Mathewson1992}), but folded by Persic & Salucci (\\cite{Persic1995}), and was confirmed on this large sample with a conservatively estimated upper bound probability of 10-7 against it being a chance effect. In this paper, we begin by reviewing the earlier work, and then describe the analyses of three additional samples; the first of these, of 1200+ Southern sky ORCs, was published by Mathewson & Ford (\\cite{Mathewson1996}), the second, of 497 Northern sky ORCs, is a composite sample provided by kind permission of Giovanelli & Haynes published in the sequence of papers Dale et al. (\\cite{Dale1997}, \\cite{Dale1998}, \\cite{Dale1999}) and Dale & Uson (\\cite{Dale2000}), whilst the third, of 305 Northern sky ORCs, was published by Courteau (\\cite{Courteau}). These analyses provide overwhelmingly compelling confirmation of what was already a powerful result. Apart from other considerations, the results lead directly to what can be described as a ``second generation of Tully-Fisher methods''. We give a brief discussion of the further implications of the result.

  17. A Very Deep Chandra Observation of the Galaxy Group NGC 5813: AGN Shocks, Feedback, and Outburst History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, S. W.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Jones, C.; Forman, W. R.; Bulbul, E.; Clarke, T. E.; Kraft, R.; Blanton, E. L.; David, L.; Werner, N.; Sun, M.; Donahue, M.; Giacintucci, S.; Simionescu, A.

    2015-06-01

    We present results from a very deep (650 ks) Chandra X-ray observation of the galaxy group NGC 5813, the deepest Chandra observation of a galaxy group to date. This system uniquely shows three pairs of collinear cavities, with each pair associated with an unambiguous active galactic nucleus (AGN) outburst shock front. The implied mean kinetic power is roughly the same for each outburst, demonstrating that the average AGN kinetic luminosity can remain stable over long timescales (˜50 Myr). The two older outbursts have larger, roughly equal total energies as compared with the youngest outburst, implying that the youngest outburst is ongoing. We find that the gas radiative cooling rate and mean shock heating rate are well balanced at each shock front, suggesting that shock heating alone is sufficient to offset cooling and establish AGN/intracluster medium (ICM) feedback within at least the central 30 kpc. This heating takes place roughly isotropically and most strongly at small radii, as is required for feedback to operate. We suggest that shock heating may play a significant role in AGN feedback at smaller radii in other systems, where weak shocks are more difficult to detect. We find non-zero shock front widths that are too large to be explained by particle diffusion. Instead, all measured widths are consistent with shock broadening due to propagation through a turbulent ICM with a mean turbulent speed of ˜70 km s-1. Finally, we place lower limits on the temperature of any volume-filling thermal gas within the cavities that would balance the internal cavity pressure with the external ICM.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Choirs, HI galaxy groups (Sweet+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, S. M.; Meurer, G.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Kilborn, V.; Denes, H.; Bekki, K.; Hanish, D.; Ferguson, H.; Knezek, P.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Dopita, M.; Doyle-Pegg, M. T.; Elson, E.; Freeman, K.; Heckman, T.; Kennicutt, R.; Kim, J. H.; Koribalski, B.; Meyer, M.; Putman, M.; Ryan-Weber, E.; Smith, C.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Wong, O. I.; Webster, R.; Werk, J.; Zwaan, M.

    2014-07-01

    Our sample is drawn from the 292 HiPASS targets observed for SINGG. HI measurements are all from the HiPASS HI catalogue HICAT (Meyer et al. 2004MNRAS.350.1195M, Cat. VIII/73), except for two groups (HiPASS J0443-05 and J1059-09). After noticing an anomalous HI mass for one group, we manually remeasured the HI mass of every Choir group. (2 data files).

  19. CLUSTERING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY III PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE MEASUREMENT, SYSTEMATICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Seljak, Uros; Reid, Beth; Cuesta, Antonio; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Seo, Hee-Jong; De Putter, Roland; Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Saito, Shun; Schlafly, Eddie; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Sanchez, Ariel G.; Blanton, Michael; Skibba, Ramin; Schneider, Don; Mena, Olga; Viel, Matteo; and others

