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1

Galaxy Zoo Supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the first results from a new citizen science project: Galaxy Zoo Supernovae. This proof-of-concept project uses members of the public to identify supernova candidates from the latest generation of wide-field imaging transient surveys. We describe the Galaxy Zoo Supernovae operations and scoring model, and demonstrate the effectiveness of this novel method using imaging data and transients from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We examine the results collected over the period 2010 April-July, during which nearly 14 000 supernova candidates from the PTF were classified by more than 2500 individuals within a few hours of data collection. We compare the transients selected by the citizen scientists to those identified by experienced PTF scanners and find the agreement to be remarkable - Galaxy Zoo Supernovae performs comparably to the PTF scanners and identified as transients 93 per cent of the ˜130 spectroscopically confirmed supernovae (SNe) that the PTF located during the trial period (with no false positive identifications). Further analysis shows that only a small fraction of the lowest signal-to-noise ratio detections (r > 19.5) are given low scores: Galaxy Zoo Supernovae correctly identifies all SNe with ?8? detections in the PTF imaging data. The Galaxy Zoo Supernovae project has direct applicability to future transient searches, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, by both rapidly identifying candidate transient events and via the training and improvement of existing machine classifier algorithms. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 10 000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo Supernovae project ().

Smith, A. M.; Lynn, S.; Sullivan, M.; Lintott, C. J.; Nugent, P. E.; Botyanszki, J.; Kasliwal, M.; Quimby, R.; Bamford, S. P.; Fortson, L. F.; Schawinski, K.; Hook, I.; Blake, S.; Podsiadlowski, P.; Jönsson, J.; Gal-Yam, A.; Arcavi, I.; Howell, D. A.; Bloom, J. S.; Jacobsen, J.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Law, N. M.; Ofek, E. O.; Walters, R.

2011-04-01

2

Visualizing Galaxy Zoo Classifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy Zoo is a web-based collaborative effort examining Sloan Digital Sky Survey images. In order to make use of the large volume of data generated by SDSS, the task of morphological classification is distributed amongst numerous volunteers via the Galaxy Zoo website. In addition to single galaxy classification, comparative data is also collected through Galaxy Wars. Galaxy Wars seeks to determine why some galaxies have more prominent spirals or bars than others. To avoid biases that naturally affect these visual comparisons, the sample is divided into groups of similar size, brightness, and distance. Volunteers are then asked to judge which of the two selected galaxies exhibits more prominent spiral or bar features. By means of this process, an aggregate ranking system is created. In this poster, a time series visualization is used to understand the process in which galaxy classifications and feature prominence rankings are constructed. By representing galaxy location in an area-preserving projection, spatial relationships can be linked with both features and morphology. Additionally, the interface allows for exploration of redshift / spectral data and provides details on demand for any of the galaxies within the sample.

Parrish, Michael

2010-01-01

3

Galaxy Zoo: dust in spiral galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination dependence of optical colours for 24276 well-resolved Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies visually classified via the Galaxy Zoo project. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4mag for the ugri passbands (estimating 0.3mag of extinction in z band). We split the sample into `bulgy' (early-type) and `discy' (late-type) spirals using the SDSS fracdeV (or fDeV) parameter and show that the average face-on colour of `bulgy' spirals is redder than the average edge-on colour of `discy' spirals. This shows that the observed optical colour of a spiral galaxy is determined almost equally by the spiral type (via the bulge-disc ratio and stellar populations), and reddening due to dust. We find that both luminosity and spiral type affect the total amount of extinction, with discy spirals at Mr ~ -21.5mag having the most reddening - more than twice as much as both the lowest luminosity and most massive, bulge-dominated spirals. An increase in dust content is well known for more luminous galaxies, but the decrease of the trend for the most luminous has not been observed before and may be related to their lower levels of recent star formation. We compare our results with the latest dust attenuation models of Tuffs et al. We find that the model reproduces the observed trends reasonably well but overpredicts the amount of u-band attenuation in edge-on galaxies. This could be an inadequacy in the Milky Way extinction law (when applied to external galaxies), but more likely indicates the need for a wider range of dust-star geometries. We end by discussing the effects of dust on large galaxy surveys and emphasize that these effects will become important as we push to higher precision measurements of galaxy properties and their clustering. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 160000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at http://www.galaxyzoo.org/Volunteers.aspx E-mail: karen.masters@port.ac.uk

Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M.; Keel, William C.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

2010-05-01

4

Galaxy Zoo: passive red spirals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red (or passive) spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on disc-dominated spirals, we construct a sample of truly passive discs (i.e. they are not dust reddened spirals, nor are they dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set of possible transition objects between normal blue spiral galaxies and red early types, making up ~6 per cent of late-type spirals. We use optical images and spectra from Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the physical processes which could have turned these objects red without disturbing their morphology. We find red spirals preferentially in intermediate density regimes. However, there are no obvious correlations between red spiral properties and environment suggesting that environment alone is not sufficient to determine whether a galaxy will become a red spiral. Red spirals are a very small fraction of all spirals at low masses (M* < 1010 Msolar), but are a significant fraction of the spiral population at large stellar masses showing that massive galaxies are red independent of morphology. We confirm that as expected, red spirals have older stellar populations and less recent star formation than the main spiral population. While the presence of spiral arms suggests that a major star formation could not have ceased a long ago (not more than a few Gyr), we show that these are also not recent post-starburst objects (having had no significant star formation in the last Gyr), so star formation must have ceased gradually. Intriguingly, red spirals are roughly four times as likely than the normal spiral population to host optically identified Seyfert/low-ionization nuclear emission region (LINER; at a given stellar mass and even accounting for low-luminosity lines hidden by star formation), with most of the difference coming from the objects with LINER-like emission. We also find a curiously large optical bar fraction in the red spirals (70 +/- 5 verses 27 +/- 5 per cent in blue spirals) suggesting that the cessation of star formation and bar instabilities in spirals are strongly correlated. We conclude by discussing the possible origins of these red spirals. We suggest that they may represent the very oldest spiral galaxies which have already used up their reserves of gas - probably aided by strangulation or starvation, and perhaps also by the effect of bar instabilities moving material around in the disc. We provide an online table listing our full sample of red spirals along with the normal/blue spirals used for comparison. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 160000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at http://www.galaxyzoo.org/Volunteers.aspx E-mail: karen.masters@port.ac.uk

Masters, Karen L.; Mosleh, Moein; Romer, A. Kathy; Nichol, Robert C.; Bamford, Steven P.; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C.; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

2010-06-01

5

Galaxy Zoo: Exploring the Motivations of Citizen Science Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galaxy Zoo citizen science website invites anyone with an Internet connection to participate in research by classifying galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. As of April 2009, more than 200,000 volunteers had made more than 100 million galaxy classifications. In this paper, we present results of a pilot study into the motivations and demographics of Galaxy Zoo volunteers,

M. Jordan Raddick; Georgia Bracey; Pamela L. Gay; Chris J. Lintott; Phil Murray; Kevin Schawinski; Alexander S. Szalay; Jan Vandenberg

2010-01-01

6

An Interpretive Study of Meanings Citizen Scientists Make When Participating in Galaxy Zoo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the Web 2.0 world lurches forward, so do intellectual opportunities for students and the general public to meaningfully engage in the scientific enterprise. In an effort to assess the intrinsic motivation afforded by participation in Galaxy Zoo, we have inductively analyzed more than 1,000 contributions in the Galaxy Zoo Forum and coded posts thematically. We find that participants overwhelmingly want to meaningfully contribute to a larger scientific enterprise as well as have seemingly unique access to high quality, professional astronomical data. While other citizen science projects work through large data sets, Galaxy Zoo is unique in its motivations and retention abilities. Many of these motivations originate in the aesthetic power of astronomical images, which Galaxy Zoo successfully harnesses, while not compromising the scientific value of the project. From the data emerged several trends of motivation, the primary being the sense of community created within the project that promotes professional-amateur collaboration; fulfilling a dream of being an astronomer, physicist, or astronaut; tapping into a potential well of interest created during the space race era; the spiritual aspect generated when the imagination interacts with Galaxy Zoo; and, uniting them all, the aesthetic appeal of the galaxy images. In addition, a very powerful tool also emerged as a method of retention unique to Galaxy Zoo. This tool, known as variable ratio reinforcement in behavioral psychology, uses the most appealing images as positive reinforcement to maintain classification rates over time.

Mankowski, T. S.; Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

2011-09-01

7

Galaxy Zoo: Morphological Classification and Citizen Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a brief overview of the Galaxy Zoo and Zooniverse projects, including a short discussion of the history of, and motivation for, these projects as well as reviewing the science these innovative internet-based citizen science projects have produced so far. We briefly describe the method of applying en-masse human pattern recognition capabilities to complex data in data-intensive research. We

Lucy Fortson; Karen Masters; Robert Nichol; Kirk Borne; Edd Edmondson; Chris Lintott; Jordan Raddick; Kevin Schawinski; John Wallin

2011-01-01

8

Galaxy Zoo: An Experiment in Public Science Participation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interesting question in modern astrophysics research is the relationship between a galaxy's morphology (appearance) and its formation and evolutionary history. Research into this question is complicated by the fact that to get a study sample, researchers must first assign a shape to a large number of galaxies. Classifying a galaxy by shape is nearly impossible for a computer, but easy for a human - however, looking at one million galaxies, one at a time, would take an enormous amount of time. To create such a research sample, we turned to citizen science. We created a web site called Galaxy Zoo (www.galaxyzoo.org) that invites the public to classify the galaxies. New members see a short tutorial and take a short skill test where they classify galaxies of known types. Once they pass the test, they begin to work with the entire sample. The site's interface shows the user an image of a single galaxy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The user clicks a button to classify it. Each classification is stored in a database, associated with the galaxy that it describes. The site has become enormously popular with amateur astronomers, teachers, and others interested in astronomy. So far, more than 110,000 users have joined. We have started a forum where users share images of their favorite galaxies, ask science questions of each other and the "zookeepers," and share classification advice. In a separate poster, we will share science results from the site's first six months of operation. In this poster, we will describe the site as an experiment in public science outreach. We will share user feedback, discuss our plans to study the user community more systematically, and share advice on how to work with citizen science projects to the mutual benefit of both professional and citizen scientists.

Raddick, Jordan; Lintott, C. J.; Schawinski, K.; Thomas, D.; Nichol, R. C.; Andreescu, D.; Bamford, S.; Land, K. R.; Murray, P.; Slosar, A.; Szalay, A. S.; Vandenberg, J.; Galaxy Zoo Team

2007-12-01

9

Galaxy Zoo: Exploring the Motivations of Citizen Science Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galaxy Zoo citizen science website invites anyone with an Internet\\u000aconnection to participate in research by classifying galaxies from the Sloan\\u000aDigital Sky Survey. As of April 2009, more than 200,000 volunteers had made\\u000amore than 100 million galaxy classifications. In this paper, we present results\\u000aof a pilot study into the motivations and demographics of Galaxy Zoo\\u000avolunteers,

M. Jordan Raddick; Georgia Bracey; Pamela L. Gay; Chris J. Lintott; Phil Murray; Kevin Schawinski; Alexander S. Szalay; Jan Vandenberg

2009-01-01

10

Galaxy Zoo: Morphological Classification and Citizen Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a brief overview of the Galaxy Zoo and Zooniverse projects, including a short discussion on the history of, and motivation for, these projects as well as reviewing the science these innovative Internet-based citizen science projects have produced so far. We briefly describe the method of applying en-masse human pattern recognition capabilities to complex data in data-intensive research. We also provide a discussion on the lessons learned from developing and running these community-based projects including thoughts on future applications of this methodology. This review is intended to give the reader a quick and simple introduction to the Zooniverse.

Fortson, Lucy; Masters, Karen; Nichol, Robert; Borne, Kirk D.; Edmondson, Edward M.; Lintott, Chris; Raddick, Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Wallin, John

2012-03-01

11

Galaxy Zoo: chiral correlation function of galaxy spins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy Zoo is the first study of nearby galaxies that contains reliable information about the spiral sense of rotation of galaxy arms for a sizeable number of galaxies. We measure the correlation function of spin chirality (the sense in which galaxies appear to be spinning) of face-on spiral galaxies in angular, real and projected spaces. Our results indicate a hint of positive correlation at separations less than ~0.5 Mpc at a statistical significance of 2?-3?. This is the first experimental evidence for chiral correlation of spins. Within the tidal torque theory, it indicates that the inertia tensors of nearby galaxies are correlated. This is complementary to the studies of nearby spin axis correlations that probe the correlations of the tidal field. Theoretical interpretation is made difficult by the small distances at which the correlations are detected, implying that substructure might play a significant role, and our necessary selection of face-on spiral galaxies, rather than a general volume-limited sample. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 100000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their individual contributions are acknowledged at http://www.galaxyzoo.org/Volunteers.aspx. E-mail: anze@berkeley.edu

Slosar, Anže; Land, Kate; Bamford, Steven; Lintott, Chris; Andreescu, Dan; Murray, Phil; Nichol, Robert; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alex; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

2009-01-01

12

Galaxy Zoo: Exploring the Motivations of Citizen Science Volunteers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Galaxy Zoo citizen science website invites anyone with an Internet connection to participate in research by classifying galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. As of April 2009, more than 200,000 volunteers have made more than 100 million galaxy classifications. In this article, we present results of a pilot study into the motivations and…

Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

2010-01-01

13

Galaxy Zoo: reproducing galaxy morphologies via machine learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present morphological classifications obtained using machine learning for objects in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR6 that have been classified by Galaxy Zoo into three classes, namely early types, spirals and point sources/artefacts. An artificial neural network is trained on a subset of objects classified by the human eye, and we test whether the machine-learning algorithm can reproduce the human classifications for the rest of the sample. We find that the success of the neural network in matching the human classifications depends crucially on the set of input parameters chosen for the machine-learning algorithm. The colours and parameters associated with profile fitting are reasonable in separating the objects into three classes. However, these results are considerably improved when adding adaptive shape parameters as well as concentration and texture. The adaptive moments, concentration and texture parameters alone cannot distinguish between early type galaxies and the point sources/artefacts. Using a set of 12 parameters, the neural network is able to reproduce the human classifications to better than 90 per cent for all three morphological classes. We find that using a training set that is incomplete in magnitude does not degrade our results given our particular choice of the input parameters to the network. We conclude that it is promising to use machine-learning algorithms to perform morphological classification for the next generation of wide-field imaging surveys and that the Galaxy Zoo catalogue provides an invaluable training set for such purposes. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 100000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at http://www.galaxyzoo.org/Volunteers.aspx. E-mail: mbanerji@ast.cam.ac.uk ‡ Einstein Fellow.

Banerji, Manda; Lahav, Ofer; Lintott, Chris J.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Schawinski, Kevin; Bamford, Steven P.; Andreescu, Dan; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alex; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

2010-07-01

14

Blue early-type galaxies in Galaxy Zoo (Schawinski+, 2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of a population of nearby, blue early-type galaxies with high star formation rates (0.5Galaxy Zoo for Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 and their u-r colour. We select a volume-limited sample in the redshift range 0.02

Schawinski, K.; Lintott, C.; Thomas, D.; Sarzi, M.; Andreescu, D.; Bamford, S. P.; Kaviraj, S.; Khochfar, S.; Land, K.; Murray, P.; Nichol, R. C.; Raddick, M. J.; Slosar, A.; Szalay, A.; Vandenberg, J.; Yi, S. K.

2011-02-01

15

Morphological types from Galaxy Zoo 1 (Willett+, 2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphological classifications of galaxies from Galaxy Zoo 2. Each galaxy has several objIDs (from SDSS) and positions that can be used for cross-matching. Morphological classifications include six parameters for each of 37 categories: unweighted and weighted versions of both the total number of votes and the vote fraction for that response, the vote fraction after being debiased, and flags for systems identified as being in clean samples. (5 data files).

Willett, K. W.; Lintott, C. J.; Bamford, S. P.; Masters, K. L.; Simmons, B. D.; Casteels, K. R. V.; Edmondson, E. M.; Fortson, L. F.; Kaviraj, S.; Keel, W. C.; Melvin, T.; Nichol, R. C.; Raddick, M. J.; Schawinski, K.; Simpson, R. J.; Skibba, R. A.; Smith, A. M.; Thomas, D.

2013-09-01

16

Mining the Galaxy Zoo Database: Machine Learning Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new Zooniverse initiative is addressing the data flood in the sciences through a transformative partnership between professional scientists, volunteer citizen scientists, and machines. As part of this project, we are exploring the application of machine learning techniques to data mining problems associated with the large and growing database of volunteer science results gathered by the Galaxy Zoo citizen science

Kirk D. Borne; J. Wallin; A. Vedachalam; S. Baehr; C. Lintott; D. Darg; A. Smith; L. Fortson

2010-01-01

17

Mining the Galaxy Zoo Database: Machine Learning Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new Zooniverse initiative is addressing the data flood in the sciences through a transformative partnership between professional scientists, volunteer citizen scientists, and machines. As part of this project, we are exploring the application of machine learning techniques to data mining problems associated with the large and growing database of volunteer science results gathered by the Galaxy Zoo citizen science project. We will describe the basic challenge, some machine learning approaches, and early results. One of the motivators for this study is the acquisition (through the Galaxy Zoo results database) of approximately 100 million classification labels for roughly one million galaxies, yielding a tremendously large and rich set of training examples for improving automated galaxy morphological classification algorithms. In our first case study, the goal is to learn which morphological and photometric features in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database correlate most strongly with user-selected galaxy morphological class. As a corollary to this study, we are also aiming to identify which galaxy parameters in the SDSS database correspond to galaxies that have been the most difficult to classify (based upon large dispersion in their volunter-provided classifications). Our second case study will focus on similar data mining analyses and machine leaning algorithms applied to the Galaxy Zoo catalog of merging and interacting galaxies. The outcomes of this project will have applications in future large sky surveys, such as the LSST (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope) project, which will generate a catalog of 20 billion galaxies and will produce an additional astronomical alert database of approximately 100 thousand events each night for 10 years -- the capabilities and algorithms that we are exploring will assist in the rapid characterization and classification of such massive data streams. This research has been supported in part through NSF award #0941610.

Borne, Kirk D.; Wallin, J.; Vedachalam, A.; Baehr, S.; Lintott, C.; Darg, D.; Smith, A.; Fortson, L.

2010-01-01

18

Galaxy Zoo: Black Hole Growth And Its Connection To Host Galaxy Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The co-evolution of galaxies and their central black holes via feedback mechanisms is still poorly understood. We use data from large surveys of the local Universe (SDSS & Galaxy Zoo) to show that the galaxy-black hole connection is fundamentally different in early- and late-type galaxies. Black hole accretion in early-type galaxies is proceeding at high Eddington ratios and occurs preferentially

Kevin Schawinski; C. Urry; S. Virani; P. Coppi; E. Treister; C. Cardamone; N. P. Ross; C. Lintott

2010-01-01

19

Galaxy Zoo Green Peas: discovery of a class of compact extremely star-forming galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate a class of rapidly growing emission line galaxies, known as `Green Peas', first noted by volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project because of their peculiar bright green colour and small size, unresolved in Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. Their appearance is due to very strong optical emission lines, namely [OIII] lambda5007Å, with an unusually large equivalent width of

Carolin N. Cardamone; Kevin Schawinski; Marc Sarzi; Steven P. Bamford; Nicola Bennert; C. M. Urry; Chris Lintott; William C. Keel; John Parejko; Robert C. Nichol; Daniel Thomas; Dan Andreescu; Phil Murray; M. Jordan Raddick; Anze Slosar; Alex Szalay; Jan Vandenberg

2009-01-01

20

Morphological types from Galaxy Zoo 1 (Lintott+, 2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphology is a powerful indicator of a galaxy's dynamical and merger history. It is strongly correlated with many physical parameters, including mass, star formation history and the distribution of mass. The Galaxy Zoo project collected simple morphological classifications of nearly 900000 galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, contributed by hundreds of thousands of volunteers. This large number of classifications allows us to exclude classifier error, and measure the influence of subtle biases inherent in morphological classification. This paper presents the data collected by the project, alongside measures of classification accuracy and bias. The data are now publicly available and full catalogues can be downloaded in electronic format from http://data.galaxyzoo.org . (7 data files).

Lintott, C.; Schawinski, K.; Bamford, S.; Slosar, A.; Land, K.; Thomas, D.; Edmondson, E.; Masters, K.; Nichol, R. C.; Raddick, M. J.; Szalay, A.; Andreescu, D.; Murray, P.; Vandenberg, J.

2011-02-01

21

A Galaxy Zoo - WorldWide Telescope Mashup: Expanding User Defined Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new way of exploring your favorite Galaxy Zoo galaxies within the context of the sky using Microsoft Research's WorldWide Telescope. Galaxy Zoo has a fantastic community that is eager to learn and contribute to science through morphological classifications of galaxies. WorldWide Telescope is an interactive observatory that allows users to explore the sky. WorldWide Telescope uses images

Jarod Luebbert; M. Sands; J. Fay; A. Smith; P. L. Gay

2010-01-01

22

Galaxy Zoo: Two Evolutionary Pathways and Quenching Modes for Early- and Late-type Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use Sloan Digital Sky Survey data and Galaxy Zoo citizen scientist classifications of galaxy morphologies to show that the early- and late-type galaxy population follow very different evolutionary trajectories on the color-mass diagram that are due to different quenching or gas reservoir destruction modes. Early-type galaxies quench rapidly and must undergo a rapid destruction of their gas reservoir, while late-type galaxies slowly exhaust their reservoir by star formation alone following the Schmidt law. These two quenching modes are reflected in the star formation histories and observed distributions on the color-mass diagram.

Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. M.; Lintott, C. J.; Simmons, B.; Kaviraj, S.; Masters, K. L.; Fortson, L.; Willett, K.; Cardamone, C. N.; Skibba, R. A.; Keel, W. C.; Nichol, R.; Galaxy Zoo Team

2013-01-01

23

Galaxy Zoo 1: data release of morphological classifications for nearly 900 000 galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphology is a powerful indicator of a galaxy's dynamical and merger history. It is strongly correlated with many physical parameters, including mass, star formation history and the distribution of mass. The Galaxy Zoo project collected simple morphological classifications of nearly 900 000 galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, contributed by hundreds of thousands of volunteers. This large number of classifications allows us to exclude classifier error, and measure the influence of subtle biases inherent in morphological classification. This paper presents the data collected by the project, alongside measures of classification accuracy and bias. The data are now publicly available and full catalogues can be downloaded in electronic format from . This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 100 000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at

Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin; Bamford, Steven; Slosar, Anå¾e; Land, Kate; Thomas, Daniel; Edmondson, Edd; Masters, Karen; Nichol, Robert C.; Raddick, M. Jordan; Szalay, Alex; Andreescu, Dan; Murray, Phil; Vandenberg, Jan

2011-01-01

24

Galaxy Zoo: a correlation between the coherence of galaxy spin chirality and star formation efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the finding of a correlation between the past star formation activity of galaxies and the degree to which the rotation axes of neighbouring galaxies are aligned. This is obtained by cross-correlating star formation histories, derived using the multiple optimized parameter estimation and data compression (MOPED) algorithm, and the spatial coherence of spin direction (chirality), as determined by the Galaxy Zoo project, for a sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies. Our findings suggest that spiral galaxies, which formed the majority of their stars early (z > 2), tend to display coherent rotation over scales of ~10Mpch-1. The correlation is weaker for galaxies with significant recent star formation. We find evidence for this alignment at more than the 5? level, but no correlation with other galaxy stellar properties. This finding can be explained within the context of hierarchical tidal-torque theory if the SDSS galaxies harbouring the majority of the old stellar population were formed in the past, in the same filament and at about the same time. Galaxies with significant recent star formation instead are in the field, thus influenced by the general tidal field that will align them in random directions, or have had a recent merger that would promote star formation but change the spin direction. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 100000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their individual contributions are acknowledged at http://www.galaxyzoo.org/Volunteers.aspx. E-mail: raulj@astro.princeton.edu

Jimenez, Raul; Slosar, Anže; Verde, Licia; Bamford, Steven; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin; Nichol, Robert; Andreescu, Dan; Land, Kate; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Szalay, Alex; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

2010-05-01

25

A Galaxy Zoo - WorldWide Telescope Mashup: Expanding User Defined Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new way of exploring your favorite Galaxy Zoo galaxies within the context of the sky using Microsoft Research's WorldWide Telescope. Galaxy Zoo has a fantastic community that is eager to learn and contribute to science through morphological classifications of galaxies. WorldWide Telescope is an interactive observatory that allows users to explore the sky. WorldWide Telescope uses images from the world's best telescopes, including the galaxies of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. WorldWide Telescope provides a fantastic sense of size and distance that is hard to experience in Galaxy Zoo. Creating tours from favorite galaxies directly from Galaxy Zoo aims to solve this dilemma.The incorporation of Galaxy Zoo and WorldWide telescope provides a great resource for users to learn more about the galaxies they are classifying. Users can now explore the areas around certain galaxies and view information about that location from within WorldWide Telescope. Not only does this encourage self-motivated research but after tours are created they can be shared with anyone. We hope this will help spread citizen science to different audiences via email, Facebook, and Twitter.Without the WorldWide Telescope team at Microsoft Research this project would not have been possible. Please go start exploring at http://wwt.galaxyzoo.org. This project was funded through the Microsoft Research Academic Program.

Luebbert, Jarod; Sands, M.; Fay, J.; Smith, A.; Gay, P. L.; Galaxy Zoo Team

2010-01-01

26

Galaxy Zoo 2: A Detailed Morphological Catalog of 295,000 Galaxies from SDSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galaxy Zoo 2 (GZ2) citizen science project was designed to obtain detailed morphological classifications of roughly a quarter million bright galaxies in the SDSS North Galactic Cap. This was enabled by more than 16 million classifications of images by 80,000 volunteer citizen scientists. Galaxy Zoo 2 greatly extends the original classifications of the Galaxy Zoo project (which primarily identified spiral and elliptical galaxies) by adding quantification of details such as oblateness, bars, bulge strength and shape, spiral arm multiplicity and tightness, and the existence of rarer features such as mergers, lenses, and dust lanes. We present preliminary results on our debiasing methods, addressing both biases from individual citizen scientist classifiers and intrinsic biases as a function of redshift, size, and absolute magnitude. We compare the GZ2 data to catalogs produced by professional astronomers and by machine-learning algorithms. Citizen science results can be directly compared to these techniques by examining the galaxies that appear in both samples. The weighted vote fractions in GZ2 show good agreement with expert classifications for fine structure morphology, particularly in identifying galactic bars and prominent bulges. The bulge classification in particular is shown to be a reasonable proxy from which T-Types can be derived using GZ2 data. A notable strength of the final catalog will be its size, with more than an order of magnitude more galaxies than extant morphological catalogs. GZ2 will be a unique resource to establish the full panoply of galaxy morphologies, as well as a baseline for studying how galaxies evolve over cosmic timescales.

Willett, Kyle; Lintott, C. J.; Bamford, S. P.; Masters, K. L.; Simmons, B.; Fortson, L.; Schawinski, K.; Simpson, R.

2013-01-01

27

An Interpretive Study of Meanings Citizen Scientists Make When Participating in Galaxy Zoo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A particularly successful effort to engage the public in science has been to move the nearly countless galaxies imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to citizen scientists in a project known widely as Galaxy Zoo (URL; http://www.galaxyzoo.org). By examining the motivations, methods and appeal of Galaxy Zoo to the participating public, other models of citizen science might be purposefully formulated to take advantage of the success exhibited in Galaxy Zoo. In addition, we want to understand the reasons people engage in science in informal settings in order to better enhance teaching methods in formal settings. We pursued an investigation of the underlying reasons for the success of Galaxy Zoo revealed by inductively analyzing contributor's posts and discussions through the accompanying Galaxy Zoo online bulletin board Using a grounded theory approach, we learned that many of these motivations originate in the aesthetic power of astronomical images or the opportunity to become an empowered and contributing scientist, which Galaxy Zoo successfully harnesses while not compromising the scientific value of the project.

Mankowski, Trent A.

28

Galaxy Zoo: The Environmental Dependence of Bars and Bulges in Disc Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of the environmental dependence of bars and bulges in disc galaxies, using a volume-limited catalogue of 16397 galaxies at z<0.06 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that have visual morphologies from the Galaxy Zoo 2 project. We confirm that the likelihood of having a bar or bulge in disc galaxies increases when the galaxies have redder optical colours and larger stellar masses, and observe a transition in the bar and bulge likelihoods, such that massive disc galaxies with high stellar mass surface densities, old stellar populations, and low star formation rates and gas masses are more likely to host bulges and bars. However, we find that bar and bulge likelihood are not monotonically correlated with each other. In addition, while most bulge-dominated disc galaxies are massive and on the 'red sequence' of the colour-magnitude diagram, a wider variety of optical colours is seen in galaxies that host bars. We use two-point galaxy clustering methods to demonstrate statistically significant environmental correlations of both barred and bulged galaxies, from projected separations of 150 kpc/h to 3 Mpc/h. We demonstrate that a large fraction (30-90%) of the bar-environment correlation is explained by more massive dark matter haloes hosting redder disc galaxies which in turn are more likely to have bars. This is shown with two independent tests: (1) by shuffling the bar likelihood at a given colour; and (2) using an SDSS-like mock galaxy catalogue in which bar likelihoods are assigned based on the model galaxy colour. In contrast, the environmental dependence of stellar mass explains less of the bar-environment correlation. Finally, by analyzing the clustering measurements with halo occupation models, we argue that unbarred galaxies are dominated by central galaxies in low-mass haloes, while the satellite disc galaxies in more massive haloes are more likely to form bars.

Skibba, Ramin A.; Masters, K. L.; Nichol, R. C.; Zehavi, I.; Hoyle, B.; Edmondson, E. M.; Zoo, Galaxy

2012-01-01

29

A Zoo of Online Citizen Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its launch in 2007, Galaxy Zoo has introduced over 180,000 citizen scientists to the galaxies of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Together, this international team (a team larger than the Italian Army!), has produced over 70 million galaxy morphology classifications that have been used in more than 2 dozen research projects. Project science highlights have included: the discovery of what is believed to be the first known light echo of a now dormant quasar; identification of what is potentially a new type of galaxy; and a new understanding of the roles of morphology and colour in the evolution of the galaxy population. These later discoveries were made possible by the collaborative nature of the Galaxy Zoo project. Not only have participants in Galaxy Zoo, self-styled Zooites, been asked to classify galaxy morphologies, but they have also been encouraged to share on the Galaxy Zoo forums information on anything unusual they find while classifying. Through the forums, this project has empowered Zooites to explore their own questions and to partner with researchers on topics far beyond what was envisioned in the first days the project. With the launch of the Galaxy Zoo 2 site in February 2009, the Galaxy Zoo collaboration asked new questions and added new features designed to better facilitate discoveries by the public. In addition, new features coming online during the summer of 2009 are designed to streamline communications and make it easier for teachers to bring citizen science into their classroom in the International Year of Astronomy. In this talk, we highlight the science of Galaxy Zoo 1 & 2, demonstrate new features being introduced, and discuss plans to extend the Galaxy Zoo concept into new areas of science.

Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, C.

2009-05-01

30

Dreamers, Poets, Citizens, and Scientists: Motivations for Engaging in GalaxyZoo Citizen Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

A particularly successful effort to engage the public in science has been to move the nearly countless galaxies imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to citizen scientists in a project known widely as Galaxy Zoo (URL; http:\\/\\/www.galaxyzoo.org). To everyone's surprise, the unexpectedly large participation in the website has caused the data set, numbering over a million images, to be

S. J. Slater; T. Mankowski; T. F. Slater; Center For Astronomy

2010-01-01

31

Galaxy Zoo: are we observing an epoch of bar formation in massive disk galaxies?.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine photometric and spectroscopic data from from Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) with visual galaxy classifications from Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) to produce a volume (0.4galaxies, with 330 of these identified as hosting a barred structure. We find that the fraction of bars found in disk galaxies decreases towards higher redshifts, confirming the redshift evolution trend seen by \\cite{2008ApJ...675.1141S}. We extend this trend to higher redshifts than previously seen (from z?0.84 to z=1.0) for such a sample size, finding that the bar fraction decreases across the timescales we explore; from fbar ?0.22 at tlookback ? 4.2Gyrs (z?0.4) to fbar ? 0.06 at tlookback ?7.8Gyrs (z?1.0). To explore whether this evolution depends on stellar mass, we split our disk sample into three stellar mass bins (9.7galaxies, while the bar fraction of low mass galaxies remains constant across the whole epoch explored. We extend our results to include a low redshift sample of disk galaxies \\citep{2012MNRAS.424.2180M}, which shows that the higher bar fraction in the local universe is also due to the more massive galaxies, while the low mass galaxies exhibit a similar bar fraction as seen in our high redshift sample of galaxies. We suggest that the more massive galaxies become disk dominated and dynamically cool sooner than lower mass galaxies, thus allowing them to form and sustain a barred structure. We also suggest that disk galaxies are reaching a point where they are less dominated by violent galaxy-galaxy interactions, and that secular processes begin to dominate their evolution, and so this produces and epoch of bar formation in the most massive galaxies at z=0.8- 1.

Melvin, T.; Masters, K.; the Galaxy Zoo Team

32

Galaxy Zoo 2: detailed morphological classifications for 304 122 galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the data release for Galaxy Zoo 2 (GZ2), a citizen science project with more than 16 million morphological classifications of 304 122 galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Morphology is a powerful probe for quantifying a galaxy's dynamical history; however, automatic classifications of morphology (either by computer analysis of images or by using other physical parameters as proxies) still have drawbacks when compared to visual inspection. The large number of images available in current surveys makes visual inspection of each galaxy impractical for individual astronomers. GZ2 uses classifications from volunteer citizen scientists to measure morphologies for all galaxies in the DR7 Legacy survey with mr > 17, in addition to deeper images from SDSS Stripe 82. While the original GZ2 project identified galaxies as early-types, late-types or mergers, GZ2 measures finer morphological features. These include bars, bulges and the shapes of edge-on disks, as well as quantifying the relative strengths of galactic bulges and spiral arms. This paper presents the full public data release for the project, including measures of accuracy and bias. The majority (?90 per cent) of GZ2 classifications agree with those made by professional astronomers, especially for morphological T-types, strong bars and arm curvature. Both the raw and reduced data products can be obtained in electronic format at http://data.galaxyzoo.org.

Willett, Kyle W.; Lintott, Chris J.; Bamford, Steven P.; Masters, Karen L.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Edmondson, Edward M.; Fortson, Lucy F.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Keel, William C.; Melvin, Thomas; Nichol, Robert C.; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Simpson, Robert J.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Smith, Arfon M.; Thomas, Daniel

2013-11-01

33

Galaxy Zoo: building the low-mass end of the red sequence with local post-starburst galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a study of local post-starburst galaxies (PSGs) using the photometric and spectroscopic observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the results from the Galaxy Zoo project. We find that the majority of our local PSG population have neither early- nor late- type morphologies but occupy a well-defined space within the colour-stellar mass diagram, most notably, the

O. Ivy Wong; K. Schawinski; S. Kaviraj; K. L. Masters; R. C. Nichol; C. Lintott; W. C. Keel; D. Darg; S. P. Bamford; D. Andreescu; P. Murray; M. J. Raddick; A. Szalay; D. Thomas; J. VandenBerg

2011-01-01

34

GALAXY ZOO MORPHOLOGY AND PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

It has recently been demonstrated that one can accurately derive galaxy morphology from particular primary and secondary isophotal shape estimates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging catalog. This was accomplished by applying Machine Learning techniques to the Galaxy Zoo morphology catalog. Using the broad bandpass photometry of the SDSS in combination with precise knowledge of galaxy morphology should help in estimating more accurate photometric redshifts for galaxies. Using the Galaxy Zoo separation for spirals and ellipticals in combination with SDSS photometry we attempt to calculate photometric redshifts. In the best case we find that the root-mean-square error for luminous red galaxies classified as ellipticals is as low as 0.0118. Given these promising results we believe better photometric redshift estimates for all galaxies in the SDSS ({approx}350 million) will be feasible if researchers can also leverage their derived morphologies via Machine Learning. These initial results look to be promising for those interested in estimating weak lensing, baryonic acoustic oscillation, and other fields dependent upon accurate photometric redshifts.

Way, M. J. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

2011-06-10

35

Revealing Galactic scale bars with the help of Galaxy Zoo and ALFALFA .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use visual classifications of the brightest 250,000 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main Galaxy Sample provided by citizen scientists via the Galaxy Zoo project (www.galaxyzoo.org, Lintott et al. 2008) to identify a sample of local disc galaxies with reliable bar identifications. These data, combined with information on the atomic gas content from the ALFALFA survey (Haynes et al. 2011) show that disc galaxies with higher gas content have lower bar fractions. We use a gas deficiency parameter to show that disc galaxies with more/less gas than expected for their stellar mass are less/more likely to host bars. Furthermore, we see that at a fixed gas content there is no residual correlation between bar fraction and stellar mass. We argue that this suggests previously observed correlations between galaxy colour/stellar mass and (strong) bar fraction (e.g. from the sample in Masters et al. 2011, and also see Nair & Abraham 2010) could be driven by the interaction between bars and the gas content of the disc, since more massive, optically redder disc galaxies are observed to have lower gas contents. Furthermore we see evidence that at a fixed gas content the global colours of barred galaxies are redder than those of unbarred galaxies. We suggest that this could be due to the exchange of angular momentum beyond co-rotation which might stop a replenishment of gas from external sources, and act as a source of feedback to temporarily halt or reduce the star formation in the outer parts of barred discs. These results (published as Masters et al. 2012) combined with those of Skibba et al. (2012), who use the same sample to show a clear (but subtle and complicated) environmental dependence of the bar fraction in disc galaxies, suggest that bars are intimately linked to the evolution of disc galaxies.

Masters, K. L.; the Galaxy Zoo Team

36

Galaxy Zoo: The Fundamentally Different Co-Evolution of Supermassive Black Holes and Their Early and Late-Type Host Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and visual classifications of morphology from the Galaxy Zoo project to study black hole growth in the nearby universe (z 1040 erg s-1 in early- and late-type galaxies is fundamentally different. AGN host galaxies as a population have a broad range of stellar masses (1010-1011 M sun), reside in the green

Kevin Schawinski; C. Megan Urry; Shanil Virani; Paolo Coppi; Steven P. Bamford; Ezequiel Treister; Chris J. Lintott; Marc Sarzi; William C. Keel; Sugata Kaviraj; Carolin N. Cardamone; Karen L. Masters; Nicholas P. Ross; Dan Andreescu; Phil Murray; Robert C. Nichol; M. Jordan Raddick; Anze Slosar; Alex S. Szalay; Daniel Thomas; Jan Vandenberg

2010-01-01

37

Moon Zoo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Moon Zoo website is "to provide detailed crater counts for as much of the Moon's surface as possible." On the website, interested parties can help out with this effort by examining images of the moon's surface and providing feedback to be used by the team of researchers in charge of the Moon Zoo project. First-time visitors should click on the "How To Take Part" for a tutorial that will help determine which project they might be best suited for. Visitors who wish to take part in the project will need to register on the website, and that process only takes a few minutes. Moving on, the website has an online forum where users can trade information as well as a blog.

38

Galaxy Zoo: the properties of merging galaxies in the nearby Universe - local environments, colours, masses, star formation rates and AGN activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the study of Darg et al., we explore the environments, optical colours, stellar masses, star formation and active galactic nucleus activity in a sample of 3003 pairs of merging galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using visual classifications from the Galaxy Zoo project. While Darg et al. found that the spiral-to-elliptical ratio in (major) mergers appeared higher than that of the global galaxy population, no significant differences are found between the environmental distributions of mergers and a randomly selected control sample. This makes the high occurrence of spirals in mergers unlikely to be an environmental effect and must therefore arise from differing time-scales of detectability for spirals and ellipticals. We find that merging galaxies have a wider spread in colour than the global galaxy population, with a significant blue tail resulting from intense star formation in spiral mergers. Galaxies classed as star-forming using their emission-line properties have average star formation rates approximately doubled by the merger process though star formation is negligibly enhanced in merging elliptical galaxies. We conclude that the internal properties of galaxies significantly affect the time-scales over which merging systems can be detected (as suggested by recent theoretical studies) which leads to spirals being `over-observed' in mergers. We also suggest that the transition mass 3 × 1010Msolar, noted by Kauffmann et al., below which ellipticals are rare could be linked to disc survival/destruction in mergers.

Darg, D. W.; Kaviraj, S.; Lintott, C. J.; Schawinski, K.; Sarzi, M.; Bamford, S.; Silk, J.; Andreescu, D.; Murray, P.; Nichol, R. C.; Raddick, M. J.; Slosar, A.; Szalay, A. S.; Thomas, D.; Vandenberg, J.

2010-01-01

39

GALAXY ZOO: THE FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT CO-EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND THEIR EARLY- AND LATE-TYPE HOST GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and visual classifications of morphology from the Galaxy Zoo project to study black hole growth in the nearby universe (z < 0.05) and to break down the active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxy population by color, stellar mass, and morphology. We find that the black hole growth at luminosities L[O{sub III}]>10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} in early- and late-type galaxies is fundamentally different. AGN host galaxies as a population have a broad range of stellar masses (10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} M{sub sun}), reside in the green valley of the color-mass diagram and their central black holes have median masses around 10{sup 6.5} M{sub sun}. However, by comparing early- and late-type AGN host galaxies to their non-active counterparts, we find several key differences: in early-type galaxies, it is preferentially the galaxies with the least massive black holes that are growing, while in late-type galaxies, it is preferentially the most massive black holes that are growing. The duty cycle of AGNs in early-type galaxies is strongly peaked in the green valley below the low-mass end (10{sup 10} M{sub sun}) of the red sequence at stellar masses where there is a steady supply of blue cloud progenitors. The duty cycle of AGNs in late-type galaxies on the other hand peaks in massive (10{sup 11} M{sub sun}) green and red late-types which generally do not have a corresponding blue cloud population of similar mass. At high-Eddington ratios (L/L{sub Edd}>0.1), the only population with a substantial fraction of AGNs are the low-mass green valley early-type galaxies. Finally, the Milky Way likely resides in the 'sweet spot' on the color-mass diagram where the AGN duty cycle of late-type galaxies is highest. We discuss the implications of these results for our understanding of the role of AGNs in the evolution of galaxies.

Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Virani, Shanil; Coppi, Paolo; Cardamone, Carolin N. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Bamford, Steven P. [Centre for Astronomy and Particle Theory, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Treister, Ezequiel [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Lintott, Chris J.; Kaviraj, Sugata [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Sarzi, Marc [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Keel, William C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 206 Gallalee Hall, 514 University Blvd., University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0324 (United States); Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Thomas, Daniel [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Mercantile House, Hampshire Terrace, Portsmouth, PO1 2EG (United Kingdom); Ross, Nicholas P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Andreescu, Dan [LinkLab, 4506 Graystone Avenue, Bronx, NY 10471 (United States); Murray, Phil [Fingerprint Digital Media, 9 Victoria Close, Newtownards, Co. Down, Northern Ireland, BT23 7GY (United Kingdom); Raddick, M. Jordan; Szalay, Alex S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Slosar, Anze, E-mail: kevin.schawinski@yale.ed [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2010-03-01

40

Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Soros Foundation's Open Society Institute has sponsored a series of breakfast forums over the course of the last year, and they offer four of them here. All four focus on a controversial news topic: the death penalty, faith based initiatives, stem cell research, and most recently, a discussion with Benjamin Barber, author of Jihad vs. McWorld, entitled "Is Democratization a Response to Terrorism?" Users can listen to most of the forums (though we had trouble with the death penalty audio files). A couple of the forums also have bulletin board discussions and links to related Web resources.

2001-01-01

41

The Galaxy Zoo survey for giant AGN-ionized clouds: past and present black hole accretion events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some active galactic nuclei (AGN) are surrounded by extended emission-line regions (EELRs), which trace both the illumination pattern of escaping radiation and its history over the light travel time from the AGN to the gas. From a new set of such EELRs, we present evidence that the AGN in many Seyfert galaxies undergo luminous episodes 0.2-2 ? years in duration. Motivated by the discovery of the spectacular nebula known as Hanny's Voorwerp, ionized by a powerful AGN which has apparently faded dramatically within ? years, Galaxy Zoo volunteers have carried out both targeted and serendipitous searches for similar emission-line clouds around low-redshift galaxies. We present the resulting list of candidates and describe spectroscopy identifying 19 galaxies with AGN-ionized regions at projected radii ? kpc. This search recovered known EELRs (such as Mrk 78, Mrk 266 and NGC 5252) and identified additional previously unknown cases, one with detected emission to ? kpc. One new Sy 2 was identified. At least 14/19 are in interacting or merging systems, suggesting that tidal tails are a prime source of distant gas out of the galaxy plane to be ionized by an AGN. We see a mix of one- and two-sided structures, with observed cone angles from 23? to 112?. We consider the energy balance in the ionized clouds, with lower and upper bounds on ionizing luminosity from recombination and ionization-parameter arguments, and estimate the luminosity of the core from the far-infrared data. The implied ratio of ionizing radiation seen by the clouds to that emitted by the nucleus, on the assumption of a non-variable nuclear source, ranges from 0.02 to ?; 7/19 exceed unity. Small values fit well with a heavily obscured AGN in which only a small fraction of the ionizing output escapes to be traced by surrounding gas. However, large values may require that the AGN has faded over tens of thousands of years, giving us several examples of systems in which such dramatic long-period variation has occurred; this is the only current technique for addressing these time-scales in AGN history. The relative numbers of faded and non-faded objects we infer, and the projected extents of the ionized regions, give our estimate (0.2-2 ? years) for the length of individual bright phases.

Keel, William C.; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Bennert, Vardha N.; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J.; Lynn, Stuart; Pancoast, Anna; Harris, Chelsea; Nierenberg, A. M.; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Proctor, Richard

2012-02-01

42

Zoo Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use the Zoo Calendar (page 1 of PDF) to involve learners in interdisciplinary, whole language, and writing activities about ecological concepts. Each 30-45 minute activity emphasizes the concept of biodiversity and demonstrates that science is all around us. These activities can be conducted before or after a visit to a zoo (or not at all), in a large or small group setting, and as a month long or shorter (or longer) unit.

Baltimore, The M.

2012-06-26

43

Soda Zoo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visit the SodaZoo! Check out other peopleÂs creations, and then design your own. If you like racing, you can also choose to race your Soda constructions. You will need a Java Virtual Machine (VM) installed and enabled to design your own creations.

44

Our Zoo to You  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An innovative zoo outreach program, Our Zoo to You, places zoo animals in local classrooms for extended observation periods. With guidance and support from zoo staff, students are able to safely experience a variety of animals, including geckos, snakes, legless lizards, horned toads, ringneck doves, ferrets, hedgehogs, African brown millipedes,…

Wickless, Mimi; Brooks, David W.; Abuloum, Amjad; Mancuso, Brian; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M.; Mayo, Lois

2003-01-01

45

Our Zoo to You  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An innovative zoo outreach program, Our Zoo to You, places zoo animals in local classrooms for extended observation periods. With guidance and support from zoo staff, students are able to safely experience a variety of animals, including geckos, snakes, legless lizards, horned toads, ringneck doves, ferrets, hedgehogs, African brown millipedes, and Madagascar hissing cockroaches.

Mayo, Lois; Abuloum, Amjad; Mancuso, Brian; Brooks, David W.; Wickless, Mimi; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M.

2003-09-01

46

Group 10 - Zoos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BACKGROUND People have different opinions about zoos. Some feel it is animal cruelty. Investigate how zoos began and what purposes they serve today. TASK - Investigate how zoos began and what purposes they serve today. Explain to the class both sides of the issue of whether animals in zoos is cruelty or not. Give your opinions on zoos and what value they may have today. RESOURCES Crocodile Hunter Zoo Born Free.org PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) Endangered Species San Diego Zoo World Wildlife Fund The Nature Conservancy All groups may also search on The Student Research Center and The National Science Digital Library ...

Mecham, Mrs.

2006-11-30

47

Zoo animal welfare.  

PubMed

The history of zoo animal welfare legislation extends back to 1876, and is often tied to general animal welfare regulations. As knowledge and societal values have changed, so have the focus of zoos and the regulations governing them. Today, the issues involved in zoo animal welfare are complex and broad-based. Building on the basic welfare tenets of adequate feed, water, shelter, sanitation and veterinary care, current issues include the following: handling and training of captive animals, psychological well-being and environmental enrichment, enclosure design, species preservation, environmental and conservation issues, captive-breeding programmes. Complicating the matter further, government regulations try to assimilate all aspects of zoo animal welfare into the laws to provide humane care and handling for all species concerned. Zoo animal welfare will remain a challenging area, as increasing demands are placed on zoos and regulatory agencies to manage this diminishing resource. PMID:8173098

Kohn, B

1994-03-01

48

Zoo Praxis and Theories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Zoo projects that encourage reflective learning and are legitimate undertakings for untrained undergraduates are hard to develop. The two themes of the author's primate studies course lead students to observe and evaluate the social behavior of nonhuman primates. Students use a rigorous methodology focused on the use of space, and their findings are forwarded to zoo administrators. This results in improvements in zoo housing and makes the exercise intrinsically meaningful.

Burton, Frances

2004-07-01

49

Bronx Zoo cogeneration project  

SciTech Connect

The New York Zoological Society commenced feasibility studies for a proposed cogeneration and district heating system for the Bronz Zoo in spring 1982. Early studies focused on evaluating the Zoo's energy loads, infrastructure, and energy delivery and financing systems. The Zoological Society and New York City joined in the decision to support the construction of a system which would serve not only the Bronx Zoo but also five nearby City-funded installations, including the adjacent New York Botanical Garden. Since the submission of that study, the project has been modified in scope, scaling back to a generating capacity designed to serve only the Bronz Zoo.

Rivet, P.H.

1988-09-01

50

Bermuda Aquarium, Museum & Zoo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bermuda Aquarium, Museum & Zoo (BAMZ) online provides: visitor information, news about exhibits, education programs, memberships and activities for children and adults, including behind the scenes exploration of their facility. It is also a resource for information about Bermuda's biodiversity, conservation work, and research projects. Located in Flats Village.

51

Minnesota Zoo: Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Minnesota Zoo website provides students and others with basic information about a large variety of animals from Minnesota and around the world. Examples of the numerous animals featured include the: Clouded Leopard, Red Panda, Bactrian Camel, Fishing Cat, Komodo Monitor, and Great Horned Owl. Animal profiles contain a small, clear photograph of each species; a concise description, and brief information about diet, habitat, breeding, range, and more. The profile provides the class, order, family, genus, and species names for each animal as well. In addition, the site features information about farm animals including the American Cream Draft Horse, Dutch Belted Dairy Cow, Jersey Diary Cow, and Holstein Dairy Cow. Site visitors can also link to information about the conservation efforts of the Minnesota Zoo, and to a Kids Corner which features a few simple educational games for younger children.

52

Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Website with multilevel links to information on logistics, membership, exhibits, conservation, special events, news, and education. School programs include field trips and summer camps. Other activities offered: overnight stays, close encounters, dives, talks, marine biologist for a day, zoo keeper for a day, and career day. Institution promotes responsible stewardship of the world's resources through education, conservation, research and recreational opportunities. Located in Tacoma, Washington.

53

K-2 at the Zoo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This packet is designed to help teachers maximize a zoo visit for children ages 5 to 7. The packet provides activities for use before, during, and after the zoo visit. Activities are provided to enhance student skills in language arts, reading, art, science, and math, and are correlated to the Oregon Essentials Learning Skills Common Curriculum…

Andrews, Lori; Andrews, Steve

54

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in Zoo Animals in Selected Zoos in the Midwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplas- mosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of

Silvia de Camps; J. P. Dubey; W. J. A. Saville

2008-01-01

55

Teaching Scientific Inquiry with Galaxy Zoo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The universe of topics to choose from when teaching an astronomy course is astronomically immense. This wide array of opportunity presents some inherently difficult choices for teachers at all levels on how to limit the scope of the course to make the syllabus manageable. As but one example, consider that even the most experienced astronomy…

Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.; Lyons, Daniel J.

2011-01-01

56

Teaching Operant Conditioning at the Zoo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a partnership between Zoo Atlanta and the Georgia Institute of Technology in teaching the principles of operant conditioning to students in an experimental psychology class. Maintains that the positive training techniques used in zoos are models of applied operant conditioning. Includes a discussion of zoo training goals. (MJP)|

Lukas, Kristen E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

1998-01-01

57

Bring the Zoo to You!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This hands-on, minds-on zoo project provides a fun and safe opportunity for students to experience the world of animals and nature right in their own classroom. Students have the chance to work individually or in small groups to explore, observe, and discover answers to their questions about the natural world. In addition, it provides numerous…

Wilcox, Dawn Renee; Sterling, Donna R.

2008-01-01

58

Survey of tuberculin testing in Swedish zoos.  

PubMed

Tuberculin test results from 214 animals in three Swedish zoos, tested between the years 1993 and 2000, were compiled from a questionnaire sent out to zoo veterinarians. Comparative testing with bovine and avian tuberculin was used on various sites of injection. A total of five skin test reactors were found: three cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in one zoo and two tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in another zoo. Postmortem culture from one of the tapirs revealed growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and a stamping out policy was adopted in the herd. Tuberculosis in the primates was ruled out by further investigations. Zoo veterinarians should try to adopt a common scheme for the regular testing of zoo animals to improve the diagnostic ability and comparison of results between institutions. PMID:12564537

Sternberg, Susanna; Bernodt, Karin; Holmström, Andrea; Röken, Bengt

2002-12-01

59

Molecular Expressions: The Silicon Zoo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although most of us will never examine a computer chip under a microscope, computer engineers are showing their creative side by hiding silicon artwork in a chip's layout. The Silicon Zoo has a collection of highly-magnified images that showcase the designer's talent, and each image is accompanied by an interesting, and often humorous, explanation. The silicon doodles have many different themes, ranging from cartoon characters to King Arthur's sword. Two Java tutorials are also on the Web site: the first describes how engineers create their "creatures," while the second explains how computer chips are searched to find them. There are many interesting sections of The Silicon Zoo, so be sure to explore! This site is also reviewed in the March 15, 2002 NSDL Math, Engineering, and Technology Report.

2002-01-01

60

SEROEPIDEMIOLOGY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN ZOO ANIMALS IN SELECTED ZOOS IN MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, h...

61

San Francisco's New Zoo's Connections for Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides information on a redevelopment project at the San Francisco Zoo known as the New Zoo. The explicit goal of the project is to inspire a sense of caring and appreciation for wildlife that is the foundation of a conservation ethic. (DDR)|

Routman, Emily

2001-01-01

62

Zoo and Wildlife Libraries: An International Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The conservation and well-being of exotic animals is core to the mission of zoos, aquariums and many small nonprofit wildlife groups. Increasingly, these organizations are committed to scientific research, both basic and applied. To ascertain the current state of the libraries that support their efforts, librarians at the San Diego Zoo conducted…

Coates, Linda L.; Tierney, Kaitlyn Rose

2010-01-01

63

Zoos, Aquariums, and Expanding Students' Data Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Zoo and aquarium educators are increasingly providing educationally rigorous programs that connect their animal collections with curriculum standards in mathematics as well as science. Partnering with zoos and aquariums is a powerful way for teachers to provide students with more opportunities to observe, collect, and analyze scientific data.…

Mokros, Jan; Wright, Tracey

2009-01-01

64

Bring the Zoo to You!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hands-on, minds-on zoo project provides a fun and safe opportunity for students to experience the world of animals and nature right in their own classroom. Students have the chance to work individually or in small groups to explore, observe, and discover answers to their questions about the natural world. In addition, it provides numerous occasions to integrate science, math, reading, and art. The nearly month-long experience described here was conducted with a group of top-notch first-grade zookeepers!

Wilcox, Dawn R.; Sterling, Donna R.

2008-04-01

65

Comparing Zoos and the Media as Conservation Educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article attempts to answer two questions: What are the education roles of zoos, and whether other media sources of information made zoos educationally redundant? The approach taken is to evaluate visitor learning in an Australian zoo and determine if, as a result of a bus tour of the zoo, visitors had learned and were able to recall any information

Liam Smith; Sue Broad

2008-01-01

66

Reading the Zoo Map: Cultural Heritage Insights from Popular Cartography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zoo maps have been common features of most zoos for many years, and yet they, like much cultural ephemera, have not been subject to focused academic research. Rooted in the concepts of critical and popular cartography, this paper presents an evaluation of selected zoo maps from the Philadelphia and Brookfield (Chicago) Zoos, dating from between 1886 and 1949. The maps

S. Mary; P. Benbow; Bonnie C. Hallman

2008-01-01

67

Dermatophytosis in zoo macropods: a questionnaire study.  

PubMed

Limited published data are available on dermatophytosis in zoo macropods, despite anecdotal reports of disease occurrence and recurrent mob outbreaks. The aim of this questionnaire study was to analyze data from Australian and international zoos to evaluate estimated disease prevalence in zoos housing macropods, affected macropod species, causative organisms, predisposing factors, clinical presentations, diagnostics, treatments, and disease risk management. Two questionnaires (initial detailed and subsequent brief) were distributed via email to zoo veterinarians, with an estimated response rate of 23%. The overall estimated disease prevalence from responding zoos was 28%, with 73% of responding Australian zoos and 14% of responding non-Australian zoos reporting disease. The first cases of confirmed and suspected dermatophytosis in several macropod species and in association with Trichophyton verrucosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. nodulare are reported, with young red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) appearing predisposed. Diagnosis was most commonly based on fungal culture or presumptively on typical clinical signs of minimally/nonpruritic alopecia, crusting, and scaling distributed most frequently on the tail, pinnae, and hind limbs. Both disease resolution without treatment and resolution after an average of 1 to 2 mo of treatment were reported. PMID:24063082

Boulton, Katie Alyce; Vogelnest, Linda Jean; Vogelnest, Larry

2013-09-01

68

DVD Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The DVD Forum, an association of companies that contributes to the development of the technology, has information for both users of DVD products and those interested in their evolution. There are a few frequently asked questions lists on the site, which mainly explain the basics of DVDs, contrast them with CDs, and describe the differences between various DVD formats. Some technical specifications are also provided on the site for people in industry. For instance, the "Guideline of Transmission and Control for DVD-Video/Audio through IEEE1394 Bus" can be freely downloaded, as well as general recommendations for DVD video, audio, and production.

1998-01-01

69

Programmatic Evaluation in Association of Zoos and Aquariums--Accredited Zoos and Aquariums: A Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evaluation of educational programs in zoos and aquariums is a growing area of interest for researchers and professionals. In this review, the authors examine the literature that focuses on these settings. They then discuss evaluations that have been conducted in institutions accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums in relation to…

Khalil, Kathayoon; Ardoin, Nicole

2011-01-01

70

An Investigation into the Determining Factors of Zoo Visitor Attendances in UK Zoos  

PubMed Central

The debate as to which animals are most beneficial to keep in zoos in terms of financial and conservative value is readily disputed; however, demographic factors have also been shown to relate to visitor numbers on an international level. The main aims of this research were: (1) To observe the distribution and location of zoos across the UK, (2) to develop a way of calculating zoo popularity in terms of the species kept within a collection and (3) to investigate the factors related to visitor numbers regarding admission costs, popularity of the collection in terms of the species kept and local demographic factors. Zoo visitor numbers were positively correlated with generated popularity ratings for zoos based on the species kept within a collection and admission prices (Pearson correlation: n?=?34, r?=?0.268, P?=?0.126 and n?=?34, r?=??0.430, P?=?0.011). Animal collections are aggregated around large cities and tourist regions, particularly coastal areas. No relationship between demographic variables and visitor numbers was found (Pearson correlation: n?=?34, r?=?0.268, P?=?0.126), which suggests that the popularity of a zoo's collection relative to the types and numbers of species kept is more indicative of a collection's visitor numbers than its surrounding demographic figures. Zoos should incorporate generating high popularity scores as part of their collection planning strategies, to ensure that they thrive in the future, not only as tourist attractions but also as major conservation organizations.

Whitworth, Andrew William

2012-01-01

71

An investigation into the determining factors of zoo visitor attendances in UK zoos.  

PubMed

The debate as to which animals are most beneficial to keep in zoos in terms of financial and conservative value is readily disputed; however, demographic factors have also been shown to relate to visitor numbers on an international level. The main aims of this research were: (1) To observe the distribution and location of zoos across the UK, (2) to develop a way of calculating zoo popularity in terms of the species kept within a collection and (3) to investigate the factors related to visitor numbers regarding admission costs, popularity of the collection in terms of the species kept and local demographic factors. Zoo visitor numbers were positively correlated with generated popularity ratings for zoos based on the species kept within a collection and admission prices (Pearson correlation: n?=?34, r?=?0.268, P?=?0.126 and n?=?34, r?=?-0.430, P?=?0.011). Animal collections are aggregated around large cities and tourist regions, particularly coastal areas. No relationship between demographic variables and visitor numbers was found (Pearson correlation: n?=?34, r?=?0.268, P?=?0.126), which suggests that the popularity of a zoo's collection relative to the types and numbers of species kept is more indicative of a collection's visitor numbers than its surrounding demographic figures. Zoos should incorporate generating high popularity scores as part of their collection planning strategies, to ensure that they thrive in the future, not only as tourist attractions but also as major conservation organizations. PMID:22253799

Whitworth, Andrew William

2012-01-11

72

Assessment of Change in Conservation Attitudes through Zoo Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was conducted at the Oklahoma City Zoo in fall 2010 and subjects were students' ages 14-18 who either participated in a formal conservation education class led by zoo educators or in a field trip in which they were engaged in free-choice learning. Two research questions were: 1) Does a trip to the zoo affect conservation attitudes and…

Randall, Teresa

2011-01-01

73

The Risk of Delivering Disturbing Messages to Zoo Family Audiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the roles of the modern zoo is to provide environmental education. Zoo visitation comprises primarily family groups seeking to spend time together. There is potential for tension between message and audience expectation as zoos seek to raise awareness of the effects of irresponsible human behavior on the environment. This may unsettle…

Esson, Maggie; Moss, Andrew

2013-01-01

74

Conservation and Education: Prominent Themes in Zoo Mission Statements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors examine the mission statements of 136 zoos in the United States that the American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) has accredited, and report on the predominant themes of education and conservation in the statements. To explore the relation between these two themes, the authors present a literature review of the roles and purposes of zoos

Patricia G. Patrick; Catherine E. Matthews; David Franklin Ayers; Sue Dale Tunnicliffe

2007-01-01

75

Art Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website for Art Forum magazine offers a wide range of features, including a Chinese language version, and a host of interactive extras and reports from the art world. The interactive feature "Artguide", which can be accessed via a tab near the top of the page, or by clicking on the box with a world map made of colorful continents, provides a list of "Art Fairs Everywhere", "Special Events", and hotels and restaurants, under "Eat & Sleep". Looking for art exhibits in a particular country? Visitors can click on one of the colorful continents, or choose a "region" or a "country/city" from the drop down boxes underneath the colorful map. Clicking on "Calendar" lets visitors browse by date. Visitors interested in the picks of art critics will find "Picks" helpful, which can be linked to via a tab near the top of any page. Currently there are almost two dozen cities in which work has been chosen, and some cities have more than one exhibit.

76

Energy Production from Zoo Animal Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Elephant and rhinoceros dung was used to investigate the feasibility of generating methane from the dung. The Knoxville Zoo produces 30 cubic yards (23 m{sup 3}) of herbivore dung per week and cost of disposal of this dung is $105/week. The majority of this dung originates from the Zoo's elephant and rhinoceros population. The estimated weight of the dung is 20 metric tons per week and the methane production potential determined in experiments was 0.033 L biogas/g dung (0.020 L CH{sub 4}/g dung), and the digestion of elephant dung was enhanced by the addition of ammonium nitrogen. Digestion was better overall at 37 C when compared to digestion at 50 C. Based on the amount of dung generated at the Knoxville Zoo, it is estimated that two standard garden grills could be operated 24 h per day using the gas from a digester treating 20 metric ton herbivore dung per week.

Klasson, KT

2003-04-07

77

Feeding live prey to zoo animals: response of zoo visitors in Switzerland.  

PubMed

In summer 2007, with the help of a written questionnaire, the attitudes of more than 400 visitors to the zoological garden of Zurich, Switzerland, toward the idea of feeding live insects to lizards, live fish to otters, and live rabbits to tigers were investigated. The majority of Swiss zoo visitors agreed with the idea of feeding live prey (invertebrates and vertebrates) to zoo animals, both off- and on-exhibit, except in the case of feeding live rabbits to tigers on-exhibit. Women and frequent visitors of the zoo disagreed more often with the on-exhibit feeding of live rabbits to tigers. Study participants with a higher level of education were more likely to agree with the idea of feeding live invertebrates and vertebrates to zoo animals off-exhibit. In comparison to an earlier study undertaken in Scotland, zoo visitors in Switzerland were more often in favor of the live feeding of vertebrates. Feeding live prey can counter the loss of hunting skills of carnivores and improve the animals' well-being. However, feeding enrichments have to strike a balance between optimal living conditions of animals and the quality of visitor experience. Our results show that such a balance can be found, especially when live feeding of mammals is carried out off-exhibit. A good interpretation of food enrichment might help zoos to win more support for the issue, and for re-introduction programs and conservation. PMID:19598253

Cottle, Lauren; Tamir, Dan; Hyseni, Mimoza; Bühler, Dominique; Lindemann-Matthies, Petra

78

Visitor interest in zoo animals and the implications for collection planning and zoo education programmes.  

PubMed

As zoos have sought to further their conservation missions, they have become powerful providers of environmental education. Outside of "formal" education initiatives, such as those designed for school and other organized groups, or structured public talks programmes, much of the learning potential that the zoo has to offer is around the viewing of animals and the response of visitors to them. In this, zoo learning is a very personal construct, develops from the previous knowledge, and experiences and motivations of each individual. In this article, we make the assertion that learning potential, although difficult to quantify, is very much related to the attractiveness of animal species and the interest that visitors show in them. Using standard behaviorist measures of attraction and interest (the proportion of visitors that stop and for how long), we analyzed the relative interest in 40 zoo species held in a modern UK zoo and the variables that are significant in predicting that popularity. Further to this, the suggestion is made that the zoo collection planning process could use such information to make more informed decisions about which species should be housed for their educational value. Taxonomic grouping was found to be the most significant predictor of visitor interest--that is, visitors were far more interested in mammals than any other group--although body size (length), increasing animal activity and whether the species was the primary or "flagship" species in an exhibit or not, were all found to have a significant bearing on visitor interest. PMID:20333734

Moss, Andrew; Esson, Maggie

79

IQ Zoo and Teaching Operant Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Psychology texts often cite the work of Marian and Keller Breland and their business, Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE), to demonstrate operant conditioning and the "misbehavior of organisms" from an evolutionary perspective. Now available on the Internet at the official IQ Zoo website (http://www3.uca.edu/iqzoo/), the artifacts of ABE's work, in…

Bihm, Elson M.; Gillaspy, J. Arthur, Jr.; Lammers, William J.; Huffman, Stephanie P.

2010-01-01

80

Enhancing the Educational Effectiveness of Zoos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study addressed whether the educational impact of a zoo visit can be enhanced through the provision of appropriate instructional supports such as preparatory trainings or orientations. One important function of the educational process, in contrast to providing direct information or skill development, is to make the learner more sensitive to…

Braverman, Marc T.; Yates, Mary Ellen

81

The fungal flora of zoo animals' ears.  

PubMed

The mycotic flora of the ears of zoo animals was investigated in a large zoological garden in Germany. Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated from the following animals: big ant-eater, brown bear, common wombat, Eurasian badger, Indian elephant, Mangaliza pig and wide-mouthed rhinoceros. Aspergillus and Penicillium species, yeasts and zygomycetes were also isolated from some animals. PMID:7935595

Kuttin, E S; Müller, J

82

Steller Cove. Oregon Zoo Teacher Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this teacher guide is to promote education by providing resources and information to aid classroom teachers in using the Oregon Zoo as an educational setting. The unit also emphasizes the integration of science, mathematics, reading, writing, speaking, and problem solving. It is designed for grades 3-5 and is based on the Oregon State…

Ward, Kristin

83

World Urban Forum III  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are forums on many topics, ranging from animal husbandry to the latest trends in fashion technology, but there is only one forum sponsored by the United Nations that draws such a tremendously diverse mix of practitioners, politicians, and pundits: the World Urban Forum. In its third edition, the Forum and its participants have descended upon Vancouver, and this website brings together materials they are working on during their time at this third meeting. Visitors can learn about the governing bodies that oversee the Forum’s operations, read speeches and statements from those speaking at the event, and also learn about a related event, the World Youth Forum. Visitors with specific interests in various aspects of urbanism will want to look over their “Programmes” area, which contains specific information about the Forum’s initiatives, including land tenure, housing policies, and urban economic development.

2006-01-01

84

Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in an Italian zoo  

PubMed Central

A fatal Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection epidemic involving fifteen primates occurred between October 2006 and February 2007 at the Natura Viva Zoo. This large open-field zoo park located near Lake Garda in Northern Italy hosts one thousand animals belonging to one hundred and fifty different species, including various lemur species. This lemur collection is the most relevant and rich in Italy. A second outbreak between September and November 2008 involved three lemurs. In all cases, the clinical signs were sudden deaths generally without any evident symptoms or only with mild unspecific clinical signs. Gross pathologic changes were characterized by myocarditis (diffuse or focal pallor of the myocardium), pulmonary congestion, emphysema, oedema and thoracic fluid. The EMCV was isolated and recognized as the causative agent of both outbreaks. The first outbreak in particular was associated with a rodent plague, confirming that rats are an important risk factor for the occurrence of the EMCV infection.

2010-01-01

85

Pneumocystis carinii infections in zoo animals.  

PubMed

Pneumocystis carinii was found to be present in the lungs of twenty-three zoo animals in the Netherlands. The following species were represented: red kangaroo, common tree shrew, Senegal-Galago, Demidoff's-Galago, brown howler monkey, woolly monkey, long-haired spider monkey, white-eared marmoset, chimpanzee, three-toed sloth, palm squirrel, red panda, fennec fox, tree hyrax and large-toothed hyrax. PMID:1079994

Poelma, F G

1975-01-01

86

Pneumocystis carinii infections in zoo animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Pneumocystis carinii was found to be present in the lungs of twenty-three zoo animals in the Netherlands. The following species were represented: red kangaroo, common tree shrew, Senegal-Galago, Demidoff's-Galago, brown howler monkey, woolly monkey, long-haired spider monkey, white-eared marmoset, chimpanzee, three-toed sloth, palm squirrel, red panda, fennec fox, tree hyrax and large-toothed hyrax.

F. G. Poelma

1975-01-01

87

Cool Cosmos: The Infrared Zoo Website  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As students tour this online Infrared Zoo, they gather new information about the animals they would not get from a visible light picture. Infrared light shows us the heat radiated by the world around us. By viewing animals with a thermal infrared camera, we can actually see the differences between warm and cold-blooded animals. Infrared also allows us to study how well feathers, fur and blubber insulate animals.

Ipac/caltech, Nasa

2009-09-01

88

RAPTOR REHABILITATION AT THE OKLAHOMA CITY ZOO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program of raptor rehabilitation has been conducted at the Oklahoma City Zoo in an effort to conserve wildlife, to assist the publid, and to gain knowledge about the care and treatment of injured birds. From October 1973 through December 1974 Red-tailed Hawks and Great Horned Owls constituted 45.3 percent of all birds donated. Donations from the public comprised 89.0

John C. Snelling

1975-01-01

89

The appliance of science to zoo-housed primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zoos provide a unique and valuable resource for primate research. Indeed, previous analyses of zoo research have shown that non-human primates are favoured as subjects and the study of welfare and conservation rank high on those topics studied [Hardy, D.F., 1996. Current research activities in zoos. In: Kleiman, D.G., Allen, M.E., Thompson, K.V., Lumpkin, S. (Eds.), Wild Mammals in Captivity:

Vicky Melfi

2005-01-01

90

World Economic Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

World Economic Forum is a nonprofit organization dedicated to "economic growth and social progress." The forum is located in Geneva, Switzerland, and its members include those in business, politics, and the academic world. The World Economic Forum Website contains a variety of information about the Forum as well as information about global economics. Latest news is highlighted, with reports from several recent economic summits including photographs and Webcasts. A menu at the top left corner of the site directs users to the rest of the site, including resources about regional networks, reports and publications, and centers and projects.

91

LLW Forum meeting report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) meeting on May 29 through May 31, 1996.The LLW Forum is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

NONE

1996-08-01

92

Conservation and Education: Prominent Themes in Zoo Mission Statements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors examine the mission statements of 136 zoos in the United States that the American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) has accredited, and report on the predominant themes of education and conservation in the statements. To explore the relation between these two themes, the authors present a literature review of the roles…

Patrick, Patricia G.; Matthews, Catherine E.; Ayers, David Franklin; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

2007-01-01

93

Zoo Visitor Knowledge and Attitudes toward Gorillas and Chimpanzees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors conducted an evaluation of visitor knowledge and conservation attitudes toward African apes at Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo. Using S. R. Kellert's and J. Dunlap's (1989) analysis of zoo visitor knowledge and attitudes as a model, they modified and administered a survey to 1,000 visitors to the ape facility. On average, visitors…

Lukas, K. E.; Ross, S. R.

2005-01-01

94

36 CFR 520.4 - Protection of zoo animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Protection of zoo animals. 520.4 Section 520.4 Parks...INSTITUTION § 520.4 Protection of zoo animals. Except for official purposes, no...injure, or disturb any exhibit or research animal by any means except to secure...

2012-07-01

95

36 CFR 520.4 - Protection of zoo animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Protection of zoo animals. 520.4 Section 520.4 Parks...INSTITUTION § 520.4 Protection of zoo animals. Except for official purposes, no...injure, or disturb any exhibit or research animal by any means except to secure...

2011-07-01

96

Conservation and Education: Prominent Themes in Zoo Mission Statements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the authors examine the mission statements of 136 zoos in the United States that the American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) has accredited, and report on the predominant themes of education and conservation in the statements. To explore the relation between these two themes, the authors present a literature review of the roles…

Patrick, Patricia G.; Matthews, Catherine E.; Ayers, David Franklin; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

2007-01-01

97

Tracking and Identification of Animals for a Digital Zoo  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present our approach to use a combination of radio frequency identification (RFID) and a wireless camera sensor network to identify and track animals at a zoo. We have developed and installed 25 cameras covering the whole zoo. The cameras are totally autonomous and they are configuring themselves in a wireless ad-hoc network. At strategic locations RFID

Johannes Karlsson; Keni Ren; Haibo Li

2010-01-01

98

The “Science” behind a Successful Field Trip to the Zoo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field trip to the local zoo is often a staple in many elementary school curricula. Many zoos offer free entry to local teachers and their students. Teachers take students on field trips to enrich the curriculum, make connections to what students are learning in school, and provide students with meaningful learning experiences (Kisiel 2007). However, teachers often struggle to

Catherine Marie Scott; Catherine E. Matthews

2011-01-01

99

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were seropositive. Among 7 possible risk factors, sex, freezing meat temperature (above -13 C vs. below -13 C), washing vegetables thoroughly, frequency of feral cat sightings on zoo grounds (occasionally vs. frequently), frequency of feral cat control programs, capability of feral cats to enter hay/grain barn, and type of animal exhibit, exhibiting animals in open enclosures was the only factor identified as a significant risk (OR 3.22, P = 0.00). PMID:18605803

de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A

2008-06-01

100

Internet Fuel Cells Forum  

SciTech Connect

The rapid development and integration of the Internet into the mainstream of professional life provides the fuel cell industry with the opportunity to share new ideas with unprecedented capabilities. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has undertaken the task to maintain a Fuel Cell Forum on the Internet. Here, members can exchange ideas and information pertaining to fuel cell technologies. The purpose of this forum is to promote a better understanding of fuel cell concepts, terminology, processes, and issues relating to commercialization of fuel cell power technology. The Forum was developed by METC to provide those interested with fuel cell conference information for its current concept of exchanging ideas and information pertaining to fuel cells. Last August, the Forum expanded to an on-line and world-wide network. There are 250 members, and membership is growing at a rate of several new subscribers per week. The forum currently provides updated conference information and interactive information exchange. Forum membership is encouraged from utilities, industry, universities, and government. Because of the public nature of the internet, business sensitive, confidential, or proprietary information should not be placed on this system. The Forum is unmoderated; therefore, the views and opinions of authors expressed in the forum do not necessarily state or reflect those of the U.S. government or METC.

Sudhoff, Frederick A.

1996-08-01

101

Current husbandry of red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in zoos.  

PubMed

The endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is held in zoos worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine how red pandas are kept and managed in captivity and to compare it with the management guidelines. Sixty-nine zoos, mainly from Europe but also from North America and Australia/New Zealand, responded to our survey. The results revealed that in general zoos follow the management guidelines for most of the investigated issues. The average enclosure is almost four times larger than the minimum size recommended by the management guidelines, although seven zoos have smaller enclosures. About half the zoos do not follow the guidelines concerning visitor access and number of nest boxes. Other issues that may compromise animal welfare include proximity of neighboring carnivore species and placement of nest boxes. PMID:21182101

Eriksson, P; Zidar, J; White, D; Westander, J; Andersson, M

102

Learning on Zoo Field Trips: The Interaction of the Agendas and Practices of Students, Teachers, and Zoo Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on the findings of a case study that investigated the interaction of the agendas and practices of students, teachers, and zoo educators during a class field trip to a zoo. The study reports on findings of the analysis of two case classes of students and their perceptions of their learning experiences during the field trip. The…

Davidson, Susan Kay; Passmore, Cynthia; Anderson, David

2010-01-01

103

“Somethin' Tells Me It's All Happening at the Zoo”: Discourse, Power, and Conservationism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how certain Western institutional discourses reproduce particular human relationships with nature. The analysis focuses upon the institutional setting of the zoo, examining long-standing multi-voiced debates about zoos and exploring the contemporary zoo's conservation discourses and cultural, lexical, and spatial elements of gaze and power. The author contextualizes zoo discourses within Western ideological environmental dialectics, including those of

Tema Milstein

2009-01-01

104

Baltimore Zoo digester project. Final report. [Elephants  

SciTech Connect

The results of a project to produce methane using the manure from zoo animals as a feedstock is presented. Two digesters are in operation, the first (built in 1974) utilizing wastes from the Hippo House and a second (built in 1980) utilizing wastes from the Elephant House. Demonstrations on the utilization of the gas were performed during zoo exhibits. The Elephant House Digester has a capacity of 4200 gallons and a floating gas dome which can retain at least 150 cu ft of gas. Solar energy has been incorporated into the design to maintain digester temperature at 95/sup 0/F. The system produces 50 cu ft per day. After cleaning the gas, it is used to generate electricity to power an electric light, a roof fan, and an air conditioner. The gas is also used to operate a gas range and a gas lamp. During the opening day exhibit, 50 meals were cooked using the bio-gas from just 2 elephants. (DMC)

Gibson, P.W.

1980-01-01

105

Building a Catalog of Dynamical Properties of Interacting Galaxies in SDSS with the Aid of Citizen Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last two years Citizen Scientists from Galaxy Zoo have identified almost 3000 systems of interacting galaxies. The Mergers Zoo Project allows members of the public to further analyze pairs of interacting galaxies in order to determine their dynamical properties. A restricted, three-body simulation using a realistic potential with a dynamical friction approximation has been implemented in a Java Applet. Citizen Scientists are tasked with target galaxy pairs for study. The tool produces simulation output from randomly selected system parameters. Users are able to identify candidate simulations for further study based on how well the output matches the target image. In this manner a wide range of parameters covering the "likely” region of phase space can be sampled. Using this approach, the Mergers Zoo Project expects to determine the key dynamical properties of hundreds of pairs of interacting galaxies in the next two years. This work presents a brief overview of the results for the systems studied to date.

Holincheck, Anthony; Wallin, J.; Borne, K.; Lintott, C. J.; Smith, A.

2010-01-01

106

EPA SCIENCE FORUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Every year, the world's leading environmental scientists and policy makers meet at the EPA Science Forum to explore the latest discoveries in the world of environmental research. Background EPA's Research & Development's Office has been hosting the EPA Scien...

107

American Zoo and Aquarium Association Multi-Institutional Research Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes the results of a literature review of the level of conservation-related knowledge, attitudes, affect, and behavior among visitors to zoos and aquariums. Includes some details of the pilot project related to the literature review. (DDR)|

Dierking, Lynn D.

2001-01-01

108

Education at Zoos and Aquariums in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the variety of formal and informal educational programs being developed by zoos and aquariums in the United States and suggests methods of increasing the educational utility of these facilities. (AL)|

Turkowski, Frank J.

1972-01-01

109

Wild Jobs with Wildlife: Jobs in Zoos and Aquariums.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides job descriptions and information for keepers and other animal caretakers at zoos and aquariums. Includes information about skills and training needed, working conditions, employment outlook, and earnings. Includes a list of resources for further information. (JOW)|

Crosby, Olivia

2001-01-01

110

Zoo Life Shortens Elephant Lives in Europe, Study Says  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from National Geographic examines claims that zoo life decreases the longevity of elephants. Researchers have found that Asian elephants in European zoos typically live about 15 years, only half as long as elephants in timber camps. Asian elephants can live as long as 65 years in the wild, the researchers said. The article lists many reasons for the discrepancy, and a call to improve the lot of captive elephants.

Pickrell, John; News, National G.

111

A Cosmic Zoo in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers often turn their telescopes to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the closest galaxies to our own Milky Way, in their quest to understand the Universe. In this spectacular new image from the Wide Field Imager (WFI) at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, a celestial menagerie of different objects and phenomena in part of the LMC is on display, ranging from vast globular clusters to the remains left by brilliant supernovae explosions. This fascinating observation provides data for a wide variety of research projects unravelling the life and death of stars and the evolution of galaxies. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is only about 160 000 light-years from our own Milky Way - very close on a cosmic scale. This proximity makes it a very important target as it can be studied in far more detail than more distant systems. The LMC lies in the constellation of Dorado (the Swordfish), deep in the southern sky and well placed for observations from ESO's observatories in Chile. It is one of the galaxies forming the Local Group surrounding the Milky Way [1]. Though enormous on a human scale, the LMC is less than one tenth the mass of our home galaxy and spans just 14 000 light-years compared to about 100 000 light-years for the Milky Way. Astronomers refer to it as an irregular dwarf galaxy [2]. Its irregularity, combined with its prominent central bar of stars suggests to astronomers that tidal interactions with the Milky Way and fellow Local Group galaxy, the Small Magellanic Cloud, could have distorted its shape from a classic barred spiral into its modern, more chaotic form. This image is a mosaic of four pictures from the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. The image covers a region of sky more than four times as large as the full Moon. The huge field of view of this camera makes it possible to see a very wide range of objects in the LMC in a single picture, although only a small part of the entire galaxy can be included. Dozens of clusters of young stars can be seen as well as traces of glowing gas clouds. Huge numbers of faint stars fill the image from edge to edge and in the background, more galaxies, far beyond the LMC, are visible. Globular clusters are collections of hundreds of thousands to millions of stars bound by gravity into a roughly spherical shape just a few light-years across. Many clusters orbit the Milky Way and most are ancient, over ten billion years old, and composed mainly of old red stars. The LMC also has globular clusters and one is visible as the fuzzy white oval cluster of stars in the upper right part of the image. This is NGC 1978, an unusually massive globular cluster. Unlike most other globular clusters, NGC 1978 is believed to be just 3.5 billion years old. The presence of this kind of object in the LMC leads astronomers to think that the LMC has a more recent history of active star formation than our own Milky Way. As well as being a vigorous region of star birth, the LMC has also seen many spectacular stellar deaths in the form of brilliant supernova explosions. At the top right of the image, the remnant of one such supernova, a strangely shaped wispy cloud called DEM L 190, often also referred to as N 49, can be seen. This giant cloud of glowing gas is the brightest supernova remnant in the LMC, and is about 30 light-years across. At the centre, where the star once burned, now lies a magnetar, a neutron star with an extremely powerful magnetic field. It was only in 1979 that satellites orbiting Earth detected a powerful gamma-ray burst from this object, drawing attention to the extreme properties of this new class of stellar exotica created by supernova explosions. This part of the Large Magellanic Cloud is so packed with star clusters and other objects that astronomers can spend entire careers exploring it. With so much activity, it is easy to see why astronomers are so keen to study the strange creatures in this heavenly zoo. Notes [1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_Group [2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galaxy_mor

2010-06-01

112

The global reach of zoos and aquariums in visitor numbers and conservation expenditures.  