    2012-12-10

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 deg{sup 2}, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. This data set spans 11,000 deg{sup 2} and probes a volume of 3 h {sup -3} Gpc{sup 3}, making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We describe in detail the construction of the survey window function and various systematics affecting our measurement. With such a large volume, high-precision cosmological constraints can be obtained given careful control and understanding of the observational systematics. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at four redshift slices with an accuracy of {approx}15%, with a bin size of {delta}{sub l} = 10 on scales of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs; at l {approx} 40-400). We also apply corrections to the power spectra due to systematics and derive cosmological constraints using the full shape of the power spectra. For a flat {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with cosmic microwave background Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 (WMAP7) and H{sub 0} constraints from using 600 Cepheids observed by Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3; HST), we find {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.73 {+-} 0.019 and H{sub 0} to be 70.5 {+-} 1.6 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km. For an open {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with WMAP7 + HST, we find {Omega}{sub K} = 0.0035 {+-} 0.0054, improved over WMAP7+HST alone by 40%. For a wCDM model, when combined with WMAP7+HST+SN, we find w = -1.071 {+-} 0.078, and H{sub 0} to be 71.3 {+-} 1.7 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km, which is competitive with the latest large-scale structure constraints from large spectroscopic

  20. Clustering of Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Photometric Luminous Galaxies: The Measurement, Systematics, and Cosmological Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Shirley; Cuesta, Antonio; Seo, Hee-Jong; de Putter, Roland; Ross, Ashley J.; White, Martin; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Saito, Shun; Schlegel, David J.; Schlafly, Eddie; Seljak, Uros; Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Percival, Will J.; Blanton, Michael; Skibba, Ramin; Schneider, Don; Reid, Beth; Mena, Olga; Viel, Matteo; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Prada, Francisco; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Bahcall, Neta; Bizyaev, Dimitry; Brewinton, Howard; Brinkman, Jon; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz; Gott, John R.; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Nichol, Bob; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Ross, Nicholas P.; Simmons, Audrey; de Simoni, Fernando; Snedden, Stephanie; Yeche, Christophe

    2012-12-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 deg2, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. This data set spans 11,000 deg2 and probes a volume of 3 h -3 Gpc3, making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We describe in detail the construction of the survey window function and various systematics affecting our measurement. With such a large volume, high-precision cosmological constraints can be obtained given careful control and understanding of the observational systematics. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at four redshift slices with an accuracy of ~15%, with a bin size of δ l = 10 on scales of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs; at l ~ 40-400). We also apply corrections to the power spectra due to systematics and derive cosmological constraints using the full shape of the power spectra. For a flat ΛCDM model, when combined with cosmic microwave background Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 (WMAP7) and H 0 constraints from using 600 Cepheids observed by Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3; HST), we find ΩΛ = 0.73 ± 0.019 and H 0 to be 70.5 ± 1.6 s-1 Mpc-1 km. For an open ΛCDM model, when combined with WMAP7 + HST, we find Ω K = 0.0035 ± 0.0054, improved over WMAP7+HST alone by 40%. For a wCDM model, when combined with WMAP7+HST+SN, we find w = -1.071 ± 0.078, and H 0 to be 71.3 ± 1.7 s-1 Mpc-1 km, which is competitive with the latest large-scale structure constraints from large spectroscopic surveys such as the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7) and WiggleZ. We also find that systematic-corrected power spectra give consistent

  1. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z = 1.3. I. THE LYNX SUPERCLUSTER: CLUSTER AND GROUPS AT z = 1.3. MORPHOLOGY AND COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Simona; Raichoor, Anand; Huertas-Company, Marc; Adam Stanford, S.; Rettura, Alessandro; Jee, Myungkook J.; Holden, Brad P.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Nakata, Fumiaki; Kodama, Tadayuki; Finoguenov, Alexis; Ford, Holland C.; Rosati, Piero; Tanaka, Masayuki; Koyama, Yusei; Shankar, Francesco; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Demarco, Ricardo; Eisenhardt, Peter; and others