PubMed

A survey conducted by the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums, in collaboration with national and regional zoo and aquarium associations, showed that annually more than 700 million people visit zoos and aquariums worldwide and are thus potentially exposed to environmental education. Furthermore, the world zoo and aquarium community reportedly spends about US$ 350 million on wildlife conservation each year. Therefore, the world zoo and aquarium community has the potential to play an important role in both environmental education and wildlife conservation. Systematic reviews are encouraged to provide further evidence for the effectiveness of zoos and aquariums as centers of education and conservation. PMID:21136509

Gusset, Markus; Dick, Gerald

2010-12-06

113

Stanford University: Computer Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stanford Computer Forum is sponsored by the Industrial Affiliates Program for the Computer Science Department and CS/EE Computer Systems Laboratory. The Forum brings together students, faculty, and industry leaders through events and programs, and offers members "facilitated interaction with faculty, students, and colleagues at other member companies." The website announces upcoming meetings, symposia and job fairs. The Events Archive includes a few short video clips on previous workshops on emerging technologies and future research. The Forum also posts information on the members and their research interests, which fall within the following research areas: BioCompuation, Database, Graphics, Hardware & Architecture, Knowledge Management, Mobile Computing, Networks, Operating Systems & Apps., Robotics, and Security.

114

Alaska Science Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Alaska Science Forum Web site is provided by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The forum consists of articles written about various science subjects by scientists from the Geophysical Institute. Categories include the aurora, earthquakes, fun science facts, historic Alaska, mountains, rocks and geology, volcanoes, weather, and more. One of the latest articles, by Ned Rozell, is titled: Bogs, Permafrost and the Global Carbon Equation. Each of the articles is listed along with the author's name and a direct link to the online publication, most of which are fairly short and geared towards nonscientists making reading easy and interesting. [JAB

115

VoiceXML Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The market for voice-operated applications has steadily grown for several years, and wireless and mobile devices are an added incentive to develop a standard for voice processing. An established standard is VoiceXML, which dates back to 1999. The VoiceXML Forum has introductory tutorials about the standard, and the full specifications can be downloaded (including a draft of version 2.0, published in early 2003). A more recent initiative is the Speech Application Language Tags (SALT) specification. Similar documents and resources can be found at the SALT Forum homepage, as well as links to Webcasts and other items for developers.

116

Galaxy-scale Clouds Of Ionized Gas Around Agn - History And Obscuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the discovery of Hanny's Voorwerp, a 45-kpc highly-ionized cloud near the spiral galaxy IC 2497, and accompanying evidence for strong variability of its AGN over 105 year scales, members of the Galaxy Zoo project have carried out surveys for similar (albeit smaller) ionized clouds around galaxies both with and without spectroscopic AGN. The color-composite SDSS images detect strong

Drew Chojnowski; W. C. Keel

2011-01-01

117

Automatic morphological classification of galaxy images.  

PubMed

We describe an image analysis supervised learning algorithm that can automatically classify galaxy images. The algorithm is first trained using a manually classified images of elliptical, spiral, and edge-on galaxies. A large set of image features is extracted from each image, and the most informative features are selected using Fisher scores. Test images can then be classified using a simple Weighted Nearest Neighbor rule such that the Fisher scores are used as the feature weights. Experimental results show that galaxy images from Galaxy Zoo can be classified automatically to spiral, elliptical and edge-on galaxies with accuracy of ~90% compared to classifications carried out by the author. Full compilable source code of the algorithm is available for free download, and its general-purpose nature makes it suitable for other uses that involve automatic image analysis of celestial objects. PMID:20161594

Shamir, Lior

2009-11-01

118

Glanders outbreak at Tehran Zoo, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives In December 2010 four, lions and one tiger died at the Tehran zoo. Out of all samples, Burkholderia mallei (causative agent of Glanders) was isolated just from ulcer sample of the tiger which was imported to Iran from Russia. Materials and Methods One nasal swab from a tiger and fifteen blood samples with anticoagulant belonging to one tiger and fourteen lions (four dead lions and eleven live lions) were collected and were inoculated directly onto the selective media. The isolate was identified by morphological and biochemical and API BBL tests and PCR using specific primers (Bma- IS407-flip). The standard (Razi Type Culture Collection RTCC: 2375) and tiger isolates were inoculated into 2 guinea pigs. All residue solipeds and carnivores were checked by Malleination test and Complement Fixation (CF) Test respectively. Results One isolate of B. mallei was isolated from tiger's nasal swab. Both of B.mallei strains were recovered from inoculated animals. All of solipeds were negative by malleination test, however, 11 lions including 4 dead and 7 live lions out of 14 lions were positive in CF test for Glanders and all were put down by the authorities. Conclusion Active surveillance of Glanders is essential for solipeds, especially it's more important while being used to feed valuable carnivores like lions and tigers. Therefore, a reliable test like malleination must be carried out twice (first before transferring and one month after quarantine). Both test results should be negative for use for feeding.

Khaki, P; Mosavari, N; Khajeh, Nasiri S; Emam, M; Ahouran, M; Hashemi, S; Taheri, Mohammad M; Jahanpeyma, D; Nikkhah, S

2012-01-01

119

The Math Forum @ Drexel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Math Forum provides resources, materials, activities, person-to-person interactions, and educational products and services that enrich and support math teaching and learning in an increasingly technological world. Projects of this online math education community center include Ask Dr. Math, Teacher2Teacher, Problems of the Week, Math Tools, and the Internet Mathematics Library.

The Math Forum @ Drexel

1996-01-01

120

Forum's Primary Conference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report of the primary school conference organized by Forum in June. Its aim was to crystallize and discuss advanced practice in the schools in the light of the current discussion of educational aims and procedures. (Editor/RK)

Forum for the Discussion of New Trends in Education, 1977

1977-01-01

121

Principals' Forum II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the proceedings from an October, 1979, meeting of 29 New England principals involved with Teacher Corps projects. The objectives of the forum were (1) to share school climate improvement techniques, (2) to facilitate relationship building among principals and project directors, (3) to share information on school discipline…

Bucci, John; Massey, Sara

122

Residential Energy Conservation Forum  

ScienceCinema

A public forum for homeowners on how to reduce energy usage in the home. Representatives from Long Island Power Authority, Renewable Energy Long Island, and BNL explored alternative energy solutions for the home, analyzing energy efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and environmental-friendliness. Some of the technologies discussed include solar panels, Energy Star-certified products, and modern wood-burning stoves.

123

Organizing a Legislative Forum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since states fund public higher education, state legislators are essential to reform efforts. An excellent way to familiarize legislators with faculty needs is through a legislative forum, where legislators are invited to discuss higher education issues. Most legislators enjoy the chance to meet with their constituents, say a few words, and learn…

Longmate, Jack

2008-01-01

124

Production Operations Forum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Production Operations Forum provides information about technical innovations and solutions in production engineering. Topics covered include: a practical approach for liquid removal in low pressure, low volume gas wells, utilizing 1-1\\/4'' coil tubing; modified gravel-pack packer for reducing costs and lowering completion risks; and recirculating stack gases to increase heat transfer in waste recovery units.

J. J. Kleckner; R. C. Dickerson; P. M. Snider; J. A. Zublin; R. L. Sphan; P. F. Menne; Lichte Van Der; Ter H. S; N. H. Akkerman; L. H. Rorden; H. S. More; J. E. Kattner; A. Samuels; R. A. Wendt; T. Hoh; E. Beauregard; P. L. Ferguson; P. J. H. Carnell; H. H. Clark

1986-01-01

125

Ethics and Animal Welfare Evaluations in South East Asian Zoos: A Case Study of Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern for zoo animals is palpable throughout society in many countries in South East Asia. It is important to understand problems of animal welfare in order for zoos to make significant improvement in maintaining high standards. With a case study of 3 zoos in Thailand, this article presents results for the first time on how ethics and wel- fare evaluations

Govindasamy Agoramoorthy; Bernard Harrison

2002-01-01

126

The Role of Zoos and Aquariums in Education for a Sustainable Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Zoos and aquariums today consider education to be a central role. The vision of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (2005, p. 35) is that "Zoos and aquariums with their unique resource of live animals, their expertise, and their links to field conservation will be recognized as leaders and mentors in formal and informal education for…

Packer, Jan; Ballantyne, Roy

2010-01-01

127

Prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar Albany in captive zoo wild animals in the Culiacán Zoo in Mexico.  

PubMed

Salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease but little is known about the role that free-living animals play as carriers of this pathogen. Moreover, the primary route of infection in the wild needs to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the source and the route of transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Albany (S. Albany) infection in captive zoo wild animals in the Culiacán Zoo. A total of 267 samples were analyzed including 220 fecal samples from zoo animals, 15 fecal samples from rodents, 5 pooled samples each of two insects (Musca domestica and Periplaneta americana), and 22 samples of animal feed. We detected S. Albany in 28 (10.5%) of the samples analyzed, including in samples from raw chicken meat. Characterization of isolates was performed by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All isolates shared a single pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile, indicating a possible common origin. These data suggest that the infected meat consumed by the wild felines was the primary source of infection in this zoo. It is likely that the pathogen was shed in the feces and disseminated by insects and rats to other locations in the zoo. PMID:23505697

Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Moreno, Héctor Samuel; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney Francisco; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Rendón-Maldonado, José Guadalupe; López-Valenzuela, José Angel; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe

2013-03-01

128

Salmonella prevalence among reptiles in a zoo education setting.  

PubMed

Clinically healthy reptiles may shed Salmonella and therefore act as a potential zoonotic threat. Most people in Northern European countries are rarely exposed to reptiles, but many zoos have education departments where children have direct contact with this group of animals. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and serotype distribution of Salmonella among reptiles in the Education Department (n?=?55) at Copenhagen Zoo and compare it to the Zoo's main reptile collection (n?=?145) to evaluate the zoonotic risk. Salmonella was isolated from cloacal swabs by selective enrichment, and a single isolate from each positive sample was further identified by biochemical tests and serotyped. The overall prevalence was 35% (69/200) with significant difference between the Education Department (64%, 35/55) and the main reptile collection (23%, 34/145). A total of 28 serotypes were detected. Ten serotypes were isolated from more than one specimen and four from more than one species. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Eastbourne was the predominant serotype (32%, 22/69) and was also the serotype isolated from most reptile species (n?=?7). Transmission of serotypes from one department to another was very limited indicated by the serotype distribution. Despite the relative high prevalence observed among the reptiles in the Zoo's Education Department compared to the reptiles in the Zoo's main reptile collection, no Salmonella cases have been linked to the Zoo, and Salmonella ser. Eastbourne is very rarely isolated from humans in Denmark. Simple hygienic procedures such as hand washing which is consistently carried out following handling of reptiles at the Education Department may reduce the risk and therefore contribute to this low prevalence. PMID:22835051

Hydeskov, H B; Guardabassi, L; Aalbaek, B; Olsen, K E P; Nielsen, S S; Bertelsen, M F

2012-07-26

129

Assessment of change in conservation attitudes through zoo education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted at the Oklahoma City Zoo in fall 2010 and subjects were students' ages 14-18 who either participated in a formal conservation education class led by zoo educators or in a field trip in which they were engaged in free-choice learning. Two research questions were: 1) Does a trip to the zoo affect conservation attitudes and 2) does learning experience, free-choice or formal, affect conservation attitudes? A criterion group design was used and the instrument used to measure conservation attitudes was Tool 4 from the Visitor Evaluation Toolbox produced by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums MIRP study (Falk, J., Bronnenkant, K., Vernon, C., & Heimlich, J., 2009). Group one (N=110) engaged in a free-choice (field trip only) experience and group two (N=367) engaged in a formal conservation education class. The survey was administered retrospectively to both groups upon completion of their learning experience at the zoo. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 17.0. A paired sample t-test showed the overall mean within both groups increased in a positive direction from 67.965 (retrospective) to 72.345 (present). With alpha set at .05 the two-tailed probability was <0.001, therefore confirming that the change in conservation attitudes was significant. An independent sample t-test of the change in scores between the groups produced p values of 0.792 and 0.773 and revealed that the change was not significant. Findings did illustrate that a trip to the zoo did positively and significantly affect conservation attitudes among teens and that the type of learning experience did not significantly affect change in conservation attitude scores.

Randall, Teresa

130

Galaxy Image Processing and Morphological Classification Using Machine Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work uses data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Galaxy Zoo Project for classification of galaxy morphologies via machine learning. SDSS imaging data together with reliable human classifications from Galaxy Zoo provide the training set and test set for the machine learning architectures. Classification is performed with hand-picked, pre-computed features from SDSS as well as with the raw imaging data from SDSS that was available to humans in the Galaxy Zoo project. With the hand-picked features and a logistic regression classifier, 95.21% classification accuracy and an area under the ROC curve of 0.986 are attained. In the case of the raw imaging data, the images are first processed to remove background noise, image artifacts, and celestial objects other than the galaxy of interest. They are then rotated onto their principle axis of variance to guarantee rotational invariance. The processed images are used to compute color information, up to 4^th order central normalized moments, and radial intensity profiles. These features are used to train a support vector machine with a 3^rd degree polynomial kernel, which achieves a classification accuracy of 95.89% with an ROC area of 0.943.

Kates-Harbeck, Julian

2012-03-01

131

Science in the 19th-century zoo.  

PubMed

The 19th century saw the advent of the modern zoological garden. The newly founded zoos not only claimed to educate and entertain their audiences, but also to serve science by providing direct access to exotic animals. However, reality did not live up to the promise of such rhetoric. The vast majority of biologists preferred to use dead bodies as the material for their morphological research. Nevertheless, there was still a strong interaction between the zoo and science. In the debate on Darwinism, the apes in the cage played a vital role. PMID:15749152

Hochadel, Oliver

2005-03-01

132

Inquiry Learning Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Inquiry Learning Forum (ILF) is an online community of K-12 math and science teachers interested in inquiry-based teaching and learning. Materials at the ILF web site include discussions on what inquiry is and why it is useful,and how it connects to local and national educational standards. The ILF library is a collection of lesson ideas and web links suggested by teachers, including inquiry-based lesson plans, activities, and unit ideas, as well as links to online resources from other web sites. Teachers can create their own personal portals with links to ILF and external resources, personal profiles, and a personal journal. There are also discussion forums for teachers; a collaborative group space for sharing ideas; virtual visits to classrooms; and information on professional development activities.

133

Critical Dance Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Terpsichorean pursuits sometimes get short shrift on arts sites, but this site celebrates all aspects of dance and ballet. CriticalDance is an international non-profit entity established to support all of the dance arts, and their site includes forums, photo galleries, external links, and articles culled from their magazine. First-time visitors may want to start by looking through the online "Ballet-Dance" magazine, where they can read both the current issue, and issues dating back to July 2003. Here they will be delighted to find pieces on British choreography, reviews of recent performances, and information about upcoming dance performances and conferences. Moving on, visitors should also browse through the photo galleries and take a dip into the online forums where they can feel free to ask questions about all aspects of dance.

134

Math Forum 2004 Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The well known Math Forum (formerly from Swarthmore College, discussed in the October 20, 1995 issue of The Scout Report), offers a new game where students find out how many expressions they can write for all the numbers from 1 to 100 using only the digits in the current year. Complete rules, worksheets and printable manipulatives are available from this website. Student solutions may be submitted starting January 1, 2004, using the webform, and solutions will be posted starting February 1, 2004.

Brown, Judy A.

135

Organic Chemistry Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemWeb's Organic Chemistry Forum bills itself as a "free online club for the organic chemistry community." Users will need to complete a simple online form to obtain membership and access the site. One highlight of this site is free full-text access to Tetrahedron Letters. This rapid publication journal appears weekly. Along with free access to Beilstein Abstracts, the site includes jobs, a conference diary, news, discussion groups, and more.

2005-01-01

136

Notre Dame Euthanasia Forum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euthanasia and palliative care are issues requiring community empathy, concern and careful consideration, as was demonstrated at a recent forum held at The University of Notre Dame Australia's Fremantle Campus.\\u000aOrganised by the Notre Dame Centre for Faith, Ethics and Society and attracting over 100 community members, key speakers, LJ Goody Bioethics Centre Director, Rev Dr Joseph Parkinson, Francis Burt

Andrea Barnard

2010-01-01

137

Beyond Borders: Zoo as Training Location for Wildlife Biologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The role of institutions such as zoos in global conservation efforts is critical. In addition to serving as informal learning centers for the general public, these institutions are well-positioned to provide training and professional development for the next generation of conservation scientists. And while many organizations traditionally have…

Melber, Leah M.; Bergren, Rachel; Santymire, Rachel

2011-01-01

138

Non-typhi Salmonella serovars found in Mexican zoo animals.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the bacteriological prevalence of subclinical non-typhi Salmonella infections in zoo animals and to determine the most frequently isolated serovars of the bacteria. A total of 267 samples were analyzed, including fecal samples from zoo animals and rodents, insects (Musca domestica and Periplaneta americana) and samples of the zoo animal's food. Salmonella was detected in 11.6% of the samples analyzed. Characterization of the isolates was performed with serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The following serovars were isolated: S. San Diego, S. Oranienburg, S. Weltevreden, S. Braenderup, S. Derby, S. 6,7, H:en x:- and S. 3,10, H:r:-. The isolates showed seven pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns with a Jaccard coefficient?0.75 indicating a possible common origin. The prevalence of asymptomatic infections caused by Salmonella spp. in zoo animals was high. These findings demonstrate the diversity of Salmonella serovars in several captive wild animal species. PMID:22483318

Silva-Hidalgo, G; Ortiz-Navarrete, V F; Alpuche-Aranda, C M; Rendón-Maldonado, J G; López-Valenzuela, M; Juárez-Barranco, F; López-Moreno, H S

2012-04-05

139

Wonderful Wikis and Internet Forums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wikis are collaborative websites where visitors can edit anything they want, anytime they want. Essentially online "whiteboards," wikis allow groups of people to create documents and projects together. Internet forums, also known as message boards or discussion boards, are web applications that provide online discussions. Like wikis, your forum

Kahn, Sami

2009-01-01

140

(Tribology conferences and forums)  

SciTech Connect

The principal meeting attended during this trip was the Japan International Tribology Conference Nagoya 1990. The conference encompassed a wide range of topics, including the tribology of ceramics, the tribology in high-performance automobiles, and many aspects of lubrication technology. Associated forums were also held on the tribology of advanced ceramics, on solid lubrication, and on automotive lubricants. Presentations made during the latter forum discussed anticipated trends in engine development and anticipated improvements in lubricants required for the next generation of engines. In addition to meetings, site visits were made to five industrial organizations to discuss ceramic tribology. Nippon Steel Corporation and Toshiba Corporation are both very active in the ceramic area, Nippon Steel from their interest in research on new materials and Toshiba from both an interest in new materials and in support of their work in electronic devices. Two engine manufacturers were also visited, Toyota Motor Corporation, and Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. These companies were somewhat reserved in their discussion of progress in the utilization of ceramics in automobile engines.

Yust, C.S.

1990-11-30

141

Radio Galaxies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)|

Downes, Ann

1986-01-01

142

OECD: Global Forums  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the early 21st century, there are a multitude of evolving policy questions that are inherently transnational in scope and breadth, and thus require an ongoing dialogue across various political and organizational boundaries. It is not surprising that one of the international organizations involved in creating a meaningful dialogue and exchange of ideas is the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Its Global Forum program is an excellent way to learn about some of these complex policy questions and programs they are emerging, as the organization addressed such issues as governance, international investment, the knowledge economy, and sustainable development. Within each thematic section, users can view working papers, statistics, and other relevant documents related to each theme. For persons with an interest in these topics, this site will be of great use, and one that is worth returning to several times.

143

A Virtual Publications Forum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the continuing effort to inform members about the publications program and get their input, the Publications Committee scheduled an open forum at the 2003 AGU Fall Meeting. This was to allow any members or guests the opportunity to ask questions about the AGU publications program, processes, progress, or any other publications-related concerns. Here, we are using the pages of Eos to share several ``good news'' messages about AGU publications and open a dialog with the membership about the publications program. The first thing to remember about AGU publications is that historically they have supported many of the non-revenue generating activities of the Union that we hold to be important-examples include workshops for high school teachers, career information for pre-college students and school counselors, and information for the press and for decision makers at various levels of government. Publications are very important to the mission of AGU both intellectually and financially (Figure 1).

Hornberger, George; Bougeret, Jean-Louis; Bowring, Samuel; Collins, Curtis; Costa, John; Jackson, Robert; Jaumann, Ralf; Stein, Ross; Suyehiro, Kiyoshi; Zeng, Xubin

2004-03-01

144

Harvard Law School Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1946 by 30 law students returned from the war, the Harvard Law School Forum has remained a nonprofit, student-run organization that sponsors a variety of speakers and panel discussions featuring political, literary, and cultural luminaries from around the world. Over the years, many of these discussions have been broadcast on the radio or otherwise recorded and are now available online in their entirety. Past programs currently offered in RealPlayer format include, to name just a few, Henry Kissinger, Timothy Leary, Jimmy Hoffa, Martin Luther King, Betty Friedan, Shimon Peres, Carl Sagan, F. Lee Bailey, Mario Cuomo, Ralph Nader, Helen Thomas, Charlton Heston, and Vince McMahon. The site also features a guide to past programs (sorted by decade and some with photos or associated press clippings), a photo gallery, and information on upcoming speakers. The site is an ongoing project, and additional recordings and other materials will be added as they are prepared or become available.

145

Isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni from zoo animals.  

PubMed

Over a 1-year period, 619 fecal specimens from animals at the Denver Zoo were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni. The organism was isolated from 35 animals, including 12 primates, 2 felids, a red panda, 13 hooved animals, 6 birds, and 1 reptile. Of 44 cultured fecal specimens from diarrheal animals, 31.8% were positive for Campylobacter, whereas only 5.6% of 575 specimens from animals without diarrhea were positive (P less than 0.001). Among 25 isolates tested, 12 serotypes were represented; several of these serotypes are commonly associated with Campylobacter enteritis in human beings. Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni was isolated from 8% of 75 wild pigeons trapped on the zoo premises during winter months and from 26% of 75 trapped during March and April (P less than 0.01). PMID:6799468

Luechtefeld, N W; Cambre, R C; Wang, W L

1981-12-01

146

Naturally Acquired Picornavirus Infections in Primates at the Dhaka Zoo  

PubMed Central

The conditions in densely populated Bangladesh favor picornavirus transmission, resulting in a high rate of infection in the human population. Data suggest that nonhuman primates (NHP) may play a role in the maintenance and transmission of diverse picornaviruses in Bangladesh. At the Dhaka Zoo, multiple NHP species are caged in close proximity. Their proximity to other species and to humans, both zoo workers and visitors, provides the potential for cross-species transmission. To investigate possible interspecies and intraspecies transmission of picornaviruses among NHP, we collected fecal specimens from nine NHP taxa at the Dhaka Zoo at three time points, August 2007, January 2008, and June 2008. Specimens were screened using real-time PCR for the genera Enterovirus, Parechovirus, and Sapelovirus, and positive samples were typed by VP1 sequencing. Fifty-two picornaviruses comprising 10 distinct serotypes were detected in 83 fecal samples. Four of these serotypes, simian virus 19 (SV19), baboon enterovirus (BaEV), enterovirus 112 (EV112), and EV115, have been solely associated with infection in NHP. EV112, EV115, and SV19 accounted for 88% of all picornaviruses detected. Over 80% of samples from cages housing rhesus macaques, olive baboons, or hamadryas baboons were positive for a picornavirus, while no picornaviruses were detected in samples from capped langurs or vervet monkeys. In contrast to our findings among synanthropic NHP in Bangladesh where 100% of the picornaviruses detected were of human serotypes, in the zoo population, only 15% of picornaviruses detected in NHP were of human origin. Specific serotypes tended to persist over time, suggesting either persistent infection of individuals or cycles of reinfection.

Feeroz, Mohammed M.; Maher, Kaija; Nix, W. Allan; Engel, Gregory A.; Begum, Sajeda; Hasan, Kamrul M.; Oh, Gunwha; Pallansch, Mark A.; Jones-Engel, Lisa

2013-01-01

147

Characterisation of a recently isolated lyssavirus in frugivorous zoo bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?In July 1997 a lyssavirus was isolated in Denmark from a colony of Egyptian flying foxes (Rousettus aegyptiacus) originating from a Dutch zoo. Sequencing of a 400 nucleotides coding region of the nucleoprotein and of a major part of\\u000a the G-protein ectodomain encoding region of the newly isolated virus, revealed a very high similarity with European Bat Lyssavirus\\u000a subtype 1a

W. H. M. Van der Poel; R. Van der Heide; G. Van Amerongen; L. J. M. Van Keulen; G. J. Wellenberg; H. Bourhy; W. Schaftenaar; J. Groen; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus

2000-01-01

148

Motivation of Citizen Scientists Participating in Moon Zoo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moon Zoo is an online citizen science project with the aim of providing detailed crater counts for as much of the Moon's surface as possible. In addition to focusing on craters, volunteers are encouraged to remain vigilant for sightings of atypical features which may lead to new discoveries. Volunteers accomplish these tasks by exploring images captured by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) which has a resolution of 50cm per pixel. To be successful, Moon Zoo needs to attract and retain a large population of citizen scientists. In this study, we examine the factors motivating Moon Zoo participants who invest many hours exploring these images. In this, the first of a two-phased study, we conducted a qualitative analysis using semi-structured interviews as a means of data collection. A stratified sample of participants was used in an attempt to uncover the driving forces behind decisions to participate from a wide-range of participants. Inquiring and probing questions were asked about factors which led volunteers to Moon Zoo as well as reasons which kept them committed to exploring the Moon's surface through this online portal. Responses were then categorized using a grounded theory approach, and frequency distributions are calculated where appropriate. Aggregate results from these interviews are presented here including the demographics of the sample and motivators as per the content analysis. The information gathered from this phase will be used to guide the development of an online survey to further explore volunteers’ motivation based on the presented classification schemes. The survey will then be used to guide future research and development in the area of citizen science in the field of astronomy. These findings will also be useful in charting new boundaries for future research.

Brown, Shanique; Gay, P. L.; Daus, C. S.

2011-01-01

149

Intestinal parasites in various animals at a zoo in Malaysia.  

PubMed

A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites from different groups of mammals housed in a zoological garden in Malaysia. A total of 197 faecal samples were collected randomly from various primates (99), hoofed mammals (70) and feline (28). It was discovered that 89.3% of feline, 54.5% of primates and 45.7% of hoofed mammals were infected with intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasites found in primates were Balantidium coli (19.2%), Cryptosporidium spp. (14.1%), hookworm (10.1%), Trichuris spp. (5.1%), Ascaris (4.0%) and Blastocystis spp. (2.0%). For hoofed mammals, hookworm had the highest prevalence (34.3%) followed by Trichuris spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.7%). Meanwhile, for feline, Toxocara cati was the most prevalent (64.3%), followed by Cryptosporidium spp. (14.3%), Spirometra spp. (7.1%), and hookworm (3.6%). Animals that were infected were all asymptomatic with low parasite load. Routine monitoring of the presence of parasites in animals kept in the zoo is imperative in assisting zoo management in the formulation and implementation of preventive and control measures against the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among animals within the zoo or to humans. PMID:18723289

Lim, Y A L; Ngui, R; Shukri, J; Rohela, M; Mat Naim, H R

2008-07-23

150

Streamlining taxonomic publication: a working example with Scratchpads and ZooKeys  

PubMed Central

Abstract We describe a method to publish nomenclatural acts described in taxonomic websites (Scratchpads) that are formally registered through publication in a printed journal (ZooKeys). This method is fully compliant with the zoological nomenclatural code. Our approach supports manuscript creation (via a Scratchpad), electronic act registration (via ZooBank), online and print publication (in the journal ZooKeys) and simultaneous dissemination (ZooKeys and Scratchpads) for nomenclatorial acts including new species descriptions. The workflow supports the generation of manuscripts directly from a database and is illustrated by two sample papers published in the present issue.

Blagoderov, Vladimir; Brake, Irina; Georgiev, Teodor; Penev, Lyubomir; Roberts, David; Ryrcroft, Simon; Scott, Ben; Agosti, Donat; Catapano, Terry; Smith, Vincent S.

2010-01-01

151

Peculiar Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A peculiar galaxy is an object that cannot be easily classified as a SPIRAL, ELLIPTICAL, or IRREGULAR GALAXY based on its optical morphology. They constitute between 5% and 10% of the known galaxy population, although most `normal' galaxies will show peculiar features if examined carefully. Peculiar galaxies show a great diversity of form. The vast majority can be attributed to strong gravitation...

Higdon, J.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

152

Introduction: Fordham Sports Law Forum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction to the Fordham Sports Law Forum at Fordham University School of Law.\\u000aSince its founding in 1996, the Fordham Sports Law Forum has attracted numerous distinguished speakers to the school who have graciously shared their expertise and insight into the intersecting worlds of sports, law, and business. These participants have greatly enriched and invigorated the academic environment for many

William Michael Treanor

2004-01-01

153

Global Policy Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Policy Forum (GPF) monitors the United Nations' global policy making. Based in New York City, the internationally represented GPF has consultative status at the UN. Their visually simple, information-rich Website is divided into the following subsections: UN Financial Crisis, Security Council, Social/ Economic Policy, NGOs, Nations and States, and UN Reform. The content includes essays from the GPF staff, issue summaries, excerpts from conference presentations, news articles, and reports from the UN and other government agencies. Other special in-depth sections on the Iraq crisis, international justice, globalization, and additional timely topics are definitely worth a look. Also, check out GPF's What's New section to keep on top of current UN issues -- for instance, this week's What's New contains critical articles and essays on middle east peace negotiation, sanctions against Iraq, and the rumblings of a possible second genocide in Rwanda, among other topics. In addition, the GPF site offers a publications list, numerous links, an electronic mailing list, a search engine, an index, and a virtual visitors center.

154

An Hourly Variation in Zoo Visitor Interest: Measurement and Significance for Animal Welfare Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodological difficulty facing welfare research on nonhuman animals in the zoo is the large number of uncontrolled variables due to variation within and between study sites. Zoo visitors act as uncontrolled variables, with number, density, size, and behavior constantly changing. This is worrisome because previous research linked visitor variables to animal behavioral changes indicative of stress. There are implica-

Gareth Davey

2006-01-01

155

Seroprevalences of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes neuromuscular disease in dogs and abortions in cattle. Little is known about the prevalence of antibodies to this parasite in zoo animals. Sera from 556 animals, from 13 Czech and Slovak zoos were tested for antibodies to N. caninum and Toxoplasma gondii by indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antibodies to N. caninum were

K. Sedlák; E. Bártová

2006-01-01

156

Measuring the impact of informal science education in zoos on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the emphasis in modern zoos and aquaria on conservation and environmental education, we know very little about what people learn in these settings, and even less about how they learn it. Research on informal learning in settings such as zoos has suffered from a lack of theory, with few connections being made to theories of learning in formal settings,

Christopher David Wilson

2005-01-01

157

Age and experience influence different verbal and nonverbal measures of children's scripts for the zoo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age and experience are usually confounded in developmental research. In the present study, age and experience were quantified more precisely to determine whether each of them, controlling the other, was significant in estimating various measures of children's scripts for the zoo. Children (3- to 12-year-olds) were interviewed about the zoo before and after a group of them went to the

Darlene DeMarie; Alice Norman; Dama Walker Abshier

2000-01-01

158

CALLITRICHID HEPATITIS: EPIZOOTIOLOGY OF A FATAL HEPATITIS IN ZOO TAMARINS AND MARMOSETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epizootics of an acute, fatal hepatitis affecting tamarins and marmosets (family Cal- litrichidae) have been reported in two zoos in the U.S. and Europe. Two new epizootics of hepatitis affecting seven golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) and three emperor tamarins (Saguinus imperator) were identified at the Oklahoma City Zoo in 1984 and 1986. Livers from these animals showed hepatocellular swelling

Edward C. Ramsay; Richard J. Montali; Michael Worley; Charles B. Stephensen; Kathryn V. Holmes

1989-01-01

159

Human Interest and Humane Governance in Iraq: Humanitarian War and the Baghdad Zoo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that the story of the Baghdad zoo in the Iraq war and the ‘human interest’ it attracted are important for the analysis of warfare and humanitarian intervention. The activities at the zoo are notable precisely because they provide a specific site through which to analyse the increasing entanglements between war and humanitarianism, and practices associated with civil–military

Alison Howell; Andrew W. Neal

2012-01-01

160

Serologic survey of trichinellosis in wild mammals kept in a Mexico City Zoo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serologic survey of Trichinella infection was carried out to determine the prevalence of this parasitosis among wild mammals kept in captivity at the Chapultepec Zoo. This was prompted by the necropsy finding of a heavy Trichinella infection in a Canadian polar bear (Ursus maritimus) that had been kept at the Zoo for more than 11 years. The parasites recovered

L. Yépez-Mulia; C. Arriaga; M. A. Peña; F. Gual; G. Ortega-Pierres

1996-01-01

161

Identification of Plasmodium relictum causing mortality in penguins ( Spheniscus magellanicus) from São Paulo Zoo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports avian malaria caused by Plasmodium relictum in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from São Paulo Zoo. The disease was highly infective among the birds and was clinically characterized by its acute course and high mortality. The penguins of São Paulo Zoo were housed for at least 2 years without malaria; however, they had always been maintained in an

Marina Galvão Bueno; Rodrigo Pinho Gomez Lopez; Regiane Maria Tironi de Menezes; Maria de Jesus Costa-Nascimento; Giselle Fernandes Maciel de Castro Lima; Radamés Abrantes de Sousa Araújo; Fernanda Junqueira Vaz Guida; Karin Kirchgatter

2010-01-01

162

Two alternative modes for diffuse pollution control in Wuhan City Zoo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution in urban zoos arises from diffuse and small point sources. However, its control has received little attention in past decades. Online and offline modes of ecological engineering technology were designed to control pollution from small point and diffuse sources in Wuhan City Zoo, China. Their characteristics and performances were investigated in sixteen runoff events from 2003 to 2005. The

Qing-feng CHEN; Bao-qing SHAN; Cheng-qing YIN; Cheng-xiao HU

2007-01-01

163

A Curriculum Plan for the Columbus Zoo Aquarium. Grades 3 through 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum plan is submitted as a framework for developing educational programs at the Columbus Zoo Aquarium (CZA) for elementary school students in grades 3 through 6. It is intended to provide support and assistance to those involved with CZA programs. Major sections include: (1) "Review of Columbus Zoo's Educational Programs"; (2)…

Alsdorf, Brian

164

Impact of Zoo Visitors on the Fecal Cortisol Levels and Behavior of an Endangered Species: Indian Blackbuck (Antelope cervicapra L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated behavioral activities (resting, moving, aggressive, social, and reproductive behavior) and fecal cortisol levels in 8 individually identified adult male blackbucks during periods of varying levels of zoo visitors (zero, low, high, and extremely high zoo visitor density). This study also elucidated whether zoo visitor density could disturb nonhuman animal welfare. This study analyzed fecal cortisol from the

Thangavel Rajagopal; Govindaraju Archunan; Mahadevan Sekar

2011-01-01

165

The Orion radio zoo - PIGS, DEERS and FOXES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent VLA radio observations of a ?3arcmin×3arcmin region of the Orion Nebula, centered near the core of the KL nebula, revealing the presence of thirty-five ultracompact radio sources are discussed. Twenty-five of the radio sources are clustered near ?1C Orionis, the most luminous star of the Trapezium cluster, and have optical counterparts. Most of these objects are probably neutral condensations surrounded by ionized envelopes that are excited by ?1C. A suggestion for the sequential formation of the Orion radio zoo species is made, as is for the triggering mechanism.

Garay, Guido

1987-05-01

166

Interpretive signs designed to trigger naturalist intelligence at two American zoos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of interpretive graphics was conducted in 2005 at two mid-sized AZA-accredited zoos, Lowry Park Zoo, Tampa, Florida and Knoxville Zoo, Knoxville, Tennessee. The Lowry Park Zoo study investigated signs at a red-tailed hawk and sandhill crane exhibit. Combination signs and wordless signs were more effective helping visitors see animals, increasing holding time, and number of engagements than treatments of no signs, or signs with words only. A second study, at Knoxville Zoo, tested combination and wordless signs in a children's zoo, investigating 31 signs at a 3.5-acre exhibit. Comparisons of visitors seeing the animals/using interactive exhibit elements, holding time, and engagement activities, showed wordless signs were more effective than combination signs. Differences in gender ratio, age, group size, and other demographics were not significant. Visit motivation differed between zoos, with visitors from Lowry Park Zoo more often articulating reason for a visit as wanting to see animals. Visitors at Knoxville Zoo most often said they wanted to spend time with family and friends. Differences in potential for naturalist intelligence were probably related to local practices rather than to innate differences in naturalist intelligence. The number of communities in Florida that regulate pet ownership and provide lawn service could account for the lower number of people who have pets and plants. At both institutions, behaviors supported educational theories. The importance of signs as advanced organizers was shown where signs were removed at the bird exhibit at Lowry Park Zoo, with fewer visitors seeing the animals. Social interaction was noted at both zoos, with intra- and inter-group conversations observed. If naturalist intelligence is necessary to see animals, visitors run a continuum. Some are unable to see animals with signs and assistance from other visitors; others see animals with little difficulty. The importance of honing naturalist intelligence was best stated by a Lowry Park Zoo visitor who commented. "No one has ever shown me how to see animals." The potential for honing naturalist intelligence is the key finding of the study and should be considered as zoos work to connect their visitors with the creatures in their collections.

Bryant, Martha

167

A potentially fatal mix of herpes in zoos.  

PubMed

Pathogens often have a limited host range, but some can opportunistically jump to new species. Anthropogenic activities that mix reservoir species with novel, hence susceptible, species can provide opportunities for pathogens to spread beyond their normal host range. Furthermore, rapid evolution can produce new pathogens by mechanisms such as genetic recombination. Zoos unintentionally provide pathogens with a high diversity of species from different continents and habitats assembled within a confined space. Institutions alert to the problem of pathogen spread to unexpected hosts can monitor the emergence of pathogens and take preventative measures. However, asymptomatic infections can result in the causative pathogens remaining undetected in their reservoir host. Furthermore, pathogen spread to unexpected hosts may remain undiagnosed if the outcome of infection is limited, as in the case of compromised fertility, or if more severe outcomes are restricted to less charismatic species that prompt only limited investigation. We illustrate this problem here with a recombinant zebra herpesvirus infecting charismatic species including zoo polar bears over at least four years. The virus may cause fatal encephalitis and infects at least five mammalian orders, apparently without requiring direct contact with infected animals. PMID:22902751

Greenwood, Alex D; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Ho, Simon Y W; Szentiks, Claudia A; Nikolin, Veljko M; Ma, Guanggang; Damiani, Armando; East, Marion L; Lawrenz, Arne; Hofer, Heribert; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

2012-08-16

168

Unraveling the complexity of the zoo community: identifying the variables related to conservation performance in zoological parks.  

PubMed

Zoological parks make up a highly heterogeneous community. Ranging from small collections at shopping malls to highly developed bioparks, their contribution to conservation is expected to vary enormously. Although several studies have focused on assessing such contribution, the parameters used frequently do not apply when considering more modest zoos. The goals of this study are to determine, within the wide range of zoos, which type tend to fulfill the conservation mission of modern zoos and to identify the variables associated to their conservation performance. We used the requirements demanded by the European Community Zoos Directive 1999/22/EC, relating to the keeping of wild animals in zoological parks, to assess conservation performance in 72% of officially registered Spanish zoos. Sampled zoos were classified into groups according to their common characteristics, and then the variables related to how they met each of the Directive's requirements in the groups were assessed. We found that private zoological parks with large zoological collections, located within metropolitan areas, and members of a zoo association tended to fulfill the requirements. Being a member of a zoo association was the variable that better explained fulfillment of the requirements among the evaluated zoos. Data revealed that zoos not meeting any requirement were few, although those meeting all of them were not frequent. The requirement related to adequate record keeping showed the lowest level of fulfillment. We discuss the implications of our results and propose measures of change in order to promote the contribution of zoos to biodiversity conservation. PMID:21480369

Fàbregas, María C; Guillén-Salazar, Federico; Garcés-Narro, Carlos

2011-04-07

169

Teachers' Online Discussion Forums in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia has special online discussion forums for teachers as part of its internet website. The study surveys those teachers' online forums and reports the number of participants, number of threads and responses, topics with the highest and lowest posts and the forums role in teachers' professional development and…

Al-Jarf, Reima

2006-01-01

170

Other Galaxies and Active Galaxies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter covers the characteristics of other normal galaxies, active galaxies, and finding distances to other galaxies, including the distance-scale ladder. It also includes large-scale structure (galaxy clusters and collisions and superclusters). This website is part of Astronomy notes, an educational resource for introductory astronomy classes for undergraduates.

Strobel, Nick

2007-12-11

171

American Issues Forum; Film List.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the American Issues Forum, a bicentennial program developed around nine monthly issues, divided into 36 weekly subtopics; a list of supporting films is provided by the Educational Film Library Association. Arranged by issue topic and weekly subtopic, each entry includes title, length, color, producer, distributor, and a brief annotated…

Educational Film Library Association, Inc., New York, NY.

172

The Global Corporate Governance Forum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Corporate Governance Forum (GCGF) is a multidonor trust fund founded by the World Bank Group and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to promote global, regional, and local initiatives that aim improving the institutional framework and practices of corporate governance. \\

Ross Levine

173

Pan 13th Annual Forum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This conference grant supported the Parkinson's Action Network (PAN)'s 13th Annual Research and Education Forum for Parkinson's patients, their families/caretakers and advocates held February 11 to 13, 2007 at the Washington Plaza Hotel, Washington, DC. T...

A. Comstock Rick

2007-01-01

174

Conservation caring: Measuring the influence of zoo visitors' connection to wildlife on pro-conservation behaviors.  

PubMed

Zoos in the 21st century are striving to make effective contributions to conservation. Although zoos are extremely popular and host over 600 million visitors worldwide, one challenge zoos face is how to effectively engage visitors and raise awareness and action for conservation. To this end, zoos commonly rely on charismatic megafauna, which have been shown to elicit a connection with zoo visitors. However, little is known about how to measure a connection to a species or how this connection may influence conservation behaviors. This study had two sequential objectives. The first was to develop a scale to measure visitors' connection to a species (Conservation Caring). The second was to investigate the relationship of Conservation Caring to pro-conservation behaviors, following a zoo experience. Pre- (n?=?411) and post-visit (n?=?452) responses were collected from three sites in order to assess the reliability and validity of a scale to measure Conservation Caring. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship between Conservation Caring and pro-conservation behaviors. Conservation Caring was deemed a valid and reliable scale and was a strong predictor of species oriented behaviors (??=?0.62), for example, "adopting" an animal, but a weak predictor for biodiversity oriented behaviors (??=?0.07), for example, supporting sustainability policies. Results support the role zoos can play in fostering a connection to wildlife and stimulating pro-conservation behaviors. Additionally, visitors connected to a wide array of animals. On the basis of these results, zoos may recruit a wider assemblage of species as potential flagships. Zoo Biol. 32:528-540, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals Inc. PMID:23877958

Skibins, Jeffrey C; Powell, Robert B

2013-07-22

175

Searching for AGN Signatures in HST WFC3/IR Grism Spectra of Clumpy Galaxies at 0.5 < z < 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent discovery of a "clumpy” galaxy with three actively growing black holes in separate clumps at z = 1.35 raises the possibility of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) forming in situ within gas clouds at later epochs than previously expected. We carry out a systematic search for 0.5 < z < 2 galaxies containing multiple active galactic nuclei (AGN) by examining clumpy galaxies with Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/IR grism survey data. We select our sample of clumpy galaxies using SExtractor and galaxy classifications from the Hubble Zoo citizen science project. We then analyze the grism data of individual clumps within each galaxy to characterize the probability of SMBHs forming and growing in the clumps of forming disk galaxies at 0.5 < z < 2.

Han, Anna; Schawinski, K.; Simmons, B. D.; Urry, C. M.; Glikman, E.; Bamford, S.; Lintott, C.

2012-01-01

176

Biting Midges of the Genus Culicoides in South Carolina Zoos  

PubMed Central

Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected during the summer of 2007 at the Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos in South Carolina with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps equipped with ultraviolet or incandescent lights and baited with carbon dioxide. Sixteen species of Culicoides were collected, four of which represented more than 80%. They were Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillett), Culicoides mulrenanni Beck, Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), and Culicoides sanguisuga (Coquillett). C. guttipennis was found on a dead colobus monkey and a dead golden-headed lion tamarin; Culicoides husseyi Wirth & Blanton was collected from an unidentified, abandoned bird's nest. Ultraviolet light-equipped traps captured significantly more Culicoides specimens than traps with incandescent light. Half of the collected species previously have been associated with vertebrate pathogens, indicating a potential risk to captive animals.

Nelder, Mark P.; Swanson, Dustin A.; Adler, Peter H.; Grogan, William L.

2010-01-01

177

Erratum: The OB Zoo: A Digital Atlas of Peculiar Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the article ``The OB Zoo: A Digital Atlas of Peculiar Spectra,'' by Nolan R. Walborn and Edward L. Fitzpatrick (PASP, 112, 50), a correction to an editorial error was indicated by the author on proofs but was not implemented correctly by the Press. The error (in § 4) appeared in the sentence ``If the Hipparcos results are reliable, as is indicated by their standard deviations, the peculiar tangential velocities of these stars are of order 100 km s (or 1 pc Myr-1), ample to carry them to their current separation during their lifetimes.'' The corrected sentence should read ``If the Hipparcos results are reliable, as is indicated by their standard deviations, the peculiar tangential velocities of these stars are of order 100 km s-1 (or pc Myr-1), ample to carry them to their current separation during their lifetimes.'' The Press sincerely regrets this error.

Walborn, Nolan R.; Fitzpatrick, Edward L.

2000-02-01

178

Brookfield Zoo: In Search of The Ways of Knowing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In Search of Ways of Knowing is an online Adventure Trail from the Brookfield Zoo in Illinois. The Adventure Trails each offer an "interactive journey to explore conservation efforts worldwide." Visitors to this Web site -- geared toward kids but fun for anyone -- will find a lively, virtual journey to the village of Epulu in central Africa's Ituri forest. With a choose-your-own-adventure-style educational game format, players hide from a rampaging elephant, snack on beetle grubs, and identify animal sounds in the dark of night. Players also learn about the people and wildlife of the area (with help from your Forest Factbook and the four local kids you meet on the way). Moral of the story: have respect for other ways of knowing. Great graphics and diverse story options make this fun Web site worth a repeat visit.

179

Extracting Structural information from Galaxy Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of data from sky images is large and growing. About 1 million galaxies can be discerned in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is being built and will scan the entire sky repeatedly, providing images of millions of galaxies and petabytes of data every night. The Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) is a proposed orbiting satellite that will repeatedly map the entire sky from orbit, providing images of perhaps billions of galaxies. Unfortunately, given an image of a spiral galaxy, there does not exist an automated vision algorithm that can even tell us which direction the spiral arms wind, much less count them or provide any other quantitative information about them. To wit, the largest galaxy classification project is the Galaxy Zoo, in which thousands of human volunteers classify images by eye over the web. Although valuable, such human classifications will provide only limited objective quantitative measurements, and will soon be overwhelmed with more data than humans can handle. However, such information would prove an invaluable source for astronomers and cosmologists to test current theories of galaxy formation and cosmic evolution (which can now be simulated with high accuracy on large computers, producing copious predictions that cannot be tested due to a lack of objective, quantitative observational data). In this talk, I will report on preliminary results from dynamical grammars and other machine learning and vision techniques to "parse" images of galaxies, starting us on the road towards producing quantitative data that will be useful for astronomers to test theories.

Hayes, Wayne B.; Davis, D.

2010-05-01

180

Do naturalistic enclosures provide suitable environments for zoo animals?  

PubMed

Zoo visitors perceive naturalistic enclosures (i.e. those attempting to replicate identifiable parts of the landscape of the species' habitat) as those that best satisfy the biological needs of the animals, and ensure therefore their welfare. However, the provision of a suitable environment with the resources that will allow the animals to satisfy their main biological needs in naturalistic enclosures has never been systematically explored; instead, it has been assumed. In this study we provide evidence that supports the general idea that naturalistic designs provide suitable environments for the animals. For that purpose, we analyzed 1,381 naturalistic and non-naturalistic enclosures in 63 Spanish zoological parks. In order to assess the suitability of the environment provided within each enclosure, a number of aspects related to the animals' main biological requirements were analyzed. We found a relationship between naturalistic designs and the suitability of the environment for the species housed. Most naturalistic enclosures (77.8%) provided suitable environments for their inhabitants. Non-naturalistic ones also had suitable environments, but in a lower percentage (39.7%). These results should be taken into account during zoo inspection and accreditation appointments, where enclosure suitability must be assessed in an accurate and fast manner. In this regard, a naturalistic design can be used as an adjunct indicator of enclosure suitability, but not exclusively, as not every naturalistic enclosure was suitable for the animals, neither as an indispensable one, given that near 40% of non-naturalistic ones were appropriate for the species housed. PMID:21688309

Fàbregas, María C; Guillén-Salazar, Federico; Garcés-Narro, Carlos

2011-06-17

181

Galaxy Photometry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity asks students to observe the images of three spiral galaxies of different surface brightnesses. Each of the loaded images is active in the sense that you can place a rectangular aperture on them and determine the flux. The flux through the aperture equals the galaxy flux + the sky flux. Hence to determine the galaxy flux you need to put an aperture on the sky background (where there is little or no galaxy light) and measure that.

Department, University O.

2005-06-17

182

Nuclear waste disposal educational forum  

SciTech Connect

In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

Not Available

1982-10-18

183

NCI: SBIR & STTR - Investor Forum  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program hosted the 2012 NCI SBIR Investor Forum on April 18, 2012 in Santa Clara, CA. This year’s meeting brought together nearly 200 SBIR-funded companies, investors, venture capitalists, strategic partners, and business leaders from the biotech and pharmaceutical industries, and featured presentations from 18 top NCI SBIR-funded companies with innovative cancer-related technologies on the brink of commercialization.

184

An Exploratory Study of Canadian Aboriginal Online Health Care Forums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet-based discussion forums provide access to health information and social support, and serve as a resource for others. This investigation analyzed health-oriented Aboriginal Internet discussion forum (Forum A; Forum B) conversations. The findings were framed with Nutbeam's model of health literacy. Discussions within Forum B were centralized around issues of political activism and advocacy regarding Aboriginal health care. Activity in

Lorie Donelle; Laurie Hoffman-Goetz

2008-01-01

185

NSTC Regional Forum on Research Business Models  

NSF Publications Database

... Regional Forum on Research Business Models Hosted by the University of Minnesota Minneapolis ... 2003 The NSTC Committee on Science has chartered a Subcommittee on Research Business Models (RBM ...

186

Warning signs for suicide in Internet forums.  

PubMed

The presence of 10 warning signs for suicide proposed by the American Association of Suicidology was compared in 215 postings on a suicide forum and 94 postings on a self-injury forum. The suicide forum postings received a higher score on the 10 signs than the self-injury forum postings, and significant differences were found for 6 of the 10 signs: suicidal ideation, purposelessness, trapped, hopelessness, withdrawal, and, in the reverse direction, recklessness. Overall, the findings support the usefulness of the warning signs in identifying suicidal individuals. PMID:23045860

McSwain, Stephanie; Lester, David; Gunn, John F

2012-08-01

187

Phacilitate Cell and Gene Therapy Forum  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Presentations. Transcripts & Minutes (Biologics). -. Phacilitate Cell and Gene Therapy Forum. -. Presentation. FDA Regulation ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/newsevents/workshopsmeetingsconferences

188

"Our Zoo to You": The Link between Zoo Animals in the Classroom and Science and Literacy Concepts in First-Grade Journal Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined first-grade students' journal writing to determine how placing live zoo animals in classrooms for science education links to students' emergent and early writing. Students were asked to write journal entries during the daily language arts period. Although no direct instruction in informational text writing was offered,…

Wilson, Kathleen; Trainin, Guy; Laughridge, Virginia; Brooks, David; Wickless, Mimi

2011-01-01

189

Sarcocystosis among Wild Captive and Zoo Animals in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Sarcocystis sp. infection was investigated in 20 necropsied captive wild mammals and 20 birds in 2 petting zoos in Malaysia. The gross post-mortem lesions in mammals showed marbling of the liver with uniform congestion of the intestine, and for birds, there was atrophy of the sternal muscles with hemorrhage and edema of the lungs in 2 birds. Naked eye examination was used for detection of macroscopic sarcocysts, and muscle squash for microscopic type. Only microscopically visible cysts were detected in 8 animals and species identification was not possible. Histological examination of the sections of infected skeletal muscles showed more than 5 sarcocysts in each specimen. No leukocytic infiltration was seen in affected organs. The shape of the cysts was elongated or circular, and the mean size reached 254 × 24.5 µm and the thickness of the wall up to 2.5 µm. Two stages were recognized in the cysts, the peripheral metrocytes and large numbers of crescent shaped merozoites. Out of 40 animals examined, 3 mammals and 5 birds were positive (20%). The infection rate was 15% and 25% in mammals and birds, respectively. Regarding the organs, the infection rate was 50% in the skeletal muscles followed by tongue and heart (37.5%), diaphragm (25%), and esophagus (12.5%). Further ultrastructural studies are required to identify the species of Sarcocystis that infect captive wild animals and their possible role in zoonosis.

Vellayan, Subramaniam; Omar, Effat; Abdullah, Suliman; Mat Desa, Noryatimah

2010-01-01

190

Galaxy Morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hidden in the bewildering details of galaxy morphology are clues to how galaxies formed and have evolved over a Hubble time. This article reviews the phenomenology of galaxy morphology and classification using an extensive set of illustrations to delineate as many types as possible and to show how different types connect to various physical processes and characteristics. The old classification systems are refined, and new types introduced, as the explosion in available morphological data has modified our views on the structure and evolution of galaxies.

Buta, Ronald J.

191

Galaxy Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Square Kilometre Array will revolutionize our understanding of the evolution of galaxies. In the very near future the various SKA precursors and pathfinders will also start surveying the sky, making their contributions to our knowledge. Recently large HI surveys on existing telescopes have already started to show us what will be possible in terms of relating gas densities to star formation, tracing cold accretion, and characterizing the dynamics of nearby galaxies. This contribution highlights some recent and ongoing work in characterizing the dynamics of the cold gaseous interstellar medium in nearby galaxies, as well as recent comparisons between de dynamics of real versus simulated dwarf galaxies.

de Blok, W. J. G.; Oh, S.-H.; Frank, B. S.

192

Open Forum: The Future of Library Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moderated by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University, discussion at this open forum on the future of library systems touched on open-source library systems, cloud computing, new initiatives by the Open Library Environment (OLE) Project and OCLC, and desired characteristics of future integrated library systems. Most participants had limited experience with next-generation library systems and attended the open forum

Maria Collins; Andrée J. Rathemacher

2010-01-01

193

Proceedings: EPRI Manufactured Gas Plants 2003 Forum  

SciTech Connect

The EPRI Manufactured Gas Plants 2003 Forum covered a range of topics related to remediation and management of former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites, with emphasis on technological advances and current issues associated with site cleanup. In specific, the forum covered MGP coal-tar delineation, soil and groundwater remediation technologies, improvements in air monitoring, and ecological risk characterization/risk management tools.

None

2004-02-01

194

Asynchronous Learning Forums for Business Acculturation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of IT as a facilitator for student collaboration in higher business education has grown rapidly since 2000. Asynchronous discussion forums are used abundantly for collaborative training purposes and for teaching students business-relevant tools for their future careers. This article presents an analysis of the asynchronous discussion forum

Pence, Christine Cope; Wulf, Catharina

2009-01-01

195

PREFACE: Rusnanotech 2010 International Forum on Nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rusnanotech 2010 International Forum on Nanotechnology was held from November 1-3, 2010, in Moscow, Russia. It was the third forum organized by RUSNANO (Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies) since 2008. In March 2011 RUSNANO was established as an open joint-stock company through the reorganization of the state corporation Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies. RUSNANO's mission is to develop the Russian nanotechnology

Konstantin Kazaryan

2011-01-01

196

IV Nanotechnology International Forum (RUSNANOTECH 2011)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RUSNANOTECH 2011 International Forum on Nanotechnology was held from 26–28 October 2011, in Moscow, Russia. It was the fourth forum organized by RUSNANO (Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies) since 2008. In March 2011 RUSNANO was established as an open joint-stock company through the reorganization of the state corporation Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies. RUSNANO's mission is to develop the Russian nanotechnology

Anatoly Dvurechenskii; Mikhail Alfimov; Igor Suzdalev; Vyacheslav Osiko; Aleksey Khokhlov; Eduard Son; Konstantin Skryabin; Rem Petrov; Sergey Deev

2012-01-01

197

Forum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a study conducted by Cornelia Yarbrough and Jennifer Whitaker titled "Analysis of Reviewer Comments About Quantitative Manuscripts Accepted by the "Journal of Research in Music Education"." The study aims to analyze reviewers' comments for quantitative manuscripts with regard to the following categories: section discussed…

Sims, Wendy, Ed.

2009-01-01

198

MoZis: mobile zoo information system: a case study for the city of Osnabrueck  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new project of the Institute for Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing, funded by the German Federal Foundation for the Environment (DBU, Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt www.dbu.de). The goal of this project is to develop a mobile zoo information system for Pocket PCs and Smart phones. Visitors of the zoo will be able to use their own mobile devices or use Pocket PCs, which could be borrowed from the zoo to navigate around the zoo's facilities. The system will also provide additional multimedia based information such as audio-based material, animal video clips, and maps of their natural habitat. People could have access to the project at the zoo via wireless local area network or by downloading the necessary files using a home internet connection. Our software environment consists of proprietary and non-proprietary software solutions in order to make it as flexible as possible. Our first prototype was developed with Visual Studio 2003 and Visual Basic.Net.

Michel, Ulrich

2007-10-01

199

Radio galaxies and galaxy formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio galaxies at large redshift constrain galaxy formation models in two ways: (1) through their comoving density; (2) through the ages of their stellar population. The observed density of radio galaxies at z roughly 4 sets important limits on power-spectrum normalization in hierarchical models. CDM models probably require a low degree of bias to survive. The 'alignment effect' has been used to argue that observed high-z radio galaxies are young objects in which the majority of stars are generated by the jets from the AGN. However, new data show that alignments are confined to sources of the most extreme radio power. It therefore seems likely that the stellar populations in high-z radio galaxies are old - as expected in hierarchical models for galaxy formation.

Peacock, John

200

Pathways for Success in Developing a Nature Trail at a Zoo: A Mixed-Methods Evaluative Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Modern zoos serve as tourist attractions and recreational facilities, while providing educational outreach programs in ecology, conservation, and animal needs. However, in the 21st century, there has been a negative backlash of people associating zoos with animals being shut away in cages or pits. This case study included an examination of the…

Hendrickson, Carol F.

2010-01-01

201

Galaxy You  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy You uses a 3D environment to display a galaxy in a new way. Zoom out to see the collection of stars as an entire galaxy, and zoom in far enough to see a solar system in whatever way you want to see it, even from on top of a planet or asteroid. It allows for more than just viewing a solar system. Make the sun blue. Mold a planet into what you want and change its orbit. Make your own planets, orbit them around your own stars, and add them to a collectively user-made galaxy. In addition to presenting a fun environment to explore (sand design!) outer space, Galaxy You has benefits to education as well. It can be difficult explaining basic concepts of astronomy to a younger or uneducated audiences, but this browser-based software makes it easy to see how: the earth revolves around the sun; seasons are caused by the earth's titled axis; the phases of the moon result from it being only half-illuminated by the sun's light; the earth is millions of miles from the sun; and the sun is just a tiny spec in our galaxy. These difficult concepts can be easily understood with the right visual representation. Galaxy You uses a 3D environment to display a solar system in a way that static images could not. Moving through the galaxy and seeing it from any view can bring these concepts into perspective.

Lehan, Cory; Gay, P. L.

2010-01-01

202

The rate of Salmonella spp. infection in zoo animals at Seoul Grand Park, Korea  

PubMed Central

Salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease that affects both people and animals. The incidence of reptile-associated salmonellosis has increased in Western countries due to the increasing popularity of reptiles as pets. In Korea, where reptiles are not popular as pets, many zoos offer programs in which people have contact with animals, including reptiles. So, we determined the rate of Salmonella spp. infection in animals by taking anal swabs from 294 animals at Seoul Grand Park. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 14 of 46 reptiles (30.4%), 1 of 15 birds (6.7%) and 2 of 233 mammals (0.9%). These findings indicate that vigilance is required for determining the presence of zoonotic pathogen infections in zoo animals and contamination of animal facilities to prevent human infection with zoonotic diseases from zoo facilities and animal exhibitions. In addition, prevention of human infection requires proper education about personal hygiene.

Jang, Y. H.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, J. G.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, T. J.; Park, J. H.; Chung, B. H.

2008-01-01

203

Factors influencing weight changes in callitrichids at the Bronx Zoo.  

PubMed

Callitrichids are small monkeys with high metabolic rates who appear to be susceptible to spontaneous diseases and possibly to environmental changes creating challenges in maintaining them in captivity. This study investigates whether life events (i.e. medical, social and housing changes) can influence weight. In previous research, body mass has been shown to be correlated with periods of illness, group composition changes and stress. Weights of 56 individual callitrichid monkeys (20 marmosets, 26 tamarins and 11 lion tamarins) at the WCS's Bronx Zoo were examined over approximately 2½ years. Weight fluctuations were scored based on 5%, 10% and 1 standard deviation criteria during periods of medical (illness and injury), social (introductions and separations), housing (movement within or between buildings) events and during periods when no-events occurred. Additionally, weights were examined for 3 months before and after periods of illness to look for trends in weight changes for 47 medical events (14 marmosets, 21 tamarins and 12 lion tamarins). Moreover, in five alloparenting males (four tamarins and one lion tamarin), weights were examined to determine if weight loss occurred after births as observed in earlier studies. The results show that a 5% and 1SD criterion may be too sensitive a criterion. We therefore deemed that a 10% weight loss may be the best criterion. For marmosets, a 10% weight loss occurred in association with all events. For tamarins, weight loss occurred with housing events. In lion tamarins, weight loss was observed with medical events. No significant weight loss was observed in alloparenting males. PMID:19890903

Kaplan, Elena; Shelmidine, Nichole

204

Seroprevalences of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals.  

PubMed

Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes neuromuscular disease in dogs and abortions in cattle. Little is known about the prevalence of antibodies to this parasite in zoo animals. Sera from 556 animals, from 13 Czech and Slovak zoos were tested for antibodies to N. caninum and Toxoplasma gondii by indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 31 of 556 zoo animals (5.6%), representing 18 of 114 species tested: Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus), Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), fennec (Vulpes zerda), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), Indian lion (Panthera leo goojratensis), fisher (Martes pennanti), blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), European bison (Bison bonasus), lechwe (Kobus leche), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer), eland (Taurotragus oryx), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei gratus), Thorold's deer (Cervus albirostris), Eastern elk (C. elaphus canadensis), Vietnam sika deer (C. nippon pseudaxis) and Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus). Titres ranged from 1:40 to 1:2560. The highest prevalence 50% was found in family mustelidae of the order carnivora. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 193 of 556 zoo animals (34.7%) representing 72 of 114 species tested, with titres ranging from 1:40 to 1:40960. The highest prevalence 100% was found in families: hyaenidae, mustelidae, ursidae and viveridae of the order carnivora. The results of this study indicate that zoo animals have more exposure to T. gondii than to N. caninum. It is the first report of seroprevalence of antibodies to N. caninum in European zoo animals. PMID:16387445

Sedlák, K; Bártová, E

2006-01-18

205

Note on optimizing environmental enrichment: a study of fennec fox and zoo guests.  

PubMed

Environmental enrichment is widely used to stimulate animal time budgets that seem more natural and diverse than those of unenriched animals. Uncertainty of reward is a suggested means to maintain enrichment's efficacy. Foraging tasks are widely applied in zoo animal enrichment, yet few rely on the logic of optimal foraging theory to help maintain animal motivation. We applied a foraging strategy to zoo housed fennec foxes as enrichment. We varied only the probability of when and where food would occur in the animals' exhibit. Our methods increased behavioral diversity, animal activity, and stimulated guest interest in the exhibit. PMID:22147593

Watters, Jason V; Miller, Jessica T; Sullivan, Timothy J

2010-11-02

206

A New Dataset of Automatically Extracted Structure of Arms and Bars in Spiral Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an algorithm capable of automatically extracting quantitative structure (bars and arms) from images of spiral galaxies. We have run the algorithm on 30,000 galaxies and compared the results to human classifications generously provided pre-publication by the Galaxy Zoo 2 team. In all available measures, our algorithm agrees with the humans about as well as they agree with each other. In addition we provide objective, quantitative measures not available in human classifications. We provide a preliminary analysis of this dataset to see how the properties of arms and bars vary as a function of basic variables such as environment, redshift, absolute magnitude, and color. We also show how structure can vary across wavebands as well as along and across individual arms and bars. Finally, we present preliminary results of a measurement of the total angular momentum present in our observed set of galaxies with an eye towards determining if there is a preferred "handedness" in the universe.

Hayes, Wayne B.; Davis, D.

2012-05-01

207

Participation Maximization Based on Social Influence in Online Discussion Forums  

Microsoft Academic Search

In online discussion forums, users are more motivated to take part in discussions when observing other users' participation — the effect of social influence among forum users. In this paper, we study how to utilize social influence in increasing user participation in online forums. To do so, we propose the use of sidebars, which display forum threads to users, as

Tao Sun; Wei Chen; Zhenming Liu; Yajun Wang; Xiaorui Sun; Ming Zhang; Chin-Yew Lin

2010-01-01

208

CDER Forum for International Drug Regulatory Authorities ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... will be presenting a revamped CDER Forum for International Drug Regulatory ... other submissions will be provided to address difficult review issues. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/newsevents

209

NCI: SBIR & STTR - Investor Forum - Collaborators  

Cancer.gov

The 2012 NCI SBIR Investor Forum was sponsored by The National Cancer Institute's SBIR Development Center in partnership with the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) and in collaboration with Prescience International.

210

Genetic Health Forum (G.H.F.)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetic Health Forum (G.H.F.) is a week long activity in preparation for a group presentation on a human genetic condition, such as dwarfism, Marfan's Syndrome, albinsim, Huntington's disease, PKU, or any other inheritable genetic condition. The activity is designed to encourage and teach students how to research and present scientific information on human genetic conditions. The teacher provides a list of conditions from which students select their research topic. The students, in groups of three, choose a topic to present at the Genetic Health Forum at the conclusion of that week. The students also choose from one of three jobs: the Forum Delegate, the Research Reporter, or the Graphic Artist. This will be the basis for teacher evaluation of their share of the project. Halfway through the week, students are invited to the Genetic Health Forum to be held the following two days.

Tamsen Profit (Borah High School REV)

1995-06-30

211

Low-level waste forum meeting reports  

SciTech Connect

This report provides highlights from the 1992 fall meeting of the Low LEvel Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: disposal options after 1992; interregional agreements; management alternatives; policy; and storage.

NONE

1992-12-31

212

Low-level waste forum meeting reports  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides highlights from the summer meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: responsibility for nonfuel component disposal; state experiences in facility licensing; and volume projections.

NONE

1992-12-31

213

CDER Forum for International Drug Regulatory Authorities ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... clinical trials, FDA application review, and postmarket monitoring and analysis. ... CDER Forum will also provide opportunities to learn from one ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/newsevents

214

International Forum for Reactor Aging Management (IFRAM)  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has undertaken a program to lay the groundwork for defining proactive actions to manage degradation of materials in light water reactors (LWRs). This article discusses the international forum for reactor aging management.

Bond, Leonard J.

2010-11-01

215

CDER Forum for International Drug Regulatory Authorities ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Many registrants were not able to attend the CDER Forum last April due to the volcano ... It will serve as a platform to discuss CDER's review process. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/newsevents

216

Talk radio—forum and companion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 181 callers to three talk radio shows found that 24 percent called to use the program as a forum and 27 percent called to chat. As predicted, those seeking companionship were more frequent callers.

Harriet Tramer; Leo W. Jeffres

1983-01-01

217

CDER Forum for International Drug Regulatory Authorities  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Forum for International Drug Regulatory Authorities provides information about the US ... of CDER as well as the science, technology, regulations and ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/newsevents

218

Our Galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent decade has seen a significant improvement in our knowledge of the Milky Way, both on large scales, mainly driven by infrared data, and in the Solar neighborhood. The Milky Way appears to be an ordinary barred disk galaxy with a maximum disk, i.e. with little or no dark matter in its inner parts. While some of our host galaxy's properties, in particular in the Solar neighborhood, are observed to a detail never achievable for external galaxies, other, more global properties, are still not well known owing, mainly, to the present lack of accurate distance measurements on the kpc scale. Future space missions (FAME, DIVA, SIM & GAIA) will hopefully resolve this problem and turn the Milky Way into the Rosetta stone for our understanding of galaxy evolution.

Dehnen, W.

2002-12-01

219

Starburst Galaxies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The infrared properties of star-forming galaxies, primarily as determined by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), are compared to X-ray, optical, and radio properties. Luminosity functions are reviewed and combined with those derived from optically di...

D. W. Weedman

1987-01-01

220

Diversity and prevalence of metastrongyloid nematodes infecting the red panda ( Ailurus fulgens) in European zoos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastrongyloid induced pneumonia has been described sporadically in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens). Early descriptions in pandas recently imported to the USA from China involved parasites morphologically similar to Angiostrongylus spp. and Crenosomatidae. More recently, four cases of severe verminous pneumonia associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum have been reported from European zoos. A coprological survey of the red panda population within

Mads F. Bertelsen; Frederik Meyland-Smith; Jakob L. Willesen; Ryan Jefferies; Eric R. Morgan; Jesper Monrad

2010-01-01

221

Mighty Math[TM] Zoo Zillions[TM]. [CD-ROM].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zoo Zillions contains five activities for grades K-2: Annie's Jungle Trail, 3D Gallery, Number Line Express, Gnu Ewe Boutique, and Fish Stories. These activities enable children to review and practice basic mathematics skills; identify three-dimensional shapes, watch them in motion, and create their own three-dimensional designs; locate numbers…

1996

222

Mighty Math[TM] Zoo Zillions[TM]. [CD-ROM].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Zoo Zillions contains five activities for grades K-2: Annie's Jungle Trail, 3D Gallery, Number Line Express, Gnu Ewe Boutique, and Fish Stories. These activities enable children to review and practice basic mathematics skills; identify three-dimensional shapes, watch them in motion, and create their own three-dimensional designs; locate numbers…

1996

223

Speichelforschung im Zoo – Eine Hilfe zur artgemäßen Fütterung von Tierarten mit besonderer Nahrungsanpassung  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 2008 and 2010 the Zoological gardens in Rheine, Stuttgart, Karlsruhe, Cologne and Zurich took part in a research project initiated by scientists of the Institute of Animal Science, University of Bonn. Saliva was collected from various zoo animals to determine certain dietary adaptations on enzymatic and physiological levels that might explain or change our current understanding of animal nutrition

Marcus Mau; Achim Johann

2011-01-01

224

Molecular diversity of methanogens in fecal samples from Bactrian camels ( Camelus bactrianus) at two zoos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals are dependent on mutualistic microbial communities that reside in their gastrointestinal track for essential physiological functions such as nutrition and pathogen resistance. The composition of microbial communities in an animal is influenced by various factors, including species, diet and geographical location. In this preliminary study, the population structure of fecal methanogens in Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) from two zoos

Kathryn L. Turnbull; Rachel P. Smith; Benoit St-Pierre; André-Denis G. Wright

225

Quarantine protocols and preventive medicine procedures for reptiles, birds and mammals in zoos.  

PubMed

The author describes the basic preventive medicine procedures, including quarantine, which should be applied to reptiles, birds and mammals in zoological parks. The quarantine protocol for institutions accredited by the American Zoo and Aquarium Association is described as an example. PMID:8924704

Miller, R E

1996-03-01

226

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in 3 zoos in Mexico City, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus...

227

Conservation Learning in Wildlife Tourism Settings: Lessons from Research in Zoos and Aquariums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Zoos and aquariums have shifted their focus over recent years, taking a much more active role in wildlife conservation and in promoting conservation learning among their visitors. Research in these settings provides a valuable foundation for the emerging field of non-captive wildlife tourism. In particular, valuable lessons regarding the…

Ballantyne, Roy; Packer, Jan; Hughes, Karen; Dierking, Lynn

2007-01-01

228

View the Zoo! Evaluation of Visual Communication in an Outdoor Educational Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost all of what people learn from outdoor educational settings such as zoos and gardens stems from the exhibits themselves or signs about the exhibits. Evaluation of the various forms of visual communication in outdoor educational settings is necessary to determine the effectiveness of exhibitions, educational activities, and/or conservation…

Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; And Others

229

Dystopian dreams from South Africa: Lauren Beukes's Moxyland and Zoo City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central theoretical concept underpinning this article is Lyman Tower Sargent's notion of the ‘critical dystopian’ novel, which is not nihilistic, but which disrupts easy binarist classifications, and incorporates elements of opposition to oppression, as well as hope for a more egalitarian future. I examine critical dystopian dreaming as portrayed in two novels by Lauren Beukes, Moxyland (2008) and Zoo

Cheryl Stobie

2012-01-01

230

Molecular diversity of methanogens in fecal samples from Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) at two zoos.  

PubMed

Animals are dependent on mutualistic microbial communities that reside in their gastrointestinal track for essential physiological functions such as nutrition and pathogen resistance. The composition of microbial communities in an animal is influenced by various factors, including species, diet and geographical location. In this preliminary study, the population structure of fecal methanogens in Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) from two zoos was studied using separate 16S rRNA gene libraries for each zoo. While methanogen sequences belonging to the genus Methanobrevibacter were dominant in both libraries, they showed significant differences in diversity (p=0.05) and structure (p<0.0001). Population structure analysis revealed that only two operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were shared between libraries, while two OTUs were unique to the Southwick Zoo library and seven OTUs were unique to the Potter Park Zoo library. These preliminary results highlight how methanogen population structures can vary greatly between animals of the same species maintained in captivity at different locations. PMID:21917280

Turnbull, Kathryn L; Smith, Rachel P; St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G

2011-09-13

231

Behaviors and Motivations observed in the Zooniverse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, the total number of astronomers and geophysicists working in academia is dwarfed by the legions of citizen scientists who are flocking to citizen science programs like Moon Zoo, StarDust@Home, Solar Storm Watch, and Be a Martian. Through the Zooniverse collection of projects (including Moon Zoo and Solar Storm Watch), more than 2-dozen peer-reviewed science papers have been generated. These everyday people are, in their spare time, accomplishing necessary tasks and proving themselves to be a vital part of the research pipeline. While it is now understood they can make meaningful contributions to research, the questions of why they are contributing, and how they interact with the projects are still being investigated. In this presentation, preliminary results of a two-part study of Zooniverse user motivations and behaviors are presented. Motivations: We present the results of two sets of studies: detailed research into the motivations of Galaxy Zoo users during the Galaxy Zoo 1 and 2 projects and preliminary results into the investigations of Moon Zoo users. From Galaxy Zoo, we know that the largest primary motivation for people participating in Galaxy Zoo is the desire to contribute to science. At the time of this writing, interviews are being prepared to see if Moon Zoo users have similar motivations to Galaxy Zoo users, and to understand the personal context in which they make their contributions. Behaviors: As users explore the Zooniverse, they have the opportunity to participate in multiple science projects, to consume educational content, to take advantage of tutorials, and to be part of a community on the forums. Preliminary results examining how users moved between different science projects during the duration of Galaxy Zoo 2, and how they are moving between content and classifications in Galaxy Zoo Hubble and Moon Zoo are presented.

Gay, P. L.; Brown, S.; Huang, A. D.; Lehan, C.; Moon Zoo Team

2010-12-01

232

A retrospective study of mortality in varanid lizards (Reptilia: Squamata: Varanidae) at the Bronx Zoo: implications for husbandry and reproductive management in zoos.  

PubMed

Varanid lizards have been maintained in zoological parks for more than a century, yet few studies to date have attempted to pinpoint significant health issues affecting their management or areas of captive husbandry that are in need of improvement. In an effort to identify and better understand some of the husbandry-related challenges and health issues specifically affecting varanids in zoos, this study examined mortality in 16 species maintained at the Bronx Zoo between 1968 and 2009. Out of 108 records reviewed, complete necropsy reports were available for 85 individuals. Infection-related processes including bacterial (15.3%), protozoal (12.9%), nematode (9.4%), and fungal (3.5%) infections accounted for the greatest number of deaths (47.1%). Noninfectious diseases including female reproductive disorders (7.1%), neoplasia (7.1%), gout (10.8%), and hemipenal prolapse (1.3%) accounted for 29.4% of deaths. Multiple disease agents were responsible for 5.9% of deaths, and a cause for death could not be determined for 17.7% of individuals. Reproductive complications accounted for 11.5% of female deaths, but were identified in 23.1% of females. Although not necessarily the cause for death, gout was present in 18.8% of individuals. Differences in mortality between species, genders, and origin (captive-bred vs. wild-caught) were also evaluated. The results of this study corroborate earlier findings that identify bacterial infections, neoplasia, female reproductive disorders, gout, and endoparasitism as major sources of mortality in captive varanids. In light of these results, we discuss potential etiologies and offer recommendations for improving captive management practices in zoos. PMID:22997089

Mendyk, Robert W; Newton, Alisa L; Baumer, Megan

2012-09-19

233

A Model for Environmental Empowerment: National Issues Forums.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|National Issues Forums enables citizens to teach themselves about issues and encourages reflective action and informed public policy. The Tennessee Home Economics Association used the forum approach to involve students in environmental discussions and develop leadership skills. (SK)|

Rehm, Marsha L.; Davidson, Phyllis M.

1991-01-01

234

76 FR 12211 - Government/Industry Aeronautical Charting Forum Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Government/Industry Aeronautical Charting Forum Meeting AGENCY...Aviation Administration (FAA) Aeronautical Charting Forum (ACF) to discuss...informational content and design of aeronautical charts and related...

2011-03-04

235

75 FR 11225 - Government/Industry Aeronautical Charting Forum Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Government/Industry Aeronautical Charting Forum Meeting AGENCY...FAA) Government/Industry Aeronautical Charting Forum (ACF 10-01...informational content and design of aeronautical charts and related...

2010-03-10

236

75 FR 54221 - Government/Industry Aeronautical Charting Forum Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Government/Industry Aeronautical Charting Forum Meeting AGENCY...Aviation Administration (FAA) Aeronautical Charting Forum (ACF) to discuss...informational content and design of aeronautical charts and related...

2010-09-03

237

76 FR 53530 - Government/Industry Aeronautical Charting Forum Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Government/Industry Aeronautical Charting Forum Meeting AGENCY...Aviation Administration (FAA) Aeronautical Charting Forum (ACF) to discuss...informational content and design of aeronautical charts and related...

2011-08-26

238

The Inquiry Learning Forum: Visiting Classrooms and Building Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Inquiry Learning Forum (ILF), a web-based forum targeting Indiana preservice and inservice teachers for the support of developing a better understanding of inquiry-based science and mathematics teaching. (YDS)

Talbot, Robert M., III; MaKinster, James G.; Moore, Julie; Barab, Sasha

2001-01-01

239

10 CFR 903.16 - Public comment forums.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Public comment forums. 903.16...TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power...Southwestern, and Western Area Power Administrations § 903.16 Public comment forums. (a)...

2013-01-01

240

10 CFR 903.15 - Public information forums.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Public information forums. 903...TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and...Southwestern, and Western Area Power Administrations § 903.15 Public information forums....

2013-01-01

241

Engineering Resources: The Engineers Forum on Sustainability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cosponsored by three prominent engineering societies, the Engineers Forum on Sustainability was founded to "help promote the principles and practice of sustainability." The forum's newsletter can be viewed at this site. It contains information on worldwide activities and developments in the field of sustainability, including educational initiatives, environmental protection programs, international conferences, and more. The July 2003 issue features a special guest article written by the President of the World Federation of Engineering Societies, who touches on issues of sustainable development, technology transfer, and the role of engineers in developing countries. The newsletter is released roughly three times a year.

242

Galaxy collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of how galaxies, the fundamental constituents of large-scale structure, form and evolve have undergone a dramatic paradigm shift in the last few decades. Earlier views were of rapid, early collapse and formation of basic structures, followed by slow evolution of the stellar populations and steady buildup of the chemical elements. Current theories emphasize hierarchical buildup via recurrent collisions and

Curtis Struck

1999-01-01

243

Finding question-answer pairs from online forums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online forums contain a huge amount of valuable user gener- ated content. In this paper we address the problem of extract- ing question-answer pairs from forums. Question-answer pairs extracted from forums can be used to help Question Answering services (e.g. Yahoo! Answers) among other applications. We propose a sequential patterns based classification method to detect questions in a forum thread,

Gao Cong; Long Wang; Chin-Yew Linz; Young-in Song; Yongheng Sun

2008-01-01

244

InForCE: Forum data crawling with information extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forum data acquisition is the prerequisite of forum data analysis, such as opinion analysis, on-line advertisement, and so on. Since the structure of forum data usually has casual relationships with the page structure, effective forum data acquisition requires the integration of Web pages crawling and information extraction. In this paper, we propose a system InForCE for this purpose. The system

Can Zhang; Jingwei Zhang

2010-01-01

245

Crashing galaxies, cosmic fireworks  

SciTech Connect

The study of binary systems is reviewed. The history of the study of interacting galaxies, the behavior of gas in binary systems, studies to identify the processes that occur when galaxies interact, and the relationship of Seyfert galaxies and quasars to binary systems are discussed. The development of an atlas of peculiar galaxies (Arp, 1966) and methods for modeling galaxy interactions are examined.