    2012-08-01

    We confirm the detection of three groups in the Lynx supercluster, at z Almost-Equal-To 1.3, through spectroscopic follow-up and X-ray imaging, and we give estimates for their redshifts and masses. We study the properties of the group galaxies compared to the two central clusters, RX J0849+4452 and RX J0848+4453. Using spectroscopic follow-up and multi-wavelength photometric redshifts, we select 89 galaxies in the clusters, of which 41 are spectroscopically confirmed, and 74 galaxies in the groups, of which 25 are spectroscopically confirmed. We morphologically classify galaxies by visual inspection, noting that our early-type galaxy (ETG) sample would have been contaminated at the 30%-40% level by simple automated classification methods (e.g., based on Sersic index). In luminosity-selected samples, both clusters and groups show high fractions of bulge-dominated galaxies with a diffuse component that we visually identified as a disk and which we classified as bulge-dominated spirals, e.g., Sas. The ETG fractions never rise above Almost-Equal-To 50% in the clusters, which is low compared to the fractions observed in other massive clusters at z Almost-Equal-To 1. In the groups, ETG fractions never exceed Almost-Equal-To 25%. However, overall bulge-dominated galaxy fractions (ETG plus Sas) are similar to those observed for ETGs in clusters at z {approx} 1. Bulge-dominated galaxies visually classified as spirals might also be ETGs with tidal features or merger remnants. They are mainly red and passive, and span a large range in luminosity. Their star formation seems to have been quenched before experiencing a morphological transformation. Because their fraction is smaller at lower redshifts, they might be the spiral population that evolves into ETGs. For mass-selected samples of galaxies with masses M > 10{sup 10.6} M{sub Sun} within {Sigma} > 500 Mpc{sup -2}, the ETG and overall bulge-dominated galaxy fractions show no significant evolution with respect to local

  2. A revised catalog of CfA galaxy groups in the Virgo/Great Attractor flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolthenius, Richard

    1993-01-01

    A new identification of groups and clusters in the CfAl Catalog of Huchra, et al. (1983) is presented, using a percolation algorithm to identify density enhancements. The procedure differs from that of the original Geller and Huchra (1983; GH) catalog in several important respects; galaxy distances are calculated from the Virgo-Great Attractor flow model of Faber and Burnstein (1988), the adopted distance linkage criteria is only approx. 1/4 as large as in the Geller and Huchra catalog, the sky link relation is taken from Nolthenius and White (1987), correction for interstellar extinction is included, and 'by-hand' adjustments to group memberships are made in the complex regions of Virgo/Coma I/Ursa Major and Coma/A1367 (to allow for varying group velocity dispersions and to trim unphysical 'spider arms'). Since flow model distances are poorly determined in these same regions, available distances from the IR Tully-Fisher planetary nebula luminosity function and surface brightness resolution methods are adopted if possible.

  3. Shocks and Cavities from Multiple Outbursts in the Galaxy Group NGC 5813: A Window to Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, S. W.; Forman, W. R.; Giacintucci, S.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Sun, M.; Jones, C.; Churazov, E.; David, L. P.; Kraft, R.; Donahue, M.; Blanton, E. L.; Simionescu, A.; Werner, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from new Chandra, GMRT, and SOAR observations of NGC 5813, the dominant central galaxy in a nearby galaxy group. The system shows three pairs of collinear cavities at 1 kpc, 8 kpc, and 20 kpc from the central source, from three distinct outbursts of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN), which occurred 3 × 106, 2 × 107, and 9 × 107 yr ago. The Hα and X-ray observations reveal filaments of cool gas that has been uplifted by the X-ray cavities. The inner two cavity pairs are filled with radio-emitting plasma, and each pair is associated with an elliptical surface brightness edge, which we unambiguously identify as shocks (with measured temperature jumps) with Mach numbers of M ≈ 1.7 and M ≈ 1.5 for the inner and outer shocks, respectively. Such clear signatures from three distinct AGN outbursts in an otherwise dynamically relaxed system provide a unique opportunity to study AGN feedback and outburst history. The mean power of the two most recent outbursts differs by a factor of six, from (1.5-10)×1042 erg s-1, indicating that the mean jet power changes significantly over long (~107 yr) timescales. The total energy output of the most recent outburst is also more than an order of magnitude less than the total energy of the previous outburst (1.5 × 1056 erg versus 4 × 1057 erg), which may be a result of the lower mean power, or may indicate that the most recent outburst is ongoing. The outburst interval implied by both the shock and cavity ages (~107 yr) indicates that, in this system, shock heating alone is sufficient to balance radiative cooling close to the central AGN, which is the relevant region for regulating feedback between the intracluster medium and the central supermassive black hole.