Keel, W.C.

1989-01-01

246

Diversity and prevalence of metastrongyloid nematodes infecting the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) in European zoos.  

PubMed

Metastrongyloid induced pneumonia has been described sporadically in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens). Early descriptions in pandas recently imported to the USA from China involved parasites morphologically similar to Angiostrongylus spp. and Crenosomatidae. More recently, four cases of severe verminous pneumonia associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum have been reported from European zoos. A coprological survey of the red panda population within European zoos was conducted in 2008. Faecal samples from 115 pandas originating from 54 zoos were collected on 3 consecutive days. Using Baermann technique, 40 animals (35%) from 20 zoos (37%) were found to shed metastrongyloid first stage larvae (L(1)). Based on their morphology and size, the L(1) observed could be divided into three morphologically distinct types: (1) a Crenosoma sp. type (n=5, overall prevalence: 4.3%), (2) an A. vasorum type (n=3, 2.6%), and (3) an unidentified metastrongyloid species, similar to, but morphologically distinct from A. vasorum (n=32, 27.8%). Further confirmation of species identification was provided by PCR amplification and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene, which confirmed three different species. The novel Crenosoma species was most genetically analogous to Crenosoma mephitidis and the unidentified metastrongyloid species was most similar to Stenurus minor and Torynurus convulutus. Routine and quarantine health care of red pandas in captivity should take account of the risk of Angiostrongylus and Crenosoma infection in endemic areas, but should also be cognisant of the widespread presence of an apparently less pathogenic species of lungworm. The identity of the two potentially novel species is subject to further work. PMID:20570049

Bertelsen, Mads F; Meyland-Smith, Frederik; Willesen, Jakob L; Jefferies, Ryan; Morgan, Eric R; Monrad, Jesper

2010-05-12

247

Alloparental behavior in a captive group of spider monkeys ( Ateles geoffroyi ) at the Auckland zoo  

Microsoft Academic Search

I studied alloparental behavior in a captive group of spider monkeys at the Auckland Zoo using seven infants as focal subjects\\u000a and assessed the effects of age, sex, and reproductive status of alloparents on patterns of infant-other interaction. Adult\\u000a males initiated interactions with infants most often, followed by adult females. Immature individuals interacted with infants\\u000a infrequently. Infants themselves initiated contact

Sharon L. Watt

1994-01-01

248

The occurrence of salmonellae in zoo animals in Uttar Pradesh and Delhi (India).  

PubMed

The occurrence of salmonellae in a variety of zoo animals including carnivores, primates, ruminants, avifauna, rodents etc. was investigated. Of 783 samples collected from Lucknow, Delhi and Kanpur (India) Zoological Parks, only 5 yielded Salmonella serotypes. These included S. typhimurium, from a leopard and a wild cat, S. enteritidis from two black and white rats and a strain of Salmonella group E1 from a leopard. PMID:7461914

Sethi, M S; Sharma, V D; Singh, S P

1980-06-01

249

The Sizes of Elephant Groups in Zoos: Implications for Elephant Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the distribution of 495 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and 336 African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in 194 zoos, most of which were located in Europe (49.1%) and North America (32.6%). Cows outnumbered bulls 4 to 1 (Loxodonta) and 3 to 1 (Elephas). Groups contained 7 or fewer: mean, 4.28 (? = 5.73). One fifth of elephants lived alone

Paul A. Rees

2009-01-01

250

Evaluating the Conservation Mission of Zoos, Aquariums, Botanical Gardens, and Natural History Museums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collection-based institutions—zoos, aquariums, museums, and botanical gardens—exhibit wildlife and thus have a special connection with nature. Many of these institutions emphasize a mission of conserva- tion, and, undeniably, they do contribute directly to conservation education and conservation science. They present an exceptional opportunity for many urban residents to see the wonders of life, and they can contribute to education and

BRIAN MILLER; WILLIAM CONWAY; RICHARD P. READING; CHRIS WEMMER; DAVID WILDT; DEVRA KLEIMAN; STEVEN MONFORT; ALAN RABINOWITZ; BETH ARMSTRONG; MICHAEL HUTCHINS

2004-01-01

251

Outbreak of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among captive Asian elephants in a Swedish zoo.  

PubMed

Between 2001 and 2003, there was an outbreak of tuberculosis in a Swedish zoo which involved elephants, giraffes, rhinoceroses and buffaloes. Cultures of trunk lavages were used to detect infected elephants, tuberculin testing was used in the giraffes and buffaloes, and tracheal lavage and tuberculin testing were used in the rhinoceroses. The bacteria isolated were investigated by spoligotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five elephants and one giraffe were found to have been infected by four different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:15736698

Lewerin, S Sternberg; Olsson, S L; Eld, K; Röken, B; Ghebremichael, S; Koivula, T; Källenius, G; Bölske, G

2005-02-01

252

HAEMOPROTEUS AND LEUCOCYTOZOON INFECTIONS IN BIRDS OF THE OKLAHOMA CITY ZOO  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRA(:T: A total of 222 birds, captive or free-flying in the Oklahoma City Zoo, were examined for blood parasites; 31 (14%) harbored Haenzoproteus and\\/or Leucocytozoon. While 21% of the indigenous avifauna were infected, only 891 of the exotic bird species harbored haemoproteids and these parasites were also exotic to North America. There was no evidence to indicate that exotic infections

Nancy Halpern; Gordon F. Bennett

253

iRobot: an intelligent crawler for web forums  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study in this paper the Web forum crawling problem, which is a very fundamental step in many Web applications, such as search engine and Web data mining. As a typical user-created content (UCC), Web forum has become an important resource on the Web due to its rich information contributed by millions of Internet users every day. However, Web forum

Rui Cai; Jiang-ming Yang; Wei Lai; Yida Wang; Lei Zhang

2008-01-01

254

National Charter School Policy Forum (Washington, DC, May 5, 2008)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The National Charter School Policy Forum of May 5, 2005 brought together 100 charter school leaders representing philanthropy, research, and practice. The panel discussants and forum participants participated in an interactive conversation about the next generation of charter schools. The forum's panels focused on three key topics: (1) The…

US Department of Education, 2008

2008-01-01

255

Decomposing Discussion Forums and Boards Using User Roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussion forums are a central part of Web 2.0 and Enter- prise 2.0 infrastructures. The health and sustainability of fo- rums is dependent on the information exchange behaviour of its contributors, which is expressed through online conver- sation. The increasing popularity and importance of forums requires a better understanding and characterisation of com- munication behaviour so that forums can be

Jeffrey Chan; Conor Hayes; Elizabeth M. Daly

2010-01-01

256

World Forum Communications: Analyses of Student and Mentor Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed new forms of student social interaction and dialogue within asynchronous communications of six middle schools and six high schools participating in the World Forum. In the World Forum, students discussed, questioned, and debated with Arctic explorers, researchers, World Forum mentors, and peers about environmental issues. One…

Sugar, William A.; Bonk, Curtis Jay

257

HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF THE SWIFT BAT ULTRA HARD X-RAY SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS  

SciTech Connect

We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) active galactic nucleus (AGN) with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z < 0.05), moderate luminosity AGNs from the Swift BAT sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u - r and g - r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGNs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BAT AGNs are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGNs in massive galaxies (log M{sub *} >10.5) have a 5-10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGNs or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-infrared emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGNs are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGNs have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] {lambda}5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGNs in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as a whole. In agreement with the unified model of AGNs, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGNs suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Winter, Lisa M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne, E-mail: mkoss@astro.umd.edu [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

2011-10-01

258

Evidence of public engagement with science: visitor learning at a zoo-housed primate research centre.  

PubMed

Primate behavioural and cognitive research is increasingly conducted on direct public view in zoo settings. The potential of such facilities for public engagement with science is often heralded, but evidence of tangible, positive effects on public understanding is rare. Here, the effect of a new zoo-based primate research centre on visitor behaviour, learning and attitudes was assessed using a quasi-experimental design. Zoo visitors approached the primate research centre more often when a scientist was present and working with the primates, and reported greater awareness of primates (including conservation) compared to when the scientist was not present. Visitors also reported greater perceived learning when the scientist was present. Installation of information signage had no main effect on visitor attitudes or learning. Visitors who interacted with the signage, however, demonstrated increased knowledge and understanding when asked about the specific information present on the signs (which was related to the ongoing facial expression research at the research centre). The findings show that primate behaviour research centres on public view can have a demonstrable and beneficial effect on public understanding of science. PMID:23028580

Waller, Bridget M; Peirce, Kate; Mitchell, Heidi; Micheletta, Jerome

2012-09-13

259

Comparative cytogenetic analysis of sex chromosomes in several Canidae species using zoo-FISH.  

PubMed

Sex chromosome differentiation began early during mammalian evolution. The karyotype of almost all placental mammals living today includes a pair of heterosomes: XX in females and XY in males. The genomes of different species may contain homologous synteny blocks indicating that they share a common ancestry. One of the tools used for their identification is the Zoo-FISH technique. The aim of the study was to determine whether sex chromosomes of some members of the Canidae family (the domestic dog, the red fox, the arctic fox, an interspecific hybrid: arctic fox x red fox and the Chinese raccoon dog) are evolutionarily conservative. Comparative cytogenetic analysis by Zoo-FISH using painting probes specific to domestic dog heterosomes was performed. The results show the presence of homologous synteny covering the entire structures of the X and the Y chromosomes. This suggests that sex chromosomes are conserved in the Canidae family. The data obtained through Zoo-FISH karyotype analysis append information obtained using other comparative genomics methods, giving a more complete depiction of genome evolution. PMID:22428301

Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika; Sojecka, Agnieszka; Pawlina, Klaudia; Jakubczak, Andrzej; Jezewska-Witkowska, Grazyna

2012-01-01

260

Evidence of Public Engagement with Science: Visitor Learning at a Zoo-Housed Primate Research Centre  

PubMed Central

Primate behavioural and cognitive research is increasingly conducted on direct public view in zoo settings. The potential of such facilities for public engagement with science is often heralded, but evidence of tangible, positive effects on public understanding is rare. Here, the effect of a new zoo-based primate research centre on visitor behaviour, learning and attitudes was assessed using a quasi-experimental design. Zoo visitors approached the primate research centre more often when a scientist was present and working with the primates, and reported greater awareness of primates (including conservation) compared to when the scientist was not present. Visitors also reported greater perceived learning when the scientist was present. Installation of information signage had no main effect on visitor attitudes or learning. Visitors who interacted with the signage, however, demonstrated increased knowledge and understanding when asked about the specific information present on the signs (which was related to the ongoing facial expression research at the research centre). The findings show that primate behaviour research centres on public view can have a demonstrable and beneficial effect on public understanding of science.

Waller, Bridget M.; Peirce, Kate; Mitchell, Heidi; Micheletta, Jerome

2012-01-01

261

The Forum for Adjudication of Employment Disputes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter focuses on the appropriate design of the forum for adjudication of employment disputes. By the term “adjudication,” we refer to the resolution of “rights” disputes – disputes over the application of a contract or the application of a statutory or regulatory rule to a particular factual situation. We are not referring to “interests” disputes – disputes over the

Samuel Estreicher; Zev J. Eigen

2010-01-01

262

APS Forum on Education Summer 2006 Newsletter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The APS Forum on Education (FEd) Summer 2006 Newsletter's Teacher Preparation Section articles included:The Learning Assistant Model for Teacher Education in Science and Technology by Valerie Otero,Undergraduate Learning Assistants at the University of Arkansas by Gay Stewart, andCreating and Sustaining a Teaching and Learning Professional Community at Seattle Pacific University by Lane Seeley and Stamatis Vokos.

2007-09-07

263

Governor's Forums on Library and Information Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prepared for distribution to participants in the Pennsylvania Governor's Forums on Library and Information Services, this booklet contains the following items: letters of welcome from Governor Robert Casey and Barbara Bruno, Chair of the Steering Committee; an agenda; and descriptions of Pennsylvania's libraries, its statewide library service,…

Pennsylvania State Library, Harrisburg.

264

NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Office of Space Science (OSS) recently created a new Education Ecosystem structure to facilitate the participation of OSS scientists in K-14 education and outreach. As part of this Ecosystem, four Education Forums have been established at major institutions active in each of the space science themes: the Structure and Evolution of the Universe; the Astronomical Search for Origins and

I. Hawkins; R. Vondrak; K. Alcorn; J. Thieman

1998-01-01

265

Low-level waste forum meeting reports  

SciTech Connect

This report contains highlights from the 1991 fall meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included legal updates; US NRC updates; US EPA updates; mixed waste issues; financial assistance for waste disposal facilities; and a legislative and policy report.

NONE

1991-12-31

266

User Grouping Behavior in Online Forums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online forums represent one type of social media that is particularly rich for studying human behavior in informa- tion seeking and diusing. The way users join communities is a reection of the changing and expanding of their inter- ests toward information. In this paper, we study the pat- terns of user participation behavior, and the feature factors that inuence such

Xiaolin Shi; Jun Zhu; Rui Cai; Lei Zhang

2009-01-01

267

Solar Server: Forum for Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Germany, this site provides a forum for news and information regarding all aspects of solar energy. The site provides background information on the technical aspects pertaining to solar energy and photovoltaics. A variety of images and descriptions provide useful background information about photovoltaic roof tiles and their role in solar buildings.

2007-08-28

268

Low-level waste forum meeting reports  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides highlights from the October 1990 meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: a special session on liability and financial assurance needs; proposal to dispose of mixed waste at federal facilities; state plans for interim storage; and hazardous materials legislation.

NONE

1990-12-31

269

Making Bodies Talk in Forum Theatre  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most Forum Theatre practice encourages as many 'spect-actors' as possible to intervene directly on stage as part of the investigation of an oppressive social situation. Such practice is in line with Boal's advice (in "Games for actors and non-actors") that 'the keener the desire to take action, the more the spect-actors hurry on to the stage'.…

Dwyer, Paul

2004-01-01

270

CbN Community Forum Sourcebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1977 and 1978, Black Hawk College sponsored two series of community discussion forums paralleling the year's Courses by Newspaper (CbN). With the fall series, based on "Crime and Justice in America," Black Hawk became one of eleven national demonstration models. In the spring, the college sponsored "The Impact of Mass Media on American Life,"…

Stevens, Mary A.

271

Literacy Program. National Issues Forums Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the spring of 1988, 33 representatives from 20 institutions or organizations sponsoring National Issues Forum (NIF) literacy programs attended a national conference in Washington, D.C. Throughout the conference, representatives from the organizations sponsoring NIF literacy programs made statements on the importance of NIF as a tool for…

National Issues Forums, Dayton, OH.

272

FDA Science Forum: advancing public health.  

PubMed

You don't have to know the difference between a virus and a bacterium to benefit from the Food and Drug Administration's 2005 Science Forum, an annual event aimed at sharing the science behind the agency's regulatory decisions. PMID:16121417

Meadows, Michelle

273

ACC forum looks at 'burning' questions  

SciTech Connect

The American Coal Council's (ACC) Spring Coal Forum had as its theme: Coal's renaissance: prospects for regenerating coal generation'. It explored US coal demand, supply, end-user technology and market trends. The article gives an overview of the conference, highlighting several presentations. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Carter, R.

2005-06-01

274

Ranking mechanisms in twitter-like forums  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of designing a mechanism to rank items in forums by making use of the user reviews such as thumb and star ratings. We compare mechanisms where fo- rum users rate individual posts and also mechanisms where the user is asked to perform a pairwise comparison and state which one is better. The main metric used to

Anish Das Sarma; Atish Das Sarma; Sreenivas Gollapudi; Rina Panigrahy

2010-01-01

275

Low-level waste forum meeting reports  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards.

NONE

1995-12-31

276

Galaxy formation  

PubMed Central

It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z ? 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation.

Peebles, P. J. E.

1998-01-01

277

Galaxies at High Redshift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Participants; Group photograph; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Galaxy formation and evolution: recent progress R. Ellis; 2. Galaxies at high redshift M. Dickinson; 3. High-redshift galaxies: the far-infrared and sub-millimeter view A. Franceschini; 4. Quasar absorption lines J. Bechtold; 5. Stellar population synthesis models at low and high redshift G. Bruzual A.; 6. Elliptical galaxies K. C. Freeman; 7. Disk galaxies K. C. Freeman; 8. Dark matter in disk galaxies K. C. Freeman.

Pérez-Fournon, I.; Balcells, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Sánchez, F.

2010-08-01

278

Measuring the impact of informal science education in zoos on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the emphasis in modern zoos and aquaria on conservation and environmental education, we know very little about what people learn in these settings, and even less about how they learn it. Research on informal learning in settings such as zoos has suffered from a lack of theory, with few connections being made to theories of learning in formal settings, or to theories regarding the nature of the educational goals. This dissertation consists of three parts: the development and analysis of a test instrument designed to measure constructs of environmental learning in zoos; the application of the test instrument along with qualitative data collection in an evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of a zoo's education programs; and the analysis of individually matched pre- and post-test data to examine how environmental learning takes place, with respect to the constructivist view of learning, as well as theories of environmental learning and the barriers to pro-environmental behavior. The test instrument consisted of 40 items split into four scales: environmental knowledge, attitudes toward the environment, support for conservation, and environmentally responsible behavior. A model-driven approach was used to develop the instrument, which was analyzed using Item Response Theory and the Rasch dichotomous measurement model. After removal of two items with extremely high difficulty, the instrument was found to be unidimensional and sufficiently reliable. The results of the IRT analyses are interpreted with respect to a modern validity framework. The evaluation portion of this study applied this test instrument to measuring the impact of zoo education programs on 750 fourth through seventh grade students. Qualitative data was collected from program observations and teacher surveys, and a comparison was also made between programs that took place at the zoo, and those that took place in the school classroom, thereby asking questions regarding the role of setting in environmental education. It was found that students in both program types significantly increased their environmental knowledge as a result of the program, but only students in the school-based programs significantly improved their attitudes towards the environment. Analyzing by grade, seventh grade students scored significantly lower on all aspects of the test than the younger students, suggesting a detrimental effect of novel settings on learning in adolescents. Teacher survey data suggests that teachers place great importance on how the education program would fit in with their school-based curriculum, but did little to integrate the program into their classroom teaching. Observations of the programs revealed some logistical issues, and some concerns regarding the zoo instructors' use of curriculum materials. Analyzing the test data from a constructivist perspective revealed that students with high incoming environmental attitudes had significant increases in environmental knowledge. That is, students with positive attitudes towards the environment are predisposed to engage in learning about the environment. Some gender-specific findings are also discussed.

Wilson, Christopher David

279

Can zoo records help answer behavioral research questions? The case of the left-handed lemurs (Lemur catta).  

PubMed

Most zoos keep comprehensive records, which potentially form a database for use in answering some research questions, such as in veterinary and population management research. They have not, however, been widely used to answer questions about animal behavior and welfare. Here we try to assess the usefulness to behavioral research of two sorts of zoo records (ARKS, the Animal Records Keeping System, and student dissertations held on file) to test the hypothesis that ring-tailed lemurs with a left limb preference experience more negative social lives. We found that, as predicted, lemurs with a left limb preference (LH) received more aggression and were involved in less grooming than nonleft-preferent lemurs (NLH), though the differences were not statistically significant. Contrary to prediction, LH lemurs had fewer reported woundings than NLH lemurs, but again the difference was not statistically significant. We found that the ARKS reports did not contain sufficient quantified and systematic behavioral data for our purposes, although otherwise they provided an excellent context for interpreting results. The student dissertations were also of limited use, primarily because of the small time frame in which they were carried out. Because of these shortcomings we were unable to distinguish whether our inability to find significant effects was due to biological (perhaps hand preference had no consequences for the lemurs) or data reasons. We suggest that closer liaison between zoo research staff, zoo record keepers and academic supervisors could help to improve the usefulness of zoo records for behavioral research. PMID:21674604

Hosey, Geoff; Hill, Sonya P; Lherbier, Mary L

2011-06-14

280

Tadpole Galaxies: Clues to Galaxy Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance of dynamically unrelaxed galaxies in several deep fields (including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, GOODS, and the COSMOS Field) suggests that they play a major role in the overall scheme of galaxy evolution. In particular, galaxies with knot-plus-tail morphologies--tadpole galaxies--constitute a large, well-defined subset of irregular objects that is uniquely measurable as is discussed here. The selection of

A. N. Straughn; S. H. Cohen; R. E. Ryan; N. P. Hathi; R. A. Windhorst; R. A. Jansen

2005-01-01

281

The Space For Nature Wildlife Gardening Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This informative Space For Nature Wildlife Gardening Forum website was developed for naturalists, horticulturalists and others interested in creating garden habitats for wildlife. The site editor is Richard Burkmar, who received his PhD from University College of Cardiff in avian ecology, and believes "that gardens are an increasingly valuable habitat in real terms for wildlife, and that they are uniquely positioned, as accessible natural spaces, to influence our behaviour and attitudes towards the wider environment." The forum offers a wealth of information and incredible photos under the categories of Features, Diary, News, Links and Refs, and Galleries. Selected examples from these different categories include: Making a Nest Box for Hole Nesting Birds, Natural Gardening in Small Spaces, New Sisken Gallery, and many more. The website invites anyone with relevant stories or pictures to contribute.

282

United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the 20th century, there has been a concerted effort by a number of transnational organizations and advocacy groups to effectively lobby for the rights and protection of indigenous groups in all parts of the world. In 2000, the United Nations Economic and Social Council established the Permanent Form on Indigenous Issues to effectively address the needs of the 370 million indigenous peoples around the world. On the site, visitors can read official documents and proceedings created by the Forum's work, peruse a photo gallery of indigenous peoples, and read the text of various speeches on indigenous issues. Finally, visitors will also want to peruse the list of upcoming events sponsored by the Forum and also review its latest press releases.

283

Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched in 2001, the Pew Form on Religion & Public Life "seeks to promote a deeper understanding of issues at the intersection of religion and public affairs." To create and maintain such a dialogue, the Forum has created this website which functions as both a clearinghouse and as a town hall of sorts. The Forum focuses on four primary areas, including religion and politics, religion and the law, and religion and world affairs. With an elegantly designed homepage, visitors can view recent news highlights in the center of the page, or scan through some of the latest religious news of note on the right-hand side of the page. The most substantive material on the site can be found on the left-hand side of the homepage, which includes transcripts of recent events, survey results, and their press room.

284

The Intellectual Property and Technology Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed and edited by students at the Boston College Law School, the Intellectual Property and Technology Forum is a legal publication "dedicated to providing readers with rigorous, innovative scholarship, timely reporting, and ongoing discussion from the legal community concerning technology law and intellectual property." The site is divided into several key sections, including news headlines, articles, commentary, and resources. The commentary section includes transcripts of recent speeches on intellectual property and telecommunications law, along with pieces on biotechnology and the Internet. Also, the section includes helpful information on relevant upcoming conferences. The articles section highlights recent work from law students, professors, practicing attorneys, and other professionals in the field. Finally, contact information for the staff of the Forum is provided so that interested parties can offer suggestions or submit work for their consideration.

285

Galaxy formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an introductory lecture to the problem of Galaxy Formation. A general background in Cosmology, containing basic notions that enter in this problem, is briefly presented in the introduction. Section 2 deals with the properties of density perturbations. The emphasis is given on describing the role of the power spectrum of density perturbations in constructing the typical mass fluctuations of various mass scales. The evolution of a density peak in the post recombination era is examined up to the point where this evolution can be given by analytical formulae (linear phase). These formulae are very useful in understanding the role and the significance of various quantities in the problem of galaxy formation. The evolution of density fluctuations in the non-linear phase can be followed by N-Body simulations. This requires a careful preparation of initial conditions for the N-Body runs, consistent with a given power spectrum, that is discussed. In section 3 the problem of angular momentum transfer to protogalaxies is discussed in connection with the behavior of the cosmological tidal torques. The difficulties of simulating this behavior are explained. Counterrotating objects may result from the behavior of the cosmological tidal torque combined with the incomplete mixing of the material after the collapse. In section 4 the main properties of objects resulting from dissipationless collapse are compared with the observational laws of galaxies. An insight is given into the mechanism of redistribution of energies during violent relaxation, and its consequences on the collapse factors of various shells. The collapse factors in the inner parts of these objects can be considerably larger than those predicted by the virial theorem. The role of dissipation is examined in section 5. Dimensional analysis allows to define various loci on the plane of virial density versus virial temperature. The formation of a disk supported by rotation is also discussed.

Voglis, Nikos

286

Genome-wide profiling of forum domains in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Forum domains are stretches of chromosomal DNA that are excised from eukaryotic chromosomes during their spontaneous non-random fragmentation. Most forum domains are 50–200?kb in length. We mapped forum domain termini using FISH on polytene chromosomes and we performed genome-wide mapping using a Drosophila melanogaster genomic tiling microarray consisting of overlapping 3?kb fragments. We found that forum termini very often correspond to regions of intercalary heterochromatin and regions of late replication in polytene chromosomes. We found that forum domains contain clusters of several or many genes. The largest forum domains correspond to the main clusters of homeotic genes inside BX-C and ANTP-C, cluster of histone genes and clusters of piRNAs. PRE/TRE and transcription factor binding sites often reside inside domains and do not overlap with forum domain termini. We also found that about 20% of forum domain termini correspond to small chromosomal regions where Ago1, Ago2, small RNAs and repressive chromatin structures are detected. Our results indicate that forum domains correspond to big multi-gene chromosomal units, some of which could be coordinately expressed. The data on the global mapping of forum domains revealed a strong correlation between fragmentation sites in chromosomes, particular sets of mobile elements and regions of intercalary heterochromatin.

Tchurikov, Nickolai A.; Kretova, Olga V.; Sosin, Dmitri V.; Zykov, Ivan A.; Zhimulev, Igor F.; Kravatsky, Yuri V.

2011-01-01

287

APS Forum on Education Newsletter Summer 2008  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The summer 2008 edition of the Forum on Education newsletter includes links to a number of education related talks presented at the 2008 APS March Meeting and 2008 APS April Meeting. In the teacher preparation section, Laurie E. McNeil discusses starting a teacher preparation program at the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill and Laird Kramer details the use of learning communities at Florida International University. Monica Plisch examines the use of teacher preparation to fulfill the NSF's Broader Impact requirement.

2008-09-12

288

Math Forum @ Drexel: Elementary School Teachers' Place  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The well known Math Forum (formerly from Swarthmore College, discussed in the October 20, 1995 issue of The Scout Report), has meta-pages specifically for elementary school math teachers. The pages are divided into two parts: "For Your Classroom" and "For Your Career." The classroom sections contain pointers to lesson plans, problems, software, and fun sites for kids. The career site contains lists of pertinent discussion groups, articles, and professional organizations.

1994-01-01

289

Low-level waste forum meeting reports  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides highlights from the spring meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: state and compact reports; New York`s challenge to the constitutionality of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Amendments Act of 1985; DOE technical assistance for 1993; interregional import/export agreements; Department of Transportation requirements; superfund liability; nonfuel bearing components; NRC residual radioactivity criteria.

NONE

1992-12-31

290

Semantic tagging of and semantic enhancements to systematics papers: ZooKeys working examples.  

PubMed

The concept of semantic tagging and its potential for semantic enhancements to taxonomic papers is outlined and illustrated by four exemplar papers published in the present issue of ZooKeys. The four papers were created in different ways: (i) written in Microsoft Word and submitted as non-tagged manuscript (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.504); (ii) generated from Scratchpads and submitted as XML-tagged manuscripts (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.505 and doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.506); (iii) generated from an author's database (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.485) and submitted as XML-tagged manuscript. XML tagging and semantic enhancements were implemented during the editorial process of ZooKeys using the Pensoft Mark Up Tool (PMT), specially designed for this purpose. The XML schema used was TaxPub, an extension to the Document Type Definitions (DTD) of the US National Library of Medicine Journal Archiving and Interchange Tag Suite (NLM). The following innovative methods of tagging, layout, publishing and disseminating the content were tested and implemented within the ZooKeys editorial workflow: (1) highly automated, fine-grained XML tagging based on TaxPub; (2) final XML output of the paper validated against the NLM DTD for archiving in PubMedCentral; (3) bibliographic metadata embedded in the PDF through XMP (Extensible Metadata Platform); (4) PDF uploaded after publication to the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL); (5) taxon treatments supplied through XML to Plazi; (6) semantically enhanced HTML version of the paper encompassing numerous internal and external links and linkouts, such as: (i) vizualisation of main tag elements within the text (e.g., taxon names, taxon treatments, localities, etc.); (ii) internal cross-linking between paper sections, citations, references, tables, and figures; (iii) mapping of localities listed in the whole paper or within separate taxon treatments; (v) taxon names autotagged, dynamically mapped and linked through the Pensoft Taxon Profile (PTP) to large international database services and indexers such as Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), Barcode of Life (BOLD), Encyclopedia of Life (EOL), ZooBank, Wikipedia, Wikispecies, Wikimedia, and others; (vi) GenBank accession numbers autotagged and linked to NCBI; (vii) external links of taxon names to references in PubMed, Google Scholar, Biodiversity Heritage Library and other sources. With the launching of the working example, ZooKeys becomes the first taxonomic journal to provide a complete XML-based editorial, publication and dissemination workflow implemented as a routine and cost-efficient practice. It is anticipated that XML-based workflow will also soon be implemented in botany through PhytoKeys, a forthcoming partner journal of ZooKeys. The semantic markup and enhancements are expected to greatly extend and accelerate the way taxonomic information is published, disseminated and used. PMID:21594113

Penev, Lyubomir; Agosti, Donat; Georgiev, Teodor; Catapano, Terry; Miller, Jeremy; Blagoderov, Vladimir; Roberts, David; Smith, Vincent S; Brake, Irina; Ryrcroft, Simon; Scott, Ben; Johnson, Norman F; Morris, Robert A; Sautter, Guido; Chavan, Vishwas; Robertson, Tim; Remsen, David; Stoev, Pavel; Parr, Cynthia; Knapp, Sandra; Kress, W John; Thompson, Chris F; Erwin, Terry

2010-06-30

291

Outbreak of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 related to animal contact at a petting zoo  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the cause of an outbreak of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 related to animal exposures so that further transmission could be prevented. DESIGN: Description of laboratory investigations and a case control study. SETTING: Agricultural pavilion at an annual fair in Ontario. POPULATION: People with laboratory evidence of E coli 0157:H7 (seven people) and others with diarrhea (155 people) who called the health unit following a media release were interviewed. Animals that were accessed most frequently by the public in the agriculture pavilion were tested for E coli 0157:H7. In the case control study, a case was defined as someone with laboratory confirmed E coli 0157:H7, or someone who developed severe or bloody diarrhea two to eight days after attending the agricultural pavilion at the fair (61 people). A convenience sample of people who attended the agricultural pavilion but did not develop diarrhea was selected as the control group (89 people). INTERVENTIONS: Human and animal E coli 0157:H7 specimens were subtyped. Cases and controls were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: Subtyping of the seven human isolates of E coli 0157:H7 revealed five that were of an extremely uncommon phage type. Three samples from goats and one from sheep at the petting zoo in the agricultural pavilion were of this same phage type. The case control study also implicated goats (odds ratio [OR] 3.65; 95% CI 1.63 to 8.52) and sheep (OR 2.94; 95% CI 1.33 to 6.57) from the petting zoo. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this investigation suggest strongly that the goats and sheep from the petting zoo were the source of this outbreak of E coli 0157:H7.

Warshawsky, Bryna; Gutmanis, Iris; Henry, Bonnie; Dow, Joanne; Reffle, Jim; Pollett, Graham; Ahmed, Rafiq; Aldom, John; Alves, David; Chagla, Abdul; Ciebin, Bruce; Kolbe, Faron; Jamieson, Frances; Rodgers, Frank

2002-01-01

292

Assessing public engagement with science in a university primate research centre in a national zoo.  

PubMed

Recent years have seen increasing encouragement by research institutions and funding bodies for scientists to actively engage with the public, who ultimately finance their work. Animal behaviour as a discipline possesses several features, including its inherent accessibility and appeal to the public, that may help it occupy a particularly successful niche within these developments. It has also established a repertoire of quantitative behavioural methodologies that can be used to document the public's responses to engagement initiatives. This kind of assessment is becoming increasingly important considering the enormous effort now being put into public engagement projects, whose effects are more often assumed than demonstrated. Here we report our first attempts to quantify relevant aspects of the behaviour of a sample of the hundreds of thousands of visitors who pass through the 'Living Links to Human Evolution Research Centre' in Edinburgh Zoo. This University research centre actively encourages the public to view ongoing primate research and associated science engagement activities. Focal follows of visitors and scan sampling showed substantial 'dwell times' in the Centre by common zoo standards and the addition of new engagement elements in a second year was accompanied by significantly increased overall dwell times, tripling for the most committed two thirds of visitors. Larger groups of visitors were found to spend more time in the Centre than smaller ones. Viewing live, active science was the most effective activity, shown to be enhanced by novel presentations of carefully constructed explanatory materials. The findings emphasise the importance and potential of zoos as public engagement centres for the biological sciences. PMID:22496822

Bowler, Mark T; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Whiten, Andrew

2012-04-04

293

The use of zoo exhibits by family groups to learn science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last twenty years, research about science learning in informal contexts such as museums, science centers, zoos and aquariums has proliferated. Many studies have created detailed descriptions of learning as it occurs in informal contexts. Science education researchers have defined learning in several different ways. The selection of a conceptual framework through which to view science learning determines the questions that a researcher can explore. My study applied Roth and Lee's (2002) understanding of science learning as a collective praxis to the context of informal science learning at a community zoo. This conceptual framework is rooted in the view of learning as situated cognition as described by Lave and Wenger (1991). My research explored the interaction of the sociocultural and physical contexts for informal learning as defined by Falk (2000) and investigates how family groups collaborate to learn science at zoo exhibits and how they incorporate the physical features of the exhibit into their collaboration. My interpretations of each family's discourse yielded a variety of genres or accepted patterns used to learn science. All families engaged in highly parent-directed discourse during their visit. For one family parent-controlled, directed explanation was present in all science learning events; the other families' science learning events were a mixture of directed explanation and more collaborative genres of discourse. All the families in this study used exhibit text in two different ways: as a way of framing or guiding their interaction with the exhibit or as a resource in the context of the Family's own frame. For all of the families in this study, each exhibit was a separate learning event---none of the families applied or linked ideas or explanations created at one exhibit to ideas or explanations created at another exhibit. Implications of this study include more longitudinal research on the role of zoo visits on family learning and more explicit connections among exhibits that allow visitors to reflect on their learning and encourage a broader view of the nature of science.

Parker, Loran Carleton

294

PREFACE: IV Nanotechnology International Forum (RUSNANOTECH 2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logo The RUSNANOTECH 2011 International Forum on Nanotechnology was held from 26-28 October 2011, in Moscow, Russia. It was the fourth forum organized by RUSNANO (Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies) since 2008. In March 2011 RUSNANO was established as an open joint-stock company through the reorganization of the state corporation Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies. RUSNANO's mission is to develop the Russian nanotechnology industry through co-investment in nanotechnology projects with substantial economic potential or social benefit. Within the framework of the Forum Science and Technology Program, presentations on key trends of nanotechnology development were given by foreign and Russian scientists, R&D officers of leading international companies, universities and scientific centers. The science and technology program of the Forum was divided into four sections as follows (by following hyperlinks you may find each section's program including videos of all oral presentations): Nanoelectronics and Nanophotonics Nanomaterials Nanotechnology and Green Energy Nanotechnology in Healthcare and Pharma (United business and science & technology section on 'RUSNANOTECH 2011') The scientific program of the forum included more than 50 oral presentations by leading scientists from 15 countries. Among them were world-known specialists such as Professor S Bader (Argonne National Laboratory, USA), Professor O Farokzhad (Harvard Medical School, USA), Professor K Chien (Massachusetts General Hospital, USA), Professor L Liz-Marzan (University of Vigo), A Luque (Polytechnic University of Madrid) and many others. The poster session consisted of over 120 presentations, 90 of which were presented in the framework of the young scientists' nanotechnology papers competition. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes a selection of 47 submissions. Section editors of the proceedings: Nanoelectronics and nanophotonics Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Anatoly Dvurechenskii (Institute of Semiconductor Physics, RAS). Nanomaterials Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Mikhail Alfimov (Photochemistry Center, RAS), Professor Igor Suzdalev (Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, RAS), Member of Russian Academy of Science, Professor Vyacheslav Osiko (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS), Member of Russian Academy of Science, Professor Aleksey Khokhlov (Physical department of Moscow State University). Nanotechnology and green energy Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Eduard Son (Joint Institute for High Temperatures, RAS). Nanotechnology in Healthcare and Pharma Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Konstantin Skryabin (Bioengineering Center, RAS), Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Rem Petrov (RAS), Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Sergey Deev (Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry).

Dvurechenskii, Anatoly; Alfimov, Mikhail; Suzdalev, Igor; Osiko, Vyacheslav; Khokhlov, Aleksey; Son, Eduard; Skryabin, Konstantin; Petrov, Rem; Deev, Sergey

2012-02-01

295

Windows on galaxies  

SciTech Connect

Over the last twenty years, new wavelength windows have been opened in astronomy which have created many new possibilities for observing the properties of galaxies. The authors examine galaxies through all available wavelength windows, concluding the approach towards the study of galaxies should be panchromatic. This volume discusses star formation , evolution of galaxies, molecular contents, gas flows, interstellar matter and properties of galaxies in the several wavelength fields.

Fabbiano, G. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (US)); Gallagher, J.S. (Aura Inc., Washington, DC (US)); Renzini, A. (Universita di Bologna (IT))

1990-01-01

296

The Big Bang-steady state controversy: Cosmology in public and scientific forums  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly visible debate emerged in the 1950s and 1960s over two rival cosmologies, the big bang and the steady state. Cosmologists operated in three distinct forums of discourse---a specialists' forum in cosmology, a general science forum, and a diverse popular science forum. Each forum had its own implicit standards and conventions of argument which collectively shaped the development of

Craig Sean McConnell

2000-01-01

297

Enhancing Mathematical Literacy with the Use of Metacognitive Guidance in Forum Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of forum discussion embedded within metacognitive guidance on mathematical literacy. In particular the study compares two learning environments: (a) Forum discussion with metacognitive guidance (FORUM+META); and (b) Forum discussion without metacognitive guidance (FORUM). Participants…

Kramarski, Bracha; Mizrachi, Nava

2004-01-01

298

Practical guidelines for qualitative research using online forums.  

PubMed

With an increasing number of Internet research in general, the number of qualitative Internet studies has recently increased. Online forums are one of the most frequently used qualitative Internet research methods. Despite an increasing number of online forum studies, very few articles have been written to provide practical guidelines to conduct an online forum as a qualitative research method. In this article, practical guidelines in using an online forum as a qualitative research method are proposed based on three previous online forum studies. First, the three studies are concisely described. Practical guidelines are proposed based on nine idea categories related to issues in the three studies: (a) a fit with research purpose and questions, (b) logistics, (c) electronic versus conventional informed consent process, (d) structure and functionality of online forums, (e) interdisciplinary team, (f) screening methods, (g) languages, (h) data analysis methods, and (i) getting participants' feedback. PMID:22918135

Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

2012-11-01

299

Young thinkers start planning process for CHOGM Youth Forum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Notre Dame Australia’s Fremantle Campus hosted the first Commonwealth Youth Forum Planning Group meeting in preparation for the Youth Forum to be held during the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in October.\\u000aThe Forum will act as a precursor to CHOGM and is set to bring more than 130 delegates from around the world to the

Leigh Dawson

2011-01-01

300

Recommendations in Online Discussion Forums for E-Learning Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we outline the importance of discussion fora for e-learning applications. Due to a weak structure or size of the discussion forum, recommendations are required in order to help learners finding relevant information within a forum. We present a generic personalization framework and evaluate the framework based on a recommender architecture for the e-learning focused discussion forum Comtella-D.

Fabian Abel; Ig Ibert Bittencourt; Evandro de Barros Costa; Nicola Henze; Daniel Krause; Julita Vassileva

2010-01-01

301

Reproduction of varanid lizards (Reptilia: Squamata: Varanidae) at the Bronx Zoo.  

PubMed

Captivity provides many opportunities for studying the reproductive biology of varanid lizards (Family: Varanidae; genus: Varanus). This article presents reproductive data for 12 varanid species maintained in captivity at the Bronx Zoo between 1977 and 2010. Five species, V. prasinus, V. beccarii, V. melinus, V. mertensi, and V. ornatus have successfully reproduced at the zoo, for which clutch, incubation, and hatchling data are presented, and compared with previously published values. Clutch, incubation, and hatchling measurements typically fell within the known ranges for each species, or represent minor range extensions. V. mertensi was the only species that reproduced seasonally (?(2) = 9.061, P = 0.029). Five species multiclutched; individual V. mertensi and V. prasinus females produced as many as four clutches per year. The shortest intervals between successive clutches observed for V. kordensis (61 days), V. melinus (77 days), V. mertensi (51 days), and V. prasinus (68 days) represent the shortest known values for each species. Relative clutch mass (RCM) ranged from 0.187 to 0.437. A mean RCM of 0.370 ± 0.092 for V. prasinus is substantially higher than previously published values for the species. These results illustrate that when maintained under favorable conditions in captivity, some varanids are capable of remarkably high fecundities, rapid reproductive turnover rates, and sizeable maternal investments. Periodicals, Inc. PMID:21538503

Mendyk, Robert W

2011-05-02

302

Ultrasonographic monitoring of fetal development in unrestrained bonobos (Pan paniscus) at the Milwaukee County Zoo.  

PubMed

The bonobo, Pan paniscus, is one of the most endangered primate species. In the context of the Bonobo Species Survival Plan(®), the Milwaukee County Zoo established a successful breeding group. Although the bonobo serves as a model species for human evolution, no prenatal growth curves are available. To develop growth graphs, the animals at the Milwaukee County Zoo were trained by positive reinforcement to allow for ultrasound exams without restraint. With this method, the well being of mother and fetus were maintained and ultrasound exams could be performed frequently. The ovulation date of the four animals in the study was determined exactly so that gestational age was known for each examination. Measurements of biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length (FL) were used to create growth curves. Prenatal growth of P. paniscus was compared with the data of humans and the common chimpanzee, P. troglodytes. With respect to cranial structures, such as BPD and HC, humans have significant acceleration of growth compared with P. paniscus and P. troglodytes. In P. paniscus, growth of AC was similar to HC throughout pregnancy, whereas in humans AC only reaches the level of HC close to term. Growth rate of FL was similar in humans and the two Pan species until near day 180 post-ovulation. After that, the Pan species FL growth slowed compared with human FL. The newly developed fetal growth curves of P. paniscus will assist in monitoring prenatal development and predicting birth dates of this highly endangered species. PMID:20073051

Drews, Barbara; Harmann, Leanne M; Beehler, Leann L; Bell, Barbara; Drews, Reinhard F; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

2010-01-13

303

Prevalence and molecular typing of Giardia spp. in captive mammals at the zoo of Zagreb, Croatia.  

PubMed

A total of 131 faecal samples from 57 mammalian species housed at the zoo of Zagreb, Croatia, were tested for the presence of Giardia spp. cysts using epifluorescence microscopy. The overall prevalence (29%) was high, yet all animals were asymptomatic at the time of sampling. Positive samples were characterized by PCR and sequence analysis of both conserved and variable loci, for the identification of Giardia species and G. duodenalis assemblages and genotypes. Assemblages A and C were identified in Artiodactyla, assemblage B in Primates, Rodentia and Hyracoidea, and assemblages A, B, C and D, as well as Giardia microti, in Carnivora. Genotyping at the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, at the triose phosphate isomerase, glutamate dehydrogenase and beta-giardin genes revealed extensive polymorphisms, particularly among assemblage B isolates. A phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences showed that isolates from captive mammals housed at the zoo are genetically different from isolates of human and domestic animal origin. This is the first survey in a zoological garden to include a molecular characterization of the parasite, and provides novel sequence data of G. duodenalis from many previously uncharacterized hosts. PMID:20970259

Beck, Relja; Sprong, Hein; Bata, Ingeborg; Lucinger, Snjezana; Pozio, Edoardo; Cacciò, Simone M

2010-10-20

304

Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)|

Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney

1985-01-01

305

Information Sharing and Knowledge Creation in Online Forums: The Case of the Greek Online Forum ‘DIALOGOI’  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information intensiveness of service firms coupled with the necessity to manage knowledge in the new economic era, render knowledge management initiatives critical for achieving competitive advantage. This case study identifies and analyses the social networking and knowledge creation capabilities and affordances of online forums to support tourism professionals. After reviewing the literature on knowledge creation, social networking and virtual

Kalotina Chalkiti; Marianna Sigala

2008-01-01

306

INFLUENCE OF AGE ON THE PREVALENCE OF PARASITIC INFECTIONS AMONG WILD MAMMALS IN THRISSUR ZOO, THRISSUR, KERALA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the influence of age on the prevalence of parasitic infections among wild mammals in captivity in Thrissur Zoo was carried out by regular faecal examination over a period of one year. The prevalence of helminthic infection in herbivores and omnivores was higher in the animals aged one year and above, the rates being 71.62% and 65.9%, respectively,

A. Varadharajan; H. Subramanian

307

Group size: Determinants in the wild and implications for the captive housing of wild mammals in zoos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group size is one of the most important factors influencing the formation and maintenance of successful social groups in captivity. For zoos, appropriate social groupings are of the utmost importance to provide examples of species-typical behaviors, as well as attain captive breeding goals. In the wild, group-living evolved largely in response to the need for predator avoidance and territory defense.

Elizabeth E. Price; Tara S. Stoinski

2007-01-01

308

Frustrated Appetitive Foraging Behavior, Stereotypic Pacing, and Fecal Glucocorticoid Levels in Snow Leopards (Uncia uncia) in the Zurich Zoo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study hypothesized that permanently frustrated, appetitive-foraging behavior caused the stereotypic pacing regularly observed in captive carnivores. Using 2 adult female snow leopards (Uncia uncia), solitarily housed in the Zurich Zoo, the study tested this hypothesis experimentally with a novel feeding method: electronically controlled, time-regulated feeding boxes. The expected result of employing this active foraging device as a successful coping

Nicole Burgener; Markus Gusset; Hans Schmid

2008-01-01

309

Part of Your General Public Is Disabled. A Handbook for Guides in Museums, Zoos, and Historic Houses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressed to docents, the manual presents general guidelines for making public tours of museums, historic buildings, and zoos more accessible to handicapped persons. Information on eight major disability groups is provided (mental retardation, learning disabilities, hearing impairments, visual handicaps, mobility impairments, cerebral palsy,…

Majewski, Janice

310

The effects of personality of keepers and tigers ( Panthera tigris tigris) on their behaviour in an interactive zoo exhibit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personalities can be determined for individual animals from their distinctive patterns of behaviour, providing that they are consistent across time and situations. Although there have been no previous studies of the role of personality in keeper:tiger interactions in zoos\\/wildlife parks, previous research has determined that cat personality can be reliably assessed from their attributed feelings in social interactions. We asked

Clive Phillips; Danica Peck

2007-01-01

311

Part of Your General Public Is Disabled. A Handbook for Guides in Museums, Zoos, and Historic Houses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Addressed to docents, the manual presents general guidelines for making public tours of museums, historic buildings, and zoos more accessible to handicapped persons. Information on eight major disability groups is provided (mental retardation, learning disabilities, hearing impairments, visual handicaps, mobility impairments, cerebral palsy,…

Majewski, Janice

312

Upper Secondary Students’ Situational Interest: A case study of the role of a zoo visit in a biology class  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper comprises a presentation of the findings of a case study that investigated how situational factors triggered 12th grade students’ interest during a field trip to a zoo. The purpose was to identify sources of interest and to investigate the attributes that make them interesting. Students’ interest was investigated by a descriptive interpretive approach, based on data from classroom

Niels Bonderup Dohn

2011-01-01

313

An outbreak of canine distemper virus in tigers (Panthera tigris): possible transmission from wild animals to zoo animals.  

PubMed

Canine distemper virus (CDV), a morbillivirus that causes one of the most contagious and lethal viral diseases known in canids, has an expanding host range, including wild animals. Since December 2009, several dead or dying wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were found in and around one safari-style zoo in Japan, and CDV was isolated from four of these animals. In the subsequent months (January to February 2010), 12 tigers (Panthera tigris) in the zoo developed respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, and CDV RNA was detected in fecal samples of the examined tigers. In March 2010, one of the tigers developed a neurological disorder and died; CDV was isolated from the lung of this animal. Sequence analysis of the complete hemagglutinin (H) gene and the signal peptide region of the fusion (F) gene showed high homology among these isolates (99.8-100%), indicating that CDV might have been transmitted from raccoon dog to tiger. In addition, these isolates belonged to genotype Asia-1 and had lower homology (<90%) to the vaccine strain (Onderstepoort). Seropositivity of lions (Panthera leo) in the zoo and wild bears (Ursus thibetanus) captured around this area supported the theory that a CDV epidemic had occurred in many mammal species in and around the zoo. These results indicate a risk of CDV transmission among many animal species, including large felids and endangered species. PMID:22214864

Nagao, Yumiko; Nishio, Yohei; Shiomoda, Hiroshi; Tamaru, Seiji; Shimojima, Masayuki; Goto, Megumi; Une, Yumi; Sato, Azusa; Ikebe, Yusuke; Maeda, Ken

2011-12-28

314

Enacting Democracy: Using Forum Theatre to Confront Bullying  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a curriculum project designed to create opportunities for transformative educational experiences in relation to democratic and social justice ideals. The project used an empowering interactive art form, Forum Theatre, to explore the topic of bullying. Through the development of Forum Theatre scenes by eighth grade students in a social studies classroom in the Northwest, the project delves

Karen M. Gourd; Tina Y. Gourd

2011-01-01

315

The Environmental and Ecological Forum 1970-1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report contains the papers presented in the 1970-1971 Environmental and Ecological Forum series, planned to provide an overview of the significant environmental, social, and economic aspects of electric power generation, more specifically, the pros and cons of nuclear power production. The Forum was organized as a public service to foster…

Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. Office of Information Services.

316

The Forum State of the Field Survey 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In October/November 2009, the Forum on Education Abroad conducted its third State of the Field Survey. This survey provides an annual or biannual assessment of key education abroad issues and topics of interest to Forum members and the field of education abroad at large. Previous State of the Field surveys were conducted in 2006 and 2008. The 2009…

Blessing, Charlotte; Rayner, Elise; Kreutzer, Kim

2010-01-01

317

CATALPA Forum Report (Sydney, Australia, October 8-9, 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents papers and summaries of workshops from a forum on adult literacy training hosted by the Coordinating Agency for Training Adult Literacy Personnel in Australia (CATALPA). An explanation of the nature and aims of the CATALPA project, a brief foreword, and a copy of the forum program are provided, followed by papers presented by…

Coordinating Agency for Training Adult Literacy Personnel in Australia.

318

Group Behavior and Learning in Electronic Forums: A Sociotechnical Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term community is widely and often uncritically used to characterize groupings of people who meet in electronic forums (e-forums). The research reported here shows how the casual use of the term community to characterize these groups can actually undermine their transformation into forms of social organization that are justifiably characterized as communities. This article examines how transforming a group

Rob Kling; Christina Courtright

2003-01-01

319

Student Engagement with, and Participation in, an e-Forum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines engagement with an online discussion forum, aiming to identify the different levels of participation and to investigate factors that encourage or discourage student participation. The case involved the posing of a short real-life problem via a forum on the university's virtual learning environment. An in-class survey was…

Mason, Roger B.

2011-01-01

320

Requesting and providing information in blogs and internet discussion forums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The major aim of this study is to find out whether people articulate their information needs and provide information to others differently in online sites of various types, more specifically, blogs and internet discussion forums. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study is based on the analysis of ten blogs and 40 threads of Suomi24, a Finnish internet discussion forum. The

Reijo Savolainen

2011-01-01

321

Homeless and Special Education Administrative Collaboration: Recommendations. Policy Forum Proceedings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Project Forum at the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) and the National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE) worked together to collect information regarding the need for a policy forum on the topic of administrative collaboration between school personnel who support homeless education under the McKinney-Vento…

Bowman, Diana; Burdette, Paula; Julianelle, Patricia

2008-01-01

322

Acceptability of an asynchronous learning forum on mobile devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile learning has recently become noteworthy because mobile devices have become popular. To construct an asynchronous learning forum on mobile devices is important because an asynchronous learning forum is always an essential part of networked asynchronous distance learning. However, the input interface in handheld learning devices, which is generally handwritten, is not efficient. Hence, most learners do not attempt to

Chih-Kai Chang

2010-01-01

323

The American Forum for Global Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Forum for Global Education is a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to "promoting the education of our nation's youth for responsible citizenship in an increasingly interconnected and rapidly changing world." The site provides information about its activities and resource materials relevant to its mission. Educators here can find out more about programs to improve teaching about China in New York public schools and to enhance collaboration between university scholars and teachers in the development of globally-focused curriculum. They can also participate in "The Global Exchange" -- an online forum for teachers to share their experiences on the Internet. The materials section features dozens of planned units on topics in Area Studies & Culture, Global Connections, Global Issues, Conflict & Conflict Resolution, Environment, and International Organizations. Recent examples include units on Literature and the Chinese Diaspora, Democracy as a Value, and Around the World in Ten Days, a ten-day whirlwind unit on major trends in world history. Appropriate grade levels are indicated for each unit, ranging from K-12, but with an emphasis on junior high and high school levels.

324

Rich Clusters of Galaxies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews rich clusters of galaxies. Progress has been made in the study of distributions of clusters in groups of various richness. Photometry studies were completed on the elliptical galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. (Author)

G. O. Abell

1970-01-01

325

Zoo Labs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These five laboratory activities are designed for observation of primates and humans in a zoological environment and include studies of locomotion, communication, mother-infant interaction, general behavior, and dominance/submissive behavior. Students are directed to make observations and interpretations.

Brooks, Alison

2007-04-08

326

Project Forum's Policy Forum on Response to Intervention and Early Intervening Services (Barriers, Policy Recommendation and Implementation Considerations)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project Forum's Policy Forum on Response to Intervention and Early Intervening Services was held October 30-31, 2006. This paper presents the following topics: (1) Issues/Barriers; (2) Policy Recommendations; and (3) Implementation Considerations. This paper is a companion to "Response to Intervention as It Relates to Early Intervening Services:…

Project Forum, 2006

2006-01-01

327

Tadpole Galaxies: Clues to Galaxy Assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance of dynamically unrelaxed galaxies in several deep fields (including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, GOODS, and the COSMOS Field) suggests that they play a major role in the overall scheme of galaxy evolution. In particular, galaxies with knot-plus-tail morphologies--tadpole galaxies--constitute a large, well-defined subset of irregular objects that is uniquely measurable as is discussed here. The selection of this specific morphology also ties closely to recent theoretical predictions and numerical simulations that predict a stage of merger-driven galaxy evolution that closely resembles these tadpole galaxies in a distinct phase. In particular, this morphology appears to represent an early stage in the merging of two galaxies of nearly-equal mass. The numerical simulations mentioned above predict a tadpole-like stage \\ 0.7 Gyr after the merger begins, with AGN activity being displayed only well after the tadpole-like phase. A partner variability study led by Cohen et al. (2005) has concluded that for the HUDF, \\ 1% of objects (45 in all) to i\\AB'=28 are variable due to AGN activity. This sample of likely-AGN objects has no overlap with the tadpole sample, suggesting that we may be seeing two phases in galaxy evolution, in agreement with these theoretical predictions. This research was supported in part by the NASA Space Grant Graduate Fellowship at Arizona State University, the Harriet G. Jenkins Predoctoral Fellowship, and HST Grant GO.9793.07.

Straughn, A. N.; Cohen, S. H.; Ryan, R. E.; Hathi, N. P.; Windhorst, R. A.; Jansen, R. A.

2005-12-01

328

Leptospira and Brucella antibodies in collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) in Brazilian zoos.  

PubMed

The presence of Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. antibodies was investigated in serum samples from 28 collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) kept in seven Brazilian zoos. Sera were tested against 19 Leptospira serovars using microscopic agglutination. Samples reacted to the following serovars: two (7.14%) to Patoc, three (10.71%) to Tarrasovi, three (10.71%) to both Patoc and Tarrasovi, two (7.14%) to Wolffi, and one (3.57%) to Australis. Two (7.14%) samples reacted to the buffered Brucella antigen test, but no confirmatory reaction occurred using the 2-mercaptoethanol slow slide agglutination test. No sample was reactive in the agar gel immunodiffusion test for rugose species of Brucella. The presence of anti-leptospira agglutinins in captive T. tetradactyla serum indicates that this species may be susceptible to infection by these bacteria. PMID:23272339

Sales, Indiara dos Santos; Folly, Márcio Manhães; Garcia, Luize Néli Nunes; Ramos, Tatiane Mendes Varela; da Silva, Mariana Cristina; Pereira, Martha Maria

2012-12-01

329

A comparative approach to the study of Keeper-Animal Relationships in the zoo.  

PubMed

Research on intensively farmed animals over the past 25 years has shown that human-animal interactions, by affecting the animal's fear of humans, can markedly limit the productivity and welfare of farm animals. This article begins to explore some of the factors that need to be considered to investigate Keeper-Animal Relationships (KARs) in the zoo. In the mid-1990s, a large body of multi-institutional data on zookeepers and animals was collected from 46 Zoos. Using standardized questionnaires, 82 keepers rated how they behaved towards animals, their husbandry routine, how the animal responds to them and to other people, and provided information about themselves. These data include 219 individuals of four endangered species: black rhinoceros, cheetah, maned wolf, and great hornbill. At each zoo, keepers were also videotaped calling to their animals in order to directly observe animal responses to keeper behaviors. Principle Components Analysis reduced eight animal variables to three components and ten keeper variables to five components. Scores for animals and for keepers were calculated on these components and compared, according to five predictions based on models of human-animal interactions in the literature. Animal responses to keepers varied along three dimensions: Affinity to Keeper, Fear of People, and Sociable/Curious. Animal scores of Fear of People were significantly and positively correlated with independent measures of poor welfare from two later studies: fecal corticoid concentrations for 12 black rhinos and "tense-fearful" scores for 12 cheetahs. (1) Significant species differences were found for Affinity to Keeper and Fear of People, and the interaction of these two dimensions of animal response to keepers appears to be species-specific. (2) The quality of KAR is influenced by whether the zookeeper goes in the enclosure with the animal or not, the frequency and time of feeding, and keeper visibility to the animal. Among keepers who go in with their animals, a significant negative correlation between Frequency of Feeding/Early Feedtime and average Affinity to Keeper of their animals, and a positive correlation between Keeper Experience and their animals' Fear of People, indicates that certain zoo keeping styles or habits among experienced keepers might be aversive and increase fear among animals. (3) Keepers who locomote or make unexpected noises when calling their animals elicit increased aggression or apprehension from maned wolves and cheetahs. (4) Wild-born black rhino and parent-reared maned wolf have significantly less affinity to keepers than their captive-born or hand-reared counterparts, but neither differs in Fear of People. (5) Keeper-animal relationships are likely to be reciprocal as evidenced by a negative correlation of Job Satisfaction with animal Fear of People. Future research directions are discussed with respect to assessment of keeper attitudes and behaviors, animal fear, positive measures of welfare, and positive reinforcement training. PMID:19885915

Carlstead, Kathy

2009-11-01

330

A case of a fatal Himalayan black bear attack in the zoo.  

PubMed

We present a case of a 22-year-old male, who was found inside the cage of Himalayan black bears in the Belgrade Zoo. The victim attended the Belgrade Beer festival the previous night, drinking a lot of beer and acting aggressively. A medico-legal autopsy was performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Belgrade. Autopsy findings showed numerous excoriations all over the body surrounded by bruises, as well as spindle-shaped, oval, and partly irregular wounds of variable size, large defects of skin and subcutaneous soft tissue, fractures of the thyroid and cricoid cartilage, and fracture of ribs. Postmortem toxicological analysis revealed the presence of ethanol in vitreous humor and urine and 11-nor ?9 tetrahydrocannabinolic acid found in the urine. We discussed similar cases from the available literature in different regions of the world. In conclusion, we pointed out that the presented case does not follow the general pattern of Himalayan bear attacks. PMID:21361947

Mihailovic, Zoran; Savic, Slobodan; Damjanjuk, Irina; Stanojevic, Aleksandar; Milosevic, Miroslav

2011-03-01

331

Virologic and serologic studies of zoo birds for Marek's disease virus infection.  

PubMed Central

One hundred and eleven zoo birds representing 49 species in 14 orders were examined for Marek's disease (MD) herpesvirus (MDHV) infection. MDHV was isolated from 10 birds, all belonging to genus Gallus. The precipitating antibodies against MDHV were demonstrated only in the Gallus birds, when 51 selected birds including 34 Galliformes and 17 other birds representing 12 species from nine orders were examined. The 10 MDHV isolates all induced morphologically similar plaques in cell cultures closely resembling those of HN strain, a low pathogenic isolate of MDHV. Six of the 10 isolates, when inoculated into an experimental line of chickens highly susceptible to MD, caused only a minimal degree of histologic lesions without causing clinical MD, gross MD lesions, or deaths from MD. Natural hosts of MD are probably Galliformes, primarily affecting Gallus and less often other genera of Galliformes. Images

Cho, B R; Kenzy, S G

1975-01-01

332

Persistent Giardia spp. and Trichuris spp. infection in maras (Dolichotis patagonum) at a zoo in Greece.  

PubMed

The mara (Dolichotis patagonum) is a species classified as "Near Threatened" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. In the wild, it inhabits only Argentina, but it is also kept in zoos around the world. In order to investigate the endoparasites of the maras kept in the Attica Zoological Park, Greece, four fecal examinations were performed in a period of 4 yr (2008-2011) by standard parasitologic methods. Cysts of the protozoan parasite Giardia spp. and eggs of the nematode Trichuris spp. were found in all four examinations. The possible routes of infection of the maras and the importance of these parasites to other animals and to humans are discussed. PMID:23805557

Tahas, Stamatios Alan; Diakou, Anastasia

2013-06-01

333

Prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens in a population of zoo animals.  

PubMed

Faecal prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens, including Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, as well as Arcobacter, were examined in 317 faecal specimens from 44 animal species in Belfast Zoological Gardens, during July-September 2006. Thermophilic campylobacters including Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari, were the most frequently isolated pathogens, where members of this genus were isolated from 11 animal species (11 of 44; 25%). Yersinia spp. were isolated from seven animal species (seven of 44; 15.9%) and included, Yersinia enterocolitica (five of seven isolates; 71.4%) and one isolate each of Yersinia frederiksenii and Yersinia kristensenii. Only one isolate of Salmonella was obtained throughout the entire study, which was an isolate of Salmonella dublin (O 1,9,12: H g, p), originating from tiger faeces after enrichment. None of the animal species found in public contact areas of the zoo were positive for any gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens. Also, water from the lake in the centre of the grounds, was examined for the same bacterial pathogens and was found to contain C. jejuni. This study is the first report on the isolation of a number of important bacterial pathogens from a variety of novel host species, C. jejuni from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), C. lari from a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), Y. kristensenii from a vicugna (Vicugna vicugna) and Y. enterocolitica from a maned wolf and red panda (Ailurus fulgens). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the faeces of animals in public contact areas of the zoo were not positive for the bacterial gastrointestinal pathogens examined. This is reassuring for the public health of visitors, particularly children, who enjoy this educational and recreational resource. PMID:18331520

Stirling, J; Griffith, M; Blair, I; Cormican, M; Dooley, J S G; Goldsmith, C E; Glover, S G; Loughrey, A; Lowery, C J; Matsuda, M; McClurg, R; McCorry, K; McDowell, D; McMahon, A; Cherie Millar, B; Nagano, Y; Rao, J R; Rooney, P J; Smyth, M; Snelling, W J; Xu, J; Moore, J E

2008-04-01

334

Chernobyl Forum: Forum Sharpens Focus on Human Consequences of Chernobyl Accident.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a concrete sarcophagus was built to enclose the remnants of the destroyed reactor. Now, nearly seventeen years later, engineers are faced with a new problem: the sarcophagus is literally falling apart. This site discusses events and topics of the February 2003 international forum on Chernobyl. Several documents are included on the site, including retrospectives and health analyses.

2003-01-01

335

Galaxy Redshifts (Rood 1980)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Catalog of Galaxy Redshifts was compiled by Dr. Rood to enter the most accurate redshift for each entry in the Uppsala General Catalog of Galaxies below 15000 km/s, plus some fainter galaxies in the fields of rich clusters, plus some southern galaxies. The catalog is 99 percent complete for declinations north of -2.5deg and blue magnitude (Pmag) brighter than 13. The present documentation is mostly adapted from the "Documentation of the Machine-Readable Version of the Catalog of Galaxy Redshifts" by Theresa A. Nagy and Robert S. Hill, May 1981, prepared for NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, No SSD-T-5069-0013-81. (1 data file).

Rood, H. J.

1995-10-01

336

Acid rain: an intergovernmental policy forum  

SciTech Connect

The various presentations made at the New York State Senate's Acid Rain Policy Forum underscored the uncertainty and intricacy of the complex issue of acid rain. Statements by the panelists illustrated strong divergence of opinion over the many questions surrounding the acid rain problem, such as: what causes acid rain; where does it come from; is it getting worse; what are its impacts; and what are the most appropriate policy options for addressing the issue. If there was one point of consensus, it was that enough evidence exists to support the conclusion that some form of action is appropriate. As one panelist noted, the quick answers are all in, and it will be five or more years before answers to some of the remaining questions are known. Therefore, policymakers will have to make their choices on the basis of incomplete knowledge.

Not Available

1984-05-01

337

Galaxies as gravitational lenses.  

PubMed

The probability that a galaxy gathers light from another remote galaxy, and deflects and focuses it toward an observer on Earth, is calculated according to various cosmologic models. I pose the question of whether an object called a quasar is a single, intrinsically luminous entity or the result of accidental alignment, along the line of sight, of two normal galaxies, the more distant of which has its light amplified by the gravitational-lens effect of the nearer galaxy. If galaxies are distributed at random in the universe, the former alternative is true. But, if we assume that most galaxies exist in pairs, we can find about 30 galaxies occurring exactly one behind the other in such a way as to enable amplification of the order of 50. This model explains also the variations in intensity in quasars, but fails to explain others of their observed properties. PMID:17734305

Sadeh, D

1967-12-01

338

Can Anonymous Posters on Medical Forums be Reidentified?  

PubMed Central

Background Participants in medical forums often reveal personal health information about themselves in their online postings. To feel comfortable revealing sensitive personal health information, some participants may hide their identity by posting anonymously. They can do this by using fake identities, nicknames, or pseudonyms that cannot readily be traced back to them. However, individual writing styles have unique features and it may be possible to determine the true identity of an anonymous user through author attribution analysis. Although there has been previous work on the authorship attribution problem, there has been a dearth of research on automated authorship attribution on medical forums. The focus of the paper is to demonstrate that character-based author attribution works better than word-based methods in medical forums. Objective The goal was to build a system that accurately attributes authorship of messages posted on medical forums. The Authorship Attributor system uses text analysis techniques to crawl medical forums and automatically correlate messages written by the same authors. Authorship Attributor processes unstructured texts regardless of the document type, context, and content. Methods The messages were labeled by nicknames of the forum participants. We evaluated the system’s performance through its accuracy on 6000 messages gathered from 2 medical forums on an in vitro fertilization (IVF) support website. Results Given 2 lists of candidate authors (30 and 50 candidates, respectively), we obtained an F score accuracy in detecting authors of 75% to 80% on messages containing 100 to 150 words on average, and 97.9% on longer messages containing at least 300 words. Conclusions Authorship can be successfully detected in short free-form messages posted on medical forums. This raises a concern about the meaningfulness of anonymous posting on such medical forums. Authorship attribution tools can be used to warn consumers wishing to post anonymously about the likelihood of their identity being determined.

Bobicev, Victoria; El Emam, Khaled; Jafer, Yasser; Dewar, Brian; Jonker, Elizabeth; Matwin, Stan

2013-01-01

339

Using Galaxy Winds to Constrain Galaxy Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of mock quasar spectra of metal absorption lines in the proximity of formed galaxies in cosmological simulation is a highly promising for understanding the role of galaxies in IGM physics, or IGM physics in the role of galaxy formation in context of the cosmic web. Such analysis using neutral hydrogen in the cosmic web has literally revolutionized our understanding of the Lyman alpha forest. We are undertaking a wholesale approach to use powerful Lambda-CDM simulations to interpret absorption line data from redshift 1-3 starbursting galaxies e.g. Lyman break galaxies, etc) The data with which direct quantitative comparison is made are from the DEEP survey (Weiner et al.) and the collective work of Steidel et al. and collaborators. The simulations are performed using the Eulerian Gasdynamics plus N-body Adaptive Refinement Tree (ART) code, which has gas cell resolutions of 20-50 pc. Physical processes implemented in the code include realistic radiative cooling, star formation, metal enrichment and thermal feedback due to type II and type Ia supernovae. We quantitatively compare the spatial and kinematic distribution of HI, MgII, CIV, and OVI of absorption lines over a range of impact parameters for various simulated galaxies as a function of redshift, and discuss key insights for interpreting the underlying temperature, density, and ionization structure of the halo/cosmic-web interface, and the influence of galaxies on its chemical enrichment.

Churchill, Christopher W.; Klypin, A.; Ceverino, D.; Kacprzak, G.; Klimek, E.

2010-01-01

340

Low-Level Waste (LLW) forum meeting report  

SciTech Connect

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

NONE

1995-12-31

341

LLW Forum meeting report, October 26--27, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties. This report details activities of the meeting held October 26-27, 1994.

NONE

1994-12-31

342

Health-Related On-Line Forums: What's the Big Attraction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates what motivates people to make use of health-related online forums, and how people feel that using these forums helps them in coping with their situation. Results are based on an online questionnaire (N = 189) among users of a variety of health forums. Findings show an overall positive effect of using forums on the degree to which people are

Martin Tanis

2008-01-01

343

Every School Day Counts: The Forum Guide to Collecting and Using Attendance Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Forum on Education Statistics (the Forum) is pleased to present Every School Day Counts: The Forum Guide to Collecting and Using Attendance Data. One goal of the Forum is to improve the quality of education data gathered for use by policymake...

2009-01-01

344

Are brightest halo galaxies central galaxies?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally assumed that the central galaxy in a dark matter halo, that is the galaxy with the lowest specific potential energy, is also the brightest halo galaxy (BHG), and that it resides at rest at the centre of the dark matter potential well. This central galaxy paradigm (CGP) is an essential assumption made in various fields of astronomical research. In this paper, we test the validity of the CGP using a large galaxy group catalogue constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. For each group, we compute two statistics, ? and ?, which quantify the offsets of the line-of-sight velocities and projected positions of brightest group galaxies relative to the other group members. By comparing the cumulative distributions of ? and ? to those obtained from detailed mock group catalogues, we rule out the null hypothesis that the CGP is correct. Rather, the data indicate that in a non-zero fraction fBNC(M) of all haloes of mass M the BHG is not the central galaxy, but instead a satellite galaxy. In particular, we find that fBNC increases from ˜0.25 in low-mass haloes (1012 h-1?M? 2 × 1013 h-1 M?) to ˜0.4 in massive haloes (M? 5 × 1013 h-1 M?). We show that these values of fBNC are uncomfortably high compared to predictions from halo occupation statistics and from semi-analytical models of galaxy formation. We end by discussing various implications of a non-zero fBNC(M), with an emphasis on the halo masses inferred from satellite kinematics.

Skibba, Ramin A.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Yang, Xiaohu; More, Surhud; Mo, Houjun; Fontanot, Fabio

2011-01-01

345

Starburst Galaxies in Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In series of papers, we have used four-colors narrow band filters to carry out restframe photometry of galaxies in rich clusters at various redshifts. The properties and distribution of the low redshift specifically points to starbursts as the origin of the blue colors in Interacting galaxies. Comparison between theoretical models and multicolor diagrams indicates a photometric signature in the interacting / merger system. Thus, theoretical models of starburst are used to define the behavior of color indices and to estimate the age of observed starbursts. The goal of this paper is to combine the information obtained from narrow band photometry of nearby ellipticals, spirals, starburst, Seyferts and interacting galaxies in order to search for signatures on starburst activity that can than be linked to the uz, vz, bz, yz photometry of Butcher-Oemler galaxies in distant clusters. The galaxy data are computed synthetic colors from high resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra published by Gunn and Oke (1957), Yee and Oke (1978), De Bruyn and Sargent (1978), Kennicutt (1992) and Ashby (1992). The galaxies are broken into four classes; ellipticals, spirals, Seyferts and starbursts. The starburst galaxies deviate from the normal and Seyfert galaxies by lying well below the sequence, having bluer {vz - yz} colors for their {bz - yz} index. In both mz vs {uz - vz} and {bz - yz} plots, the starburst galaxies are well separated from the normal galaxies and are distinguished by consistently having mz values of less than -0.2 [mz = (vz-bz)-(bz-yz)].

Rakos, K. D.; Schombert, J. M.

346

Proceedings of the Fifth Triennial Software Quality Forum 2000, Software for the Next Millennium, Software Quality Forum  

SciTech Connect

The Software Quality Forum is a triennial conference held by the Software Quality Assurance Subcommittee for the Department of Energy's Quality Managers. The forum centers on key issues, information, and technology important in software development for the Nuclear Weapons Complex. This year it will be opened up to include local information technology companies and software vendors presenting their solutions, ideas, and lessons learned. The Software Quality Forum 2000 will take on a more hands-on, instructional tone than those previously held. There will be an emphasis on providing information, tools, and resources to assist developers in their goal of producing next generation software.

Scientific Software Engineering Group, CIC-12

2000-04-01

347

Agricultural Burning Stakeholder Forums: Putting the Pieces Together.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The forums were held to create a setting conducive for interested and affected parties to learn more about the many pieces of the puzzle related to agricultural field burning. Experts in agriculture, health, and government were invited to share informatio...

S. E. Downey D. M. Martin

2001-01-01

348

77 FR 15398 - Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum The National Transportation...Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction, which will begin at 8...education and outreach, and technology and design countermeasures...Attitudes and Behaviors Panel 4: Technology and Design...

2012-03-15

349

77 FR 13683 - Government/Industry Aeronautical Charting Forum Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...information relating to the Charting Group, contact Valerie S. Watson, FAA, National Aeronautical Navigation Products (AeroNav...Issued in Washington, DC, on February 28, 2012. Valerie S. Watson, Co-Chair, Aeronautical Charting Forum. [FR Doc....

2012-03-07

350

78 FR 12415 - Government/Industry Aeronautical Charting Forum Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...information relating to the Charting Group, contact Valerie S. Watson, FAA, National Aeronautical Navigation Products (AeroNav...Issued in Washington, DC, on February 19, 2013. Valerie S. Watson, Co-Chair, Aeronautical Charting Forum. [FR Doc....

2013-02-22

351

Second National Forum on Biomedical Imaging in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

September 14-15, 2000 Forum Agenda - September 14, 2000 (PDF document) Workshop Agenda - September 15, 2000 (PDF document) Meeting Summary (PDF document) For further information, please contact: Cancer Imaging ProgramNational Cancer InstituteCancer Imaging

352

LLW Forum meeting report, October 20--22, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum met in Annapolis, Maryland, on October 20--22, 1997. Twenty-six Forum Participants, Alternate Forum Participants, and meeting designees representing 22 compacts and states participated. A report on the meeting is given under the following subtitles: New developments in states and compacts; Discussion with NRC Commissioner McGaffigan; Regulatory issues session; Executive session; LLW forum business session; DOE low-level waste management program; Transportation of radioactive waste; Environmental equity: Title VI; Congressional studies on Ward Valley Site; Implementation of DOE`s strategy for waste management; Relicensing Envirocare; Draft agreement for uniform application of manifesting procedures; CRCPD report; Panel: Future of low-level radioactive waste management; Agenda planning: February 1998; Resolutions; and Attendance.

Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

1997-12-31

353

Parkinson's Action Network (PAN) 14th Annual Forum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This conference grant supported the Parkinson's Action Network (PAN) 14th Annual Research and Education Forum for Parkinson's patients, their families/caretakers and advocates, held February 2 to 4, 2008 at the Hyatt Regency on Capital Hill, Washington, D...

A. C. Rick

2008-01-01

354

An off-line filtering ditch–pond system for diffuse pollution control at Wuhan City Zoo  

Microsoft Academic Search

An off-line filtering ditch–pond system was designed and constructed to control the small point and runoff pollution at the Wuhan City Zoo, Hubei Province, China. The quantity and quality of wastewater discharge and runoff from 16 rainfall events were measured to test the effectiveness of the off-line treatment train. The results showed that the water quality was improved and high

Qingfeng Chen; Baoqing Shan; Chengqing Yin; Chengxiao Hu

2007-01-01

355

PROVIDING ENRICHMENT IN HIGHLY CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTS: BLACK-FOOTED FERRET (MUSTELA NIGRIPES) ENRICHMENT PROGRAM AT THE PHOENIX ZOO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The black-footed ferret was believed to have been extinct until 1981, when it was rediscovered in Wyoming. In 1987, several institutions led by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service teamed up to save the species. The Phoenix Zoo has played a significant part in the recovery program since 1991. Enrichment options are being synchronized with recommendations from the U.S. Fish

Hilda Tresz; Phoenix Zoo

2007-01-01

356

Species-specific patterns in fecal glucocorticoid and androgen levels in zoo-living orangutans (Pongo spp.).  

PubMed

In contrast to most primate species, including the other great apes, orangutans maintain a fission-fusion social system in the wild without being part of a stable community. In zoos, however, they are kept in permanent groups, usually consisting of one adult male and several females. In zoo orangutans, we predict higher levels of glucocorticoids and androgens in the Bornean species compared to its congener from Sumatra, due to the much more solitary lifestyle of Bornean orangutans and the apparent higher frequency of male aggression directed towards females in this species in the wild. To compare hormone levels of the two orangutan species, we validated a fecal glucocorticoid and a fecal androgen assay. Subsequently, fecal samples from a total of 73 female and 38 male orangutans housed in 29 European zoos were analyzed to investigate the effect of species, social group size, age and (for female glucocorticoid levels) reproductive state and the presence of adult males on fecal hormone metabolite concentrations. The results of linear mixed effect models indicate that both male and female Bornean orangutans show a steeper increase in glucocorticoid levels with increasing group size than Sumatran orangutans. We therefore conclude that Sumatran zoo orangutans are better able to adjust to social housing conditions than their Bornean congeners. In addition, our analyses reveal higher glucocorticoid levels in lactating females of both species compared to non-lactating and juvenile females. Concerning androgen levels in males, our analyses revealed significantly higher concentrations in Bornean than Sumatran orangutans. These differences in both glucocorticoid and androgen output between the two species of orangutan are presumably linked to ecological and behavioral differences and could possibly be attributed to phenotypic plasticity. However, given that we found interspecific differences in hormone excretion in captivity, where both species live under very similar conditions, we conclude that this variation has a genetic basis. PMID:21524655

Weingrill, Tony; Willems, Erik P; Zimmermann, Nina; Steinmetz, Hanspeter; Heistermann, Michael

2011-04-17

357

Quality of weight loss advice on Internet forums  

PubMed Central

Background: Adults use the Internet for weight loss information, sometimes by participating in discussion forums. Our purpose was to analyze the quality of advice exchanged on these forums. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of messages posted to 18 Internet weight loss forums during one month in 2006. Advice was evaluated for congruence with clinical guidelines; potential for causing harm; and subsequent correction when it was contradictory to guidelines (erroneous) or potentially harmful. Message- and forum-specific characteristics were evaluated as predictors of advice quality and self-correction. Results: Of 3368 initial messages, 266 (7.9%) were requests for advice. Of 654 provisions of advice, 56 (8.6%) were erroneous and 19 of these 56 (34%) were subsequently corrected. Forty-three (6.6%) provisions of advice were harmful and 12 of these 43 (28%) were subsequently corrected. Messages from low-activity forums (fewer messages) were more likely than those from high-activity forums to be erroneous (10.6% vs. 2.4%, p<0.001) or harmful (8.4% vs. 1.2%, p<0.001). In high-activity forums, 2 of 4 (50%) erroneous provisions of advice and 2 of 2 (100%) potentially harmful provisions of advice were corrected by subsequent postings. Compared to general weight loss advice, medication-related advice was more likely to be erroneous (p=0.02) or harmful (p=0.01). Conclusions: Most advice posted on highly-active Internet weight loss forums is not erroneous or harmful. However, clinical and research strategies are needed to address the quality of medication-related advice.

Hwang, Kevin O.; Farheen, Kiran; Johnson, Craig W.; Thomas, Eric J.; Barnes, Ann S.; Bernstam, Elmer V.

2007-01-01

358

CARICOF - The Caribbean Regional Climate Outlook Forum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs) are viewed as a critical building block in the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The GFCS seeks to extend RCOFs to all vulnerable regions of the world such as the Caribbean, of which the entire population is exposed to water- and heat-related natural hazards. An RCOF is initially intended to identify gaps in information and technical capability; facilitate research cooperation and data exchange within and between regions, and improve coordination within the climate forecasting community. A focus is given on variations in climate conditions on a seasonal timescale. In this view, the relevance of a Caribbean RCOF (CARICOF) is the following: while the seasonality of the climate in the Caribbean has been well documented, major gaps in knowledge exist in terms of the drivers in the shifts of amplitude and phase of seasons (as evidenced from the worst region-wide drought period in recent history during 2009-2010). To address those gaps, CARICOF has brought together National Weather Services (NWSs) from 18 territories under the coordination of the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH), to produce region-wide, consensus, seasonal climate outlooks since March 2012. These outlooks include tercile rainfall forecasts, sea and air surface temperature forecasts as well as the likely evolution of the drivers of seasonal climate variability in the region, being amongst others the El Niño Southern Oscillation or tropical Atlantic and Caribbean Sea temperatures. Forecasts for both the national-scale forecasts made by the NWSs and CIMH's regional-scale forecast amalgamate output from several forecasting tools. These currently include: (1) statistical models such as Canonical Correlation Analysis run with the Climate Predictability Tool, providing tercile rainfall forecasts at weather station scale; (2) a global outlooks published by the WMO appointed Global Producing Centres (GPCs). Indications are that the current seasonal forecasting system used by CARICOF has produced reliable outlooks than previously available. Nevertheless, through its forum platform, areas for further development are continuously being defined, which are then implemented through efficient information exchanges between and hands-on training of forecasters. Finally, the disaster research and emergency management communities have shown that effective early warnings of impending hazards need to be complemented by information on the risks actually posed by the hazards and pathways for action. CARICOF is to address this issue by designing the outputs of the seasonal climate outlooks such that they can then effectively feed into an early warning information system of seasonal climate variability related hazards to its constituent countries' and territories major socio-economic sectors.