  4. A Catalog of Ultra-compact High Velocity Clouds from the ALFALFA Survey: Local Group Galaxy Candidates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2013-05-01

    We present a catalog of 59 ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) extracted from the 40% complete ALFALFA HI-line survey. The ALFALFA UCHVCs have median flux densities of 1.34 Jy km s-1, median angular diameters of 10', and median velocity widths of 23 km s-1. We show that the full UCHVC population cannot easily be associated with known populations of high velocity clouds. Of the 59 clouds presented here, only 11 are also present in the compact cloud catalog extracted from the commensal GALFA-HI survey, demonstrating the utility of this separate dataset and analysis. Based on their sky distribution and observed properties, we infer that the ALFALFA UCHVCs are consistent with the hypothesis that they may be very low mass galaxies within the Local Volume. In that case, most of their baryons would be in the form of gas, and because of their low stellar content, they remain unidentified by extant optical surveys. At distances of ~1 Mpc, the UCHVCs have neutral hydrogen (H I) masses of ~105-106 M ⊙, H I diameters of ~2-3 kpc, and indicative dynamical masses within the H I extent of ~107-108 M ⊙, similar to the Local Group ultra-faint dwarf Leo T. The recent ALFALFA discovery of the star-forming, metal-poor, low mass galaxy Leo P demonstrates that this hypothesis is true in at least one case. In the case of the individual UCHVCs presented here, confirmation of their extragalactic nature will require further work, such as the identification of an optical counterpart to constrain their distance.

  5. A CATALOG OF ULTRA-COMPACT HIGH VELOCITY CLOUDS FROM THE ALFALFA SURVEY: LOCAL GROUP GALAXY CANDIDATES?

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P. E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu

    2013-05-01

    We present a catalog of 59 ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) extracted from the 40% complete ALFALFA HI-line survey. The ALFALFA UCHVCs have median flux densities of 1.34 Jy km s{sup -1}, median angular diameters of 10', and median velocity widths of 23 km s{sup -1}. We show that the full UCHVC population cannot easily be associated with known populations of high velocity clouds. Of the 59 clouds presented here, only 11 are also present in the compact cloud catalog extracted from the commensal GALFA-HI survey, demonstrating the utility of this separate dataset and analysis. Based on their sky distribution and observed properties, we infer that the ALFALFA UCHVCs are consistent with the hypothesis that they may be very low mass galaxies within the Local Volume. In that case, most of their baryons would be in the form of gas, and because of their low stellar content, they remain unidentified by extant optical surveys. At distances of {approx}1 Mpc, the UCHVCs have neutral hydrogen (H I) masses of {approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }, H I diameters of {approx}2-3 kpc, and indicative dynamical masses within the H I extent of {approx}10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, similar to the Local Group ultra-faint dwarf Leo T. The recent ALFALFA discovery of the star-forming, metal-poor, low mass galaxy Leo P demonstrates that this hypothesis is true in at least one case. In the case of the individual UCHVCs presented here, confirmation of their extragalactic nature will require further work, such as the identification of an optical counterpart to constrain their distance.

  6. THE ZURICH ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY OF GALAXIES IN GROUPS ALONG THE COSMIC WEB. III. GALAXY PHOTOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS AND THE SPATIALLY RESOLVED COLOR PROPERTIES OF EARLY- AND LATE-TYPE SATELLITES IN DIVERSE ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Cibinel, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Lilly, S. J.; Miniati, F.; Pipino, A.; Cameron, E.; Peng, Y.; Rudick, C. S.; Bonoli, S.; Silverman, J. D.; Van Gorkom, J. H.; Finoguenov, A.; Norberg, P. E-mail: marcella@phys.ethz.ch

    2013-11-10

    We present photometric measurements for the galaxies—and when possible their bulges and disks—in the 0.05 < z < 0.0585 groups of the Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS); these measurements include (B – I) colors, color gradients and maps, color dispersions, as well as stellar masses and star formation rates. The ZENS galaxies are classified into quenched, moderately star-forming, and strongly star-forming using a combination of spectral features and far-UV-to-optical colors; this approach optimally distinguishes quenched systems from dust-reddened star-forming galaxies. The latter contribute up to 50% to the (B – I) 'red sequence' at ∼10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}. At fixed morphological or spectral type, we find that galaxy stellar masses are largely independent of environment, and especially of halo mass. As a first utilization of our photometric database, we study, at fixed stellar mass and Hubble type, how (B – I) colors, color gradients, and color dispersion of disk satellites depend on group mass M{sub GROUP}, group-centric distance R/R{sub 200}, and large-scale structure overdensity δ{sub LSS}. The strongest environmental trend is found for disk-dominated satellites with M{sub GROUP} and R/R{sub 200}. At M ∼< 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}, disk-dominated satellites are redder in the inner regions of the groups than in the outer parts. At M ∼> 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}, these satellites have shallower color gradients in higher mass groups and in the cores of groups compared with lower mass groups and the outskirts of groups. Stellar population analyses and semi-analytic models suggest that disk-dominated satellites undergo quenching of star formation in their outer disks, on timescales τ{sub quench} ∼ 2 Gyr, as they progressively move inside the group potential.