Van Meerbeeck, Cedric

2013-04-01

359

Complementary expertise in a zoo educator professional development event contributes to the construction of understandings of affective transformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cultural Historical Activity Theory served as the analytical framework for the study of a professional development event for a zoo's education department, specifically designed to build understandings of "Affective Transformation," an element pertinent to the organization's strategic plan. Three key products—an Affective Transformation model, scaffolding schematic, and definition, "providing emotional experiences for visitors which increase caring for animals and nature that may lead to zoo-related nature-protective behaviors"—emerged as a result of ongoing deliberation among professional development community members over two days. Participants, including both management- and non-management-level staff, as well as an expert facilitator, contributed complementary expertise to the process. The discussions, therefore, crossed both vertical and horizontal layers of authority. Moreover, leadership was distributed across these levels in the development of these products. Members used pre-existing resources, as well as tools created in the course of the professional development event. Interactions among participants and resources were instrumental in Affective Transformation product development. Examination of one zoo's construction of understanding of affective goals, therefore, may offer insights to other organizations with similar aspirations.

Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Kassing, Sharon

2013-04-01

360

Video observation of hand hygiene practices at a petting zoo and the impact of hand hygiene interventions.  

PubMed

Petting zoos are popular attractions, but can also be associated with zoonotic disease outbreaks. Hand hygiene is critical to reducing disease risks; however, compliance can be poor. Video observation of petting zoo visitors was used to assess animal and environmental contact and hand hygiene compliance. Compliance was also compared over five hand hygiene intervention periods. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used for analysis. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 58% (340/583). Two interventions had a significant positive association with hand hygiene compliance [improved signage with offering hand sanitizer, odds ratio (OR) 3·38, P<0·001; verbal hand hygiene reminders, OR 1·73, P=0·037]. There is clearly a need to improve hand hygiene compliance at this and other animal exhibits. This preliminary study was the first to demonstrate a positive impact of a hand hygiene intervention at a petting zoo. The findings suggest that active, rather than passive, interventions are more effective for increasing compliance. PMID:21371366

Anderson, M E C; Weese, J S

2011-03-04

361

Complementary expertise in a zoo educator professional development event contributes to the construction of understandings of affective transformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cultural Historical Activity Theory served as the analytical framework for the study of a professional development event for a zoo's education department, specifically designed to build understandings of "Affective Transformation," an element pertinent to the organization's strategic plan. Three key products—an Affective Transformation model, scaffolding schematic, and definition, "providing emotional experiences for visitors which increase caring for animals and nature that may lead to zoo-related nature-protective behaviors"—emerged as a result of ongoing deliberation among professional development community members over two days. Participants, including both management- and non-management-level staff, as well as an expert facilitator, contributed complementary expertise to the process. The discussions, therefore, crossed both vertical and horizontal layers of authority. Moreover, leadership was distributed across these levels in the development of these products. Members used pre-existing resources, as well as tools created in the course of the professional development event. Interactions among participants and resources were instrumental in Affective Transformation product development. Examination of one zoo's construction of understanding of affective goals, therefore, may offer insights to other organizations with similar aspirations.

Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Kassing, Sharon

2013-09-01

362

Infrared Polarimetry of Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging polarimetry at near infrared wavelengths can probe the magnetic field geometry in external galaxies in regions of high extinction inaccessible to optical techniques. Polarization of starlight from deep into dustlanes, blowouts, and dust enshrouded nuclei can be measured. A total of twelve galaxies showing only interstellar polarization have been observed to date. Normal galaxies such as NGC 4565 show a magnetic field geometry lying in the plane of the disk and a polarization strength very similar to what is observed in the Milky Way. Ultraluminous galaxies and galaxies with starburst nuclei show a polar magnetic field geometry in the nucleus, causing a crossed polaroid effect and reduced polarization. Interestingly, galaxies with active disks, but otherwise normal, such as NGC 891 show the effects of blowouts in the polarization maps.

Jones, T. J.

2005-12-01

363

LLW Forum meeting report, May 7--9, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum met in Chicago, Illinois, on may 7--9, 1997. Twenty-three Forum Participants, Alternate Forum Participants, and meeting designees representing 20 compacts and states participated. A report on the meeting is given under the following subtitles: New developments in states and compacts; Upgrading an existing disposal facility; Revisions to DOE Order 5820 re DOE waste management; Conference of radiation control program directors: Recent and upcoming activities; National Conference of State Legislatures` (NCSL) low-level radioactive waste working group: Recent and upcoming activities; Executive session; LLW forum business session; Public involvement and risk communication: Success at West Valley, New York; DOE low-level waste management program; impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency`s convention on waste; Panel discussion: The environmental justice concept--Past, present and future; New technologies for processing and disposal of LLRW; High-level and low-level radioactive waste: A dialogue on parallels and intersections; Draft agreement re uniform application of manifesting procedures; Regulatory issues focus; LLW forum October 1997 agenda planning; Resolutions; LLW forum regulatory issues discussion group meets; and Attendance.

Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

1997-12-31

364

Milky Way Galaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The galaxy (i.e. assemblage of stars, gas and dust) of which the Sun is a member. Also known as the Galaxy, it is a disk-shaped system, with a diameter of between 80 000 and 100 000 light-years and a thickness of about 2000 light-years, that contains more than a hundred billion (1011) stars. The core, or nucleus, of the Galaxy

P. Murdin

2002-01-01

365

Introductory Astronomy: Active Galaxies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site discusses the different types of active galacties: Double-Lobed radio galaxies, Seyfert Galaxies, BL Lac Objects, and quasars. These pages discuss the structure, components, behavior, and provide an image or diagram for each type. It also provides information about the role black holes may have in understanding active galaxies and an image of a suspected black hole at core of a NGC4261. This site ends with a short quiz.

Department, University O.

2005-06-07

366

Gas in void galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Void galaxies, residing within the deepest underdensities of the Cosmic Web, present an ideal population for the study of galaxy formation and evolution in an environment undisturbed by the complex processes modifying galaxies in clusters and groups, and provide an observational test for theories of cosmological structure formation. We investigate the neutral hydrogen properties (i.e. content, morphology, kinematics) of void galaxies, both individually and systematically, using a combination of observations and simulations, to form a more complete understanding of the nature of these systems. We investigate in detail the H I morphology and kinematics of two void galaxies. One is an isolated polar disk galaxy in a diffuse cosmological wall situated between two voids. The considerable gas mass and apparent lack of stars in the polar disk, coupled with the general underdensity of the environment, supports recent theories of cold flow accretion as an alternate formation mechanism for polar disk galaxies. We also examine KK 246, the only confirmed galaxy located within the nearby Tully Void. It is a dwarf galaxy with an extremely extended H I disk and signs of an H I cloud with anomalous velocity. It also exhibits clear misalignment between the kinematical major and minor axes, and a general misalignment between the H I and optical major axes. The relative isolation and extreme underdense environment make these both very interesting cases for examining the role of gas accretion in galaxy evolution. To study void galaxies as a population, we have carefully selected a sample of 60 galaxies that reside in the deepest underdensities of geometrically identified voids within the SDSS. We have imaged this new Void Galaxy Survey in H I at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope with a typical resolution of 8 kpc, probing a volume of 1.2 Mpc and 12,000 km s^-1 surrounding each galaxy. We reach H I mass limits of 2 x 10^8 M_sun and column density sensitivities of 5 x 10^19 cm^-2. We find that the void galaxies are ! generally gas rich, low luminosity, blue disk galaxies, but identify three as early type galaxies. The void galaxy optical and H I properties are not unusual for their luminosity and morphology. The small scale clustering in the void is similar to that in higher density regions, and we identify 18 H I rich neighboring galaxies in the voids. Two of these are systems of three galaxies linearly aligned and joined by a H I bridge, suggestive of filamentary formation within the void. We find no population of H I rich low luminosity galaxies within the observed voids that are not close companions of the targeted sample. Finally, to put these observations in a theoretical context, we analyze a (120 h^-1 Mpc)^3 adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamic simulation that contains a high resolution subvolume centered on a ~30 Mpc diameter void. We construct mock observations with ~1 kpc resolution of the stellar and gas properties of these systems which reproduce the range of colors and luminosities observed in the SDSS for nearby galaxies, however we find no strong trends with density. We also make predictions for a significant population of low luminosity (M_r = -14) dwarf galaxies that is preferentially located in low density regions and specifically in the void center.

Kreckel, Kathryn Joyce

367

Forum Award Lecture: The Marvellous Mr. Gardner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

James Randi, substituting for Martin Gardner the 1997 Forum Award winner, whose health did not permit him to attend this Award session. The Marvellous Mr. Gardner For twenty-five years, Martin Gardner wrote the Scientific American column, ''Mathematical Puzzles & Diversions." While engaged in this demanding work, he also managed to become the gadfly of pseudo-scientists, crackpots, and outright frauds. His more-than-60 books have served generations of scholars, the merely curious, and serious researchers into esoteric branches of mathematics and "hard" sciences such as physics -- all of whom are astonished to learn that Mr. Gardner has no formal academic status in any of those disciplines. Only a bachelor's degree in Liberal Arts divides him from the Unwashed. In spite of this formidible handicap, he has earned the respect of academics and the public, internationally, for his brilliant contributions to the understanding of science and technology. Now ''retired," Martin Gardner turns out ''only two or three" books a year, and shows no signs of decelerating.

Randi, James

1997-04-01

368

ICPD+5: The Hague International Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News covers an important international conference on population and development. The nine resources discussed provide background information, breaking news, social commentary, and primary materials. This week, official delegates representing governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) from over 180 nations are convening in The Hague, Netherlands, on the fifth anniversary of the United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The 1994 ICPD, held in Cairo, Egypt, has been lauded as one of the most successful global congresses ever, culminating with the unanimous endorsement of a comprehensive 20-year Programme of Action. Recognizing that individual health, rights, and well-being provide the foundation for sustainable development, the ICPD Programme of Action emphasizes the need for universal access to affordable reproductive health services, underscores the promotion of women's rights issues, and highlights the impact of the world's expanding population on the environment. This week's international forum, dubbed ICPD+5, will review and appraise the progress made worldwide since the implementation of the Cairo agenda. With world population expected to exceed six billion in 1999, the UN plans to hold several special sessions on population and development throughout the year, based on the findings unearthed at this week's ICPD+5.

Osmond, Andrew.

1999-01-01

369

Zoos in the twenty-first century: Can't we find a better way to love nature?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a new millennium approaches, many forms of life on the planet and the environments in which they have evolved are increasingly threatened by human activities Wildlife is being marginalized, and native habitats are disappearing at an unprecedented rate. Equally disturbing is the impending demise of traditional human societies---peoples who have evolved outside of the confines and conditions of modern Western influence. The loss of these human and animal societies has occurred so rapidly that implications are largely unknown. Research on how modern Americans relate to animals, particularly wildlife, revealed a clear and disturbing incongruity best exemplified in the current paradigm of zoo exhibition and education. Although zoos purport to educate visitors about the ecology of natural environments and the universal plight of wildlife, research shows that people, particularly children, learn less about ecological principles in zoos with live animals than they do in non-living natural history exhibits. While designers employ a variety of visual techniques in natural history exhibition, environmental sound as an educational exhibit component is largely nonexistent. Many animal species communicate through sound, especially species in underwater environments. As the audio equivalent of a landscape, the soundscape is as important as any other habitat feature to the well-being of wildlife populations. Using recorded sounds of natural environments, an exhibition soundscape was designed and produced for Oceanario de Lisboa in Lisbon, Portugal---the centerpiece of the 1998 World Exposition in Lisbon, Portugal. With programmed sound serving as a major component of natural history exhibition, a conceptual design of a novel zoo for the twenty-first century was described. The "NewZew" concept is based on a growing awareness that the best way to save species is to salvage, preserve, and restore their natural habitats---activities that are largely antithetical to current zoo practice. In introducing visitors to the lifeways of traditional societies and employing recent and emerging technologies, the NewZew educates its visitors about the wonders of life on earth without displaying live animals.

Dewey-Platt, Lauren Kay

370

Successful captive breeding of Mitchell's water monitor, Varanus mitchelli (Mertens 1958), at Perth Zoo.  

PubMed

Mitchell's water monitors (Varanus mitchelli) have been maintained on display at Perth Zoo since 1997. They are generally a timid species but have been maintained and bred in a mixed species water feature exhibit. In this article we describe their captive management and behavior with an insight into their reproductive biology. Between 2002 and 2005, 11 clutches were laid ranging from 13 to 27 (X?=?20) eggs from one female. Egg size ranged between 3.00 and 6.08?g (X?=?4.77?g) in weight, 22.8 and 31.9?mm (X?=?28.3?mm) in length, and 11.1 and 19.3?mm (X?=?17.1?mm) in width. Oviposition included double and triple clutches ranging between 41 and 60 days apart (X?=?48 days), events n?=?6. Four clutches were incubated at three different temperatures and hatchlings emerged after 157-289 days. The weight of the hatchlings ranged between 2.60 and 4.52?g (X?=?4.34?g). Total length ranged between 140.1 and 178.0?mm (X?=?165.9?mm) and snout-vent length ranged from 53.8 to 70.0 (X?=?64.4?mm). Juvenile growth and development information is presented from hatching through to approximately 3 years of age. PMID:19459149

Gaikhorst, Glen; McLaughlin, James; Larkin, Brian; McPharlin, Meagan

371

A survey of abnormal repetitive behaviors in North American river otters housed in zoos.  

PubMed

Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic behaviors, no published reports describe otter housing and management or characterize how these variables relate to abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) occurrence. The first author developed surveys to gather data on housing, individual history, management, and the prevalence of ARBs in otters housed in facilities accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Consistent with anecdotal evidence that otters are prone to ARBs, 46% of river otters in the study exhibit them. ARBs were mostly locomotor and often preceded feeding. Exhibits where otters were fed and trained housed a greater percentage of nonhuman animals with ARBs. This study supports the Tarou, Bloomsmith, and Maple (2005) report that more hands-on management is associated with higher levels of ARBs because management efforts are only for animals with ARBs. Escape motivation, breeding season, feeding cues, and ability to forage may affect ARBs in river otters and should be investigated. PMID:22742198

Morabito, Paige; Bashaw, Meredith J

2012-01-01

372

Ectoparasites and associated pathogens of free-roaming and captive animals in zoos of South Carolina.  

PubMed

A survey of ectoparasites and their associated pathogens was conducted in two South Carolina zoos, from 2004 to 2007. Dead, wild birds and mammals, as well as captive animals examined during routine veterinary checks constituted the study populations. Ectoparasites were tested for species of Anaplasma, Bartonella, Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, and Trypanosoma. Forty-six species of ectoparasites were collected from 133 free-roaming and captive hosts and their associated nesting and bedding materials. Six vector-borne pathogens were detected molecularly in the ectoparasites, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the tick Ixodes dentatus Marx from an eastern cottontail rabbit, Bartonella clarridgeiae in the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) from a Virginia opossum, Bartonella sp. Oh6 in the squirrel flea Orchopeas howardi (Baker) from an eastern grey squirrel, Bartonella sp. T7498 in the sucking louse Neohaematopinus sciuri Jancke from a squirrel, Rickettsia sp. Rf2125 in C. felis from a zookeeper and a grizzly bear, and Rickettsiales sp. Ib 2006 in Ixodes brunneus Koch from an American crow. While the pathology of some of these pathogens is poorly known, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis) and Bartonella clarridgeiae (causative agent of a disease similar to cat-scratch disease) can infect humans. Ectoparasites and their pathogens, especially those originating from free-roaming animals, present a potential threat to captive animals and humans. PMID:18973443

Nelder, Mark P; Reeves, Will K; Adler, Peter H; Wozniak, Arthur; Wills, William

2009-10-01

373

Effects of summer microclimates on behavior of lions and tigers in zoos.  

PubMed

The surrounding thermal environment has a direct influence on the well-being of an animal. However, few studies have investigated the microclimatic conditions that result from outdoor zoo enclosure designs and whether this affects where animals choose to spend time. Two African lions (Panthera leo) and two Siberian/Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) were observed for a total of 18 full days during the summer and fall of 2009. Their activities and locations were recorded to the nearest minute of each test day. Simultaneous on-site microclimate measurements were taken of air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind. Observations indicated that the locations where the animals chose to spend time were influenced by the microclimatic conditions. All subjects spent more time in the shade on their sunny warm days than on other days and differed from one another in their choice of shade source on all days. Temperature-comparable sunny and cloudy days showed a greater use of sun on the cloudy days. Species-specific differences between the lions (whose native habitat is hot) and the tigers (whose native habitat is temperate with cold winters) were observed with the tigers displaying more cooling behaviors than the lions in terms of solar radiation input and evaporative heat loss. The tigers were also more active than the lions. The results of this study provide new insight into how lions and tigers respond to microclimatic conditions in a captive environment. PMID:22707238

Young, Tory; Finegan, Esther; Brown, Robert D

2012-06-17

374

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico.  

PubMed

Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (Puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (Panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (Panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (Panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (Panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 of 2 Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae); lof 2 Jaguarundi (Herpailurus jagouaroundi); but not in 0 of 2 oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). Such high seroprevalence in wild felids is of public health significance because of the potential of oocyst shedding. Four of 6 New World primates (2 of 2 Geoffroy's spider monkeys [Ateles geoffroyi], 1 of 3 Patas monkeys [Erythrocebus patas], and 1 of 1 white-headed capuchin [Cebus capucinus]) had high MAT titers of 3,200, suggesting recently acquired infection; these animals are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. However, none of these animals were ill. Seropositivity to T. gondii was found for the first time in a number of species. PMID:24063119

Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Gayosso-Dominguez, Edgar Arturo; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, J P

2013-09-01

375

On the tail and spine of the distribution of galaxy properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part of this thesis we propose to describe the zoo of galaxies as a function of only one affine parameter. We construct the Principal Curve (P-curve) passing through the spine of the data point cloud, embedded in the eigenspace derived from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of galaxy properties from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Thus, galaxies are ranked and classified by the arc length value of the P-curve, measured at the unique closest projection of the data points onto the P-curve. The P-curve presents a "W" letter shape, defining 4 branches that represent distinct galaxy populations, ranging from blue to red galaxies. This behavior is controlled mainly by two properties, namely u – r and SFR, while most of other properties correlate well with them. We characterize galaxies by showing the average spectra, morphology, luminosity functions and spatial clustering as a function of arc length. PCA allows finding peculiar galaxy types located apart from the main data point cloud, such as disk-dominated small red galaxies of relatively high stellar mass-to-light ratio and surface mass density. On the other side, the P-curve helps understanding the average trends, encoding 75% of the available information. In the second part we study the bright tail of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) using Extreme Value Statistics (EVS). For the first time, we characterize the first order corrections of standard EVS coming from the finite size of the batches where maximal luminosities are sampled from. These batches are defined as elongated pencil beams through redshift. A standard analysis suggests that the overall galaxy LF decays as power law at the bright end. A more careful analysis shows that the decay is compatible with the exponential tail from the common Schechter fit, only when uncertainties arising both from the finite size of the batch and from the variable sample size distribution are accounted for. As the SDSS is stored in a SQL server database. we also present the legacy software tools developed for the analysis of the previous work, including SQL implementations of common quantities used in extragalactic astronomy.

Taghizadeh-Popp, Manuchehr

376

Simulated Submillimetre Galaxy Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current submillimetre surveys are hindered in their ability to reveal detailed information on the epoch of galaxy formation and the evolutionary history of a high-redshift starburst galaxy population. The difficulties are due to the small primary apertures (D < 15 m) of existing submillimetre telescopes and the limited sensitivities of their first generation of bolometer cameras. This situation is changing

D. H. Hughes; E. Gaztañaga

2000-01-01

377

Brightest Cluster Galaxy Identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) play an important role in several fields of astronomical research. The literature includes many different methods and criteria for identifying the BCG in the cluster, such as choosing the brightest galaxy, the galaxy nearest the X-ray peak, or the galaxy with the most extended profile. Here we examine a sample of 75 clusters from the Archive of Chandra Cluster Entropy Profile Tables (ACCEPT) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), measuring masked magnitudes and profiles for BCG candidates in each cluster. We first identified galaxies by hand; in 15% of clusters at least one team member selected a different galaxy than the others.We also applied 6 other identification methods to the ACCEPT sample; in 30% of clusters at least one of these methods selected a different galaxy than the other methods. We then developed an algorithm that weighs brightness, profile, and proximity to the X-ray peak and centroid. This algorithm incorporates the advantages of by-hand identification (weighing multiple properties) and automated selection (repeatable and consistent). The BCG population chosen by the algorithm is more uniform in its properties than populations selected by other methods, particularly in the relation between absolute magnitude (a proxy for galaxy mass) and average gas temperature (a proxy for cluster mass). This work supported by a Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship and a Sid Jansma Summer Research Fellowship.

Leisman, Luke; Haarsma, D. B.; Sebald, D. A.; ACCEPT Team

2011-01-01

378

The Milky Way Galaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work has shown the previous conceptions of the mass and radius of the Milky Way Galaxy to be significantly in error. The present paper discusses various aspects of the current efforts to understand the Milky Way Galaxy which have resulted in new values for the galactic radius and mass. Consideration is given to theoretical and observational evidence for an

B. J. Bok

1981-01-01

379

Molecular Abundances in Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two topics are discussed here. The first is an observational study on molecular abundance in nearby (< 10 Mpc) gas-rich galaxies based on our ammonia survey and on data in literature. As a result, a systematically peculiar molecular abundance was found in a famous starburst galaxy M 82 regarding the formation mechanisms of molecules. We discussed possible reasons for this

Shuro Takano

2006-01-01

380

Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an all-sky catalog of 869 nearby galaxies having individual distance estimates within 11 Mpc or corrected radial velocities V LG < 600 km s-1. The catalog is a renewed and expanded version of the Catalog of Neighboring Galaxies by Karachentsev et al. It collects data on the following galaxy observables: angular diameters, apparent magnitudes in far-UV, B, and Ks bands, H? and H I fluxes, morphological types, H I-line widths, radial velocities, and distance estimates. In this Local Volume (LV) sample, 108 dwarf galaxies still remain without measured radial velocities. The catalog yields also calculated global galaxy parameters: linear Holmberg diameter, absolute B magnitude, surface brightness, H I mass, stellar mass estimated via K-band luminosity, H I rotational velocity corrected for galaxy inclination, indicative mass within the Holmberg radius, and three kinds of "tidal index," which quantify the local density environment. The catalog is supplemented with data based on the local galaxies, which presents their optical and available H? images, as well as other services. We briefly discuss the Hubble flow within the LV and different scaling relations that characterize galaxy structure and global star formation in them. We also trace the behavior of the mean stellar mass density, H I-mass density, and star formation rate density within the volume considered.

Karachentsev, Igor D.; Makarov, Dmitry I.; Kaisina, Elena I.

2013-04-01

381

OECD Global Science Forum's Astronomy Workshop to take place in Munich  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On December 1 to 3, the city of Munich (Bavaria, Germany) will be the venue for a "Workshop on Large Scale Programmes and Projects in Astronomy and Astrophysics" organised by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Global Science Forum in co-operation with the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The Workshop will be chaired by Ian Corbett (ESO). The Global Science Forum brings together science policy officials from the OECD countries. The delegates, who meet twice a year, look at a range of generic issues in science funding and seek to identify and maximise opportunities for international co-operation in basic scientific research. This Workshop was proposed by Germany and agreed by the delegates to the Global Science Forum in June. Government officials and scientists will be able to review in detail the information and the observational and technological advances needed for major progress in the field during the next 15- 20 years. The research subjects reviewed will cover the full range from planets, solar systems, life in the Universe, stars, galaxies, extreme objects to cosmology. Related technological challenges, virtual observatories and other data handling issues will also be considered. The primary objective is to specify the policy issues relating to priority-setting, planning, funding and, above all, international co-ordination and co-operation. The Workshop will focus on issues relevant to the process through which astronomy advances, and will highlight means to enhance that process in light of longer-term scientific and political trends. There will probably be a follow-up meeting early in 2004, from which a policy level report will be prepared for consideration by the Global Science Forum and so transmitted to governments. Eighteen delegations, from non-OECD as well as OECD countries, will attend, each consisting of senior programme managers from the national ministry, funding agency or research council, and one or more senior members of the national astronomical community. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) are explicitly represented. Experts from the world-wide astronomy community have been invited to set the stage and provide input for the discussions. The choice by Germany and the OECD to make Munich the venue of this Global Science Forum Workshop is no coincidence. It is a recognition of the important role played by many institutions in the Munich region in the field of Astronomy and Astrophysics. They include the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität where the Workshop will take place, the Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, the Max-Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik and the European Southern Observatory. These institutions are all participating in large programmes and projects in astronomy. ESO, for its part, is at the leading edge of world astronomy with its flagship facility, the Very Large Telescope in Paranal (Chile) and the newly started ALMA project at Chajnantor (Chile), being carried out in partnership between Europe and North America. Public Talks (Munich) on December 1, 2003 As a prelude to the Workshop, two public keynote presentations will take place on December 1 at the Deutsches Museum in Munich at 18:00 CET. The speakers are Malcolm Longair, Jacksonian Professor of Natural Philosophy and Head of Laboratory, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (UK) and Martin Harwit, Professor Emeritus of Astronomy, Cornell University, and former Director of the National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC (USA). The talks will be given in English and the entry to this public event is free. Professor Longair will speak on "Astrophysics and Cosmology in the Twenty-First Century" and Professor Harwit will speak on "The Growth of Understanding of our Universe". You can find more informaton on the Public Talks web page.

2003-11-01

382

Colliding and merging galaxies.  

PubMed

Aided by advances in computer technology and observations from space, astronomers have begun to unravel the mysteries of galaxy formation and evolution. Galaxies evolve by interacting with their environment and especially with each other. During brief but often fierce galactic encounters, gravitational forces generate strong tides that survive as telltale signatures for billions of years. Because these so-called collisions dissipate orbital energy, galaxies on bound orbits may eventually merge. Collisions and mergers are responsible for a great variety of phenomena, including the triggering of widespread star formation in galaxies and the fueling of nuclear activity in quasars. Evidence is accumulating that not all galaxies formed shortly after the Big Bang. A sizable fraction of them may have formed later, and many are still experiencing significant dynamical evolution. PMID:17769643

Schweizer, F

1986-01-17

383

The First Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review our current understanding of how the first galaxies formed at the end of the cosmic dark ages a few 100 million years after the Big Bang. Modern large telescopes discovered galaxies at redshifts greater than seven, whereas theoretical studies have just reached the degree of sophistication necessary to make meaningful predictions. A crucial ingredient is the feedback exerted by the first generation of stars, through UV radiation, supernova blast waves, and chemical enrichment. The key goal is to derive the signature of the first galaxies to be observed with upcoming or planned next-generation facilities, such as the James Webb Space Telescope or Atacama Large Millimeter Array. From the observational side, ongoing deep-field searches for very high-redshift galaxies begin to provide us with empirical constraints on the nature of the first galaxies.

Bromm, Volker; Yoshida, Naoki

2011-09-01

384

The galaxy ancestor problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) findsgalaxies whose Tolman dimming exceeds 10 mag. Could evolution alone explain these as our ancestor galaxies or could they be representatives of quite a different dynasty whose descendants are no longer prominent today? We explore the latter hypothesis and argue that surface brightness selection effects naturally bring into focus quite different dynasties from different redshifts. Thus, the HST z = 7 galaxies could be examples of galaxies whose descendants are both too small and too choked with dust to be recognizable in our neighbourhood easily today. Conversely, the ancestors of the Milky Way and its obvious neighbours would have completely sunk below the sky at z > 1.2, unless they were more luminous in the past, although their diffused light could account for the missing re-ionization flux. This Succeeding Prominent Dynasties Hypothesis (SPDH) fits the existing observations both naturally and well even without evolution, including the bizarre distributions of galaxy surface brightness found in deep fields, the angular size ˜(1 + z)-1 law, 'downsizing' which turns out to be an 'illusion' in the sense that it does not imply evolution, 'infant mortality', that is, the discrepancy between stars born and stars seen, the existence of 'red nuggets', and finally the recently discovered and unexpected excess of quasar absorption line damped Ly? systems at high redshift. If galaxies were not significantly brighter in the past and the SPDH were true, then a large proportion of galaxies could remain sunk from sight, possibly at all redshifts, and these sunken galaxies could supply the missing re-ionization flux. We show that fishing these sunken galaxies out of the sky by their optical emissions alone is practically impossible, even when they are nearby. More ingenious methods are needed to detect them. It follows that disentangling galaxy evolution through studying ever higher redshift galaxies may be a forlorn hope because one could be comparing young oranges with old apples, not ancestors with their true descendants.

Disney, M. J.; Lang, R. H.

2012-11-01

385

Working Together Through NASA's Astrophysics Forum: Collaborations Across the Spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Education and Public Outreach Forums are teams of scientists and educators that work closely with NASA SMD and its education and public outreach (EPO) community to organize individual SMD-funded EPO activities into a coordinated effort. One Forum exists for each of SMD's four science divisions: Astrophysics, Earth Science, Heliophysics, and Planetary Science. Through the Forums, NASA SMD and the members of its EPO community work together to interconnect a wide spectrum of SMD-funded EPO activities, resources, and expertise and to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the resulting ensemble of efforts. The Forums also support members of the broader science and education communities by identifying opportunities and strategies for scientists and educators to participate in and make use of SMD EPO activities and resources according to their needs. This article highlights examples of this work within NASA Astrophysics EPO, where the Forum and community members are extending the impact of existing EPO resources through collaborative online professional development activities for classroom educators, activities to engage girls in STEM in library settings, resources to support the Astronomy 101 instructional community, and practical tips for scientists interested in EPO.

Smith, D. A.; Sharma, M.; Watkins, M.; Lawton, B.; Eisenhamer, B.; McCallister, D.; Bartolone, L.; Nichols, M.; Withnell, H.; Schultz, G.; Fraknoi, A.; Manning, J. G.; Blair, W.; Bianchi, L.

2012-08-01

386

Galaxies appear simpler than expected  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galaxies are complex systems the evolution of which apparently results from the interplay of dynamics, star formation, chemical enrichment and feedback from supernova explosions and supermassive black holes. The hierarchical theory of galaxy formation holds that galaxies are assembled from smaller pieces, through numerous mergers of cold dark matter. The properties of an individual galaxy should be controlled by six

M. J. Disney; J. D. Romano; D. A. Garcia-Appadoo; A. A. West; J. J. Dalcanton; L. Cortese

2008-01-01

387

Are spiral galaxies heavy smokers  

SciTech Connect

The dustiness of spiral galaxies is discussed. Starburst galaxies and the shortage of truly bright spiral galaxies is cited as evidence that spiral galaxies are far dustier than has been thought. The possibility is considered that the dust may be hiding missing mass.

Davies, J.; Disney, M.; Phillipps, S (Univ. of Wales, Cardiff (England))

1990-07-01

388

Quasars, active galaxies, and starbursts  

SciTech Connect

I discuss briefly three areas of research that will be intensively studied over the next two decades that are relevant to astrophysics from the moon: the fundamental plane for active galaxies, the connection of starburst galaxies with AGN and galaxy formation, and the effect of AGN and quasars on galaxy formation and the evolution of the IGM.

Norman, C.A. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (USA) Space Telescope Science Institute,Baltimore, MD (USA))

1990-07-05

389

Bayesian Inference of Galaxy Morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable inference on galaxy morphology from quantitative analysis of ensemble galaxy images is challenging but essential ingredient in studying galaxy formation and evolution, utilizing current and forthcoming large scale surveys. To put galaxy image decomposition problem in broader context of statistical inference problem and derive a rigorous statistical confidence levels of the inference, I developed a novel galaxy image decomposition tool, GALPHAT (GALaxy PHotometric ATtributes) that exploits recent developments in Bayesian computation to provide full posterior probability distributions and reliable confidence intervals for all parameters. I will highlight the significant improvements in galaxy image decomposition using GALPHAT, over the conventional model fitting algorithms and introduce the GALPHAT potential to infer the statistical distribution of galaxy morphological structures, using ensemble posteriors of galaxy morphological parameters from the entire galaxy population that one studies.

Yoon, Ilsang; Weinberg, M.; Katz, N.

2011-01-01

390

Effectiveness of a Weekly Faculty Conversation Forum About Teaching  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of holding weekly 60-90 minute conversation forums for faculty members to discuss, explore, and reflect on various teaching topics in a relaxed, informal, interactive format. Methods Weekly, 60-90 minute sessions were held for faculty members of the University of Illinois College of Pharmacy. A 15-item retrospective pretest-posttest questionnaire was developed and administered at the end of the first year of implementation to evaluate the participants’ perceived knowledge, abilities, and confidence gains relative to becoming effective educators. Results Eleven faculty members completed the questionnaire. All respondents tended to agree (6/11) or agreed (5/11) that their confidence as educators improved after attending the conversation forums. In addition,7 respondents tended to agree and 4 agreed that their ability to self-assess their teaching had improved. Conclusions An ongoing weekly conversations forum provides faculty members opportunities to explore and learn about facets of teaching in a safe, informal environment.

Popovich, Nicholas G.; Peverly, Susan L.; Jackson, Terrence R.

2006-01-01

391

LLW Forum meeting report, April 18--19, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of representatives of states and compacts established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies. LLW Forum participants include representatives from regional compacts, designated host states, unaffiliated states, and states with currently- operating low-level radioactive waste facilities. This quarterly meeting was held on April 18-19, 1991.

NONE

1991-12-31

392

Galaxy 'Hunting' Made Easy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxies found under the Glare of Cosmic Flashlights Astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope have discovered in a single pass about a dozen otherwise invisible galaxies halfway across the Universe. The discovery, based on a technique that exploits a first-class instrument, represents a major breakthrough in the field of galaxy 'hunting'. ESO PR Photo 40a/07 ESO PR Photo 40a/07 Newly Found Galaxies (SINFONI/VLT) The team of astronomers led by Nicolas Bouché have used quasars to find these galaxies. Quasars are very distant objects of extreme brilliance, which are used as cosmic beacons that reveal galaxies lying between the quasar and us. The galaxy's presence is revealed by a 'dip' in the spectrum of the quasar - caused by the absorption of light at a specific wavelength. The team used huge catalogues of quasars, the so-called SDSS and 2QZ catalogues, to select quasars with dips. The next step was then to observe the patches of the sky around these quasars in search for the foreground galaxies from the time the Universe was about 6 billion years old, almost half of its current age. "The difficulty in actually spotting and seeing these galaxies stems from the fact that the glare of the quasar is too strong compared to the dim light of the galaxy," says Bouché. This is where observations taken with SINFONI on ESO's VLT made the difference. SINFONI is an infrared 'integral field spectrometer' that simultaneously delivers very sharp images and highly resolved colour information (spectra) of an object on the sky. ESO PR Photo 32e/07 ESO PR Photo 40b/07 Chasing 'Hidden' Galaxies (Artist's Impression) With this special technique, which untangles the light of the galaxy from the quasar light, the team detected 14 galaxies out of the 20 pre-selected quasar patches of sky, a hefty 70% success rate. "This high detection rate alone is a very exciting result," says Bouché. "But, these are not just ordinary galaxies: they are most notable ones, actively forming a lot of new stars and qualifying as 'starburst galaxies'." "We discovered that the galaxies located near the quasar sightlines are forming stars at a prodigious rate, equivalent to 20 suns per year," adds team member Celine Péroux. These findings represent a big leap forward in the field, setting the stage for a very promising era of galaxy 'hunting'. The astronomers now plan to use SINFONI to study in more detail each of these galaxies, by measuring their internal motions. Note SINFONI is a combination of a novel infrared 'integral field spectrometer' (SPIFFI) and a special adaptive optics module (MACAO). The integral field module SPIFFI gives detailed colour, or spectral, information for each of 2000 spatial points on the sky, arranged over a contiguous two dimensional field of 32 times 64 pixels. SINFONI was developed and built by an international consortium consisting of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Germany, ESO, and NOVA, Leiden, the Netherlands (see ESO PR 21/04).

2007-09-01

393

Revealing high-redshift galaxies: results from a new damped Lyman-alpha system survey.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using quasar absorption lines as a tool to probe matter in the line of sight towards high-redshift quasars has proved to be a powerful technique for studying both galaxies and the intergalactic medium (IGM) alike. High-resolution echelle spectrographs such as UVES on the VLT can now deliver exquisite data which probe the structure and chemical enrichment of the highredshift universe with unparalleled accuracy. At somewhat lower resolution, instruments such as FORS can provide an efficient means with which to identify the high column density systems that are associated with distant galaxies. Within the menagerie of systems that make up the quasar absorption line ‘zoo', Damped Lyman Alpha systems (DLAs) have the highest column densities and are traditionally defined as systems with neutral hydrogen column densities N(H I) ³ 2 ´ 1020 atoms cm- 2. Although DLAs are thought to be the progenitors of present- day galaxies, the precise nature of these absorbers at high redshift is still unclear. At low redshift, however, there is mounting evidence that DLAs are likely to represent a mixed morphological bag (Le Brun et al 1997), including a significant population of LSBs (Bowen et al. 2000).

Ellison, S. L.; Yan, L.; Hook, I. M.; Pettini, M.; Shaver, P.; Wall, J. V.

2000-12-01

394

Cluster galaxies die hard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate how the specific star formation rates of galaxies of different masses depend on cluster-centric radius and on the central/satellite dichotomy in both field and cluster environments. Recent data from a variety of sources, including the cluster catalogue of von der Linden et al., are compared to the semi-analytic models of De Lucia & Blaizot. We find that these models predict too many passive satellite galaxies in clusters, too few passive central galaxies with low stellar masses and too many passive central galaxies with high masses. We then outline a series of modifications to the model necessary to solve these problems: (a) instead of instantaneous stripping of the external gas reservoir after a galaxy becomes a satellite, the gas supply is assumed to decrease at the same rate that the surrounding halo loses mass due to tidal stripping and (b) the active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback efficiency is lowered to bring the fraction of massive passive centrals in better agreement with the data. We also allow for radio mode AGN feedback in satellite galaxies. (c) We assume that satellite galaxies residing in host haloes with masses below 1012h-1Msolar do not undergo any stripping. We highlight the fact that in low-mass galaxies, the external reservoir is composed primarily of gas that has been expelled from the galactic disc by supernovae-driven winds. This gas must remain available as a future reservoir for star formation, even in satellite galaxies. Finally, we present a simple recipe for the stripping of gas and dark matter in satellites that can be used in models where subhalo evolution is not followed in detail.

Weinmann, Simone M.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; von der Linden, Anja; De Lucia, Gabriella

2010-08-01

395

Accretion by the Galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated with star formation. These halos are naturally modelled as ensembles of clouds driven up by supernova bubbles. These models can fit the data successfully only if clouds exchange mass and momentum with the corona. As a cloud orbits, it is ablated and forms a turbulent wake where cold high-metallicity gas mixes with hot coronal gas causing the prompt cooling of the latter. As a consequence the total mass of Hi increases. This model has recently been used to model the Leiden-Argentina-Bonn survey of Galactic Hi. The values of the model's parameters that are required to model NGC 891, NGC 2403 and our Galaxy show a remarkable degree of consistency, despite the very different natures of the two external galaxies and the dramatic difference in the nature of the data for our Galaxy and the external galaxies. The parameter values are also consistent with hydrodynamical simulations of the ablation of individual clouds. The model predicts that a galaxy that loses its cool-gas disc for instance through a major merger cannot reform it from its corona; it can return to steady star formation only if it can capture a large body of cool gas, for example by accreting a gas-rich dwarf. Thus the model explains how major mergers can make galaxies "red and dead."

Binney, J.; Fraternali, F.

2012-02-01

396

Surveillance for an outbreak of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits housed at a zoo and biosecurity countermeasures.  

PubMed

An outbreak of encephalitozoonosis occurred in a rabbit colony at a zoo in Japan. Throughout the two years after the onset, all 42 rabbits were investigated clinically, pathologically and serologically for prevention and control of the disease. Eleven rabbits (11/42, 26.2%) showed clinical symptoms. Of 38 rabbits examined to detect specific antibodies against Encephalitozoon cuniculi, 71.1% (n=27) were found seropositive; 20 out of 30 clinically healthy rabbits (except for 8 clinical cases) were seropositive. The infection rate was 76.2% (32/42), including 5 pathologically diagnosed cases. The results of serological survey revealed that asymptomatic infection was widespread, even among clinically healthy rabbits. However, encephalitozoonosis was not found by pathological examination in any other species of animals kept in the same area within the zoo. Isolation and elimination of the rabbits with suspected infection based on the results of serological examination were carried out immediately; however, encephalitozoonosis continued to occur sporadically. Therefore, all the remaining rabbits were finally slaughtered. Then, the facility was closed, and all the equipment was disinfected. After a two-month interval, founder rabbits were introduced from encephalitozoonosis-free rabbitries for new colony formation. Since then, encephalitozoonosis has not been seen in any animals at the zoo. In this study, biosecurity countermeasures including staff education, epidemiological surveillance and application of an "all-out and all-in" system for rabbit colony establishment based on serological examination were successfully accomplished with regard to animal hygiene and public health for the eradication of E. cuniculi. PMID:22971563

Fukui, Daisuke; Bando, Gen; Furuya, Koji; Yamaguchi, Masanori; Nakaoka, Yuji; Kosuge, Masao; Murata, Koichi

2012-10-04

397

75 FR 10814 - Proposed Programmatic Safe Harbor Agreement for the Sacramento River Conservation Area Forum in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Programmatic Safe Harbor Agreement for the Sacramento River Conservation Area Forum in Shasta...Enhancement of Survival Permit from the Sacramento River Conservation Area Forum (applicant...U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento Fish and Wildlife Office, 2800...