  7. The Zurich Environmental Study of Galaxies in Groups along the Cosmic Web. III. Galaxy Photometric Measurements and the Spatially Resolved Color Properties of Early- and Late-type Satellites in Diverse Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibinel, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Lilly, S. J.; Bonoli, S.; Miniati, F.; Pipino, A.; Silverman, J. D.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Cameron, E.; Finoguenov, A.; Norberg, P.; Peng, Y.; Rudick, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    We present photometric measurements for the galaxies—and when possible their bulges and disks—in the 0.05 < z < 0.0585 groups of the Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS); these measurements include (B - I) colors, color gradients and maps, color dispersions, as well as stellar masses and star formation rates. The ZENS galaxies are classified into quenched, moderately star-forming, and strongly star-forming using a combination of spectral features and far-UV-to-optical colors; this approach optimally distinguishes quenched systems from dust-reddened star-forming galaxies. The latter contribute up to 50% to the (B - I) "red sequence" at ~1010 M ⊙. At fixed morphological or spectral type, we find that galaxy stellar masses are largely independent of environment, and especially of halo mass. As a first utilization of our photometric database, we study, at fixed stellar mass and Hubble type, how (B - I) colors, color gradients, and color dispersion of disk satellites depend on group mass M GROUP, group-centric distance R/R 200, and large-scale structure overdensity δLSS. The strongest environmental trend is found for disk-dominated satellites with M GROUP and R/R 200. At M <~ 1010 M ⊙, disk-dominated satellites are redder in the inner regions of the groups than in the outer parts. At M >~ 1010 M ⊙, these satellites have shallower color gradients in higher mass groups and in the cores of groups compared with lower mass groups and the outskirts of groups. Stellar population analyses and semi-analytic models suggest that disk-dominated satellites undergo quenching of star formation in their outer disks, on timescales τquench ~ 2 Gyr, as they progressively move inside the group potential. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla Chile. Program ID 177.A-0680.

  8. Comparative genomics of the bacterial genus Streptococcus illuminates evolutionary implications of species groups.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Yang; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Hong-Wei; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Streptococcus within the phylum Firmicutes are among the most diverse and significant zoonotic pathogens. This genus has gone through considerable taxonomic revision due to increasing improvements of chemotaxonomic approaches, DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It is proposed to place the majority of streptococci into "species groups". However, the evolutionary implications of species groups are not clear presently. We use comparative genomic approaches to yield a better understanding of the evolution of Streptococcus through genome dynamics, population structure, phylogenies and virulence factor distribution of species groups. Genome dynamics analyses indicate that the pan-genome size increases with the addition of newly sequenced strains, while the core genome size decreases with sequential addition at the genus level and species group level. Population structure analysis reveals two distinct lineages, one including Pyogenic, Bovis, Mutans and Salivarius groups, and the other including Mitis, Anginosus and Unknown groups. Phylogenetic dendrograms show that species within the same species group cluster together, and infer two main clades in accordance with population structure analysis. Distribution of streptococcal virulence factors has no obvious patterns among the species groups; however, the evolution of some common virulence factors is congruous with the evolution of species groups, according to phylogenetic inference. We suggest that the proposed streptococcal species groups are reasonable from the viewpoints of comparative genomics; evolution of the genus is congruent with the individual evolutionary trajectories of different species groups. PMID:24977706

  9. The X-Ray Zurich Environmental Study (X-ZENS). II. X-Ray Observations of the Diffuse Intragroup Medium in Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miniati, Francesco; Finoguenov, Alexis; Silverman, John D.; Carollo, Marcella; Cibinel, Anna; Lilly, Simon J.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of a pilot XMM-Newton and Chandra program aimed at studying the diffuse intragroup medium (IGM) of optically selected nearby groups from the Zurich ENvironmental Study (ZENS) catalog. The groups are in a narrow mass range about {10}13 {M}⊙ , a mass scale at which the interplay between the IGM and the group member galaxies is still largely unprobed. X-ray emission from the IGM is detected in the energy band 0.5-2 keV with flux ≤slant {10}-13 erg s-1 cm-2, which is one order of magnitude fainter than for typical ROSAT groups (RASS). For many groups, we set upper limits on the X-ray luminosity, indicating that the detections are likely probing the upper envelope of the X-ray emitting groups. We find that weighting the group halo mass by the fraction of the total stellar mass locked in the bulge galaxy components might reduce the bias of mass estimates based on the total optical luminosity with respect to the X-ray mass estimates, (consistent with Andreon, at larger mass scales). We measure a stellar mass fraction with a median value of about 1%, with a contribution from the most massive galaxies between 30% and 50%. Optical and X-ray data often give complementary answers concerning the dynamical state of the groups, and are essential for a complete picture of the group system. Extending this pilot program to a larger sample of groups is necessary to unveil any imprint of interaction between member galaxies and IGM in halo potentials of key importance for environmentally driven galactic evolution.