2010-03-09

398

Papers submitted to the international forum ''one decade after Chernobyl: nuclear safety aspects''. Working material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the forum is to review the remedial measures taken since the Chernobyl accident for improving the safety of RBMK reactors and the Chernobyl containment structure (sarcophagus). The forum will also serve to exchange information on national...

1996-01-01

399

Galaxy evolution. Galactic paleontology.  

PubMed

Individual low-mass stars have very long lives, comparable to the age of the universe, and can thus be used to probe ancient star formation. At present, such stars can be identified and studied only in the Milky Way and in the very closest of our neighboring galaxies, which are predominantly small dwarf galaxies. These nearby ancient stars are a fossil record that can provide detailed information about the physical processes that dominated the epoch of galaxy formation and subsequent evolution. PMID:21737732

Tolstoy, Eline

2011-07-01

400

LLW Forum meeting report, January 31--February 3, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties. This report details activities of the meeting held January 31-February 3, 1995.

NONE

1995-12-31

401

Forum on Education American Physical Society: Spring 2011 Newsletter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Spring 2011 Newsletter from the Forum on Education for the American Physical Society. Features of the newsletter include "Forum on Engaging the Public" by Dan Dahlberg and Philip W. Hammer, "NanoJapan: Connecting U.S. Undergraduates with the Best of Nanoscience Resarch in Japan" by Cheryl Matherly and Junichiro Kono, and "Using Clickers in a University Physics Course to Improve Student Achievement" by Judith C. Stull, David M. Majerich, Andria C. Smythe, Susan Jansen Varnum, Joseph P. Ducette and Tiffany Gilles.

Society, American P.

2011-09-28

402

Applied animal psychology at an American roadside attraction: animal behavior enterprises and the IQ Zoo of Hot Springs, Arkansas.  

PubMed

Keller and Marian Breland worked with B. F. Skinner on top-secret behavioral technology during World War II. They later applied that behavioral technology in postwar business ventures that included a roadside attraction called the IQ Zoo. It attracted motorists from across the United States and, like other roadside attractions of the period, was depicted in postcards available for purchase. While conducting research associated with the business, the Brelands discovered the phenomenon of instinctive drift, which significantly advanced subsequent theoretical accounts of the biological factors that influence learning. PMID:20066932

Drumm, Patrick

2009-01-01

403

Galaxy Structure in the Ultraviolet: Case studies for Galaxy Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of high redshift galaxies appear similar to a relatively rare subset of low redshift irregular and peculiar galaxies whose morphologies are pathological due to mergers or interactions. The observed increase in the percentage of merging/interacting galaxies with redshift supports models of hierarchical galaxy formation. Detailed comparisons of galaxies as a function of redshift are essential to learn how galaxies assemble and evolve over time. These comparison studies are complicated by the fact that galaxies can look substantially different at shorter wavelengths than at longer ones. This leads to a "morphological k-correction” for a given galaxy between different rest-frame wavelengths. This is particularly important in studies of high redshift galaxies, as band-pass shifting will cause light originally emitted in the UV to be shifted as far as the IR. This raises questions about how much of the irregular/peculiar morphologies seen in high redshift studies are simply due to band-pass shifting, and not real differences in galaxy type. This is particularly important when comparing the UV to the optical or IR, as galaxy stellar energy distributions change drastically short-ward of the Balmer Break (< 360 nm), and UV-bright star-forming regions dominate morphologies that appear smoother at redder wavelengths. We thus calculate a morphological k-correction by quantifying the galaxy structure of several thousand nearby galaxies observed with GALEX (Galaxy Evolution Explorer) in the UV, via their "CAS parameters” (Concentration, Asymmetry, Clumpiness). Funded by a grant through NASA.

Mager, Violet; Conselice, C.; Seibert, M.; Gusbar, C.; Windhorst, R.; Madore, B.

2012-01-01

404

Spiral Galaxies Stripped Bare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six spectacular spiral galaxies are seen in a clear new light in images from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. The pictures were taken in infrared light, using the impressive power of the HAWK-I camera, and will help astronomers understand how the remarkable spiral patterns in galaxies form and evolve. HAWK-I [1] is one of the newest and most powerful cameras on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It is sensitive to infrared light, which means that much of the obscuring dust in the galaxies' spiral arms becomes transparent to its detectors. Compared to the earlier, and still much-used, VLT infrared camera ISAAC, HAWK-I has sixteen times as many pixels to cover a much larger area of sky in one shot and, by using newer technology than ISAAC, it has a greater sensitivity to faint infrared radiation [2]. Because HAWK-I can study galaxies stripped bare of the confusing effects of dust and glowing gas it is ideal for studying the vast numbers of stars that make up spiral arms. The six galaxies are part of a study of spiral structure led by Preben Grosbøl at ESO. These data were acquired to help understand the complex and subtle ways in which the stars in these systems form into such perfect spiral patterns. The first image shows NGC 5247, a spiral galaxy dominated by two huge arms, located 60-70 million light-years away. The galaxy lies face-on towards Earth, thus providing an excellent view of its pinwheel structure. It lies in the zodiacal constellation of Virgo (the Maiden). The galaxy in the second image is Messier 100, also known as NGC 4321, which was discovered in the 18th century. It is a fine example of a "grand design" spiral galaxy - a class of galaxies with very prominent and well-defined spiral arms. About 55 million light-years from Earth, Messier 100 is part of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies and lies in the constellation of Coma Berenices (Berenice's Hair, named after the ancient Egyptian queen Berenice II). The third image is of NGC 1300, a spiral galaxy with arms extending from the ends of a spectacularly prominent central bar. It is considered a prototypical example of barred spiral galaxies and lies at a distance of about 65 million light-years, in the constellation of Eridanus (the River). The spiral galaxy in the fourth image, NGC 4030, lies about 75 million light-years from Earth, in the constellation of Virgo. In 2007 Takao Doi, a Japanese astronaut who doubles as an amateur astronomer, spotted a supernova - a stellar explosion that is briefly almost as bright as its host galaxy - going off in this galaxy. The fifth image, NGC 2997, is a spiral galaxy roughly 30 million light-years away in the constellation of Antlia (the Air Pump). NGC 2997 is the brightest member of a group of galaxies of the same name in the Local Supercluster of galaxies. Our own Local Group, of which the Milky Way is a member, is itself also part of the Local Supercluster. Last but not least, NGC 1232 is a beautiful galaxy some 65 million light-years away in the constellation of Eridanus (the River). The galaxy is classified as an intermediate spiral galaxy - somewhere between a barred and an unbarred spiral galaxy. An image of this galaxy and its small companion galaxy NGC 1232A in visible light was one of the first produced by the VLT (eso9845). HAWK-I has now returned to NGC 1232 to show a different view of it at near-infrared wavelengths. As this galactic gallery makes clear, HAWK-I lets us see the spiral structures in these six bright galaxies in exquisite detail and with a clarity that is only made possible by observing in the infrared. Notes [1] HAWK-I stands for High-Acuity Wide-field K-band Imager. More technical details about the camera can be found in an earlier press release (eso0736). [2] More information about the VLT instruments can be found at: http://www.eso.org/public/teles-instr/vlt/vlt-instr.html. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observ

2010-10-01

405

Organization of Ministries of Education. Policy Forum on Education (Paris, France, June 20-21, 2001).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In June 2001, the International Institute for Educational Planning convened a policy forum on the organization, functioning, and effectiveness of national ministries of education. This book presents eight key papers from that forum. The forum discussed how differences in organizational structures and mechanisms affect adjustability and…

Hernes, Gudmund

406

The Stem Advisory Forum: A Means of Allowing People to Influence the Government's STEM Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper gives a short overview of the UK government's STEM agenda and then considers one aspect in depth--the STEM Advisory Forum. It explains how the Forum operates to draw together views from across the STEM community through online discussions and face-to-face events. Four examples are given of topics that have been dealt with by the Forum.…

Onion, Alice; Follett, Brian

2011-01-01

407

E-LEARNING STANDARDS AS A BASIS FOR CONTEXTUAL FORUMS DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that linking communication to l earning activities offers an interesting approach t o develop the efficiency of learning management systems in fa cilitating and increasing discussions between stude nts. We propose, present and elaborate a forum model that is based on two special features: a contextual vi ew and forum structures. The contextual view of the forum,

Sébastien George; Hervé Labas

2007-01-01

408

E-complaining: a content analysis of an Internet complaint forum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of the Internet and its communication capabilities has given rise to a number of complaint sites that function as central forums for consumers to share their bad experiences with other consumers. Companies are reacting by adopting anti-domain sites in an attempt to prevent the creation of such complaint forums. Data from one complaint forum are analyzed to identify

L. Jean Harrison-Walker

2001-01-01

409

77 FR 4618 - NHTSA Activities Under the United Nations World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NHTSA Activities Under the United Nations World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle...the scheduled upcoming meetings under the World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle...provide a list of scheduled meetings of the World Forum for the Harmonization of...

2012-01-30

410

78 FR 21191 - NHTSA Activities Under the United Nations World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NHTSA Activities Under the United Nations World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle...the upcoming scheduled meetings of the World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle...provide a list of scheduled meetings of the World Forum for the Harmonization of...

2013-04-09

411

Andromeda Galaxy's Double Nucleus  

NASA Video Gallery

This zoom dives deep into the nucleus of the neighboring spiral galaxy M31, also known as the Andromeda galaxy. The sequence begins with a backyard constellation view and ends with the new Hubble Space Telescope image that centers on the 100-million-solar-mass black hole at the core of the galaxy and the young blue stars surrounding the black hole. This is the sharpest visible-light image ever made of the nucleus of an external galaxy. Astronomers are trying to understand how apparently young stars were formed so deep inside the black hole's gravitational grip and how they survive in an extreme environment. Credit: NASA, ESA, and G. Bacon (STScI) TRT: 26 sec.

Lynn Jenner

2012-01-11

412

?-rays from starburst galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the current status of ?-ray observations of starburst galaxies from hundreds of MeV up to TeV energies with space-based instruments and ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) is summarised. The properties of the high-energy (HE; 100MeV <= E <= 100GeV) and very-high-energy (VHE; E >= 100GeV) emission of the archetypical starburst galaxies M82 and NGC253 are discussed and put into context with the HE ?-ray emission detected from other galaxies that show enhanced star-formation activity such as NGC4945 and NGC1068. Finally, prospects to study the star-formation - ?-ray emission connection from Galactic systems to entire galaxies with the forthcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) are outlined.

Ohm, Stefan

2012-12-01

413

Simulated Submillimetre Galaxy Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current submillimetre surveys are hindered in their ability to reveal\\u000adetailed information on the epoch of galaxy formation and the evolutionary\\u000ahistory of a high-redshift starburst galaxy population. The difficulties are\\u000adue to the small primary apertures (D < 15 m) of existing submillimetre\\u000atelescopes and the limited sensitivities of their first generation of bolometer\\u000acameras. This situation is changing

David H. Hughes

2000-01-01

414

Extinction in SC galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the photometric properties of a sample of Sbc-Sc galaxies with known redshifts, single-dish H I profiles, and Charge Coupled Device (CCD) I band images. We derive laws that relate the measured isophotal radius at muI = 23.5, magnitude, scale length, and H I flux to the face-on aspect. We find spiral galaxies to be substantially less transparent than

Riccardo Giovanelli; Martha P. Haynes; John J. Salzer; Gary Wegner; Luiz N. da Costa; Wolfram Freudling

1994-01-01

415

Magnetic Fields in Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and its Faraday rotation are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized emission traces turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30 ?G) and in central starburst regions (50-100 ?G). Such fields are dynamically important, e.g. they can drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized emission traces ordered fields which can be regular or anisotropic random, generated from isotropic random fields by compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields of 10-15 ?G strength are generally found in interarm regions and follow the orientation of adjacent gas spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies, and in central regions of starburst galaxies. Faraday rotation measures (RM) of the diffuse polarized radio emission from the disks of several spiral galaxies reveal large-scale patterns, which are signatures of regular fields generated by a mean-field dynamo. However, in most spiral galaxies observed so far the field structure is more complicated. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are an excellent tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium. Ordered magnetic fields are also observed in radio halos around edge-on galaxies, out to large distances from the plane, with X-shaped patterns. Future observations of polarized emission at high frequencies, with the EVLA, the SKA and its precursors, will trace galactic magnetic fields in unprecedented detail. Low-frequency telescopes (e.g. LOFAR and MWA) are ideal to search for diffuse emission and small RMs from weak interstellar and intergalactic fields.

Beck, Rainer

2012-05-01

416

Disk galaxy rotation curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that simple axisymmetric Newtonian calculation suffices to consistently connect disk galaxy rotation curves to underlying mass distribution and vice versa, without need for any dark matter. To this end, we connect mass density profiles of five galaxies of varying sizes with observed galaxy rotation curves. The five galaxies are: NGC6822 (4.8 kpc), Large Magellanic Cloud (9 kpc), The Milky Way (17 kpc), NGC3198 (30 kpc) and UGC9133 (102.5 kpc). The mass and mass density profiles of these galaxies have been computed using the scientific computing s/w package MATLAB taking the already available velocity profiles of the galaxies as the input, and without considering any dark matter contribution. We have plotted these profiles after computing them according to three different theories of gravity (and dynamics): Newtonian, Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) and Vacuum Modified Gravity. We also consider how the profile due to the Newtonian theory would modify if we use a cosmological constant = 5 × 10^{-56} cm^{-2}. Comparing these mass and mass density profiles, we try to form an idea regarding what could be a realistic theory of gravity and whether we need dark matter to explain the results.

Banhatti, Dilip G.; Datta, Rahul

417

Interactions of Galaxies in the Galaxy Cluster Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the dependence of galaxy properties on the clustercentric radius and the environment attributed to the nearest neighbor galaxy using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies associated with the Abell galaxy clusters. We find that there exists a characteristic scale where the properties of galaxies suddenly start to depend on the clustercentric radius at fixed neighbor environment. The characteristic scale is 1-3 times the cluster virial radius depending on galaxy luminosity. Existence of the characteristic scale means that the local galaxy number density is not directly responsible for the morphology-density relation in clusters because the local density varies smoothly with the clustercentric radius and has no discontinuity in general. What is really working in clusters is the morphology-clustercentric radius-neighbor environment relation, where the neighbor environment means both neighbor morphology and the local mass density attributed to the neighbor. The morphology-density relation appears working only because of the statistical correlation between the nearest neighbor distance and the local galaxy number density. We find strong evidence that the hydrodynamic interactions with nearby early-type galaxies is the main drive to quenching star formation activity of late-type galaxies in clusters. The hot cluster gas seems to play at most a minor role down to one tenth of the cluster virial radius. We also find that the viable mechanisms which can account for the clustercentric radius dependence of the structural and internal kinematics parameters are harassment and interaction of galaxies with the cluster potential. The morphology transformation of the late-type galaxies in clusters seems to have taken place through both galaxy-galaxy hydrodynamic interactions and galaxy-cluster/galaxy-galaxy gravitational interactions.

Park, Changbom; Hwang, Ho Seong

2009-07-01

418

Developing Story: A Forum on Improving Remedial Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Why is "remedial" or "developmental" education such a hot issue? Partly because it costs time and money and casts doubt on the elementary and secondary education systems that we assume will prepare students for college. The New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) explored solutions to the problem at a recent forum in Kennebunkport, Maine,…

Harney, John O.

2012-01-01

419

Patterns of Emoticon Usage in ESL Students' Discussion Forum Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This mixed-methods study looks at patterns of emoticon usage in adult, ESL student writing. Data are drawn from 13 students and their participation in online discussion forums designed to supplement a traditional ESL writing course. The study conceptualizes computer mediated communication as a hybridized and emergent form which utilizes features…

Halvorsen, Andy

2012-01-01

420

The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Office of Space Science (OSS) recently created a new Education ``Ecosystem'' structure to reach out to the K-14 and general public communities with the wonder and excitement of NASA discoveries. As part of this Ecosystem, four Education Forums are being established at major institutions active in each of the space science themes: the Structure and Evolution of the Universe;

I. Hawkins; R. Vondrak; K. Alcorn; J. Thieman

1997-01-01

421

Math as Narrative in WoW Forum Discussions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This worked example is part of a larger, ongoing project exploring the forms of cognition and learning that go into everyday game play in massively multiplayer online gamesonline videogames played collaboratively in simulated fantasy worlds. The data analyzed herein consist of a single post from a discussion forum that offers a mathematical model of a system in World of Warcraft

Constance Steinkuehler; Caroline C. Williams

2009-01-01

422

An Online Forum As a Qualitative Research Method: Practical Issues  

PubMed Central

Background Despite positive aspects of online forums as a qualitative research method, very little is known about practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitative research project. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to describe the practical issues that the researchers encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience. Method Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranged from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of discussions were reviewed and analyzed using the content analysis suggested by Weber. Results Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: a high response and retention rate and automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants’ easy forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well. Discussion The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method.

Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

2008-01-01

423

The ASEAN Regional Forum in United States East Asian strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the development of the US approach to the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), from 1991 onwards. It examines theories of why a superpower would participate in a multilateral security institution, and investigates the motivations for the attitudes and extent of participation of the George H. Bush, Clinton and George W. Bush administrations towards the ARF. It argues that,

Evelyn Goh

2004-01-01

424

American Physical Society Forum on Education Summer 2011 Newsletter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The APS Forum on Education Summer 2011 Newsletter contains a variety of articles covering important matters in education. Key articles include: A State-by-State Science and Engineering Readiness Index (SERI): Grading States on Their K-12 Preparation of Future Scientists and Engineers, Physics Careers Resources, and OSP Tools and the ComPADRE OSP COLLECTION.

Society, American P.

2011-09-28

425

Software architecture recovery and modelling: [WCRE 2001 discussion forum report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper covers current trends and issues in software architecture recovery. It consists of a summary of the presentations and discussions of the Software Architecture Recovery and Modelling discussion forum held during WCRE 2001, the Working Conference on Reverse Engineering, Stuttgart, Germany, October 2, 2001.

Arie van Deursen

2002-01-01

426

Informal Forum: Fostering Active Learning in a Teacher Preparation Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Informal Forum," grounded in constructivism has been developed to foster active learning and deep understanding. Learning is an interdependent process, and is most effective when students construct their own meaning of knowledge. If one believes in the value of constructivist learning, it is important to teach how we preach in higher education.…

Huang, Grace Hui-Chen

2006-01-01

427

The Movement to Transform High School. Forum Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although society has changed exponentially over the past 100 years, secondary schools have remained largely static, according to Gerald Hayward, who moderated EdSource's 28th Annual Forum, "Shaking up the Status Quo: The Movement to Transform High School," held in March 2005. Calling high schools difficult, complicated, and expensive, Speakers…

Frey, Susan

2005-01-01

428

Assessing post usage for measuring the quality of forum posts  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has become difficult to discover quality content within forums websites due to the increasing amount of User Generated Content (UGC) on the Web. Many existing websites have relied on their users to explicitly rate content quality. The main problem with this approach is that the majority of content often receives insufficient rating. Current automated content rating solutions have evaluated

Kevin Chai; Pedram Hayati; Vidyasagar Potdar; Chen Wu; Alex Talevski

2010-01-01

429

The Forum State of the Field Survey 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the summer of 2011, the Forum on Education Abroad conducted its fourth State of the Field Survey. This survey is an annual or biannual assessment of the very latest trends and issues in the field of education abroad. As in the past, questions on new topics have been combined with questions that have been asked on previous State of the Field…

Kreutzer, Kim

2012-01-01

430

The Forum State of the Field Survey 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the summer of 2011, the Forum on Education Abroad conducted its fourth State of the Field Survey. This survey is an annual or biannual assessment of the very latest trends and issues in the field of education abroad. As in the past, questions on new topics have been combined with questions that have been asked on previous State of the Field…

Kreutzer, Kim

2012-01-01

431

The "VoiceForum" Platform for Spoken Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Showcased in the courseware exhibition, "VoiceForum" is a web-based software platform for asynchronous learner interaction in threaded discussions using voice and text. A dedicated space is provided for the tutor who can give feedback on a posted message and dialogue with the participants at a separate level from the main interactional activity.…

Fynn, Fohn; Wigham, Chiara R.

2011-01-01

432

The Challenge to Manufacturing: A Proposal for a National Forum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains a letter report and supporting materials prepared in response to a request for an investigation of the desirability of creating a forum for the discussion of the broad problems that confront the manufacturing sector. The letter report, submitted by Frank Press, president of the National Academy of Sciences, and Robert…

National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

433

American Issues Radio Forum: Programs 5-9, Book 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of the final five monthly programs in the American Issues Radio Forum series broadcast by the member stations of the National Public Radio System is presented. These broadcasts started in September 1975 and continued to May 1976. They formed a "live" rational dialogue, focusing upon issues which have confronted America. Each program…

Spoehr, Luther

434

CbN Community Forums: The Black Hawk College Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During 1977 and 1978, Black Hawk College, Moline, Illinois, served as one of eleven national demonstration models in the development of community college-coordinated, community-based discussion forums. In fall 1977 the college was joined by twenty-seven co-sponsoring community organizations in holding nine town meetings to discuss topics suggested…

Stevens, Mary A.

435

Learning within Incoherent Structures: The Space of Online Discussion Forums.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents results from a study of undergraduate students' learning outcomes and patterns of interaction within an online discussion forum. Topics include social dynamics of computer-mediated communication versus face-to-face communication; cognitive engagement; critical and reflective thinking; and student interaction. (Author/LRW)|

Thomas, Matthew J. W.

2002-01-01

436

Learning Analytics for Communities of Lifelong Learners: A Forum Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experiment investigating interactions in a big forum in order to support students in learning English. Groups of collaborating users form communities that generate a lot of data that can be analyzed. We distinguish different phases of the self-regulated learning process and aim to identify them in learners’ activities. Then we attempt to recognize patterns of their

Zinayda Petrushyna; Milos Kravcik; Ralf Klamma

2011-01-01

437

Coding Procedures to Analyse Interaction Patterns in Educational Web Forums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analysis of interaction patterns is one of the most important indicators of quality of learning in educational web forums. Social network analysis (SNA) is gradually assuming importance in the study of interaction patterns as it focuses on the analysis of the interrelationships between individuals, thus providing a holistic perspective on group…

Manca, S.; Delfino, M.; Mazzoni, E.

2009-01-01

438

Community Services, 2000 A.D. Forum 40.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document compiles three Forum 40 addresses. Dr. Hakanson, a community college president, believes that unless we can successfully introduce the human dimension into our technologically based and production oriented culture, we will continue to see increasing disaffection among larger and larger segments of the population. He postulates a…

Hakanson, John W.; And Others

439

Proposed Federal Gun-Control Amendment. Student Forum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an outline for a student-run forum on a proposed federal gun control amendment. Procedures include mandatory reading assignments and researching the issue. Students role-play fictional representative characters and later facilitate discussions. Concludes with a vote on the amendment. (MJP)|

Mertz, Gayle; Mertz, David

1995-01-01

440

The Forum Guide to Education Indicators. NFES 2005-802  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Forum Guide to Education Indicators is designed to help readers better understand how to appropriately develop, apply, and interpret education indicators. More specifically, this document strives to: describe the appropriate role of indicators as tools for measuring educational status and progress; recognize standard definitions and…

Szuba, Tom

2005-01-01

441

Asia-Pacific World Heritage Youth Forum. Beijing 97.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report from the Asia-Pacific World Heritage Youth Forum (sponsored by UNESCO) describes the main features and events of the meeting in Beijing from September 15-27, 1997, shedding light on the concept of world heritage and world heritage education, and presenting the students' and teachers' proposals for future action. The report seeks to…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand).

442

The National Teaching & Learning Forum, Volume 1, 1991-92.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume One of this 12 page newsletter includes six issues. Typical features include: a lead article; Research Watch; ERIC Tracks; Case Studies; Case Study Responses; Curriculum; Teaching Assistants (TA) Forum; and Profile (personal and Programmatic). Major articles included in volume one are: "Faculty and Students: Different Ways of Understanding"…

Rhem, James, Ed.

1992-01-01

443

The National Teaching and Learning Forum. 1992-93.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The six issues of this newsletter for academic year 1992/93 typically include one or more lead articles; the columns "Research Watch,""ERIC Tracks," and "Teaching Assistant (TA) Forum"; Case Studies; and Case Study Responses. Major articles and columns included in this volume are: "Cooperative Learning as a Teaching Alternative"; "The Practical…

Rhem, James, Ed.

1993-01-01

444

FORUM: Contexts of Participation: The Critical Thinking Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Forum will consist of a short presentation on Contexts of Participation, a critical thinking tool designed to promote analysis of the barriers and enablers to participation. It is an attractive interactive tool consisting of 5 concentric movable rings; participation is at the centre with personal, local, social and national factors radiating outwards. Each ring contains a set of categories

Rayya Ghul; Ian Marsh

2009-01-01

445

Computer-Managed Instruction (CMI)-Based Online Forums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A CMI-based online forum is designed to address the need for a system to manage students' online participation. The proposed system may reduce the time required to manage online participation. The system was evaluated by a total of 64 students enrolled in an academic semester. The evaluation has two objectives. The first was to determine the…

Wee, Mee-Chin; Abrizah, A.; Por, Lip Yee

2012-01-01

446

The World Social Forum and the Lessons for Economic Geography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the development of the World Social Forum (WSF) using theoretical arguments that have emerged from the new economic geog- raphy. In particular, it draws on the critique of economistic accounts of globaliza- tion by Richa Nagar, Victoria Lawson, Linda McDowell, and Susan Hanson to evaluate how far the WSF serves to move beyond institutional, spatial, and personal

Matthew Sparke; Elizabeth Brown; Dominic Corva; Heather Day; Caroline Faria; Tony Sparks; Kirsten Varg

2009-01-01

447

Students' Views of Collaboration and Online Participation in Knowledge Forum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined students- views of collaboration and learning, and investigated how these predict students- online participation in a computer-supported learning environment. The participants were 521 secondary school students in Hong Kong, who took part in online collaborative inquiry conducted using Knowledge Forum[TM]. We developed a…

Chan, Carol K. K.; Chan, Yuen-Yan

2011-01-01

448

Using XML to map relationships in hacker forums  

Microsoft Academic Search

XML and the technologies that make use of it (XPath, XSL, etc.) have massive potential for information collection, storage, and visualization. One application in which their functionality stands out is the collection and visualization of social relationships in hacker forums. This information can be used by law enforcement to discover potential informants for a known suspect or by academia to

Jonathan F. Spencer

2008-01-01

449

"Who Am I?": Exploring Identity in Online Discussion Forums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Identity became apparent as an important theme while investigating the role of interaction in the asynchronous discussion forums of an online post-graduate TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) education subject. Identity emerged through dialogic choices as students projected an impression of themselves, negotiated their…

Delahunty, Janine

2012-01-01

450

The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Office of Space Science (OSS) recently created a new Education ``Ecosystem'' structure to reach out to the K-14 and general public communities with the wonder and excitement of NASA discoveries. As part of this Ecosystem, four Education Forums are being established at major institutions active in each of the space science themes: the Structure and Evolution of the Universe; the Astronomical Search for Origins and Planetary Systems; Solar System Exploration; and the Sun-Earth Connection. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of California at Berkeley have formed an innovative partnership to become the Education Forum for the Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) theme. Our goal is to tap SEC NASA science knowledge and mission discoveries to: (a) excite and inspire students of all backgrounds and ages to the wonders of space and solar physics in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their daily lives; (b) achieve significant and sustained enhancement of science, mathematics, and technology education at K-14 (kindergarten through community college) levels; (c) provide tools and assistance to educators; (d) help develop an appreciation of the analytical approach of science; and (e) contribute to the scientific and technological literacy of the general public. We will present a summary of the expected scope and timeline of the SEC Forum, with particular emphasis on how the Forum structure will benefit and assist solar and space physicists and other SEC scientists in the context of their education outreach activities.

Hawkins, I.; Vondrak, R.; Alcorn, K.; Thieman, J.

1997-12-01

451

Social Relation Networks in UT-Online Community Forum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

So far, the existence of a virtual community forum has become a reality and social necessity in an era cybertech. It was also viewed as the electronic frontier of 21st century society that was undoubtedly for reorganizing and redefining to awareness of human being, that ways of their perceptions and explorations no longer limited by time, space,…

Farisi, Mohammad Imam

2012-01-01

452

From Forums to Wikis: Perspectives on Tools for Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Web 2.0 communication tools have considerable promise for supporting collaborative learning. But there is a need for research examining learners' and teachers' experiences of the newer communication tools, such as wikis, in comparison with well-established tools, such as discussion forums. This paper reports on an initiative where distance…

Kear, Karen; Woodthorpe, John; Robertson, Sandy; Hutchison, Mike

2010-01-01

453

Echinococcus multilocularis infection of a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) and a nutria (Myocastor coypus) in a French zoo.  

PubMed

Echinococcus multilocularis is a tapeworm responsible in its larval stage for alveolar echinococcosis, a disease which is lethal when left untreated. Multivesiculated parasitic lesions in the liver were diagnosed at necropsy in a captive-born nutria (Myocastor coypus) and in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) which had been in a French zoo for 16months. Molecular analyses confirmed the diagnosis of E. multilocularis obtained by histological analyses. These were the first cases of infection by E. multilocularis reported in lemurs in Europe, and the first case in nutria in European enclosures. Lemurs are confirmed to be particularly sensitive to E. multilocularis with a massive infection. In both cases, the infection appears to have been contracted in the zoo indirectly via environmental contamination by feces from roaming foxes. Due to the large endemic area for E. multilocularis, the increasing prevalence in foxes in France, and an increase in awareness of the disease, other cases of infection in captive animals will probably be recorded in France in the coming years. PMID:23994606

Umhang, Gérald; Lahoreau, Jennifer; Nicolier, Alexandra; Boué, Franck

2013-08-30

454

NASA Heliophysics Education and Public Outreach Forum Product Analysis Effort  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums (SEPOF) have as two of their goals to improve characterization of the contents of the Science Mission Directorate Education and Public Outreach (SMD EPO) portfolio (Objective 2.1) and assist SMD in addressing gaps in the portfolio of SMD EPO products and project activities (Objective 2.2). The Heliophysics Forum has undertaken the task of product analysis for the entire heliophysics portfolio of K-12, informal, and outreach products and programs. The product analysis process determines the alignment of the portfolio to the AAAS Benchmarks. Along with the work of the other forums, the goal of this project is to conduct a "gap analysis" to ascertain how many products and programs align to the Benchmarks and to discover where the "gaps" are located, i.e. those benchmarks that are not covered sufficiently (or at all) by the portfolio. Two anticipated outcomes of this work are to inform the creation of the future online "one-stop-shop" catalogue of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) educational materials and help inform NASA EPO professionals of the need for portfolio materials to "bridge the gaps" that would address the needs of our audiences. The goal of product analysis is not to redo the work of the NASA Review processes, only to analyze the degree of alignment of these approved products to the AAAS benchmarks and a characterization of the instructional strategies and assessment tools (as well as other details) that would inform the future online catalogue. This paper highlights the product analysis process, the Heliophysics Forum team's progress, and the results of Heliophysics Forum product analysis to date.

Bartolone, L.; Nichols, M.; Withnell, H.; Ali, N. A.; Mendez, B.; Paglierani, R.; Peticolas, L.

2012-08-01

455

Finding Our Literacy Roots. Yearbook of the American Reading Forum, 1998. [Papers from the American Reading Forum Annual Conference, 1997].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theme of the American Reading Forum's 1997 conference was "Finding Our Literacy Roots." Many papers in this proceedings address the theme directly, some emphasizing literacy roots and others the roots of literacy. Following the keynote session, "Phonics and Whole Word/Whole Language Controversies, 1948-1998: An Introductory History" (E.…

Telfer, Richard J., Ed.

1998-01-01

456

Tidal Dwarf Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal Dwarf Galaxies (TDG's) are formed from material stripped from the disks of spiral galaxies, which are undergoing tidal interactions with a nearby companion. These galaxies provide important clues to our understanding of galaxy formation, evolution and cosmic recycling. Using the IRS we will measure the star formation activity in 6 TDG candidates. We will measure the ionization state ( [NeII] 12.8 um, [NeIII] 15.6 um and [NeV] 14.3um and [OIV] 25.9 um), the density in the ionized gas ([SIII] 18.7um/33.5um), the PAH fractions at 5.5-9um and 11-12.2um and possibly (optimistic here!) molecular hydrogen emission form PDRs at H2 (S0) 28um and H2 (S1) at 17um. In addition to the IRS observations we will map both the Guitar and Stephan's Quintet with IRAC. This will enable us to compare the PAH fraction in the dwarf galaxy to that of its parent. Similarly we will compare our observation of the proposed TDG at the southern tip of NGC 4038 with the GT observations of the central region of the Antennae. This program compliments two existing GT programmes: 1) the high-Z program - these observations enable us to observe in fine detail the nearby/present day analogs of galaxy formation in the early universe. 2) Blue Compact Dwarf programme - On first inpsection BCD's and TDG's appear the same: BCDs are similar in size to TDG's, but TDG's may not have a large dark matter halo component (affecting the long term stability of an object) and BCD's typically have a much lower metallicity. We will be able to compare the star formation activity in terms of the ionization state and PAH fraction in the two galaxy types.

Houck, James R.; Higdon, Sarah

2004-09-01

457

Supernovae without host galaxies?. Hypervelocity stars in foreign galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context. Harvesting the SAI supernova catalog, the most complete list of supernovae (SNe) currently available, we search for SNe that apparently do not occur within a distinct host galaxy but lie a great distance (several arcmin) apart from the host galaxy given in the catalog or even show no sign of an identifiable galaxy in their direct vicinity. Aims: We

P.-C. Zinn; P. Grunden; D. J. Bomans

2011-01-01

458

The 1000 Brightest HIPASS Galaxies: Newly Cataloged Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The H I Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS) is a blind 21 cm survey for extragalactic neutral hydrogen, covering the whole southern sky. The HIPASS Bright Galaxy Catalog (BGC) is a subset of HIPASS and contains the 1000 H I-brightest (peak flux density) galaxies. Here we present the 138 HIPASS BGC galaxies that had no redshift measured prior to the Parkes

E. Ryan-Weber; B. S. Koribalski; L. Staveley-Smith; H. Jerjen; R. C. Kraan-Korteweg; S. D. Ryder; D. G. Barnes; W. J. G. de Blok; V. A. Kilborn; R. Bhathal; P. J. Boyce; M. J. Disney; M. J. Drinkwater; R. D. Ekers; K. C. Freeman; B. K. Gibson; A. J. Green; R. F. Haynes; P. A. Henning; S. Juraszek; M. J. Kesteven; P. M. Knezek; S. Mader; M. Marquarding; M. Meyer; J. R. Mould; J. O'Brien; T. Oosterloo; R. M. Price; M. E. Putman; E. M. Sadler; A. Schröder; I. M. Stewart; F. Stootman; M. Waugh; R. L. Webster; A. E. Wright; M. A. Zwaan

2002-01-01

459

Prevalence of galaxy-galaxy interactions in AGN hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in optical starlight have failed to reach a consensus on the importance of either galaxy interactions, bars, or nuclear spirals in triggering luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Here, we present the first systematic imaging study of Seyfert (disk) galaxies in the 21-cm line of neutral atomic hydrogen (HI) gas. HI is the most sensitive and enduring tracer of galaxy

Jeremy Lim; Cheng-Yu Kuo; Ya-Wen Tang; Jenny Greene; Paul T. P. Ho

2004-01-01

460

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Minnesota: Zoo Maintenance Worker Dies After a 400-Pound Cage Falls on Him, FACE-92-MN-20.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 42-year-old zoo maintenance worker (victim) was fatally injured when a 400-pound bird cage assembly, mounted on a 60-foot pole, free-fell and hit him as he was installing an electrical limit switch near the bottom of the pole. The victim was working alo...

1993-01-01

461

Phylogenetic background, virulence gene profiles, and genomic diversity in commensal Escherichia coli isolated from ten mammal species living in one zoo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hundred commensal Escherichia coli recovered from healthy herbivorous, carnivorous, and omnivorous mammals from one zoo were characterized for their phylogenetic origin, intestinal virulence gene (VG) prevalence, and genomic diversity. The phylogenetic structure of the E. coli (groups A, B1, B2, and D) from the herbivores was homogenous, with a prevailing representation of group B1. In the carnivores and omnivores,

Katarzyna Baldy-Chudzik; Pawe? Mackiewicz; Micha? Stosik

2008-01-01

462

Midsummer's Dream Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How does the Galaxy in which we live look like? It is almost certain that we will never be able to send a probe out of our Milky Way to take a snapshot, in the same way as the first satellites could do to give us striking images of planet Earth. But astronomers do not need this to imagine what our bigger home resembles. And they have a pretty good idea of it. The Milky Way with its several hundreds of billion stars is thought to be a relatively flat disc - 100,000 light-year across [1] - with a central bulge lying in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius (The Archer) and six spiral arms. The Milky Way has most probably also a central bar made of young, bright stars. If we can't take pictures of the Milky Way, we may photograph others galaxies which astronomers think look similar to it. The two galaxies presented here are just two magnificient examples of barred spiral galaxies. One - Messier 83 - is seen face-on, and the other - NGC 4565 - appears edge-on. Together, they give us a nice idea of how the Milky Way may appear from outer space. These images are based on data obtained with the twin FORS1 and FORS2 (FOcal Reducer and Spectrograph) instruments attached to two ESO's 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of the Very Large Telescope Array located on Cerro Paranal. The data were extracted from the ESO Science Archive Facility, which contains approximately 50 Terabytes [2] of scientific data and is, since April 1, 2005, open to the worldwide community. These invaluable data have already led to the publication of more than 1000 scientific papers. They also contains many nice examples of beautiful astronomical objects which could be the theme of as many midsummer's dreams. NGC 4565 The first galaxy pictured here is NGC 4565 [3], which for obvious reasons is also called the Needle Galaxy. First spotted in 1785 by Uranus' discoverer, Sir William Herschel (1738-1822), this is one of the most famous example of an edge-on spiral galaxy and is located some 30 million light-years away in the constellation Coma Berenices (Berenice's Hair). It displays a bright yellowish central bulge that juts out above most impressive dust lanes. Because it is relatively close (it is only 12 times farther away than Messier 31, the Andromeda galaxy, which is the major galaxy closest to us) and relatively large (roughly one third larger than the Milky Way), it does not fit entirely into the field of view of the FORS instrument (about 7 x 7 arcmin2). Many background galaxies are also visible in this FORS image, giving full meaning to their nickname of "island universes". Messier 83 If our Milky Way were to resemble this one, we certainly would be proud of our home! The beautiful spiral galaxy Messier 83 [4] is located in the southern constellation Hydra (the Water Snake) and is also known as NGC 5236 and as the Southern Pinwheel galaxy. Its distance is about 15 million light-years. Being about twice as small as the Milky Way, its size on the sky is 11x10 arcmin2. The image show clumpy, well-defined spiral arms that are rich in young stars, while the disc reveals a complex system of intricate dust lanes. This galaxy is known to be a site of vigorous star formation.

2005-08-01

463

The Effect of a Zoo-Based Experiential Academic Science Program on High School Students' Math and Science Achievement and Perceptions of School Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an 11th-grade and 12th-grade zoo-based academic high school experiential science program compared to a same school-district school-based academic high school experiential science program on students' pretest and posttest science, math, and reading achievement, and student perceptions of program relevance, rigor, and relationships. Science coursework delivery site served as the study's independent variable for the two naturally formed groups representing students (n = 18) who completed a zoo-based experiential academic high school science program and students (n = 18) who completed a school-based experiential academic high school science program. Students in the first group, a zoo-based experiential academic high school science program, completed real world, hands-on projects at the zoo while students in the second group, those students who completed a school-based experiential academic high school science program, completed real world, simulated projects in the classroom. These groups comprised the two research arms of the study. Both groups of students were selected from the same school district. The study's two dependent variables were achievement and school climate. Achievement was analyzed using norm-referenced 11th-grade pretest PLAN and 12th-grade posttest ACT test composite scores. Null hypotheses were rejected in the direction of improved test scores for both science program groups---students who completed the zoo-based experiential academic high school science program (p < .001) and students who completed the school-based experiential academic high school science program (p < .001). The posttest-posttest ACT test composite score comparison was not statistically different ( p = .93) indicating program equipoise for students enrolled in both science programs. No overall weighted grade point average score improvement was observed for students in either science group, however, null hypotheses were rejected in the direction of improved science grade point average scores for 11th-grade (p < .01) and 12th-grade (p = .01) students who completed the zoo-based experiential academic high school science program. Null hypotheses were not rejected for between group posttest science grade point average scores and school district criterion reference math and reading test scores. Finally, students who completed the zoo-based experiential academic high school science program had statistically improved pretest-posttest perceptions of program relationship scores (p < .05) and compared to students who completed the school-based experiential academic high school science program had statistically greater posttest perceptions of program relevance (p < .001), perceptions of program rigor (p < .001), and perceptions of program relationships (p < .001).

Mulkerrin, Elizabeth A.

464

Star formation in irregular galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems associated with star formation in irregular galaxies are outlined. The basic model of star formation is reviewed. Global star formation rates, feedback processes, the physical conditions of the interstellar medium which affect star formation, and the internal structures of star-forming regions in irregular galaxies are discussed. In addition, star formation in the amorphous irregular galaxies described by Sandage

D. A. Hunter; J. S. Gallagher III

1989-01-01

465

The evolution of galaxy sizes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of galaxy sizes in the local Universe as a function