  10. The BL-Lacertae gamma-ray blazar PKS 1424+240 associated with a group of galaxies at z = 0.6010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovero, A. C.; Muriel, H.; Donzelli, C.; Pichel, A.

    2016-04-01

    Context. PKS 1424+240 is a BL-Lac blazar with unknown redshift that was detected at high-energy gamma rays by Fermi-LAT with a hard spectrum. At very high energy (VHE), it was first detected by VERITAS and later confirmed by MAGIC. Its spectral energy distribution is highly attenuated at VHE gamma rays, which is coherent with distant sources. Several estimations enabled the redshift to be constrained to the range 0.6 group of galaxies. Methods: Elliptical galaxies are associated with groups, and BL-Lac objects are typically hosted by them, so we decided to search for the host group of the blazar. For this, we performed optical spectroscopic observations of thirty objects in the field of view of PKS 1424+240 using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph. After analysing the data for groups, we evaluated the probability of finding groups of galaxies by chance around the position of PKS 1424+240, using a deep catalogue of groups. We also used photometric data from the SDSS catalogue to analyse the red sequence of the proposed blazar host group Results: We found a new group of galaxies with eight members at z = 0.6010 ± 0.003, a virial radius of Rvir = 1.53 Mpc, and a velocity dispersion of σv = 813 ± 187 km s-1. The photometric study indicates that more members are probably populating this previously uncatalogued group of galaxies. The probability of PKS 1424+240 being a member of this group was found to be ≳98%. Conclusions: The new group of galaxies found at z = 0.6010 ± 0.003 is very likely

  11. A determination of the thick disk chemical abundance distribution: Implications for galaxy evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Jones, Bryn J.

    1995-01-01

    We present a determination of the thick disk iron abundance distribution obtained from an in situ sample of F/G stars. These stars are faint, 15 less than or approximately = V less than or approximately = 18, selected on the basis of color, being a subset of the larger survey of Gilmore and Wyse designed to determine the properties of the stellar populations several kiloparsecs from the Sun. The fields studied in the present paper probe the iron abundance distribution of the stellar populations of the galaxy at 500-3000 pc above the plane, at the solar Galactocentric distance. The derived chemical abundance distributions are consistent with no metallicity gradients in the thick disk over this range of vertical distance, and with an iron abundance distribution for the thick disk that has a peak at -0.7 dex. The lack of a vertical gradient argues against slow, dissipational settling as a mechanism for the formation of the thick disk. The photometric and metallicity data support a turn-off of the thick disk that is comparable in age to the metal-rich globular clusters, or greater than or approximately = 12 Gyr, and are consistent with a spread to older ages.

  12. ENTROPY AT THE OUTSKIRTS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS AS IMPLICATIONS FOR COSMOLOGICAL COSMIC-RAY ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Yutaka; Ohira, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2013-04-10

    Recently, gas entropy at the outskirts of galaxy clusters has attracted much attention. We propose that the entropy profiles could be used to study cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration around the clusters. If the CRs are effectively accelerated at the formation of clusters, the kinetic energy of infalling gas is consumed by the acceleration and the gas entropy should decrease. As a result, the entropy profiles become flat at the outskirts. If the acceleration is not efficient, the entropy should continue to increase outward. By comparing model predictions with X-ray observations with Suzaku, which show flat entropy profiles, we find that the CRs have carried {approx}< 7% of the kinetic energy of the gas away from the clusters. Moreover, the CR pressure at the outskirts can be {approx}< 40% of the total pressure. On the other hand, if the entropy profiles are not flat at the outskirts, as indicated by combined Plank and ROSAT observations, the carried energy and the CR pressure should be much smaller than the above estimations.

  13. Cosmic ray transport in galaxy clusters: implications for radio halos and gamma-rays.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfrommer, C.; Enßlin, T. A.; Miniati, F.; Subramanian, K.

    Observations of giant radio halos provide unambiguous evidence for the existence of cosmic ray (CR) electrons and magnetic fields in galaxy clusters. The physical mechanism generating radio halos is still heavily debated. We critically discuss the proposed models for the radio halo emission and highlight the weaknesses underlying each explanation. We present an idea how the interplay of CR propagation and turbulent advection selects a bimodal spatial CR distribution that is characteristic for the dynamical state of a cluster. As a result, strongly turbulent, merging clusters should have a more centrally concentrated CR energy density profile with respect to relaxed ones with very subsonic turbulence. This translates into a bimodality of the expected diffuse radio and gamma ray emission of clusters. Thus, the observed bimodality of cluster radio halos appears to be a natural consequence of the interplay of CR transport processes, independent of the model of radio halo formation, be it hadronic interactions of CR protons or re-acceleration of low-energy CR electrons.

  14. Confining hot spots in 3C 196 - Implications for QSO-companion galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L.; Broderick, J. J.; Mitchell, K. J.

    1986-01-01

    VLBI observations of the extremely compact hot spot in the northern radio lobe of the QSO 3C 196 reveal the angular size of its smallest substructure to be 0.065 arcsec x 0.045 arcsec or about 300 pc at the redshift distance. The morphology of the hot spot and its orientation relative to the more diffuse radio emission suggest that it is formed by an oblique interaction between the nuclear QSO jet and circum-QSO cloud. The inferred density in this cloud, together with its apparent size, imply that the cloud contains a galactic mass, greater than a billion solar masses of gas. The effect of the jet will be to hasten gravitational collapse of the cloud. If many QSOs such as 3C 196 are formed or found in gas-rich environments, the QSO radio phase may commonly stimulate the metamorphosis of circum-QSO gas to QSO-companion galaxies or it may play a significant part in catalyzing star formation in existing companions.

  15. Confining hot spots in 3C 196 - implications for QSO-companion galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.L.; Broderick, J.J.; Mitchell, K.J.

    1986-07-01

    VLBI observations of the extremely compact hot spot in the northern radio lobe of the QSO 3C 196 reveal the angular size of its smallest substructure to be 0.065 arcsec x 0.045 arcsec or about 300 pc at the redshift distance. The morphology of the hot spot and its orientation relative to the more diffuse radio emission suggest that it is formed by an oblique interaction between the nuclear QSO jet and circum-QSO cloud. The inferred density in this cloud, together with its apparent size, imply that the cloud contains a galactic mass, greater than a billion solar masses of gas. The effect of the jet will be to hasten gravitational collapse of the cloud. If many QSOs such as 3C 196 are formed or found in gas-rich environments, the QSO radio phase may commonly stimulate the metamorphosis of circum-QSO gas to QSO-companion galaxies or it may play a significant part in catalyzing star formation in existing companions. 30 references.

  16. Intrinsically polarized stars and implication for star formation in the central parsec of our galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Tatsuhito; Nagata, Tetsuya; Nishiyama, Shogo; Tamura, Motohide; Ishii, Miki

    2013-12-01

    We have carried out adaptive-optics assisted observations at the Subaru Telescope and have found 11 intrinsically polarized sources in the central parsec of our Galaxy. They are selected from 318 point sources with K{sub S} < 15.5, and their interstellar polarizations are corrected using a Stokes Q/I-U/I diagram. Considering brightness, near-infrared color excess, and the amount of intrinsic polarization, two of them are good young stellar object (YSO) candidates with an age of ∼10{sup 5} yr. If they are genuine YSOs, their existence provides strong constraints on star formation mechanisms in this region. In the remaining sources, two are known as bow-shock sources in the Northern Arm. One other is also located in the Northern Arm and shows very similar properties, and thus it is likely to be a so far unknown bow-shock source. The origin of the intrinsic polarization of the other sources is as yet uncertain.

  17. Observations of asymmetric velocity fields and gas cooling in the NGC 4636 galaxy group X-ray halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahoranta, Jussi; Finoguenov, Alexis; Pinto, Ciro; Sanders, Jeremy; Kaastra, Jelle; de Plaa, Jelle; Fabian, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Aims: This study aims to probe the thermodynamic properties of the hot intragroup medium (IGM) plasma in the core regions of the NGC 4636 galaxy group by detailed measurements of several emission lines and their relative intensities. Methods: We analyzed deep XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) data in five adjacent spectral regions in the central parts of the NGC 4636 galaxy group. We examined the suppression of the Fe xvii resonance line (15.01 Å) as compared to the forbidden lines of the same ion (17.05 Å and 17.10 Å). The presence and radial dependence of the cooling flow was investigated through spectral modeling. Parallel analysis with deep Chandra Advances CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) data was conducted to gain additional information about the thermodynamical properties of the IGM. Results: The plasma at the group center to the north shows efficient Fe xvii ion resonant scattering, yielding (Iλ17.05 + Iλ17.10) /Iλ15.01 line ratios up to 2.9 ± 0.4, corresponding toabout twice the predicted line ratio. In contrast, no resonant scattering was detected at the south side. The regions featuring resonant scattering coincide with those embodying large amounts of cool (kT ≲ 0.4 keV) gas phases, and the spectral imprints of cooling gas with a total mass deposition rate of ~0.8 M⊙ yr-1 within the examined region of 2.4' × 5.0'. Conclusions: We interpret the results as possible evidence of asymmetric turbulence distribution in the NGC 4636 IGM: turbulence dominates the gas dynamics to the south, while collective gas motions characterize the dynamics to the north. X-ray images show imprints of energetic AGN at both sides, yet we find evidence of turbulence heating at the south and gas cooling at the north of the core. We infer that the observed asymmetry may be the result of the specific observation angle to the source, or arise from the turbulence driven by core sloshing at south side.

  18. Comparative Genomics of the Bacterial Genus Streptococcus Illuminates Evolutionary Implications of Species Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiao-Yang; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Hong-Wei; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Streptococcus within the phylum Firmicutes are among the most diverse and significant zoonotic pathogens. This genus has gone through considerable taxonomic revision due to increasing improvements of chemotaxonomic approaches, DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It is proposed to place the majority of streptococci into “species groups”. However, the evolutionary implications of species groups are not clear presently. We use comparative genomic approaches to yield a better understanding of the evolution of Streptococcus through genome dynamics, population structure, phylogenies and virulence factor distribution of species groups. Genome dynamics analyses indicate that the pan-genome size increases with the addition of newly sequenced strains, while the core genome size decreases with sequential addition at the genus level and species group level. Population structure analysis reveals two distinct lineages, one including Pyogenic, Bovis, Mutans and Salivarius groups, and the other including Mitis, Anginosus and Unknown groups. Phylogenetic dendrograms show that species within the same species group cluster together, and infer two main clades in accordance with population structure analysis. Distribution of streptococcal virulence factors has no obvious patterns among the species groups; however, the evolution of some common virulence factors is congruous with the evolution of species groups, according to phylogenetic inference. We suggest that the proposed streptococcal species groups are reasonable from the viewpoints of comparative genomics; evolution of the genus is congruent with the individual evolutionary trajectories of different species groups. PMID:24977706

  19. Spectroscopic detection of C IV λ1548 in a galaxy at z = 7.045: implications for the ionizing spectra of reionization-era galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Daniel P.; Walth, Gregory; Charlot, Stéphane; Clément, Benjamin; Feltre, Anna; Gutkin, Julia; Richard, Johan; Mainali, Ramesh; Robertson, Brant; Siana, Brian; Tang, Mengtao; Schenker, Matthew

    2015-12-01

    We present Keck/MOSFIRE observations of UV metal emission lines in four bright (H = 23.9-25.4) gravitationally lensed z ≃ 6-8 galaxies behind the cluster Abell 1703. The spectrum of A1703-zd6, a highly magnified star-forming galaxy with a Lyα redshift of z = 7.045, reveals a confident detection of the nebular C IV λ1548 emission line (unresolved with full width at half-maximum<125 km s-1). UV metal emission lines are not detected in the three other galaxies. At z ≃ 2-3, nebular C IV emission is observed in just 1 per cent of UV-selected galaxies. The presence of strong C IV emission in one of the small sample of galaxies targeted in this paper may indicate that hard ionizing spectra are more common at z ≃ 7. The total estimated rest-frame equivalent width of the C IV doublet and C IV/Lyα flux ratio are comparable to measurements of narrow-lined AGNs. Photoionization models show that the nebular C IV line can also be reproduced by a young stellar population, with very hot metal-poor stars dominating the photon flux responsible for triply ionizing carbon. Regardless of the origin of the C IV, we show that the ionizing spectrum of A1703-zd6 is different from that of typical galaxies at z ≃ 2, producing more H ionizing photons per unit 1500 Å luminosity (log(ξion/erg- 1 Hz) = 25.68) and a larger flux density at 30-50 eV. If such extreme radiation fields are typical in UV-selected systems at z ≳ 7, it would indicate that reionization-era galaxies